Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 84

Product Training Manual

Power Transmission
Fundamentals for V-Belt Drive Systems
Basic calculations to assist in installation and
problem-solving
Belt Drive Advantages
Product Types
Balancing Standards
Installation & Maintenance
1
INDEX
Chapter 1 - Power Transmission Fundamentals
1.1 Calculation of the Circumference of a Circle ...................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Force ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.1 Defnition .............................................................................................................................................................5
1.2.2 Motion ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.2.3 Torque Calculation ............................................................................................................................................. 7
1.3 Work .......................................................................................................................................................................12
1.4 Speed and Velocity .............................................................................................................................................. 14
1.5 Power .....................................................................................................................................................................16
1.6 Effciency ...............................................................................................................................................................19
1.7 Ratio .......................................................................................................................................................................20
1.8 Service Factors ....................................................................................................................................................23
Chapter 2 - Drives: Belts, Bushings & Sheaves
2.1 What are the Advantages of a Belt Drive System? ........................................................................................... 25
2.2 Belts ..................................................................................................................................................26
V-Belt Classifcations .............................................................................................................................................27
2.2.1.1 Light duty & Fractional horsepower (F.H.P) V-Belts .....................................................................................27
2.2.1.2 Classical V-Belts ...........................................................................................................................................28
2.2.1.3 Deep Wedge / Groove or Narrow V-Belts .....................................................................................................29
2.2.1.4 Cogged / Raw-Edge V-Belts .........................................................................................................................30
2.2.1.5 Banded Belts ................................................................................................................................................30
2.2.1.6 V-Ribbed / Poly V-Belts .................................................................................................................................31
2.2.1.7 Double / Hexagonal V-Belts ..........................................................................................................................31
2.2.1.8 Variable Speed Belts.....................................................................................................................................32
2.2.2 Other Belt Types ...........................................................................................................................................32
2.2.2.1 Standard Flat belts ........................................................................................................................................32
2.2.2.2 Standard / Trapezoidal Synchronous Belts ...................................................................................................33
2.2.2.3 H.T.B. / Curvilinear Synchronous Belts .........................................................................................................34
2.2.3 Belt Length ..................................................................................................................................................35
2.2.3.1 Parallel axis, uncrossed belt drive ................................................................................................................36
2.2.3.2 Arc of contact ................................................................................................................................................37
2.3 Drive Components Materials ................................................................................................................................38
2.3.1 Gray/Cast Iron ..............................................................................................................................................38
2.3.2 Ductile Iron ..................................................................................................................................................38
2.3.3 Sintered Metal ...............................................................................................................................................39
2.3.4 Table of Mechanical Properties .....................................................................................................................39
2.4 Bushings ..................................................................................................................................................40
2.4.1 QD (Quick Detachable) Interchangeable Bushings ......................................................................................40
2.4.2 Taper-Lock / Bore Bushings ..........................................................................................................................43
2.4.3 Split Taper Bushings .....................................................................................................................................43
2
2.5 Sheaves ..................................................................................................................................................44
2.5.1 Sheave Body ................................................................................................................................................45
2.5.2 Sheave Classifcations & Terminology ..........................................................................................................46
2.5.2.1 Light Duty Fixed & Bush Types .....................................................................................................................46
2.5.2.2 Adjustable/ F.H.P & Integral ..........................................................................................................................47
2.5.2.3 Classical & Narrow Belt Drives .....................................................................................................................50
2.5.2.4 Application Table by Classes ........................................................................................................................51
2.5.3 Balancing Standards (MPTA)........................................................................................................................52
2.5.3.1 General Information ......................................................................................................................................52
2.5.3.2 Static or Single-Plane Balancing ..................................................................................................................52
2.5.3.3 Dynamic or Two-Plane Balancing .................................................................................................................55

Chapter 3 Drive Selection Program
Please see our On-line Program for this section at www.maskapulleys.com
Chapter 4 - Installation & Maintenance
4.1 Bushing Mounting .................................................................................................................................................57
4.1.1 Types of Mounting ........................................................................................................................................57
4.1.2 Tightening ..................................................................................................................................................58
4.2 V-Belts & Sheaves .................................................................................................................................................59
4.2.1 Mounting Structure .......................................................................................................................................59
4.2.2 Center Distance Adjustment .........................................................................................................................59
4.2.3 V-Belt Installation ..........................................................................................................................................60
4.2.4 Tensioning ..................................................................................................................................................63
4.2.4.1 Measuring Techniques ..................................................................................................................................64
4.2.4.2 Run-in Period ................................................................................................................................................67
4.2.5 Idler Pulleys ..................................................................................................................................................68
4.2.6 Maintenance .................................................................................................................................................69
4.2.7 Belt Storage ..................................................................................................................................................69
4.3 Typical Problems ..................................................................................................................................................70
4.3.1 Drive Misalignment .......................................................................................................................................70
4.3.2 Sheave Cracked in Hub ................................................................................................................................70
4.3.3 Vibrations ..................................................................................................................................................71
4.3.4 Over Tension .................................................................................................................................................71
4.3.5 High Ratio with Short Center to Center Distance .........................................................................................72
4.4 Couplings ..................................................................................................................................................73
4.4.1 Flexible Coupling Types ................................................................................................................................73
4.4.2 Shaft Misalignment .......................................................................................................................................75
4.4.3 Elastomeric Element Couplings ...................................................................................................................76

3
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Chapter 1
POWER TRANSMISSION FUNDAMENTALS
In this frst chapter we will endeavor to familiarize you with concepts related to different transmission applications.
Various notions of mechanics and geometry required to make a good selection of drive components will be
presented. These fundamental calculation basics are often found in engineering reference manuals but they
have been included to show how they can be applied to problem-solving with belt transmission applications.
You are therefore encouraged to examine this chapter and do the accompanying exercises as groundwork for
calculating critical factors encountered when installing drive components.
1.1 Calculation of the Circumference of a Circle
One of the most common basic geometric fgures used when designing a power transmission component is
the circle. The circle is the geometrical shape on which the entire power transmission process is based.
The circumference is defned as the measurement of the circles contour; a simple method of obtaining this
dimension is by measuring the exact length of string needed to go around the circle.
Circumference (C)
Circle Center
Radius (R)
Diameter (D)
Fig. 1.1: Illustration of a Circles Main Geometric Parameters
To calculate a circles circumference, we must know that the ratio between the circumference and the diameter is
a constant. This constant is named Pi (, Greek letter). Its value is 3.1416.
4
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Formulas to calculate the circumference ( C ) of a circle are:
C = D
or
C = 3.1416 X D

also, C = (2R)

C = 2R

knowing that D represents the diameter and R the radius of a circle (Fig. 1.1)

Example 1.1 Calculate a circles circumference if the diameter is 4".
Answer: C = D = 3.1416 X 4 = 12.566 inches
If a 4" disk was rolled on a fat surface, a distance of 12.566" would be covered with each
complete turn.

5
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.2 Force
1.2.1 Defnition
Force is defned as the action that one body has on another body. When an applied force on an object is greater
than any existing force, this can result in a displacement of a static body, accelerate and decelerate a body in
movement or result in a distortion of some kind. This is referred to as action and reaction.
Force can be accurately determined when the magnitude, direction and the point of contact are indicated. In the
following diagrams, the forces direction and point of contact are represented by a vector (arrow) (see Fig. 1.2).
The measurement unit of force in the English System is pound and the unit symbol is lb . In this example,
the weight of one unit of mass is equal to one unit of force.
NOTE: This principle does not apply when using the Metric System.
When torque is not taken into consideration, all parallel forces can be subtracted if they are from opposing
directions, or combined if they are in the same direction, to obtain a single force: resultant force. When
calculating the resultant force, it is important to keep in mind the status of each applied force (+ or -) as this
will directly infuence the results obtained. However, reference to the positive or negative status is needed
only when calculating mathematical equations (Example 1.2); it is more practical to draw a simple diagram of
the applied forces. (Ref. Fig. 1.3)

Magnitude
Application point Direction
20 lb
Fig. 1.2: Diagram of a force
20 lbs 20 lbs 40 lbs 20 lbs
20 lbs
Resultant = 0
Fig. 1.3: Addition of collinear forces (Example 1.2)
6
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Example 1.2 In fgure 1.3, force is applied to each side of a block. (In this diagram, the arrow
represents the point of application and the forces direction) Calculate the resultant
force for each diagram, assuming that there is no friction between the object and
the ground.

Answer:
The left diagram has a resultant force of zero ( 20 lb. 20 lb. = 0 ) and thus remains
motionless. The law of static dictates that the total sum of forces must equal zero.
The right diagram has a resultant force of 20 lb. ( 40 lb. 20 lb. = 20 lb. ), thus pushing the
block to the right. In this example, the block moves in the direction of the resultant force
and only an opposing force, like friction, could stop the movement.
1.2.2 Motion
Two major types of motion exist; they are linear and angular motions. The movement of a train on a railway track
is an example of linear motion. On the other hand, a turning pulley is a good example of angular motion.
Mechanical power transmission generally implies therefore angular motion and the usage of rotating elements,
such as: shafts, couplings, gear reducers, chain drives, sheaves and belts.
Motion always requires an external force or energy. However, motion can be measured without reference to the initial
force. For example, you can calculate the speed of an object even if you dont know the force used to power it.
The interaction between motion and force are very important concepts to understand in any transmission drive
system, as we will see later on.
Linear Motion Angular Motion
Fig. 1.4: Linear and angular motion
7
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.2.3 Torque Calculation
In the preceding subheading, we saw that force can cause an object to move linearly (example 1.2) but it can
also make it turn. Torque corresponds to a twisting force and results from the action of an applied force on a
body at a certain distance from the center axis. The distance between the point where force is applied and
the rotary center is usually called the lever arm. So the tendency for any system submitted to torque is to turn
on its rotation axis (example: tightening a nut with a wrench, pushing the pedals on a bicycle, a belt turning a
pulley, etc.).
Torque is calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the force by the lever arm.
To calculate torque ( T ), use this formula:
T = F x r
or
T = F x R
knowing that F = force and r = the lever arm (you can replace r by the radius R for a circular body, such as a pulley,
when force is applied on the outer circumference). For this reason, torque is expressed in pounds-inches
(lb.-in). Hence, torque results from the direction and magnitude of the applied force and the lever arm.
Important: The component force of torque must be at a 90
o
angle with the lever arm via the point of
contact and the rotary center (Fig. 1.5).

Fig. 1.5: Diagram of torque force
center axis
T
R
F
8
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
r = 10 in
15 lbs
150 lb.-in
Example 1.3 A 5" diameter pulley is installed on a shaft. The pulley bears a weight of 10 pounds
(Fig. 1.7). What is the induced torque?
Answer: The lever arm measures 2.5 inches (diameter divided by two). The distance between the point of
contact and the rotary center corresponds to the radius of a pulley. The weight is the only force
producing torque.
T = F x R
T = 10 [pounds] x 2.5 [inches] = 25 lb./ in.
D
Torque
10 pounds
Fig. 1.7: Torque from a suspended weight on a pulley (Example 1.3)
Fig. 1.6: Virtual lever arm
9
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Example 1.4 Using the same example, suppose we want to calculate the lever arm; the force and
torque are known. If the induced torque is 50 lb.-in and the same weight (10 lb.) is
suspended on the pulley, how long should the lever arm be?
Answer: Use the same formula to calculate the R (lever arm) this time:
R=
T
=

50 [lb in]
F 10 [lb]
R = 5"
This illustrates the signifcance of the lever arm. The same weight suspended from a pulley twice the
size (thus doubling the lever arm length), requires twice as much torque as in example 1.3.
At this point, it will be useful to examine the notion of resultant torque, as we did with resultant force. Multiple
torque can be added or subtracted depending on their direction, but must be on the same center axis. The
convention sign used for the direction of a torque is (+) for a clockwise direction and (-) for a counter clockwise
direction (Fig. 1.8). The following example will help you to understand how resultant torque works.
Clockwise ( + ) Counter - Clockwise ( - )

Fig. 1.8: Torque convention sign
10
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Example 1.5 Calculate the torque from the rotating point of the beam in the illustration below (Fig. 1.9). After
applying the weights, to which side will the beam tilt according to the resulting torque?
Answer:
Torque from left weight applied on center axis (counter clockwise -):
T = F x R = 100[pounds] x 30[inches] = 3000 lbin
Torque from right weight (clockwise +):
T = F x R = 30[pounds] x 50[inches] = 1500 lb in
The resultant Torque is counter clockwise:
T = 1500[lb in] 3000[lb in] = 1500 lb in
The beam will tilt to the left.
Fig. 1.9: Example 1.5
100 lb. 30 lb.
50" 30"
Example 1.6 With reference to Fig. 1.9, at what distance from the rotary point would a 50-lb.
weight have to be placed to balance the beam horizontally?
Answer:
First, example 1.5 indicated that the system has a counter clockwise resultant torque. In
this case, the only way to stabilise the beam would be to place a weight to the right side of
the rotary point. The total sum of all torque must equal zero to attain equilibrium, as was
seen with the static law of force (example 1.2).
Resultant Torque = 1,500[lb. in] 3,000[lb. in] + 50[lb.] x d = 0



11
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s

50[lb] x d = 3000[lb in] 1500[lb in]
d =

3000[lb in] - 1500[lb. in]
d = 30"
50 [lb]
*** Even if a body doesnt move, it could have an induced torque.***

12
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.3 Work
In the context of this manual, work signifes the action carried out when a force causes an object to move. Work
equals the degree of force applied to a body, multiplied by the distance covered in movement. No work is
recorded in the absence of movement. Note that energy is also considered a form of work but should not be
confused with the notion of power (ref. Section 1.5.)
In linear motion, work results from the degree of force applied to an object and the distance covered. On the other
hand, angular motion results from the torque applied to an object and the angular movement.
Work is usually expressed in ft.-lb. or in.-lb. Torque has the same units of measure, but involves the distance from
the rotary center to the point of contact whereas work is calculated by measuring the total distance covered
between the initial and fnal position.
The formulas are:
Linear system: Work resulting from a force
U = F x d


or
Rotational system: Work resulting from a torque
U = T x

knowing that U = work, F = force, T = torque and d = the distance covered by one body subjected to a given force.
To calculate the work resulting from a torque, displacement is measured by the angle
( ) in radians (1 radian = 57.3 degrees or 180
0
/ ).
Example 1.7 A fling cabinet is pushed on a wooden foor (Fig. 1.10). The force applied to move
the fling cabinet is 10 lb. The distance covered is 120 inches. What is the work
value?
Answer:
U = F x d
U = 10 lb. x 120 in
U = 1,200 in- lb.

