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INTRODUCTION
COCEPT OF STRESS
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
MECHANISM OF
PHYIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
MODEL OF STRESS
TYPE OF STRESS
FACTOR INFUENCING
RESPONSE TO STRESS
ADAPTATION
LEVEL OF STRESS
CHARACTERISTIC OF STRESS
RESPONSE TO STRESS:Physiological response
Psychological response
NURSING DIAGNOSIS
NURSING CARE PLAN
CONCULISION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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STRESS AND ADAPTATION

INTRODUCTION
Every person experience varies from of stress through out life. The prensce of stress can provide
the stimulus for change and growth, and in this respect som stress can be positive. However, too
much stress can result in poor judgement, physical illness and ability to cope with the stressor.
The term is derived from the Latin word stringere, which means to draw tight .Claude
Benard, in 1867, was one first physiologist to recognize the consequence of stress. Walter
Cannon studied the physiological response to emotional arousal and emphasized the adaptive
function of the fight or flight reaction. .
Hans Selye developed a biochemical model of stress known as the general adaptation,
which describe physiological event during stress response. Selye also introduced the concept of
stressor, which are internal and external stimuli that cause stress. Current research in much
discipline is focused on a variety of stress and stress related concept.
CONCEPT OF STRESS
Stress is any situation in which a non specific demand require an individual to respond or
demand requires an individual to respond or take action .Stress can lead to negative or threaten
emotional well being.It is considered the process of adjusting to circumstances that disrupt a
person equilibrium.
The stimuli preceding or precipitating the change are called stressors .It represent an
unmet need and may be physiological ,psychogical ,social, environmtal, developmental,spiritual
or cultural .Stressors can be classified as
A; Internal stressors
Internal stressors originated in side a person. E.g.-a fever , a condition such as pregnancy or
menopause, or emotion guilt.

B; External stressors
External stressors originate outside a person. E.g.-a marked change environmental temperature, a
change in family or social role or peer pressure.
PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
Physiological adaptation to stress is the body ability to maintain a state of relative balance .The
internal environment constantly changes and the body adaptive mechanism continually function
to adjust to these changes and thus to maintain equilibrium or homeostasis .
Homeostasis is maintained by physiological mechanism
that control body function and monitor body organ.
MECHANISM OF PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
When a person become aware of an unmet physiological need such as food or warmth
deliberate to action can meet the need
Three of the major mechanism used in adapting to stressor is
controlled byA; Medulla oblongata
B; Reticular formation
C; Pituitory gland
MEDULLA OBLANGTA
The medulla oblongata controls vital function necessary to survival .these include heart rate,
blood pressure and respiration
.
RETICULAR FORMATION

The reticular formation is small cluster of neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. It control
vital function and monitor the physiological status of the body through connection with sensory
and motor status.
PITUTIORY GLAND
The pituitary gland, a small gland attach to the hypothalamus, supplies hormones that control
vital function .It is necessary for adaptation to stress.
MODEL OF STRESS
Stress model are used to the stressors for a particular individual and predict that person response
to them.
=RESPONSE BASED MODEL OF STRESS
The response based model is concerned with specifying the particular response or pattern of
response that may indicate a stressor.
Selye model of stress 1976 is response based model that defines stress as a non specific response
of the body to any demand made on it. Stress is demonstrated by a specific physiological
reaction, the GAS. Thus the response of the person to stress is purely physiological and never
modifies to allow cognitive influence.
=ADAPTATION MODEL
The adaptation model propose that four factor determine whether a situation is stressful .The
ability to cope with stress,
The first factor usually depend s on the person experience with similar stressors, support system
and overall person of the stressor.
The second factor deal with practices and norm of the person peer group.
The third factor is impact of social environment is assisting an individual to adopt stressors.

The last factor involves the resources that can be used to deal with stressors.
Adaptation model is based on the understanding that people experience anxiety and increase
stress when they are unprepared to cope with stressful situation.
=STIMULUS BASED MODEL
The stimulus based model focuses on disturbing or disruptive characteristic within
environment .The stimulus based model focus on the following assumption1. Life change environment or event is normal and they require the same type and duration of
adjustment.
2. People are passive recipient of stress, and their perceptions of the event are irrelevant.
3.All people have a common threshold of stimulus and illness result at any point after threshold.
As with response model, the stimulus based model does not allow for individuals
differences in perception and response to stressors.
TRANSACTION BASED MODEL
The transaction based model view the person and environment in dynamic, reciprocal, interactive
relationship.
This model developed by Lazarus and Folkman, views the stressor as an individual
perceptual response rooted in psychological and cognitive process .Stress originated from the
relationship between persons and environment.
TYPES OF STRESS
Selye identified two types of stress:
1. Distress or demanding stress.
2. Eustress or stress that protects health (is a motivating energy such as happiness, hopelessness
and purposefully movement.

