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ch includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics).

Historically, products arisi


ng from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been thul
ar mass and attendant properties.[6] The units composing polymers derive, actual
ly or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.[7] The term w
as coined in 1mers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed i
n 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evi
dence for this hypothesis.[10]
Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and
polymer science (whi833 by Jns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinc
t from the modern IUPAC definition.[8][9] The modern concept of polymers as cova
lently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Stauding
er, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis.
[10]
Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and
polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Histori
cally, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical
bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas
of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber and
the polystyrene of styrofoam are examples of polymeric natural/biological and s
ynthetic polymers, respectively. In biological contexts, essentially all biologi
cal macromoleculesi.e.
IUPAC definition
Substance composed of macromolecules.
Note: Applicable to substance macromolecular in nature like cross-linked
systems that can be considered as one macromolecule.
A polymer (/'p?l?m?r/[2][3]) (poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule
, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits, known as monomers. Becau
se of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers pl
ay an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from fam
iliar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers
, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many monomers. T
heir consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds prod
uces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a ten
dency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.
The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word p???? (polus, meaning "ma
ny, much") and ???? (meros, meaning "parts"), and refers to a molecule whose stru
cture is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a character
istic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties.[6] The units com
posing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative
molecular mass.[7] The term was coined in 1833 by Jns Jacob Berzelius, though wi
th a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition.[8][9] The modern conc
ept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1
920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental eviden
ce for this hypothesis.[10]
Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and
polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Histori
cally, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical
bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas
of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber and
the polystyrene of styrofoam are examples of polymeric natural/biological and s
ynthetic polymers, respectively. In biological contexts, essentially all biologi
cal macromoleculesi.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), a
nd polysaccharidesare purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeri
c componentse.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic
molecule and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of t
he protein.[11]