13
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
10 lb.
120"
Fig. 1.10: Example 1.7
Example 1.8 You have to tighten a nut on a structure. You use a torque wrench with two arms, 6
inches long on each side. If you applied a constant force of 6 lb. to the extremity of
each arm and turned the nut 90
0
( of a turn), calculate how much work is involved.
Answer:
1. Calculating torque on one arm T
1
= F x d
T
1
= 6 lb. x 6 in = 36 lb.-in
2. Calculating the resultant torque T = T
1
+ T
2
= 36 [ lb.- in ] + 36 [ lb.-in ] = 72 lb.-in
3. Convert the angle to radians rad = 180
o
/2 rad = 90
o
3. Calculating the work involved U= T x
U= 72 [ lb.-in] x (/2)
U= 72 [ lb.-in] x (1.57) = 113 lb.-in

14
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.4 Speed and Velocity
Once the notion of movement has been understood, it is important to determine and quantify the speed an object
moves. To do so, we have to calculate the velocity (speed) or distance that an object moves in a given unit of
time. In linear motion, the displacement equals the distance covered and in angular motion the displacement is
an angle.
The formulas to calculate velocity are:
linear velocity (v):

v =
d

t


where d = distance, t = time and v is expressed in in/sec or ft/sec.
and angular velocity ():

=


t

where is expressed in rad/sec.
Another more practical formula to calculate the speed for angular motion is to count the number of revolutions per
minute (rpm). However, tangential speed (vT) is another important measurement to understand when designing
a belt-drive system or choosing a V-belt. It is usually expressed in feet per minute and corresponds to the belt
velocity. When a belt is pulley-driven, the speed at the point of contact is different from the rotary speed of the
pulley. For example, if using a bicycle on a treadmill machine you could compare the moving conveyor to a belt
and the bicycle wheel to a pulley. The bicyclist does not need to know the rotary speed of the bicycle wheels
to calculate the surface speed or the belt speed because as a speedometer can indicate this to him. However,
when designing a belt drive system you usually have to determine the rim speed. To do so, the same method of
conversion must be applied as that used by a car or bicycle speedometer.
Here are several practical formulas to know in order to calculate tangential velocity or belt speed.
The relation between V
T
and is:


[rad / min] = 2 x RPM
&
v
T
= x R v
T
= 2 x R x RPM = x D x RPM
With reference to a belt drive system, the formula to fnd belt speed is:
Belt Drive velocity [ft/min] = Pulley Diameter [in] x x RPM

x
1
/
12
[ft/in]
or
FPM = Pulley Diameter [in] x 0.2618 x RPM
15
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Please note that the fraction 1/12 has been added to the formula to convert the pulley diameter into feet. You
also need to remember that the outside diameter should not be used for calculating belt speed when working
with variable pulleys, as the radial position will vary
Belt speed
Fig. 1.11: Belt Speed
Example1.9 Calculate the belt speed driven by a 5 inch pulley with a rotary speed of 2,000 rpm.
V-belt drive [ft/min] = 5 [in] x 3.1416 x 2000 [rpm] x 1/12[ft/in]
V-belt drive [ft/min] = 2,618 ft/min

16
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.5 Power
In mechanical engineering, power is a measure of performance or capacity and is defned as the amount of work
performed in a given time. The most work accomplished in the least amount of time, equals greater power. The
formulas to calculate Power ( P ) are:
P =
U

t

or
P = T x

P = F x v
Knowing that U = work, t = time, v = linear velocity, T = torque and F = Force. The units of measurement for power
are usually in-lb./sec, ft.-lb./sec, but could vary depending on the units used in the formula.
Example 1.10 Calculate the power required to lift a 500 lb. weight 20 ft. in 60 seconds.(Fig. 1.12)
Answer:

P =
U
=
F x d

t t

P =
500[lb] x 20 [ft]
X
12 [in]
= 2000
inlb

60
[sec] [ft] sec


500 lb.
20 ft

Fig. 1.12: Example 1.10

17
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
IMPORTANT

In the PT industry, the term horsepower is often used as a power unit, commonly called force. Even if this
expression is currently used, it should not be confused with the defnition of force that has already been
given. In order to avoid confusion, it is better to use the correct term of power.
The formulas to calculate Power in hp are:
HP =
U [ftlb]
=
P[ftlb/sec]
550t[sec] 550
or
HP =
U [ftlb]
=
P[ftlb/min]
33000t[min] 33000
Example1.11 Use the previous example (Fig. 1.12) to calculate power expressed in hp.
Answer:
HP = P [ft-lb.]

550 t [sec]
HP = 500[lb.] x 20[ft]

550 x 60 sec
HP = 0.303 hp
In the case of angular motion, there is obviously a formula to calculate power as well. The previously discussed
formulas of torque and angular velocity are involved.
18
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Here is the formula to calculate power using speed revolution (RPM) or number of rotations a
minute and torque (T):
P = 2 x T x RPM
Therefore, the power in hp (HP) can be calculated using the following formulas:

HP =
T[lbft]RPM
5252
or

HP =
T[lbin]RPM
63025
Example 1.12: A V-belt driven system is powered by a 2 hp electric motor. The motor has two
operational speeds: 1,140 rpm and 570 rpm. Calculate the torque at both speeds.
Hint: Rewrite the equation to fnd the torque.
Answer:
Speed 1- 1,140 rpm
HP =
T[lbft]RPM
5252
T[lbft] =
5252HP
=
5252x2
= 9.21 lb ft

RPM 1140
Speed 2- 570 rpm
T[lbft] =
5252HP
=
5252x2
= 18.4 lb ft

RPM 570

19
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.6 Effciency
In most transmission systems, friction forces and heat dissipation account for a considerable loss of power. In
the case of a V-belt driven system, a considerable loss is experienced from belt slip. Mechanical effciency is
measured in terms of input and output power, where 100% equals maximum performance or zero power loss.
The formula for mechanical effciency is:

Example 1.13 Calculate the effciency of a transmission that has an input power of 10 hp and 9 hp
at the output.
Answer:
Effciency (%) = HP Output x 100

HP Input
Effciency (%) = 9 hp x 100

10 hp
Effciency (%) = 90 %


20
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.7 Ratio
A ratio is a proportional factor between two similar objects of different sizes. In a belt drive system, a ratio is used
to determine the speed relation between two pulleys. The speed ratio would be stable if slippage did not occur;
however as belt slip is inevitable, the ratio varies. If the ratio is >1 we refer to a speed up system; if the ratio is
<1 it is a speed reduction system. In both cases, the ratio is obtained using the dimensions of the input drive
(driver) pulley and the output (driven) pulley.


R
s

=

1
=

RPM
1
=

D
2

2
RPM
2
D
1
where R
S
is the speed ratio, D
1
diameter of driver pulley, D
2
diameter of driven pulley.
***FOR V-BELT DRIVES, REPLACE DIAMETER(D) BY THE PITCH DIAMETER(PD)***
Example 1.14: Calculate the ratio between a 2 inch driver pulley and a 5 inch driven pulley.
Answer:

R
s

=
D
2
=
5

2.5 : 1
D
1
2

Example 1.15: Calculate the speed ratio between a driver pulley turning at a speed of 500 rpm
and a driven pulley at 2,000 rpm. If the driving pulley is 4 inches in diameter, what
is the dimension of the driven pulley ?

R
s

=

500
1: 4

2000

When the driver pulley has completed one revolution, the driven has turned 4 times.

R
s

=

500
=


D
2

D
2
=
500 x 4"
= 1"

2000
4" 2000

21
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Ratios cannot be added or subtracted; only multiplied or divided. For example, to determine the speed ratio of a
driven pulley in a compound drive with four pulleys (see Fig. 1.13), ratios are multiplied to make the connection
between the input pulley D
1
and output pulley D
4
.
However, the diameter of the four pulleys can be calculated only in a compound drive where the speeds of the
driving pulley and the driven pulley are known. In this case, see the following steps (ref. Example 1.16):
1. The frst step is to form a fraction with the driving pulley speed as the
numerator and the driven pulley speed as the denominator.
2. After that, reduce this fraction to its lowest terms.
3. Divide the numerator and the denominator into two pairs of factors (a pair
being one factor in the numerator and one in the denominator).
4. If necessary, multiply each pair by a trial number that will give pulleys of
suitable diameters (see example 1.16). This trial number has an infuence
on the cost, so it should be reduced as much as possible while retaining the
power required.

Example 1.16: In the compound drive above, if the speed of pulley D
1
is 575 rpm, and the speed
of pulley D
4
is 1,200 rpm, what is the diameter of the four pulleys?
(Step 1) R
s

=

575

1200


(Step 2) reduce the fraction to its lowest terms

23
48

(Step 3) Divide into two fractions
23
=
1x23
48 2x24

(Step 4) multiply by trial number 8 and 1
(1x8) x (23x1)
=
8x23
(2x8) x (24x1) 16x24
The values 8 and 23 in the numerator represent the diameters of the driven pulleys, D
2
and D
4
, and the
values 16 and 24 represent the diameters of the driver pulleys, D
1
and D
3.
. The pulley diameters must
respect the design. D
3
>D
4
>D
1
>D
2
; verify 24>23>16>8.
Note: When the dimensions obtained are not standard manufacturer sizes, the pulleys can be reduced
by dividing the diameter of each one by the same number so as to obtain a standard dimension. This
signifes cost savings and a reduction in the design space required. Just be sure that they still meet the
required HP rating.
D
3
D
2
D
4
D
1
Fig. 1.13: Example 1.16
22
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
Example 1.17: If the diameter of the pulleys D
1
=40, D
2
=15,
,
D
3
=36,

and

D
4
=48 and the speed of
pulley D
1
is 695, fnd the speed of the driven pulley D
4
.
D
2
X
D
4
=

RPM
1
N
4 =

D
1
x D
3
X
RPM
1
=
40 x 36

X
695 = 1390 rpm
D
1
D
3
RPM
4
D
2
x D
4
15 x 48
Hence, the overall ratio between the input drive D
1
and output drive D
4
is equal to:

RPM
1
=

695

=

D
2
X
D
4
=

1 : 2
RPM
4
1390 D
1
D
3

23
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
1.8 Service Factors
When designing components for manufacturing industries, engineers must take into account factory induced
factors such as operating times, the type of driving unit and the load. This service factor is used to adjust the
horsepower requirements to refect actual horsepower needs in order to ensure normal service life. A service
factor can be compared to a safety factor or safety precaution.

