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# Lecture 8: DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Lecture8:DIRECTIONALDRILLING

## Drill String Design in Directional Wells

Arun S Chandel
Assistant Professor
aschandel@ddn.upes.ac.in
09997200339
1
NeutralPoint
The neutral point in a drill string can be defined as the point
where the string changes from tension to compression
This point is a function of bit weight and buoyancy
The easiest way to conceptualize this is to imagine firstly that The easiest way to conceptualize this is to imagine, firstly, that
the whole drillstring is suspended off bottom, in this case the
entire string is in tension with neutral point right at the bit.
Secondly, imagine the whole drillstring is set on bottom with no
load being taken by the surface equipment, in this case the string
is in compression and the neutral point is at surface.
It i i t t t k th l ti f thi t iti i t It is important to know the location of this transition point or
neutral point for several reasons. If the neutral point is at the jars,
for example, then the drill string and jars could both be damaged.
If the neutral point is allowed to move up into the drill pipe, t e eut a po t s a o ed to o e up to t e d p pe,
buckling could occur.
The neutral point should be maintained in the stronger drill collar The neutral point should be maintained in the stronger drill collar
assembly for regular vertical and directional drilling operations when
possible. There may be a problem in high angle and horizontal drilling
in this respect because of the difficulty in maintaining bit weight.
Damage at the neutral point may be strongly dependent upon g p y g y p p
drillstring rotation, and consideration should be given to critical rotary
speeds and their associated harmonics.
Theformulatocalculatethelengthfromthebittotheneutral
pointinaverticalholeifonlydrillcollarsarebeingusedis:
L
np
= {BitWeight}/{WxBF}
p
(Where W = Collar or pipe weight in lbs/ ft & BF = Buoyancy Factor)
e.g. Determine the neutral point in: e.g. Determinetheneutralpoint in:
8x213/16DCsifWOB=30klbsin11ppg mud
L
np
= {30,000} / {150 x 0.832} = 240 L
np
{30,000}/{150x0.832} 240
SoNPis240ftupincollars
Butoftenwellhavetheneutralpointabovethe
collars somewhereintheheviwate,lets
havealookatthis.
L
nphw
= {BW (W
c
xL
c
xBF)}/{W
hw
xBF}
Where:
L
nphw
= Distance from bottom of HWDP to NP
nphw
BW = Bit Weight
W
c
= Weight per foot of collars
L
c
= Length of collars
c
g
W
hw
= Weight per foot of Hevi-Wate
BF = Buoyancy Factor
Check first though to see if the NP is within the collars
e g Determine the neutral point for: 300ft of 8 x 2 13/16 e.g.Determinetheneutralpointfor: 300ftof8x213/16
DCs&600ftof5HWDPifWOB=40k.lbsin13ppg mud
Is NP within collars?
L
np
= Bit Weight / [W x BF] or:
40 000 / [150 x 0 801] 333 ft 40,000 / [150 x 0.801] = 333 ft
So NP is above collars..
But where?
L
nphw
= 40,000 [150 x 300 x 0.801] / [50 x 0.801]
nphw
, [ ] / [ ]
Or: 3,955 / 40.05 = 98.75 ft
So - NP is ~ 99 ft into the HWDP
NeutralPointCalculations
in
Directional Wells DirectionalWells
(DrillCollars+HWDPs)
Directional Well, Neutral Point in the
D ill Colla s Drill Collars
When the neutral point is in the drill collar section and the
collars are all of the same diameter, the formula for neutral
point is:
cos
np
WOB
L
W BF
=

Wh
cos
DC
W BF
Where:
= borehole inclination
W
DC
= weight per foot of the drill collars
Directional Well, Neutral Point in the HWDP ,
When the neutral point is in the HWDP section and the drill
collars are all of the same diameter, the formula for neutral
point is:
{ ( )cos }
cos
DC DC
nphw
WOB W L BF
L
W BF

