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WWI outline

Russia and the Soviet Union

(1976)
“In the last century and a half, Russia’s principal economic problem has been the peasantry.”
Evaluate this statement, indicating your degree of agreement or disagreement, and the reasons
for your position.

“Every successful revolution puts on in time the robes of the tyrant it has deposed.”
Evaluate this statement with regard to the English Revolution (1640-1660), the French
Revolution (1789-1815), and the Russian Revolution (1917-1930).

What aspects of Russian society and institutions were most changed and what aspects least
changed by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Limit your discussion to the first ten years
(1917-1927) of the new regime and account for the changes you note.

Compare the economic roles of the state under 17th century mercantilism and 20th century
communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system of France during
Louis XIV’s reign under Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin.

What policies of the Stalinist government perpetuated the essential features of the czarist regime under
Nicholas II (1894-1917)?

In what ways, and why, did Lenin alter Marxism? (Palmer)
To what extent did the emancipation of Russian serfs and other reforms in the 19th century
contribute to the modernization of Russia before the First World War?
(1985)

Compare and contrast the roles of the peasants and urban workers from the French Revolution of 1789 to
that of the peasants and urban workers during the Russian Revolutions of 1917.

(1987)
“The czarist regime fell in 1917 because it had permitted tremendous change and progress in
some areas while trying to maintain a political order that had outlived its time.”
Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917.

(1994)

Describe and analyze the long-term social and economic trends in the period 1860 to 1917 that prepared
the ground for revolution in Russia.

World War I: part II
I. The Russian Revolution
WWI outline

i. Bolshevik Party
1. Lenin
2. March Revolution in Russia
ii. Nicholas II
iii. Rasputin
b. The Provisional Government
i. Petrograd
ii. Tsar
iii. Duma
iv. Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) with Western sympathies
v. Orthodox Marxists
vi. Disillusionment with the war, shortages of food and other necessities at home,
and the peasants’ demands for land reform undermined the government
vii. Alexander Kerensky
c. Lenin and the Bolsheviks
i. Bolshevik wing of the Social Democratic Party
1. Bolshevik leader V. I. Lenin
2. Exile in Switzerland across Germany to Petrograd
3. Peace bread, and land
ii. Leon Trotsky
iii. Petrograd soviet
d. The Communist Dictatorship
i. Constituent Assembly
ii. Social Revolutionaries
iii. Armistice with Germany
iv. Treaty of Brest Litovsk
v. Civil war
1. Red Russians
2. White Russians
vi. Bolsheviks murdered the tsar and his family
II. The End of World War I
i. The Austrians
b. Germany’s Last Offensive
i. March 1918
ii. Ludendorff
iii. Marne again but got no fathe…r
iv. Prince Ma of Baden
v. Fourteen Points
1. President Wilson
vi. League of Nations
c. The Armistice
i. William II
ii. Casualties
iii. Economic and financial resources
WWI outline

iv. Great War
1. Battle casualties
2. Cynicism, nihilism, dictatorship, statism, , official racism, and class
warfare
v. Colonial people
d. The End of the Ottoman Empire
i. End of the German, Austrian, and Russian Empires
ii. Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
1. Young Turks
iii. Defeat at the hands of the Russians and the British
iv. Peace treaty
v. Control of Britain and France
vi. British created the state of Iraq
1. Lebanon
vii. Mandates
1. League of Nations
viii. Greek invasion of the Turkish homeland
ix. Mustafa Kemal
1. Ataturk
2. ”Father of Turks”
3. Republic of Turkey
4. Muslim
III. The Settlement at Paris
i. Big 4
1. Wilson
2. David Lloyd George
3. Georges Clemenceau
4. Vittorio Emmanuelle Orlando
b. Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced
i. Constitutional
ii. The Fourteen Points
1. Self-determination
2. Secret Treaties
iii. Balfour Declaration
iv. Obstacles to an idealistic…
v. Chaplin
vi. France
vii. Italia Irredenta
viii. Britain
ix. Japan
x. The United States
1. Monroe Doctrine
c. The Peace
i. August 10, 1920
WWI outline

ii. Closed session
iii. “A peace without victors”
iv. Soviet Union
v. Germany was excluded from the peace conference
1. The League of Nations
vi. League of Nations
vii. Sovereign international government
viii. League Council
ix. No armed forces
x. Unanimous consent of its council
xi. Covenant of the League
1. Germany
xii. Fate of Germany
1. Alsace-Lorraine
2. Demilitarized zone
a. Britain and the United States would help
3. Permanent disarmament of Germany
4. Forbidden to have war material
a. The East
xiii. Austro-Hungarian Empire
1. Magyars
xiv. Czechoslovakia
xv. The southern Slavs
xvi. Russia lost vast territories
xvii. Poland
1. Reparations
xviii. Reparations
1. $15 billion and $25 billion
xix. War guilt clause
1. Without negotiation
xx. Prime minister Philipp Scheidmann
1. Weimar government
d. World War I and Colonial Empires
1. Redistribution
ii. Germany
iii. Ottoman empire
iv. Mandates
1. Middle East
2. Pacific
v. Britain and France
1. Colonial Participation
vi. Colonial peoples
vii. Germany itself…
viii. French government recruiting…
WWI outline

ix. British colonial troops
x. Nationalist resistance
1. Impact of the Peace Settlement on Future Colonial Relations
2. Hope
3. Tension between colonies
e. Evaluation the Peace
i. Bitter criticism
ii. Violate the idealistic and liberal aims
iii. Promote the national interests
iv. Violated the principle…
1. The Economic consequences of the Peace
v. John Maynard Keynes
1. The Economic Consequences of the Peace
vi. Carthaginian peace
1. Divisive New Boundaries and Tariff Walls
vii. New Borders and tariff walls
viii. Collection of nationalities
ix. Germans felt cheated…
1. Failure to Accept Reality
x. Germany
xi. Russia
xii. League of Nations