Manufacturing companies decided to use a formula based on production condition factors to foresee possible
abuse through excessive wear and tear and adapt their transmission systems accordingly. Various tables
based on production conditions are referred to when designing power transmission systems. Environmental
factors (heat, abrasive dust) are not taken into consideration but certainly affect the life of a drive system. Youll
see how these service factor tables are used when designing a belt drive system in chapter 3.
The formula for calculating a service factor is:
K
s
=
P'
P

Knowing that K
S
represents the service factor, P the design power and P the requirement power
Example1.18 If a belt drive system has a service factor of 1.4, and the rated (required) power is 40
hp, how much power is needed?
Answer:
K
s
=
P'
P
P' = P K
s
= 40[hp] 1.4 = 56hp




24
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
Chapter 2
DRIVES: BELTS, BUSHINGS & SHEAVES / PULLEYS
H
e
x
a
g
o
n
a
l

B
o
l
t
S
h
e
a
v
e
S
q
u
a
r
e

K
e
y
Q
D

B
u
s
h
i
n
g
V
-
B
e
l
t
25
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s

2.1 What are the Advantages of a Belt Drive System ?
In Chapter 1 it was illustrated that force and power can be transmitted in different manners. The most commonly
used systems to transmit power from a driver shaft to a driven shaft are belt-drive systems (Fig.2.2a), gear-
drive systems (Fig.2.2b) and chain-drive systems (Fig.2.2c).


(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 2.2: Illustration of different drive systems
There are a number of advantages to using a belt drive system as compared to other systems. It is also referred to
as a friction drive as power is transmitted as a result of the belts adherence to the pulley. Among the different
belt drive systems, the V belt drive is a very economical speed reducing option that is commonly used in
industrial, automotive, commercial, agricultural and home appliance applications. The list below presents the
advantages of a belt system when it is well-designed and used in a proper environment.
Advantages of V belt drives are:
* Easy and economical installation.
* No lubrication required.
* Clean & low maintenance.
* Elasticity of belts helps shock load dampening.
* Quiet, smooth operation.
* Long life expectancy when well designed.
* Good mechanical effciency.

In addition, should a rotational component become blocked while in operation, considerable damage can be
caused to the entire power transmission system. This risk can be greatly lessened with a belt drive system,
26
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
as a belt will slip if the system blocks, thus reducing the risk of breakage; this advantage is not available with a
chain or gear system. However, this advantage is offset by the fact that standard friction drives can both slip and
creep and so do not offer exact velocity ratios, nor precision timing between input and output shafts. It is thus
very important to choose the right drive design based on the application.
2.2 Belts
Belt drives are one of the earliest power transmission systems and were popular during the Industrial Revolution. At
the time fat belts were useful for conveying power over large distances and were made from leather. However,
due to the demands for more powerful machinery, and the growth of large markets such as the automobile
industry, new types of belts were designed. In order to meet higher standards of performance, V-belts, with a
trapezoidal or V shape, and made from rubber, neoprene, urethane or similar synthetic materials, replaced fat
belts.
The belts inside surface must be made from a material that ensures adherence to the pulley groove through
friction force and reduces the belt tension required to transmit torque.
The top part of the belt, called the tension or insulation section, contains fber cords for increased strength as
it carries the load of the traction force, whereas the bottom, or compression section, has been designed to
withstand compression.
(1) PROTECTIVE COVER
Generally a tough and elastic cover made from a special rubber-impregnated fabric
that is slip-resistant and durable. This heat resistant layer serves to protect the belts
inner components.
(2) INSULATION SECTION
This section helps holds the tension members in place and acts as a binder for greater
adhesion between the cords and the other sections. In this manner, heat build-up is
reduced resulting in extended belt life.
(3) TENSION MEMBERS
Pre-stretched cords (polyester, aramide, steel, fberglass,..) provide high tensile
strength and minimize stretch.
(4) COMPRESSION SECTION
Made from a tough rubber compound that exerts a wedging force against the pulley
groove to increase adherence without deformation.


The torque obtained depends on the belts resistance to the applied tension and the degree of adherence to the inner
walls of the pulley groove. For this reason, a belt drive system should never be lubricated as it depends on
friction to transmit power, in contrast to chain or gear systems that function through pure contact pressure. The
inside face of the belt should never touch the bottom of the groove (Ref. See Fig. 2.4)
Fig. 2.3 V-Belt
27
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1 V-Belt Classifcations
All belt sizes are classifed by cross-section and length dimensions. The
belt identifcation number includes a letter, indicating the cross-section,
followed by up to 3 digits. The cross-section indicates the top width,
depth and V angle dimensions of V belts. Industrial belts are measured
in terms of outside and inside (pitch) lengths (section 2.2.2.2). The
different types of V-Belts mentioned below are in inches. To determine
belt nomenclature in metric, you must refer to a belt manufacturers
catalog.
Fig. 2.4: Sheave Cross-Section

2.2.1.1 Light duty & Fractional horsepower (F.H.P) V-Belts
This type of V-belt was designed for light-duty applications of less than 1 hp, which is why they are referred to
as F.H.P. or fractional horsepower. The V-shape results in improved performance for conventional speed
operations in a more compact format, as compared to fat pulleys. These belts are used only with small
1-groove pulleys for single-belt power transmission.
Fig. 2.5: Light duty V-Belt Cross-sections
For this type of V-belt, the cross-section is identifed by the letter L preceded by up to 5 fgures (1 to 5), which
when divided by 8 indicates the top width. This is true for all belts except the 5L, of which the width is not 5/8
but rather 21/32. It is interesting to note that there is a corresponding height for every top width. The number
that follows the letter L indicates the outside length multiplied by 10.

Fig. 2.6: Light duty 3D Cross-sections
Example 2.1 What are the dimensions of a 4L990 V-belt?
Answer: 4/8 = -inch top width, 5/16-inch height and 99 inches outside length
28
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1.2 Classical V-Belts
Classical V-belts are used as much in heavy-duty as light duty (A & B ) applications because of the large selection
of cross-sections available. They are available in different belt types and materials. All classical V-belts with
identical cross-sections will operate in sheaves with grooves for that particular cross-section. BaldorMaska
offers a complete selection of classical sheaves.
1/2"
21/32"
13/32"
5/16"
7/8"
17/32"
1 1/4"
3/4"
1 1/2"
1"
40
o
40
o
40
o
40
o
40
o
A B C D E
Fig. 2.7: Classical V-Belt Cross-sections
Classical V-belts are identifed by 5 letters: A, B, C, D, & E. Unlike most belts, the cross-section is identifed by a
single letter, followed by the approximate inside length.
4L and 5L V-belts are respectively interchangeable with type A & B belts, although the B belt is slightly higher than
the 5L. Type A and B belts are available in a larger variety of sizes than the 4L and 5L. Please note however
that different belt types should not be combined on the same pulley with several grooves.
All classical V-belts can be used alone or coupled with other identical cross-section belts to transmit up to hundreds
of hp units.
Example 2.2 What are the dimensions of a B228 V-belt?
Answer: 21/32-inch top width, 13/32-inch thick and 228 inches inside length.

29
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1.3 Deep Wedge / Groove or Narrow V-Belts
Narrow V-belts are recommended for drive systems that require compact design, higher speed and increased
horsepower. They have a more pronounced V shape and are used in applications similar to those of multiple
classical V-belts. They have a greater horsepower capacity than conventional belts due to increased surface
contact with the pulley wall.
Fig. 2.8: Narrow V-Belt Cross-sections
3/8"
5/16"
5/8"
17/32"
1"
7/8"
3V 5V 8V
Three standard cross-sections cover the entire range of drive requirements, as compared to fve for classical
V-belts. This results in reduced inventory for this type of belt and pulley. 3V belts are used with A&B sheaves,
5V deals with B&C sheaves and 8V covers D&E cross-sections.
Since greater horsepower capacity can be obtained, the drive
system can be designed with shorter centers and smaller
sheaves. Overall drive dimensions can be reduced by as
much as 40%. Smaller, lightweight drive systems refect cost
savings through reduced size components or can transmit up
to twice the horsepower of classical section belts within the
same space.
As with light duty belts, the initial number, when divided by 8,
indicates the top width. The last number multiplied by ten
indicates the outside circumference.

Example 2.3 What is the belt identifcation number of a 140 inches length narrow
V-belt with a 3/8 inch width?
Answer: 3V1400

Fig 2.9: Narrow V-Belt (3D Cross-section)
Fig. 2.9: Narrow V-Belt (3D Cross-section)
30
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1.4 Cogged / Raw-Edge V-Belts
Cogged V-belts are offered as a feature on both classical and narrow confgurations. The letter X is added to the
cross-section identifcation letter (ex. AX, BX, CX & 3VX, 5VX).
The notches that are cut in the underside render the belt more fexible, resulting in increased surface contact.
For this reason, cogged belts are especially useful for high
performance, high speed applications operating with smaller
sheaves. When subjected to diffcult operating conditions,
the use of cogged belts allows for increased surface contact,
resulting in improved heat distribution.
Used in heavy trucks and buses because of longer service life
and reduced bending stress.
Increased torque capacity even in high-speed operations.
Less slippage.

2.2.1.5 Banded Belts
Banded V-belts are identifed by the letter R placed before the cross-
section identifcation letter. The standard cross-section identifcation
for classical banded V-belts is: RB-RC-RD. The standard cross-
section identifcation for narrow V-belts is: R3V-R5V-R8V. The
advantages of classical or deep wedge V-belts are multiplied by the
strength of several belts in one.
Advantages & Features:
Recommended for applications with vertically-mounted shafts or extended center-to-center distances.
Assures lateral rigidity and guides the belts into the pulley walls in a straight line.
Designed for heavy-duty drives where shock loading is a problem and where multiple matched single belts
tend to roll over or jump off.

Fig. 2.10: Narrow V-Belt (3D Cross-section)
31
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1.6 V-Ribbed / Poly-V Belts
V-ribbed belts are a combination design of fat and V-shaped belts. You can thus
beneft from the best of both worlds increased V-belt power transmission coupled
with the fexibility of fat belts that function well at higher speeds. The multiple ribs
provide much more stability than a fat belt.
The belt tension must be a little higher than with classical V-belts, but performs up to 30% more power. This
type of belt is recommended when drive ratios are as high as 40:1 and require small pulleys. Some cross-
section V-ribbed belts are capable of transmitting up to 1,000 hp.
Advantages & Features:
The multiple V-ribbed design provides more effective surface
contact area than conventional V-belts.
The use of smaller, less expensive sheaves with shorter center
distances.
Flexibility allows multi-pulley drives.
High speed capability in serpentine drives with limited space

2.2.1.7 Double / Hexagonal V-Belts
Double V-belts are used on equipment where the driven shafts rotate in a direction opposite to that of the driving
shaft. Usually the driver and driven shafts rotate in the same direction; an example of such an exception is
that of serpentine reverse bend drives, where this type of V-belt is used.
The double V-belt drives from both the top and bottom surface. The cross-sections are identical to classical V-belts
but with two driving surfaces. Standard double V-belts are identifed by duplicate letters in the belt code
followed by the inside length.


Fig. 2.15: Doubled V-Belt
Double sided V-belts are generally found in agricultural and textile applications.

Fig 2.12: Poly-V Belt
Fig. 2.13: Serpentine Drive
Fig. 2.14: Doubled V-Belt cross sections
32
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.1.8 Variable-Speed Belts
Variable or adjustable V-belts are uniquely designed to transmit power
in applications where there is a varying speed-ratio. This is the case
when working with adjustable pulleys that have been designed with two
moveable fanges that can be adjusted in width.

Variable-speed belts have cross-wise rigidity and length stability for optimum performance because of the increased
width at the top of the belt in proportion to the thickness. Variable speed belts also require lengthwise fexibility
to bend around small sheaves without excess strain that could shorten belt life.
Advantages & Features:
Industrial applications of variable speed V-belts are pumps, fans, blowers, conveyors, & mixers. Consumer
applications include motorcycles, snowmobiles and golf carts.
The belt adjusts easily within the pulley groove, thus allowing for a wide range of speed ratios.
2.2.2 Other Belt Types
2.2.2.1 Standard Flat belts
Flat belts have been replaced by V-belts in most industrial applications because of improved resistance and reduced
size. However, the fat belt is still one of the best solutions for high speed applications as great as 15,000 ft./min.
Due to their height and weight, V-belts are subject to increased centrifugal force whereas lighter fat belts, whose
center of gravity is closer to the pulleys surface, maintain better surface contact at high speeds.
Pulleys used with fat belts must have a larger surface area to transmit the same amount of power. In fact, in order
to attain the equivalent coeffcient of friction, fat belts must be considerably larger as they are much thinner.
(See Fig. below)
The small bending cross-section of the fat belt causes little bending loss. This
fact, together with even running and the absence of pulley wedge effects,
leads to higher fat belt effciency. The maximum effciency attained by fat
belts is 98% compare to 96% for V-belts.
Advantages & Features:
Flat belts are capable of transmitting power over long distances.
They are still used because of their fexibility in serpentine drives and in
applications where belts must be twisted to achieve reverse shaft rotation.
Increased fexibility results in less bending loss.