=

Wh
cos
hw
W BF
Where:
= borehole inclination
W
hw
= weight per foot of the HWDP
General formula for Directional Wells GeneralformulaforDirectionalWells
The last formula can be expanded in the case of a tapered
BHA i h d ill ll f h di F l BHA with drill collars of more than one diameter. For example,
if there were two sizes drill collars but the neutral point was in
the hevi-wate the formula would become:
1 1 2 2
{ cos ( }
DC DC DC DC
nphw
WOB BF W L W L
L
+
=
cos
nphw
hw
W BF
= borehole inclination
W
DC1
& W
DC2
= weight per foot of first and second size of drill
collars collars
PROBLEM3
Determine the neutral point in a 30
0
inclined well:
300 of 6.5 x 2-1/4 DCs + 200 of 7-1/4x 2 DCs
+ 250 of 5 x 3 HWDP (50 lb/ft) if + 250 of 5 x 3 HWDP (50 lb/ft), if
WOB = 45k-lbs in 12 ppg mud
Is NP within collars? Is NP within collars?
L
np1
= Bit Weight / [W x BF] or:
45 000 / [99 5 x 0 82 x cos30] = 636 86 ft> 300 ft 45,000 / [99.5 x 0.82 x cos30] = 636.86 ft> 300 ft
So NP is above this collar..
L = Bit Weight / [W x BF] or: L
np2
= Bit Weight / [W x BF] or:
45,000-(300x99.5x0.82xcos30)/[129.3 x 0.82 x cos30]
= 259 2 ft> 200 ft = 259.2 ft> 200 ft
So NP is above this collar..
PROBLEM3
But where?
L
nphw
= {45,000 [0.82x cos30x (99.5x 300+ 129.3x 200 ]}
/ [50 x 0.82x cos30]
Or: 523 / 41.0 = 153.15 ft
So - NP is ~ 153.15 ft into the HWDP
TENSIONDESIGN
OF OF
DRILLSTRING DRILLSTRING
The design of the drillstring for static tension loads
requires sufficient strength in the topmost joint of q g p j
each size, weight, grade and classification of drill
pipe to support the submerged weight of all the drill
pipe plus the submerged weight of the collars pipe plus the submerged weight of the collars,
stabilizers, and bit.
Th bit d t bili i ht ith l t d The bit and stabilizer weights are either neglected
or are included with the drill collar weight.
This load may be calculated as shown in the
following equation:
TensileYieldStrength g
inpoundscanbecalculatedforClassIdrillpipe
(newdrillpipe)usingthefollowingformula:
TensileYieldStrength(lbs),Y
m
=
Min.YieldStrength(lb/in
2
)x/4(OD
2
ID
2
)
If the pipe is loaded to the extent shown in the API If the pipe is loaded to the extent shown in the API
formula above it is likely that some permanent stretch will
occur and difficulty may be experienced in keeping the
pipe straight.
To prevent this condition a design factor of approximately To prevent this condition a design factor of approximately
90% of the tabulated tension value is recommended.
2.Overpull
If the drill string were to get stuck in the well bore,
the operator would want to know how much additional
tension o p ll can be applied to the st ing befo e tension, or pull, can be applied to the string before
exceeding the yield point of the drill pipe. This is
known as overpull since it is pull force over the weight
of the string of the string.
Maximum overpull is the difference between the
yield strength and the hookload or margin of yield strength and the hookload or margin of
overpull (MOP) is normally applied)
MarginofOverpull(MOP)
The difference between the calculated load FTEN
and the maximum allowable tension load
represents the Margin of Over Pull (MOP):
The same values expressed as a ratio may be The same values expressed as a ratio may be
called the Safety Factor (SF).
FinalDesignEquation
Example5:DrillStringDesignbasedonMOP
Design the drill string for the given well Design the drill string for the given well
data.
Can the final well depth be reached with this
assembly?
Finally make a table showing all the drill
string components with their air & buoyed string components with their air & buoyed
weight.
Given Given
1. The Yield Strength of grade E drill pipe=
225,771 lb and weight/ft = 18.37 lb/ft.
2. The Yield Strength of grade X-95 drill pipe= g g p p
329,542 lb and weight/ft = 18.88 lb/ft.
Solution