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Pre-Quiz-04 Worksheet/Practice; Allowed Equations (below); Topic: forces

1 2
(conserve string)
2 2
1 2 ,
2
1 2
2 2 2 2
2 rad
; ; ; ; ;
min 60 s
tan ; sin ; cos ; [length]; [force]
a a a
Fr k
K r
N
y y y y
x x
x y x y
x x
F F F
d x dv v rev
F ma m m a a RPM
dt dt F r m m
L F L F
L F
L L L F F F
L F L F L F
t

u u u
= =
+
= = = = = = = =
+
= = = = = = = + = = + =

;


Problem 1: A small weight of mass m hangs from a string in an automobile which accelerates at rate
A. The acceleration of gravity is g . What is the static angle of the string from the vertical, and what is
its tension?

















Problem 2: If you have the nerve and a tight grip, you can yank a tablecloth out from under the
dishes on a table. An expensive crystal glass of mass m and distance d from the edge in gravitational field
g comes to rest before falling off the table. Assume that the coefficient of friction of the glass sliding
on either the tablecloth or sliding on the tabletop is
K
.
Question (a): What is the longest time
max
t in which the cloth can be pulled out and the glass come to
rest (i.e., the total time for the process)?










Question (b): What is the maximum allowed time
max
t' in which the tablecloth alone may be pulled out?



(For the trick to be effective the cloth should be pulled out so rapidly that the glass does not move
appreciably.)

Problem 3: An automobile of mass m enters a turn whose radius is R . The road is banked at angle u , and
the coefficient of friction between wheels and road is .
(1.1)

Find the maximum and minimum speeds for the car to stay on the road without skidding sideways.





























Problem 4: In a concrete mixer, cement, gravel, and water are mixed by tumbling action in a slowly
rotating drum. If the drum spins too fast the ingredients stick to the drum wall instead of mixing (on
planet earth, gravity is g ). Assume that the drum of a mixer has radius R and that it is mounted with
its axle horizontal.

Question (a): What is the fastest the drum can rotate without the ingredients sticking to the wall all the
time?









Question (b): Compute the fictitious force due to the centripetal acceleration and the normal force, each at the
bottom of the mixer and at the top of the mixer.












Problem 5: A particle of mass m slides without friction on the inside of a cone. The axis of the cone
is vertical, and gravity is directed downward. The apex half-angle of the cone is u , as shown. The
path of the particle happens to be a circle in a horizontal plane. The speed of the particle is
0
v .
(1.2)

Draw a force diagram and find the radius of the circular path in terms of
0
v , g , and u .












































Pre-Quiz-04 Worksheet/Practice; Allowed Equations (below); Topic: forces

1 2
(conserve string)
2 2
1 2 ,
2
1 2
2 2 2 2
2 rad
; ; ; ; ;
min 60 s
tan ; sin ; cos ; [length]; [force]
a a a
Fr k
K r
N
y y y y
x x
x y x y
x x
F F F
d x dv v rev
F ma m m a a RPM
dt dt F r m m
L F L F
L F
L L L F F F
L F L F L F
t

u u u
= =
+
= = = = = = = =
+
= = = = = = = + = = + =

;


Problem 1: A small weight of mass m hangs from a string in an automobile which accelerates at rate
A. The acceleration of gravity is g . What is the static angle of the string from the vertical, and what is
its tension?

We shall analyze the problem both in an inertial frame and in a frame accelerating with the car.
(1.3)

Lets consider the inertial system first,
sin ; 0 cos ;
x x y y
F mA T T F T mg T mg u u = = = = = =

(1.4)

Dividing the 1
st
equation of (1.4) by the 2
nd
, we obtain an angle and tension of,

2 2 2 2 2 2
sin / /
tan ; ( ) ( ) ;
cos / /
x y
mA T A m T A
T T T mA mg m A g
mg T g m T g
u
u
u
= = = = = + = + = + (1.5)

Now, lets consider the system accelerating with the automobile, in which a fictitious force
fict
F appears,
0 sin sin ; 0 cos ;
x x fict y y
F T F T mA T mA F T mg T mg u u u = = = = = = =

(1.6)

From (1.6), we obtain the results (1.5) quite immediately.

Problem 2: If you have the nerve and a tight grip, you can yank a tablecloth out from under the
dishes on a table. An expensive crystal glass of mass m and distance d from the edge in gravitational field
g comes to rest before falling off the table. Assume that the coefficient of friction of the glass sliding
on either the tablecloth or sliding on the tabletop is
K
.
Question (a): What is the longest time
max
t in which the cloth can be pulled out and the glass come to
rest (i.e., the total time for the process)?