Fig 2.16: Variable speed V-Belt
Fig 2.16: Variable speed V-Belt
Fig 2.17: Standard fat Belt sections
Flat Belts
33
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.2.2 Standard / Trapezoidal Synchronous Belts
Used primarily where the motion of input and output shafts must be precisely matched, synchronous belts are
also known as timing belts or positive-belts. Transmission is produced through
evenly spaced teeth on the inside surface of the belt that engage mating grooves
in a pulley. There is no belt slip and the speed ratio is constant and precise.
Though visually similar, this type of belt is not to be confused with cogged belts.
As with V-belts, there are dual-sided timing belts with teeth on both sides for
reversed-motion and serpentine drives.
These belts are found in a wide variety of precision drive applications including robots, machine tools and plotters.
High-volume applications include driving and timing overhead camshafts in automotive engines. Speeds vary
from a few inches per minute to more than 16,000 FPM and load carrying capacity can vary from fractional to
hundreds of horsepower.
240 / L / 075
Belt Pitch Length Tooth Pitch Belt width
(24.0 inches) (3/8 inch) (0.75 inches)
Smooth engagement of belt with pulley allows high speed operations.
Ideal where back-lash, noise and maintenance of chain drives would be undesirable.
Timing belts weigh only a fraction as compared to alternative methods for the same horsepower
requirements.
The clean operation is ideal for contamination sensitive environments, such as industrial food processing.


Fig 2.18: Synchronous belt
Fig 2.18: Synchronous belt
34
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
Belt Pitches
On synchronous belts, pitch is the distance between the center of two adjacent
teeth as measured along the pitch line. The pulley pitch line must be
the same as the belt pitch line in order to be synchronized. For this
reason, the pulleys pitch is the distance between groove centers, and
the pulley pitch circle is measured midway between the areas of tension
and compression of the belt.
The belt pitch line (simply called pitch for narrow v-belts) is located within the
tension member and coincides with the pitch circle of the pulley mating
with it. The distance between the pitch line and the outside of the pulley
is called the Pitch Line Differential. Any change in belt construction that alters the pitch line differential requires
a corresponding change in the pulley diameters. Timing belts must be run with pulleys with an identical pitch.

Belts - in order to handle a wide range of loads, speeds and applications at highest possible effciencies - are made in
fve stock pitches. Consequently, when designing belt drives, as with gear or chain drives, circular pitch (usually
referred to as pitch) is a fundamental consideration.
2.2.2.3 H.T.B. / Curvilinear Synchronous Belts
H.T.B. is an abbreviation for High Torque Belts and follows the same drive design rules as the timing pulley. These
rounded form belts allow for all the advantages that come from synchronous rubber belts on applications that
previously called for roller chains and gear drives.
The standard-trapezoidal tooth timing belt presented above performs poorly in high torque applications and high
power drives at lower speeds. To overcome this drawback, the High Torque Belt (HTB) was developed using a
more effcient tooth profle.
HTB timing belts are classifed by tooth profle, belt pitch length, tooth pitch and belt width in millimeters.
720 / 8M / 30
Belt Pitch Length Tooth Pitch Belt width
(mm) (mm) (mm)
Among the advantages are :
* Higher torque transmission at lower speeds
* High power transmission over a wide speed change
* Improved meshing to reduce tooth jump
* Higher resistance to tooth shear
* Less tooth wear due to friction
Fig. 2.20: High torque belt

Pitch
Diameter
Belt
Pitch
Line
Sprocket
Pitch
Diameter
Outside
Diameter
Fig 2.19: Synchronous Drive
35
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.3 Belt Length
The belt length equals the sum of the length of both straight sections and both lengths in contact
with the sheaves.
C
D
2
D
1
0
2
0
1
Fig 2.21: Diagram to calculate belt length
The variables of this system are:
D
1
: Datum diameter of the driving pulley/sheave (in)
D
2
: Datum diameter of the driven pulley/sheave (in)
C : Distance between sheaves rotary axis (center distance, in)

1
et
2
: Arc of contact between the belt and, respectively, the driving and the driven sheaves (degree or
radius (if indicated))

36
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.3.1 Parallel axis, uncrossed belt drive
This is the most common belt system set-up in the industry. The installation method is illustrated below. (Fig. 2.21)
The arc of contact for the smaller sheave is:

1
= 2 cos
-1

D
2
- D
1


2C

or

1
180 -


60(D
2
-D
1
)

C
The arc of contact for the larger sheave is:

2
= 360 - 2 cos
-1

D
2
- D
1


2C

or

2
180 +


60(D
2
-D
1
)

C
Therefore, the formula to calculate the total length is (angles are in radians):

L=4C
2
- (D
2
-D
1
)
2
+
1
(D
2

2
-D
1

1
)

2
To accelerate the calculation, the following formula can also be used:
L2C +

(D
2
+D
1
) +
(D
2
-D
1
)
2

2

4C
or

L2C + 1.57(D
2
+D
1
)+
(D
2
-D
1
)
2

4C
The above formula applies to unequal pulleys (different diameters); the formula to calculate the belt length for
equal pulleys (same diameters) is:
L2C + D
or
L2C + D3.1416
37
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.2.3.2 Arc of contact
The arc of contact (
1
et
2
Fig. 2.21) determines to a great extent a belt-drive systems capacity to transmit power.
For effcient operation, the minimum belt wrap, or arc of contact, of the smallest pulley should be 120
o
. The
maximum arc of contact that can be obtained is 180
o
. This is achieved when the two pulleys are of equal
diameter.
The formulas used in sections 2.2.3.1. illustrate that the arc of contact increases with the center to center distance.
The minimum arc of contact necessary in a power transmission system thus has a direct infuence on the
design of the center to center distance of the pulleys.

38
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.3 Drive Components Materials
Before considering the remaining principal components of a V-belt drive system, such as bushings and sheaves,
we will discuss the importance of selecting the proper material when designing the part.
One of the most common ferrous metals used is cast iron. This is a cost-effcient material that adapts well to the
molding process, and is recommended even for complex parts. The following is a description of the mechanical
and physical properties of the two main types of cast iron that BaldorMaska works with.
2.3.1 Gray/Cast Iron
The property that differentiates gray cast iron from plain carbon steel is the presence of pure
graphite in the form of fakes. During the molding process, although most of the carbon mixes
with iron, the remaining elements form graphite. The presence of graphite contributes to gray
cast irons high vibration absorption and wear resistance. On the other hand, the graphite
fakes create weakness planes which result in slightly reduced tensile strength. Gray iron also
has greater corrosion resistance under most conditions compared to plain steel. For those
reason, coupled with a wide range of casting properties, machine frames and engine blocks are
manufactured from this material.
The majority of BaldorMaska pulleys used in standard applications are manufactured from gray cast iron; however
they are not recommended for operations that are at risk of experiencing excessive shock loads or high speed.
For this reason, certain items are made from ductile iron for improved strength.
2.3.2 Ductile Iron
Ductile iron has greater resilience and ductility, as its name denotes, than gray cast iron.
Graphite is present in a nodular (small, round lumps) rather than faky form. Corrosion
resistance is comparable to that of gray.
This stronger material is recommended for operations that could experience occasional
jolting. Compared to gray, ductile iron cannot be machined as easily. It also has less vibration
absorbency. However, the mechanical properties are similar to steel and it is used in the
production of gears, crankshafts, wheel hubs, etc.
In addition, other advantages of ductile iron as compared to gray, is that it allows for a reduction in size and weight
of the part, and has added resistance to impact failure. BaldorMaska is one of the only companies that offers
a broad range of QD Bushings in ductile iron.
Fig 2.22: Cast iron

Fig 2.23: Ductile iron
39
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.3.3 Sintered Metal
Sintered metal processing has become very popular in the last 20 years. Easily adapted to mass production, this
process has been used in the automobile industry and can produce complex parts with high tolerances and
very little waste during molding. In addition, the ferrous alloys available have excellent mechanical properties
at a competitive price, due to economical processing methods.
Whereas casted metals must be brought to the melting point, this raw material is a pre-determined mixture of
different alloys in a fne, granular form (powder) of which small amounts undergo high pressure compacting
from presses equipped with a set of matrixes and punches that determine the shape. At this stage, the part
usually has the required shape, but not the mechanical resistance required.
In order to acquire the necessary resilience found in casted metal, the particles need to be binded together. This
is done by heating the parts over a specifc period of time called sintering, at temperatures just under the
melting point. The controlled temperature generates metallurgical binders within the part without altering the
shape due to excessive heat. Upon coming out of the furnace, the part is a fnished product, unless special
machining or treatments are needed.
A unique advantage of this sintering process is the possibility of adjusting the basic powder recipe to include
special additives that can either increase corrosive resistance, improved machinability or increased part
density. Although sintered metal has different mechanical properties than that of casted metal, the results are
nonetheless very competitive. BaldorMaska was one of the frst companies to market and take advantage of
sintered metal processing for certain product lines.
2.3.4 Table of Mechanical Properties
MATERIAL GRADE
TENSILE
STRENGTH
MIN. ( PSI )
YIELD
STRENGTH
MIN. ( PSI )
ELONGATION
( PERCENT )
MODULUS
OF ELASTICITY
( X 106 PSI)
Grey cast iron 30 30,000 30,000 <1.0 13-16.4
Ductile iron 65-45-12 65,000 45,000 12 24
Sintered Metal FC-0205-40 40,000 40,000 <1.1 17.5
40
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.4 Bushings
All power transmission components must either be attached or connected to a shaft. A bushing is the intermediary
element used to mount or attach a sheave/pulley to a shaft. In belt transmission drive systems, the bushing is
installed in the hub of the pulley and is secured with screws, thus exerting a pressure on the hub. This pressure
is created by a taper geometry principle that can also be observed when a male conical object is inserted into
the mating surface of the corresponding female part. The bushing has a thin slit down the side that enables it
to be compressed evenly around the shaft during installation, which results from the axial force applied when
ftting the bushing into the sheave hub. Most tapered bushings compensate for normal variations in shaft and
component dimensional tolerances.
Bushings are available in a number of different bore sizes for various shaft dimensions and safely permit power
transmission as the go-between the shaft and the sheave. They greatly reduce the number of standard sheaves
required or having to machine the part for every different shaft size. (Fig. 2.1)
2.4.1 QD (Quick Detachable) Interchangeable Bushings
QD bushings have a straight bore with a tapered barrel on the outer surface that
matches the pulley hub. QD bushings have a full split through the fange and barrel to
permit a tight clamping action on the shaft. They are easy to install, eliminate fretting
corrosion between the bore and the shaft and are an excellent choice for V-belt drive
systems.
Cap screws are used to tighten and secure the bushing onto the shaft. To assemble,
the bushing and sheave are slipped over the shaft. When the tapered surfaces frst
meet, the ft between the bushing bore and the shaft is relatively loose. When the cap
screws are tightened, the split closes partially and the bushing grips the shaft tightly.
BaldorMaska offers an interchangeable QD BUSHING (QD is a registered trademark and manufactured under
license).
Precision machining of the tapered bore in the hub of the QD sheave and the tapered mating surface of the
bushing insure a snug and precision ft between the sheave and the bushing.
The split is full (not partial). As the cap screws are tightened, a tremendous pressure is generated, with a grip
equivalent to that of a press ft, on the shaft.
Bushings should not be re-bored as the concentricity (perfect center) will be lost. However, this may be
possible for applications with a very low RPM,.
It is very IMPORTANT not to use any type of lubricant on any surface of the bushing or mating hub.
2.24: QD Bushing
41
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
BaldorMaska, and all other M.P.T.A. members, manufacture QD bushings conform to standardised dimensions
in order to assure total interchangeability.
Illustration of QD Bushing
SD - 1
Bushing SD
Stock Bore 1
Keyseat 3/8 x 1/8**
SK - 40
Bushing SK
Stock Bore 40 (metric system)
Keyseat 12x8
In some cases, as the bore increases in diameter, a shallow keyseat is provided due to insuffcient metal thickness.
This does not affect the bushings ability to transmit the load. The rectangular key, on fat key as it is also
referred to, fts into the standard keyway in the shaft.
SK 1-3/4
Bushing SK
Stock Bore 1-3/4
Keyseat 3/8X3/16
**Shallow Keyseat.
Bushing
L
( H - Cross
Reference)
Bushing
JA to J
Inclusive
Bushing
M to W
Inclusive
Bushing S Taper 3/4" per FT
on Diameter - B -
42
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s

Standard Keyseat Shallow Keyseat
Fig. 2.26: Keyseat
Types of Keyseat
Note:
The metric system does not refer to keyseat or keyway dimensions, as does the Imperial system; instead,
dimensions are given for the key itself, which is rectangular in shape. This meets ISO standards.
For more explanations about bushing mounting and proper wrench torque, please consult the Installation &
Maintenance Chapter.
Important
English System:
Square key -
rectangular keyway
Metric System:
Rectangular key -
square keyway

BaldorMaska offers three different types of bushings. The difference is based on the shaft diameter and the
number of holes in the fange. Bushings L to J have the same number of holes and tapped holes. As the
number of holes increases, the admissible torque on the sheave increases. Only bushings M to S have tapped
holes to secure mounting.