FACTOR INFLUENCING RESPONSE TO STRESS


The response to any stressors depends on physiological functioning, personalty and behavioral
characteristic as well as the nature of the stressors. The stressor involves the following
character:1. INTENSITY
A person may perceive the magnitude of stressor as minimal, moderate or severe.
2. SCOPE
The scope of stressor can be described limited medium or extensive.
3. DURATION
How prolonged stress in life.
4. NUMBER AND NATURE of stressors
ADAPTATION
Adaptation is the adjustment of an organism to changes in its environment .Adaptation is the
ultimate goal of Adaptation is the adjustment of an organism to changes in its environment
.Adaptation is the ultimate goal of coping and can be viewed as long term coping .If adaptation is
successful balance is coping and can be viewed as long term coping .If adaptation is successful
balance is maintained or restored and is faulty people become ill and must adapt to illness.
LEVEL OF ADAPTATION
Human adaptation occurs at four levels:
1. PSYCHOLOGICAL.
2. PHYSIOLOGICAL OR BIOLOGICAL
3. SOCIO-CULTURAL

4. TCHNOLOGICAL
1. PSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL OF ADAPTATION
Psychological adaptation involves adjusting our attitude to towards a psychological stressful
situation so that we can cope with it .We adapt towards a psychological stressful situation so that
we can cope with it .We adapted to the best of our ability at the time.
To accomplish this, we might use deface mechanism (e.g.-denial
of the problem) or learn relaxation technique .Psychonological adaptation may be healthy or
unhealthy.
2. PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
Physiological or biological, adaptation involves compensatory changes that occur within the
body in response to increase or altered demands made on the body.
In physiological adaptation is some time described as a decrease in
intensity of sensation resulting from stimulation or continuous response .Olfaction provides a
good example of adaptation.
3SOCIOCULTURAL LEVEL OF ADAPTATION
Social adaptation is adjustment of an individual action and conduct to norm, convention beliefs
and pressure of various group .Cultural adaptation means of individual behavior to the concept,
idea tradition and institution of a culture .Example of cultural group include racial group
geographical group (American, Indian) and certain group.
CHARACTERISTIC OF ADAPTATION
All adaptive mechanism is used it attempt to maintain optimal physical and chemical condition
within the system and organism .Characteristic of adaptation are-

-Adaptation embraces all level of human experience physiological, psychological, socioculteral


and perhaps even technological.
-All mechanism operates within the limitation of that individual genetic makeup, general
physical condition intelligence and emotional stability.
-Time is important factor in adaptation the individual who has sufficient time can adapt better to
stress that individual who must adapt quickly.
-Adaptability varies from individual to individual .Flexibility individual who respond readily to
change and who use a wide range of compensatory mechanism are more adaptable.
-Adaptation can make us less sensitive to other stimulus.
-There are limited ability to compensate .Stress response is natural, protective and adaptive.
RESPONSE TO STRESS.
Total response is involved in responding and adapting to stress .Most research into stress
response, however, focuses on physiological, psychological or emotional response
.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
The classic research by Seley has identify the two physiological response
1Local adaptation syndrome (LAS)
2General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
LAS:
The body produces many localized response to stress .These include blood clotting, wound
healing accommodation of eye light and response to pressure .LAS share the following
characteristic :
1The response is localized; it does not involve entire body system.
2 The response is adaptive, meaning that a stressor is necessary is necessary to stimulate it.
3The response is short term .It does not persist disentitle.
4The responses are restorative meaning that the LAS assist in restoring homeostasis to the body
region or part.