There are two legs of the journey: (1) the glass is accelerated by the sliding friction while it is on the tablecloth,
and over a distance
1
/ 2 x d A = to a maximum velocity of
0
v (2) the glass is de-celerated over the remaining
distance
2 1
/ 2 x x d A = A = by the sliding friction to a velocity of 0 v = . Newtons 2
nd
Law for each leg of the
journey, in which the normal-force is always
N
F mg = , is,

1 1 1 2 2 2 1
; ;
K N K K K N K K
F ma F mg a g F ma F mg a g a = = = = + = = = = =

(1.7)

The constraint is that the glass must undergo acceleration
1
a over a distance
1
x A , and
2 1
a a = over
2
x A ,

2 2 2 2
used 2 used 2
used
used
2 2
0 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 2 2
0 2 2 ( / 2) 0 ; 0 2 ;
f i x f i x
f i x
f i x
v v a x v v a x
v v a t
v v a t
K K
v a x g d gd a t v v a x v a t
= + A = + A
= +
= +
= + A = = = + = = + A = + (1.8)

The expressions (1.8) yield a value for
max 1 2
t t t = + as,

0 0 0 0 0
max 1 2
1 2 1 1 1
0
2 2 2 ;
K
K K
gd v v v v v v d
t t t
a a a a a g g



= + = + = + = = =

(1.9)

Question (b): What is the maximum allowed time
max
t' in which the tablecloth alone may be pulled out?
Since
1 2
t t = , we have
1
max max 2
/ ( )
K
t t d g ' = = .

(For the trick to be effective the cloth should be pulled out so rapidly that the glass does not move
appreciably.)

Problem 3: An automobile of mass m enters a turn whose radius is R . The road is banked at angle u , and
the coefficient of friction between wheels and road is .
(1.10)

Find the maximum and minimum speeds for the car to stay on the road without skidding sideways.

Lets choose the x- and y-axis to be horizontal and vertical respectively (i.e., do not use incline-plane-
coordinates). Let Case (1) be the car having maximum velocity, and Case (2) be the car having minimum
velocity. Then, the friction-force is in the 3
rd
quadrant for Case (1) and in the 1
st
quadrant for Case (2), and the
normal force is in the 2
nd
quadrant. Correspondingly, Newtons 2
nd
Law in the x-direction is,

2
case 1
, , case 2
( ) sin cos ; ( ) ( );
x R N x fr x N N
v
F m a F F F F m
R
u u

= = + = =

(1.11)

The normal force
N
F is unknown in (1.11), and we require Newtons 2
nd
Law in the y-direction to get it,

solve for
, ,
0 cos sin ;
cos sin
N
F
y N y fr y g N N N
mg
F F F F F F mg F u u
u u
= = + + = =

(1.12)

Solving (1.11) for v

(i.e., v
+
is that of case-1, and v

is that of case-2, so obviously v v


+
> ), which we take to
be positive, and using (1.12) to eliminate
N
F , we have,

cos sin
tan
(sin cos ) (sin cos ) ;
1 tan
mg
N
F
v R R Rg
m m
u u
u
u u u u
u

= = =

(1.13)

Writing (1.13) as an inequality, we have,

tan tan
;
1 tan 1 tan
v v v Rg v Rg
u u
u u
+
+
s s s s
+
(1.14)

Problem 4: In a concrete mixer, cement, gravel, and water are mixed by tumbling action in a slowly
rotating drum. If the drum spins too fast the ingredients stick to the drum wall instead of mixing (on
planet earth, gravity is g ). Assume that the drum of a mixer has radius R and that it is mounted with
its axle horizontal.

Question (a): What is the fastest the drum can rotate without the ingredients sticking to the wall all the
time?

Consider an ingredient of mass m (our results should be independent of m , however). The mass m must fall
at some point along the rotation, so this is satisfied on asserting the normal force to be zero at the apex of
rotation,

2
0
solve for solve for
( ) 0 ;
N
v
y y R
v g
F ma m a m N mg mg v Rg R
R R
e
e e
=

= = = = = = = =

(1.15)

Indeed, our result is independent of m .

Question (b): Compute the fictitious force due to the centripetal acceleration and the normal force, each at the
bottom of the mixer and at the top of the mixer.

Bottom of mixer Top of mixer
Fictitious radial force
2
fic R
v Rg
F ma m m mg
R R
= = = =
2
fic R
v
F ma m mg
R
= + = + = +
Normal force
2 ;
g fic
N F F mg mg mg = = = 0;
g fic
N F F mg mg = + = =

Problem 5: A particle of mass m slides without friction on the inside of a cone. The axis of the cone
is vertical, and gravity is directed downward. The apex half-angle of the cone is u , as shown. The
path of the particle happens to be a circle in a horizontal plane. The speed of the particle is
0
v .
(1.16)

Draw a force diagram and find the radius of the circular path in terms of
0
v , g , and u .

The free body diagram is as follows, in which appears a fictitious force. The angle can be written in terms of the
reaction-forces,
, ,

N N x N y
F i F j = + F , as,

,
2 2
,
0 0
,
,

; ; tan ;
N y
N y
N x fict R fict R
N x
F
F
v v
F m F a i i F ma m
R R F
mg
u
|
+ = = = + = =
+

a a (1.17)

Newtons 2
nd
Law appears as,

2
0
, , , , ,
( ) ; 0 tan ;
tan
x R N x N x y N y N x N x
mv mg
F m a F F F F mg F mg F
R
u
u
= = = = = = =

(1.18)

Using the 2
nd
equation of (1.18) to eliminate
, N x
F in the 1
st
equation of (1.18), we get,

2 2
solve for 0 0
tan
tan
R
mv v mg
R
R g
u
u
= = (1.19)