43
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.4.2 Taper-Lock / Bore Bushings
With more than a million presently in operation, and initially limited to Europe,
many companies world-wide now consider Taper Lock bushings as standard
mounting components in the PT industry. This type of bushing does not
have a fange, resulting in a compact, neat design that is preferred in certain
applications.
They are not interchangeable with QD type bushings as the taper has a
different angle and tapped holes in the hub are not in the same position (a split
hole on the inside of the Taper lock hub vs. complete holes in the side of the
QD hub). They are installed onto the shaft with set screws instead of standard
bolts, as with QD Bushings.
Taper Lock Installation
1. Line up the smooth holes of the Taper Lock bushing with the three threaded holes in the sheave hub.
2. Thread the cap screws into the sheave hub. Note: The threaded holes in the bushing are used to remove the
bushing.
As the cap screws are tightened, the bushing uniformly supports the hub along the entire circumference.
* Frequently matched with sprockets, gears and timing belts; not necessary in V-Belt drives (over-design)
* Suitable when excessive torque is applied (H.T.D.). Shear forces, that act on the screws when submitted to a
excessive torque, do so over a larger surface area (diameter X length) instead of acting on the screws section
area, as is the case with QD bushings.

2.4.3 Split Taper Bushings
As compared to QD style, Split taper bushings were designed with two different features. First, there is a keyway
on both sides of the barrel; the additional key that fts into the hub bears the pressure of shearing forces when
torque is applied to the pulley, rather than acting on the set screws as with QD style bushings. Secondly, the
Split taper bushing, as its name refers, is split only through the barrel or taper, and not through the fange.
Split taper bushings are available with a simple or double
split barrel. Shaft tolerances on applications have to
be tighter with this type of bushing, as compared
to QD bushings, which have greater fexibility and
more uniform clamping force.

Fig. 2.27: Taper-Lock
Fig. 2.28: Split Taper-Lock
44
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5 Sheaves
A sheave is defned as a V-grooved wheel used to transmit power or motion in conjunction with a V-belt. Some
terms associated with sheaves are explained and illustrated below.
Groove Shaped portion of a sheave; width, depth and angle are determined by the belt section
used. Grooves are machined to meet standard tolerances.

Face Width Distance measured across grooves - defned as F dimension in the BaldorMaska
catalog.
Outside Diameter Dimension measured around the outer sheave diameter -
defned as O.D. in the BaldorMaska catalog.
Pitch Diameter Dimension measured around the sheave where the belt pitch
line meets the sheave groove wall - defned as P.D. in the
BaldorMaska catalog. (see Fig. 2.29)

Datum System
A new standard for classical V-belts and sheaves has been recently established wherein the title Datum System
replaced the designation Pitch System, and Pitch Diameter became Datum Diameter. With reference to
classical sheaves, the new Pitch Diameter value equals the sheaves outside diameter seeing as the top of
the belt arrives at the same height. The only exception is that of an A belt ftted with a B sheave, as the top
of the belt is below the O.D. The Datum System is a compromise that the MPTA chose as the most accurate
approximate value of the Pitch Line that serves as the standard for all belt manufacturers, so as to compensate
for the slight differences between the different companies.

F
O.D.
P.D.
Fig. 2.29: Sheave
nomenclature
45
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.1 Sheave Body
The structure of the sheave body differs with size. Larger sheaves do not need to be solid or full in order to meet
the mechanical requirements. For example, a 30-inch solid sheave would be very heavy and expensive.
BaldorMaska engineers determine the amount of material necessary in the construction of each part for high-
quality performance and security that meets industry standards.
Sheaves come in several forms, being either solid, webbed or arm design, depending on the outside diameter.
The type of design is indicated in the BaldorMaska catalog in the column T (type). The BaldorMaska
nomenclature or listing for the three classifcations is as follows:
TYPE B - Block
Diameter ~ 0" to 6"
TYPE W - Web
Diameter ~ 6" to 14"
TYPE A Arm
Diameter ~ Over 14"
Fig. 2.30: Sheave body



46
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.2 Sheave Classifcations & Terminology:
Sheaves must be designed to work effciently with belts so as to deliver the necessary power. One of the most
important factors is the design of the groove, as this is the belt contact zone. Standard identifcation classifcation
for pulleys include the belt cross-section, number of grooves, and diameter. All BaldorMaska sheaves can be
grouped into three family-types.
2.5.2.1 Light Duty Fixed & Bush Types
Typical applications for this type of sheaves are pumps, mixers, compressors, conveyors, fans and blowers driven by
motors up to 10 HP. BaldorMaska does not manufacture or distribute pulleys for 2L belts as they do not need
to be made from cast iron.
Part Classifcation Number:

MA80X1/2 1 groove fxed bore MBL77 1 groove bush type
(3L) & A (4L) V-belts A (4L) & B (5L) V-belts
O.D. = 8.0 in L bushing
Bore size O.D. = 7.7 in.
2MA80X1/2 2 grooves fxed bore 2MBL77 2 grooves bush type
A (4L) V-belts A ( 4L) &B (5L) V-belts
O.D. = 8.0 in L bushing
Bore size O.D. = 7.7 in.
47
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.2.2 Adjustable/ F.H.P & Integral
Adjustable sheaves offer the fexibility of adapting to varying driving shaft
speeds through expansion of the pulley walls. In this way, the belt pitch
used varies depending on the adjusted width of the sheave, resulting in
the possibility of different speed ratios.
Adjustable speed sheaves have one or two grooves with fanges that can be
adjusted in width, so the belt moves in a radial movement within the groove
(see illustration below). The principle of the adjustable pitch sheave is that
one of the discs forming the V-shaped groove (in which the belt rides)
is movable. When the disc is moved closer, the belt rides higher in the
groove and the pitch diameter of the sheave is larger. When the disc is moved apart, the belt rides lower and
the pitch diameter becomes smaller, thereby producing a speed and ratio change.
Fig. 2.32: Ratio variation Close and Open
Important
BaldorMaska adjustable speed sheaves are used only for static pitch drive design.
Adjustable Light Duty (H.V.A.C.) MVL
This adjustable sheave is made to accommodate 3L, 4L, or 5L belts.
MVL adjustable light duty sheaves are designed to be used with F.H.P. (fractional HP) motors.
Fig. 2.31: Adjustable sheave
48
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
Adjustable Pitch V-Belt Sheaves (8000 series)
BaldorMaska variable pitch V-belt sheaves are precision machined cast to provide maximum strength, and also
ensure smooth and quiet operation. Grooves are accurately machined and smoothly fnished to provide proper
belt seating. They are used with 4L or A and 5L or B V-belts.

The datum diameter of the sheave is adjusted by loosening the set screws in the
hubs and turning the threaded fange to the desired setting, then re-tightening
the set screws.
Both single and double groove adjustable sheaves permit variations of as much as
30% in speed.
Both single and double grooves of the 8000 series are suitable for drives up to 25 hp.
Adjustable Pitch V-Belt Sheaves (MVS)
The MVS sheave offers several signifcant advantages. This sheave is available
in 6 sizes and is designed for A-B or 5V belts. Capacities range up to
40 hp at 1,750 rpm.
The speed is infnitely variable, and as only one screw controls both movable
fanges, accurate groove spacing is assured at all times. No lubrication is
needed.


Adjustable Pitch V-Belt Sheaves

Fig. 2.33: 2 groove 8000 series
O.D.
H
E F E
L
I
N
B
O
A
R
D
O
U
T
B
O
A
R
D
Fig. 2.34: MVS series
49
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
Step pulleys (MAS)
- Combination of 3 steps up to 5 (equal number of possible speed
ratios)
- Designed for A, 4L & 3L V-Belts.
- From 2 to 6 inch diameters.
- Commonly used for varying speeds with drill presses & wood
lathes.

Fig. 2.35: Step pulleys
50
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.2.3 Classical & Narrow Belt Drives
Classical (conventional) V-Belts are available in different types and designs. All classical V-belts with the same
cross-section will operate in sheaves with grooves for that particular cross-section. BaldorMaska offers a
complete selection of classical sheaves. This family includes sheaves for classical V-belts and narrow V-belts.
In addition, A/B Combination (code B) sheaves can be used with either A(4L) or B(5L) V-belts.
Part Designation number:
2B64-SDS 2 grooves 1-3V8.00-SDS 1 groove
A(4L)&B(5L) V-belt 3V-belt
P.D. = 6.4 in O.D. = 8.0 in
Bushing size SDS (P.D. = 7.95 in)
Bushing size SDS
1C110-SF 1 groove 3-5V4.40-SDS 3 grooves
C V-belt 5V-belt
P.D. = 11 in O.D. = 4.4 in
Bushing size SF (P.D. = 4.30 in)
Bushing size SDS
4D150-F 4 grooves 4-8V44.5-M 4 grooves
D V-belt 8V-belt
P.D. = 15 in O.D. = 44.5 in
Bushing size F (P.D. = 44.3 in)
Bushing size M
Important
Due to the mechanical properties of grey and ductile cast iron, parts made from gray iron can operate up to maximum
rim speeds of 6,500 feet per minute. Speeds in excess of this rate MUST use parts made from ductile iron, which
has a maximum safe operating speed of 9,500 feet per minute.

51
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.2.4 Application Table by Classes
Table showing all sheave families manufactured by BaldorMaska with a limited list of industrial applications.
FAMILY SHEAVES APPLICATIONS
Light Duty Fixed &
Bush Types
MFAL
Fans, Blowers, H.V.A.C., Wood
Processing Equipment, Pumps,
Conveyors, Printing Machines,
Machine Tools, Mixers and Com-
pressors
Up to 3 hp
MA-MB-MAL-MBL
Fans, Blowers, H.V.A.C., Wood
Processing Equipment, Pumps,
Conveyors, Printing Machines,
Machine Tools, Mixers and Com-
pressors
Up to 10 hp
Adjustable/ F.H.P &
Integral
MVL
Fans, Pumps, Conveyors, Ma-
chine Tools, Mixers and Compres-
sors
Up to 2 hp
8000
Fans, Pumps, Conveyors, Ma-
chine Tools, Mixers and Compres-
sors
Up to 25 hp
MVS
Wood Processing Equipment., Air
Moving Equipment, Conveyors
Systems, Bottling Plant
Up to 40 hp
Classical & Narrow
V-Belt Drives
A/B-C-D-3V-5V-8V
Pulp and Paper Mills Equipment,
Saw Mill Equipment, Mining Equip-
ment, Crushers, Pumps, Compres-
sors Screens, Extruders
Up to 500 HP
52
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
2.5.3 Balancing Standards (MPTA)
2.5.3.1 General Information
When a unit turns in a circular path, a hypothetical inertia force known as
centrifugal force exerts a pulling infuence on the element away from the
center during the rotational movement. This can be illustrated by tying an
object to one end of a rope and the other end to a rotating axis of the center
of the part. As the speed increases, the object is lifted into the air until it
attains a horizontal position.
In power transmission systems, if the mass of a rotating body is unevenly distributed around the rotation axis, the
centrifugal forces will be unbalanced. This causes vibration, noise and reduced components service life. A
secondary operation called balancing is carried out to minimize these effects by altering the center of gravity to
correspond with the axis of rotation of the center of the part so as to be evenly distributed.
Every rotating component is eventually unbalanced to some degree; parts manufactured with absolute balance
would be a costly process for the consumer. For this reason, it must be determined to what degree a sheave
must be balanced for the industrial application in question. We will now consider the two types of balancing in
use in the industry and approved by MPTA: single-plane and double-plane operations.
2.5.3.2 Static or Single-Plane Balancing
Single-plane balancing is a basic secondary operation and commonly used method that is recommended for all
products. A one-plane absolute balanced system can be illustrated by a uniform disk with the center mass
perfectly aligned with the shaft axis.
Fig. 2.37: Balanced Force on shaft
Balanced Force
on Shaft
Axis of rotation
(Shaft)
Center of gravity
concentric with
the axis of rotation
M
Fig 2.36: Centrifugal force
53
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
However, should the disk have a hole at a certain distance from the center, the system would be unbalanced. To
illustrate, if a rod with an iron ball was attached to one side of a shaft, the ball could be compared to excess
weight on one side of the disk.
Fig. 2.38: Unbalanced Force on shaft
Unbalanced Force
on Shaft
Unbalanced
Equivalent Mass
Axis of rotation
(Shaft)
Hole in Disk Shifts
Center of Gravity to
the Opposite Side
As the rotational speed increases, the centrifugal force causes the shaft to feel the pull of the non-balanced disk.
In order to offset the situation, a counter weight must be added directly opposite to the extra mass. In this case,
an identical amount of mass must be eliminated by boring another hole opposite the frst one.
Fig. 2.39: Balanced Force on shaft
Unbalanced Force
on Shaft
Unbalanced
Equivalent Mass
Balanced
Mass
Axis of rotation
(Shaft)
Hole in Disk Shifts
Center of Gravity to
the Opposite Side
Drilled Hole
for Balanced
The method for determining where the hole should be bored in order to
balance the part or sheave consists of placing it on an horizontal shaft
suspended from two carefully levelled vertical supports, as illustrated
in Figure 40. If the sheave is not balanced, the shaft will turn until the
heavier side is on the bottom. A hole (or holes) is (are) bored until
the sheave is in static balance, or remains mobile regardless of what
position it is placed in.
A A
Fig. 2.40: Balancing Vertical position
54
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
A second method that is also used to balance a sheave consists of mounting the sheave horizontally on a vertical
arbor placed on table B, which is supported by a knife-edge bearing. A pendulum C is suspended from table
B. To test the static balance of the sheave, it is counter-balanced until the indicator is stable in the center of the
stationary scale D. There are several other devices for testing static balance that are similar in design to these
standard principles.
The nomograph below shows the maximum speed limit (in RPM) for
standard statically balanced sheaves of a given diameter and
face width.
To use the nomograph, lay a straightedge ruler between the
diameter and face width readings and take the maximum RPM
recommended for standard balance where the ruler edge
crosses the slanted line. If the RPM of the application exceeds
the maximum recommended, two-plane balancing should be
carried out.