Two localized response:1 The reflex pain response


2 Inflammatory responses.
THE REFLEX PAIN RESPONSE
It is localized response of the nervous system to pain .It is an adaptive response and protect tissue
from further damage .An example would be unconscious ,reflex removal of hand from a hot
surface ,muscle cramp .
INFLAMATORY RESPONSE
The inflammatory response is stimulated by trauma or infection .This response localizes
inflammation .prevent its spread and promote s healing.
Inflammatory response may produce localized pain,
swelling redness and change in functioning .It occurs in three phase:-First phase involve change in cell and the circulatory system.
-The second phase is characterized by release of exudates from the wound
-The last phase is repair of tissue by regeneration or scar formation.
During adaptation the inflammatory response protects
the body from infection and promotes healing.
GAS
The GAS is physiological response of the whole body to stress .It involve several body system
primarily the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system.
The GAS consist of the
- Alarm reaction:
-Resistance stage
-Exhaustion stage

ALARM REACTION
The alarm reaction involves the mobilization of the defense mechanism of the body and mind to
cope with stressors
Hormones level rise to increase blood volume and prepare person act, increased
blood glucose level to make energy available for adaptation. Epinephrine and nor epinephrine
result in a increase heart rate, blood flow to the muscles, oxygen intake and greater mental
alertness.
These extensive hormonal activities prepare a person for the fight and flight response.
If the stressor is still present after the second phase of the GAS .Initial alarm
reaction the person progress to the second phase of GAS resistance.
RESPONSE STAGGE
In the resistance stage the body stabilized and hormone level, heart rate, blood pressure and to
adapt stressors
The person is attending to adapted stress. However stressor remain present the
person enter the third phase of GAS, exhaustion
EXHAUSION STSGE
The exhaustion stage occurs physiological response intensified, decreases energy level,
decreased energy level, decreased physiological regulation and if the stress continues, death may
result.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
Exposure to stressor result in psychological and physiological adaptive response .As people are
expose to stressors ,their basic need are threatened .This threat ,whether actual or perceived
,produced frustration ,anxiety and tension .

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Psychological adaptive behavior can be:-Constructive behavior helps an individual accept the challenge to resolve conflict
-Destructive behavior do not help a person cope with a stressor .Destructive behavior affect
reality oriented , problem solving abilities ,personality and in sever circumstances ,the ability to
function.
Psychological adaptive behavior are also referred to as copping mechanism .Such
mechanism can be task to oriented ,involving the use of direct problem .Solving technique to
cope with threat or ego defense mechanism. Ego defense mechanism is indirect method of
coping with stress .It protect person from anxiety and stress.
NURSING DIOGNOSIS.
=Activity in tolerance related to:
-physiological stress
-Emotional or situational crisis
=Altered growth and development related:
-unresolved maturational stress (e.g. delayed onset of menses)
-Situational crisis (e.g.-unplanned pregnancy)
=Fatigue related to
-Physiological response to stress.
-Impaired copping strategies.
=Hopelessness related to
-In ability to resolve conflict.
-in ability to control response to stress
=Ineffective family copping: disabled or ineffective individual coping related to
-Impaired copping related to
-Prolonged stress
=Pentagonal for any injury related to
-Anxiety
-Impaired problem solving abilities.
=Sleep pattern disturbance related to
-Emotional or situational crisis /Anxiety.

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CARE PLAN ON STRESS AND ADAPTATION


Nursing diagnosis
1. Activity in
tolerance related to,
physiological stress
/Emotional stress.

Goal
The person will
participate in
planned therapies to
minimize the effect
of reconditioning.

2Altered growth and


development related
to unresolved
maturational
stress/situational
crisis

Person will increase


growth and
development.

3Fatigue related to
physiological
response to stress
/impaired coping
strategies.

-The person will


participate in activity
that stimulate and
balance.

Nursing intervention
-Assess the causative
or contributing
factor.
-Eliminate or reduce
contributing factor.
-Monitor response to
activity.
-Give health
education regarding
coping technique.
-Assess causative or
contributing factor.
-Give health
education regarding
growth and
development.
-Assess causative or
contributing factor.
-Explain to the
person, cause of
fatigue.
-Promote
socialization with
family.
-Promote
socialization with
family.

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CONCLUSION
Stress and adaptation help to all understand person behavior and response .It help to give better
care .The nurse are often able to assess how client react .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
-Haliliday and Wange Christine (2001), Psychology, 2nd
edition ,Viva book private limited ,New Delhi ,P-294
-Kizilay .E Pareracia and Leahy M Julia Foundation of nursing
Practice, Mosby Missouri ,PP-102 -108
-Potter Perry (2005), Fundamental of nursing, 6th edition, Mosby
Missouri, PP-595
-Sam Molly (April 15, 2008), Stress awareness day, Nurses of India
Vol-9, Issue-4, P-3.
-Stress, www.Googly .co.Retrieved, 19 may 2008 from <a href
=://science. jrank .

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