64
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4 1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
28
32
36
MAX RPM RECOMMENDED
FOR STANDARD BALANCE
F
A
C
E

W
I
D
T
H

I
N

I
N
C
H
E
S
5000
4600
4400
4200
3800
3400
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
640
725
860
960
1460
1750
2900
3500
1160
Fig. 2.42: Nomograph-Max RPM for one-plane balancing
B
C
D
Fig 2.41: Balancing Horizontal position
55
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
To determine whether dynamic balancing is recommended, the following formula can also be used:
RPM =
15500
D F

D is the Diameter in inches
F is Face Width in inches
The resultant RPM is the maximum recommended operating RPM for sheaves with a single plane balance.
Example 2.4 If a 20 in. x 10 in. diameter face width sheave runs faster than 1,100 rpm,
dynamic balancing is recommended. The result obtained with the
formula is 1,096 rpm.
2.5.3.3 Dynamic or Two-Plane Balancing
A sheave may have undergone single-plane balancing and yet not be suffciently balanced for certain operations,
such as when the sheave rotates at high speeds and has a relatively large face width. Under these
conditions a different type of balancing is necessary.
Two-plane balancing is an operation where balance corrections are made and measured at two planes on the
component axis (Fig. 2.43). (This is not as fully dynamic balancing, but rather partially dynamic balancing.)
The areas affected must be well separated to effectively produce a two-plane balance (see MPTA norm).
Hence, two-plane balancing acts on non-balanced units of masses which do not lie within a narrow plane;
instead they are spread along the length of the component.

Unbalanced Force
on Shaft
Unbalanced
Equivalent
Mass --
1
st
Plane
Unbalanced
Equivalent
Mass --
1
nd
Plane
Axis of rotation
(Shaft)
Hole in Disk Shifts
Center of Gravity to
the Opposite Side
Fig. 2.43: Unbalanced Force on shaft Two planes
56
D
r
i
v
e
s
:

B
e
l
t
s
,


B
u
s
h
i
n
g
s

&

S
h
e
a
v
e
s
Factors such as the mass of the imbalance, the distance from the rotational center, the speed (RPM), and the
distance between the imbalance along the axial length, all affect the degree of imbalance and must be examined
in order to justify two-plane balancing. In general, the longer a component in relation to its diameter, the greater
the possible need for two-plane balancing at a certain speed.
Once again we will represent an equivalent situation using a rod and iron ball on each end of the shaft. When they
are rotated, not only does the weight cause a pull on the frst rod, but because there are two rods pulling at each
end of the shaft, the rotating shaft also vibrates. In this case, the application as shown in Fig. 2.43 would appear
to be in balance if submitted to only single-plane balancing operations. However, two-plane balancing would be
needed with this example wherein the sheaves are balanced with reference to planes (Fig. 2.44)
In conclusion, the type of balancing required, whether it be single-plane or 2
nd
plane, is usually determined by the
axial length of the parts. Two-plane balancing is recommended only in certain cases where the product face
width is relatively large and the operational speed relatively fast, or where balance is considered very critical.
Two-plane balancing is considered as an option and must be specifcally requested.
When non-balanced portions are at opposite ends or in different planes, balancing must be carried out so as to
counteract the centrifugal force of the sheaves at high speeds. Dynamic Balancing then consists of positioning
the counter-balancing weights according to their weight, their position on the axis of rotation and their angular
positions.

Fig. 2.44: Balanced Force on shaft 2
nd
planes
Drilled Holes
for Balanced
Unbalanced
Equivalent
Mass --
1
st
Plane
Balanced
Mass
Balanced
Mass
Unbalanced
Equivalent
Mass --
1
nd
Plane
Axis of rotation
(Shaft)
Hole in Disk Shifts
Center of Gravity to
the Opposite Side
57
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
Chapter 4
INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE
4.1 Bushing Mounting
4.1.1 Types of Mounting
There are two ways to mount a bushing with a sheave onto a shaft that leaves the cap screws accessible from
the outside; either way is acceptable.
Bushing fange toward machine or motor
1. Align tapped holes in bushing fange with drilled
holes in sheave hub.
2. Insert cap screws through drilled holes in sheave
hub and thread loosely into tapped holes in bushing
fange.
3. Position assembly on shaft and tighten cap screws
progressively and uniformly.
To remove
1. Remove cap screws and thread into tapped holes
in sheave hub. Tighten progressively until bushing is
free from sheave taper.
2. Remove assembly from shaft.
Bushing fange away from machine or motor
1. Align drilled holes in bushing fange with tapped
holes in sheave hub.
2. Insert cap screws through drilled holes in bushing
fange and thread loosely into tapped holes in sheave
hub.
3. Position assembly on shaft and tighten cap screws
progressively and uniformly.
To remove
1. Remove cap screws and thread into tapped holes
in bushing fange. Tighten progressively until bushing
is free from sheave taper.
2. Remove assembly from shaft.



58
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
IMPORTANT
When mounting, do not use any lubricant.
Tighten screws with the appropriate wrench torque.
4.1.2 Tightening
Tighten screws evenly and progressively. Never allow the sheave to be drawn into contact with the bushing fange.
If too much pressure is applied when tightening the screws, excess strain will be created in the hub causing it
to crack.
For the correct wrench torque, please refer to the following table.
PROPER WRENCH TORQUE
TO TIGHTEN SCREWS
BUSHING
No.
SCREW
SIZE
TORQUE
WRENCH
OPEN END OR
SOCKET WRENCH
TORQUE
CAPACITY
Inches Ft.-Lbs.
LENGTH
Inches
Pull / Lbs. In.-Lbs.
L 1/4 6 4 18 1,200
JA no. 10 5 4 15 1,000
SH 1/4 9 4 27 3,000
SDS-SD 1/4 9 4 27 5,000
SK 5/16 15 6 30 7,000
SF 3/8 30 6 60 11,000
E 1/2 60 12 60 20,000
F 9/16 75 12 75 30,000
J 5/8 135 15 135 45,000
M 3/4 225 15 180 85,000
N 7/8 300 15 240 150,000
P 1 450 18 300 250,000
W 1 1/8 600 24 300 375,000
S 1 1/4 750 30 300 625,000
59
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2 V-Belts & Sheaves
With proper installation and maintenance, V-belts will have a longer, more cost-effective service life. Main
guidelines on how to correctly install a V-belt drive will now be discussed.

4.2.1 Mounting Structure
Drive tensioning can impose excessive load on the structure that supports the motor, reducer, and other driven
equipment. For example, a 100-hp drive that runs a 1,760-rpm motor, the force induced by belt tension can
easily exceed 2,500 lb. Its important therefore to design the mounting structure in an appropriate manner to
support this load without defection under static and dynamic load conditions. Otherwise, all of the care taken
during installation would be futile.
4.2.2 Center Distance Adjustment
V-belt drive units should allow for an adjustment of the distance between the driving and the driven sheaves. The
center distance must have a minus allowance to permit easy installation of the V-belts in order to avoid any
strain or damage and a plus allowance to allow for an adjustment to the desired tension. In most cases, the
minus allowance is 1.5% of the center distance and the plus allowance is 3%.
Motor base or motor slide rails are the most common adjustable mechanisms for tensioning a drive. These
devices are available in a variety of models, including spring-loaded versions that automatically compensate
for belt elongation. For installations that do not allow for an adjustable center distance, the use of an idler
pulley is recommended.
Example 4.1
If the center to center distance of a drive belt system is 40 in., calculate the allowance required for
installation and removal of the belt drive.
Answer:
The minus allowance = 40[in] x 1.5% = 40 x 0.05 = 2 in.
The plus allowance = 40[in] x 3.0% = 40 x 0.03 = 1.2 in.
The maximum value of the center to center distance should therefore be at least 42 in. and the minimum
distance should be equal to or less than 38.8 in.

60
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2.3 V-Belt Installation
Step 1 : Replacing V-belts
- Reduce the center-to-center distance between the driver and the driven sheaves by moving the motor-plate
inwards. This reduces tension and allows for slack in the belt between the sheaves.
- Remove the used belts from the sheaves and examine the groove surfaces for any damage.
Step 2: Sheave Inspection
- Check for wear on the side walls, cracking, reinforcing nylon cords and oily surfaces.
- The wear of the V-groove in the sheave can be measured with a go-no-go belt gauge available from
BaldorMaska Part No. 006346.
Its very important to know if the V-groove walls have been subjected to excessive strain caused by improper belt
tension or misalignment between the driving and the driven sheaves. If the V-groove surface has deteriorated
or been damaged, the defective parts must be replaced with new ones. Worn sheaves can reduce belt life by
as much as 50%.
Step 3: Cleaning Sheaves
- Use a stiff brush to remove all foreign matter from the sheave that could abrade belts. Do not use brushes that
could scratch the surface of the groove walls as these scratches can graze the V-belts outer skin when rotating,
thus systematically destroying it.
- Pulley grooves should be free from rust, oil, grease, dust and burrs.
Step 4: Sheave Alignment
Simple alignment for angular and parallel offset
The question of alignment is not as critical in V-belts drives as with other systems, for example they are inherently
more forgiving of misalignment than synchronous belt drives. Nonetheless, before installing V-belts, verify that
the sheaves are properly aligned and parallel as a prerequisite to proper tensioning. Poor alignment renders
accurate tensioning impossible and causes a load imbalance across the belt span.
The frst step consists of verifying whether the drive shafts are parallel, and the sheaves are in the proper position on
the axis. This procedure can by checked with suffcient accuracy through use of a machinists straightedge ruler,
or by placing a tightly drawn piece of string, across the faces of the sheaves to see if all four points of contact
are made.

61
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
Fig. 4.1: Alignment Use of a straightedge or a string
However, if there is a difference in the side wall thickness of the sheaves, this method will not be suffciently
accurate. For this reason, this method will be effective only when the sheaves are a matched pair. When this
is not the case, the sheaves must be aligned parallel by their grooves. This is the preferred alignment method
with any drive.
In order to determine what degree of misalignment is acceptable, and at what point it becomes excessive, alignment
must be quantifed and compared to the belt manufacturers recommendations for various drives. An example
of this follows:
Maximum allowable offset
Type V-belt Synchronous belt
Angular offset (deg.) 0.5 0.25

Fig. 4.2: Angular offset
62
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
Type V-belt Synchronous belt
Parallel offset
(in. / ft. of center distance.) 0.1 0.05
Fig. 4.3: Parallel offset

Example 4.2 With a 5 ft. center distance, what is the allowable parallel offset for a V-belt drive?
Answer:
V-belt parallel offset = 5 x 0.1 = 0.5 in. max
Other types of misalignment
The preceding procedure illustrated a quick method for checking sheave alignment as seen from one angle only.
This method is useful only when the engine shafts are parallel horizontally in a straight line as seen in Fig. 4.1.
In fact, sheaves that have been installed on a shaft can be misaligned if the driven shaft does not have the same
angle as the driver shaft (for example, dips towards the ground) as opposed to the horizontal surface (Fig. 4.4).
In this case, the two shafts would have to be placed parallel to each other at this plane. To verify, you would
have to look from another angle and repeat the steps for checking misalignment with a level gauge. This type
of misalignment should not be confused with a 1/4th or 1/8th turn drive design.
Fig. 4.4: Other type of misalignment

63
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
Step 5: V-Belt Installation
- Verify that the replacement belts are of the corresponding size. The V-belt cross-section must be compatible
with the V section in the groove.
As discussed in chapter 2, V-belts are made of different materials and of varied design depending on the application.
In addition, similar cross-section belts from different manufacturers do not necessarily have the same features
and can differ in stretch capacity and friction coeffcients. For this reason, belts from the same manufacturer
should be used with multiple groove sheaves.
Never use new and used V-belts on the same design, even if the used belts seem to be in good shape. Belts should
always be installed in matched sets. If one belt needs to be changed, the whole set should be replaced. If the
V-belts are not of the exact same length, it will result in rapid wear of the new belts and unequal distribution of
the load, thus reducing belt life signifcantly.
- Adjust the center-to-center distance in order to slide the belts over the sheaves. The motor must shift enough
to allow the belts to be removed or installed without forcing them.
- Never lever belts over the sheave grooves as this may injure the reinforcements cords.
- Install the new belts over the sheaves so that the slack side of all belts is on the same side, either the top or
the bottom of the drive.
- Increase the drive center distance to pre-tension the belts (see next section for correct tensioning).
4.2.4 Tensioning
One of the most important factors that determines the effciency of a V-belt drive is proper belt-tensioning.
Insuffcient belt tension will cause belt slippage, resulting in reduced pulling capacity. To increase tension, as
seen earlier, we have merely to increase the center distance. However, before attempting to tension any drive,
it is imperative that the sheaves be properly installed and aligned as stated in a preceding section (section
4.2.2).
The effects of low tension on a synchronous belt are equally disastrous. Low tension allows the belt teeth to ride
up on the sprocket teeth, thus placing severe stress on the teeth. Under heavy loads, the drive can jump teeth
(ratchet), which leads to rapid belt failure.
If too much tension is applied to the V-belts, the service life of belts and bearings will be considerably reduced.
Drive tension that is too high can have other, far-reaching consequences. Undue stress is placed not only
on the belt, but the bearings and shafting as well. Early belt failure is the norm, as excessive tension over-
stresses belt cords. Bearing overload also leads to early failure, and can result in motor and reducer damage.
Incorrect tension can destroy belts and equipment.
Alignment affects belt tension.
Tension can be measured with a simple spring scale or acoustical instrument.
64
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2.4.1 Measuring Techniques
V-belts and synchronous belts have been greatly improved compared to only a few years ago. They deliver a
lot more power in a smaller package. In order to beneft from this improvement, it is essential that they be
correctly aligned and tensioned. All it takes is a few simple tools and techniques to easily and accurately
tension a drive, in order to yield the high performance designed into them.
Defection Force Method
The most common method for tensioning adjustment is with a tension meter or another type of spring scale tool.
This tool measures the defection force when pressed to the open span of the belt drive. Carrying out the
following procedures will obtain adequate tensioning for most V-belt drive requirements:
Step 1: Following the belt installation procedure already discussed, arrange the belts so that both the top and
bottom spans have about the same sag. Apply tension to the belts by increasing the center distance until
the belts are snug (Fig. 4.5).
Step 2: Operate the drive a few minutes to seat the belts in the sheave grooves. Observe the operation of the
drive under the highest load condition (usually starting). A slight bowing of the slack side of the drive
indicates proper tension. If the slack side remains taut during the peak load, the drive is too tight.
Excessive bowing or slippage indicates insuffcient tension. If this is the case, stop the drive and tighten
the belts until all the slack is taken up. Further increase the tension until only a slight bow on the slack
side is apparent while the drive is operating under load.
Step 3: Stop the drive and use the meter to measure the force necessary to depress one of the center belts 1/64-
inch for every inch of belt span. For example a defection for a 50 inch belt span is 50/64 or 25/32-inch. If
the defection exceeds 50/64 in. for every inch of span length, the drive needs to be tensioned higher. If
the defection is less, drive tension is excessive and should be reduced.


65
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
Fig. 4.5: Belt Tension Defection force method
t =C2 -
D
1
- D
2

2
The amount of force required to defect the belt should match up with the defection force data noted in the
chart below. Note that the defection force varies with V-belts from the initial run-in values, which are higher
(refecting higher run-in tensioning) than the normal values obtained after the run-in period.
Standard V-belt Tensioning Defection Force Table For BaldorMaska Blue Flex Belts
Belt Cross-Section Smaller Pulley Diameter
Range (in.)
Defection Force
Run-in ( lbs ) Normal ( lbs)
A
3.0 - 3.6
3.8 - 4.8
5.0 - 7.0
3 - 3/8
4 - 1/4
5-1/8
2 - 1/4
2 - 7/8
3 - 3/8
AX
3.0 - 3.6
3.8 - 4.8
5.0 - 7.0
4 - 1/8
5
6
2 - 3/4
3 - 1/4
4
B
3.4 - 4.2
4.4 - 5.2
5.4 - 9.4
4
6
7 - 1/8
2 - 5/8
4
5 - 1/4
BX
3.4 - 4.2
4.4 - 5.2
5.4 - 9.4
5 - 1/4
7 - 1/8
9
3 - 1/2
4 - 3/4
6
C
7.0 - 9.0
9.5 - 16.0
11 - 1/4
15 - 3/4
7 - 1/2
10 - 1/2
CX
7.0 - 9.0
9.5 -16.0
13 - 1/2
17 - 1/2
9
11 - 3/4
66
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
D
12.0 - 16.0
18.0 - 22.0
24
33
16 - 1/2
22
E 21.6 - 27.0 48 32
3V
3.40 - 4.20
4.20 - 10.6
6
7
4
5
3VX
2.20 - 3.65
4.12 - 10.6
7
8
5
6
5V
7.10 - 10.9
11.8 - 16.0
16
20
8 - 12
10 - 15
5VX
4.40 - 10.9
11.8 - 16.0
18
22
10 - 14
12 - 18
8V
12.5 - 17.0
18.0 - 22.4
36
40
18 - 27
20 - 30
Step 4: Restart the unit and allow the belts to seat themselves in the sheave grooves.
Step 5: Stop the unit after a few hours and measure all belt tensions (Refer to Step 3). Note: During the initial
run-in period, it can be expected that the belt tension will need to be re-adjusted before obtaining the correct
defection. Repeat the procedure until all of the slack is taken out of the belts.
Step 6: Restart the unit. Steps 4 and 5 are often overlooked during belt installation, but re-checking the tension is a
very important step in the effcient operation and maintenance of V-belts. As such, it is worth taking a little extra
time to do so, as you will see in the next step.
Step 7: See section 4.2.4.2 on Run-in period
Elongation method
Belt tension can be measured by marking lines 10 inches apart across the belts top surfaces at 90 degrees to the length
on an installed belt. Apply tension until the gap increases by the desired percentage. For 2 per cent tension,
the lines on the tensioned belt would be 10.2 inches apart. Mechanical failure may result when belt tensioning
is excessive; 2 to 2.5 per cent elongation should be regarded as the limit. This procedure is normally used to
tension drives using banded belts that require a defection force beyond the range of conventional equipment.
The elongation method is not suitable for tensioning synchronous belts that are constructed with fberglass or
aramide cords that have almost no elasticity. This method is accurate only when using long belts; the defection
method discussed above is the standard, recommended procedure to follow.
67
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2.4.2 Run-in Period
The frst 48-hours following installation is the most critical time for V-belt tension verifcation. The initial stretch is
taken out of the belt during this run-in period, and it settles deeper into the groove of the sheave after the soft
rubber surface of the belts outer envelope is abraded away causing the belt to run slack. To avoid considerable
slippage, frictional burning, and other irreparable damage the slack on the new belts must be taken up.
It is very important to verify the tension on a new drive frequently over the frst few days by observing the slack
side. Adjust the belt according to the normal tension data given in the chart until all signs of stretching have
been eliminated. This process must be repeated until all of the stretch has been eliminated. After operating
for several days, the belts will seat themselves in the sheave grooves and it may be necessary to readjust the
tension so that the drive shows a slight bow on the slack side. Being vigilant at this stage will eliminate early
damage and promote longer belt life. It will also improve the mechanical effciency of the motor, and the driven
mechanical equipment, by reducing wear on rotating mechanical components.

68
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2.5 Idler Pulleys
The preferred location for an idler pulley is always on
the slack side of the drive (Fig. 4.6). An inside idler
imposes less stress on the belt, and should be located
near the larger sheave to minimize the reduction in the
arc of contact with the smaller sheave or sprocket. If an
outside idler is the only option, locate it near the smaller
sheave as this enhances the arc of contact with the
smaller sheave. It is important that the idler diameter is
not inferior to the smallest sheave in the drive.
An inside idler decreases the arc of contact on
adjacent wheels.
An outside idler increases the arc of contact on
adjacent wheels.
Idlers are occasionally used in the design of conventional V-belt and timing belt drives for various reasons:
1. To provide take-up for fxed center drives.
2. To clear obstructions.
3. To subdue belt whip on long center distance.
4. To maintain tension.
5. To improve a poor design, such as a very small sheave driving a very large sheave.
If at all possible, the use of idlers should be avoided. They either reduce the horsepower rating or shorten belt
life. However, as stated earlier, idlers should be located, if at all possible, on the slack side of the drive. This
is especially true when spring loaded or weighted idlers are being used, as this keeps the spring force or the
weight to a minimum.

slack
tight
IDLER
DRIVER
OUTSIDE IDLER
slack
tight
IDLER
DRIVER
INSIDE IDLER
Fig. 4.6: Idler Recommended position
69
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.2.6 Maintenance
Make V-belt drive inspections periodically.
Check belt tension regularly.
Never apply belt dressing, as this will damage the belt and cause early failure. They often have a solvent effect
upon rubber compounds, which may temporarily increase friction, but does so at the expense of rapid V-belt
deterioration.
V-belts should be kept clean and free of oil, grease and dust.
For outdoor machinery, avoid exposing belts to direct sunlight.
Factors affecting ultimate belt life include temperature (an increase in temperature of 10C or 18F can cut
longevity by 50%), the power pulse characteristics of the engine, abrasives and chemical contamination,
abnormally tight or loose tensioning, worn pulleys, and misalignment.
High temperatures are harmful to long V-belt performance. For this reason, avoid tight ftting mounting and
safety guards that may obstruct the ventilation openings.
The essential factors to watch for when using belts are: keeping them clean, any signifcant changes in temperature,
the humidity level, and the presence of chemical products or fumes. The degree to which these elements are
present directly affects belt life and performance. Many applications require belts with a resistant substance
or fabric casing as a protection against acids and solvents.
4.2.7 Belt Storage
Storage conditions have a direct infuence on V-belt life. Inadequate storage may cause damage to belts and thus
reduce belt life.
Storing belts on sheaves saves space and is the best way of storing. Shorter belts may be stacked in single
fle one on top of the other, while long belts should be folded 3 or 5 times.
V-belts should be stored without stress i.e. without tension, pressure or any other form of deformation.
Damp storage rooms are unsuitable. This leads to mildew formation which deteriorates the belts jacket.
V-belts should be stored in a cool and dry place with temperatures varying from 10 to 20 C. A relative humidity of
between 20% - 60% offers the best storage conditions as humidity may cause a fungus to form on belts. They
should also be kept away from direct sunlight or arc welders and high voltage apparatus.
70
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.3 Typical Problems
4.3.1 Drive Misalignment
Belt drive misalignment is one of the most common causes of premature belt failure. It reduces belt drive performance
and causes uneven wear to one side of the belt. A belt can be damaged in as little as one hour, to a couple of
days, if the sheaves or pulleys have been improperly aligned during installation.
All drive components should be checked to verify that they are all well-tightened and in place. If the misalignment
comes from design, the unit should be revised in order to eliminate the problem. Misalignment may force a belt
to roll over in the sheave, or it can throw the entire load onto one side of the belt, thus stretching or breaking the
cords.
Angular misalignment (Fig. 4.1) results in accelerated belt/sheave wear and potential stability problems in single
groove V-belt drives. If the same problem occurs with a multiple groove pulley, unequal load sharing results to
each belt and leads to premature failure.
4.3.2 Sheave Cracked in Hub
When mounting a bushing by tightening the screws, excessive torque can crack the sheave as a result of too much
pressure against the hub. Never allow the sheave to be drawn into contact with the fange of the bushing, and
never lubricate the bushing or the sheave (lubrication can increase the lateral forces up to seven times with the
same torque values on cap screws).
Fig. 4.7: Excessive torque - High pressure against the hub
71
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.3.3 Vibrations

Fig. 4.8: High level of vibration
Vibrations are the most serious problem that can develop with a drive design. There are two reasons as to why
this is such a diffcult problem: First of all, the cause of the problem is very tricky to discover, as all of the
mechanism components could be the source of the vibrations. Secondly, vibrations involve the entire drive
design; the problem is thus not limited to the sheave or belt, which are easily replaced.
Step One involves fnding the main source of vibrations is the entire design out of balance? Is the design
inaccurate as far as the choice of components is concerned? Has there occurred a mechanical breaking of
a part, etc.? The second step is to apply the required corrections. However, if the designer has to deal with
a high level of vibration, then the use of specialized components should be considered (rolling joint, coupling,
etc.).
4.3.4 Over Tension
Over belt tension results in accelerated wear of the shaft bearings. The solution is to reduce the center distance
to lower the tension, as discussed in Section 4.2.4.
Fig. 4.9: High tension Overloaded bearings
72
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.3.5 High Ratio with Short Center to Center Distance
In order to increase the arc of contact on a drive designed with a high ratio, it will be necessary to install an idler
pulley. This tensioning device, as mentioned, should be installed on the slack side.

W
r
o
n
g
D
e
s
ig
n
Fig. 4.10: Increase the arc of contact
73
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.4 Couplings
Couplings are a very practical device designed to transmit mechanical power from one shaft to another shaft by
connecting them together, but they are also designed to accomplish several other tasks. There are more than
ffty types of mechanical shaft couplings used in different industrial applications, and they can be divided into
three main categories: (1) fexible, (2) rigid and (3) universal joints.
Rigid couplings are used to connect shafts that are precisely aligned, whereas fexible couplings and U-joints
accommodate varying degrees of misalignment between shafts. U-joints are used with applications where
power must be transmitted from an input shaft that is situated at a certain angle to the output shaft.
In many applications couplings may be able to accommodate misalignment and dampen vibrations or shock load.
For this reason, most industrial applications use fexible couplings, rather than the rigid types, because of
these multiple practical functions.
4.4.1 Flexible Coupling Types
Initially, fexible couplings were divided into two types : non-lubricated and lubricated. The non-lubricated model
is fabricated for the most part from elastomeric or plastic and the metallic parts require lubrication.
1. Non-lubricated
-Disc
-Elastomeric
2. Lubricated
-Grid (spring)
-Gear
74
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
The most commonly used couplings are those that allow for the greatest fexibility (minor shaft misalignment and
axial capacity) while producing the lowest external loads on equipment. The type of coupling selected depends
on each ones capacities and characteristics with regards to each applications needs. The most important
characteristics taken into consideration are often the power and speed capabilities.
Several parameters must be considered in order to make the best coupling(s) choice:
1. Type of prime mover and load characteristics
2. Shaft diameters and key sizes or spline confguration
3. Horsepower rating of the equipment to be coupled
4. Maximum operating speed
5. Maximum operating misalignment
6. Clearance limitations
7. Ambient conditions
Metallic types are best suited to applications that require or permit:
Torsional stiffness
Operation in relatively high ambient temperatures and/or presence of certain oils or chemicals;
Electric motor drive only (metallic types are not generally recommended for gas/diesel engine drives);
Relatively constant, low-inertia loads (generally not recommended for driving reciprocal pumps, compressors,
and other pulsating machinery)
Elastomeric types are best suited to applications that require or permit:
Torsional softness (absorbs shock and vibration, improved tolerance of engine drive and pulsating or relatively
high-inertia loads)
Greater radial softness (allows more angular misalignment between shafts, puts less reactionary or side load
on bearings and bushings)
Lighter weight/lower cost, in terms of torque capacity relative to maximum bore capacity
Smoother and quieter

75
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.4.2 Shaft Misalignment
There are four types of shaft misalignment: parallel, end foat, angular and torsional defection.

Parallel Offset Misalignment

Shaft center lines are parallel and do not meet.

End Float
Shaft foats or experiences longitudinal movement.


Angular Misalignment
Shaft center lines meet at an angle.
Torsional Defection

Twisting load around shaft; one shaft moves slightly ahead of the other one.
Damping vibration

Also, some types of fexible couplings dampen vibrations and reduce noise.
76
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

&

M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
4.4.3 Elastomeric Element Couplings
Elastomeric couplings transmit torque between two shafts by means of an elastomeric material. (natural rubber,
urethane, etc.). These fexible elements may be primarily stressed in tension, compression, shear or any
combination of stresses. The Maskafex coupling uses shear stress and generally produces lower shaft loads
when subjected to parallel offset misalignment because it is tortionally softer.
Elastomeric Coupling Alternatives
Compression-type couplings generally offer two advantages over shear types. First, because elastomeric couplings
have a higher load capacity in compression than shear, compression types can transmit higher torque and tolerate
greater overload. Second, they offer a greater degree of torsional stiffness, with some designs approaching the
positive-displacement stiffness of metallic couplings.
Shear-type couplings in turn offer two general advantages over compression types. First, they accommodate more
parallel and angular offset, while inducing less reactionary bearing load. This makes them especially appropriate
where shafts may be relatively thin and susceptible to bending. Second, they offer a greater degree of torsional
softness, which in some cases provides greater protection against the destructive effects of torsional vibration.
The Maskfex coupling shown here is a shear-type coupling.
The MASKAFLEX coupling is an
elastomeric coupling composed of two
fanges. This coupling has a fexible rubber
tire with tension-member cords, such as
nylon, that carry the load. These cords are
vulcanized into the tire shape. This model is
also called a tire coupling, named after its
resemblance to a car tire.
The two fange hubs are equipped with
clamping plates, which grip the tire shaped
element by its inner rims. The tire coupling
is torsionally soft and can damp vibrations.
High radial softness accommodates angular
misalignment up to 4 degrees and parallel
offset up to 1/8. This unique elastomeric
coupling has the capability to allow up to
of axial shaft movement. These properties
cover a wide variety of applications, such as
those using internal combustion engines.
Design variations are available, including
an inverted tire coupling in which the tire
element arcs inward toward the axis that
has been designed for higher RPM service.
MASKAFLEX coupling tires are manufactured from;
Standard (Natural Rubber): This unit is designed for temperatures between 42C and +82C.
Fig 4.12: Maskafex coupling
77
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
NOTES
78
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
NOTES
79
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
NOTES
80
P
o
w
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

F
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
s
NOTES
Baldor Electric Company
P.O. Box 2400
Fort Smith, AR 72902-2400 U.S.A.
Ph (479) 646-4711 Fax (479) 648-5792
International Fax (479) 648-5895
www.baldor.com www.maskapulleys.com
Baldor Electric Company
BEC-16
Printed in U.S.A.
05/08 FARR 200
Contact your nearest Baldor Sales Office at these
World Wide locations, or visit www.baldor.com
UNITED STATES

ARIZONA
Phoenix
Power Reps, Inc.
4211 South 43rd Place
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Tel.: 602-470-0407
Fax: 602-470-0464

ARKANSAS
Clarksville
Wade Black & Associates, Inc.
1001 College Avenue
Clarksville, AR 72830
Tel.: 479-754-9108
Fax: 479-754-9205
CALIFORNIA
Hayward
Golden Gate Baldor
21056 Forbes Street
Hayward, CA 94545-1116
Tel.: 510-785-9900
Fax: 510-785-9910
Commerce
Power Reps, Inc.
6480 Flotilla St.
Commerce, CA 90040
Tel.: 323-724-6771
Fax: 323-721-5859
COLORADO
Denver
Rocky Mountain Baldor, Inc.
3855 Forest Street
Denver, CO 80207
Tel.: 303-623-0127
Fax: 303-595-3772
CONNECTICUT
Wallingford
EMS, Inc.
65 S. Turnpike Road
Wallingford, CT 06492
Tel.: 203-269-1354
Fax: 203-269-5485
FLORIDA
Tampa
J.K. Kessler & Assoc. Inc.
3906 East 11th Avenue
Tampa, FL 33605
Tel.: 813-248-5078
Fax: 813-247-2984
GEORGIA
Alpharetta
Sarka Sales Agency, Inc.
62 Technology Drive
Alpharetta, GA 30005
Tel.: 770-772-7000
Fax: 770-772-7200
ILLINOIS
Bolingbrook
Windy City Baldor, Inc.
340 Remington Blvd.
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
Tel.: 630-296-1400
Fax: 630-226-9420
INDIANA
Indianapolis
The Scott Group, Inc.
5525 W. Minnesota St.
Indianapolis, IN 46241
Tel.: 317-246-5100
Fax: 317-246-5110
IOWA
Des Moines
Baldor Industrial Solutions
1800 Dixon St., Suite C
Des Moines, IA 50316
Tel.: 515-263-6929
Fax: 515-263-6515
MARYLAND
Elkridge
Baldor of Baltimore, LLC
6660 Santa Barbara Road,
Suite 22-24
Elkridge, MD 21075
Tel.: 410-579-2135
Fax: 410-579-2677
MASSACHUSETTS
Worcester
Redman & Associates
6 Pullman Street
Worcester, MA 01606
Tel.: 508-854-0708
Fax: 508-854-0291
MICHIGAN
Sterling Heights
Industrial Rotating Products
5993 Progress Drive
Sterling Heights, MI 48312
Tel.: 586-978-9800
Fax: 586-978-9969
MINNESOTA
Rogers
Perkins Power-Motion Products
21080 134th Ave. North
Rogers, MN 55374
Tel.: 763-428-3633
Fax: 763-428-4551
MISSOURI
Kansas City
RPM Solutions
1501 Bedford Ave.
Kansas City, MO 64116
Tel.: 816-587-0272
Fax: 816-587-3735
St. Louis
Alderson Industrial Sales, Inc.
10254 Page Industrial Drive
St. Louis, MO 63132-1314
Tel.: 314-426-0606
Fax: 314-426-0607
NEW JERSEY
Pennsauken
Childs & Assoc., Inc.
1035 Thomas Busch Hwy
Pennsauken, NJ 08110
Tel.: 856-661-1442
Fax: 856-663-6363
NEW YORK
Auburn
Baldor NY - Penn Inc.
One Ellis Drive
Auburn, NY 13021
Tel.: 315-255-3403
Fax: 315-253-9923
NORTH CAROLINA
Greensboro
Motion Resources, Inc.
1220 Rotherwood Road
Greensboro, NC 27406
Tel.: 336-272-6104
Fax: 336-273-6628
OHIO
West Chester
Baldor Cincinnati, Inc.
2929 Crescentville Road
West Chester, OH 45069
Tel.: 513-771-2600
Fax: 513-772-2219
Macedonia
Engineered Sales, Inc.
8929 Freeway Drive
Macedonia, OH 44056
Tel.: 330-468-4777
Fax: 330-468-4778
OKLAHOMA
Tulsa
Baldor Oklahoma
7170 S. Braden, Suite 140
Tulsa, OK 74136
Tel.: 918-366-9320
Fax: 918-366-9338
OREGON
Tualatin
D.L. Hermanson & Assoc.
20393 SW Avery Court
Tualatin, OR 97062
Tel.: 503-691-9010
Fax: 503-691-9012
PENNSYLVANIA
New Kensington
Baldor Pittsburgh
159 Prominence Drive
New Kensington, PA 15068
Tel.: 724-889-0092
Fax: 724-889-0094
TENNESSEE
Memphis
Baldor Power Solutions, LLC
3126 Norbrook Dr.
Memphis, TN 38116
Tel.: 901-346-4722
Fax: 901-346-4725
TEXAS
Dallas
Kilpatrick Sales
2920 114th St Suite 100
Grand Prairie, TX 75050
Tel.: 214-634-7271
Fax: 214-634-8874
Houston
Baldor Electric of
Southern Texas
10355 W. Little York Road,
Suite 300
Houston, TX 77041
Tel.: 281-977-6500
Fax: 281-977-6510

UTAH
Salt Lake City
Rocky Mountain Baldor, Inc.
2230 South Main St.
Salt Lake City, UT 84115
Tel.: 801-832-0127
Fax: 801-832-8911
WISCONSIN
New Berlin
Baldor Power Solutions, LLC
1960 South Calhoun Road
New Berlin, WI 53151
Tel.: 262-784-5940
Fax: 262-784-1215
CANADA
ALBERTA
Edmonton
Baldor Motors & Drives
(Alberta), Ltd.
4053 92 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T6E 6R8
Tel.: 780-434-4900
Fax: 780-438-2600
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Port Coquitlam
Canadian Electro Drive
(1982), Ltd.
1538 Kebet Way
Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 5M5
Tel.: 604-421-2822
Fax: 604-421-3113
MANITOBA
Winnipeg
Industrial Agencies
54 Princess Street
Winnipeg, MB R3B 1K2
Tel.: 204-942-5205
Fax: 204-956-4251
ONTARIO
Toronto
Baldor Electric Ontario, Inc.
2750 Coventry Road
Oakville, ON L6H 6R1
Tel.: 905-829-3301
Fax: 905-829-3302
QUEBEC
Montreal
Baldor Quebec Atlantique inc.
5155, rue J.A. Bombardier
Saint-Hubert, QC J3Z 1G4
Tel.: 514-933-2711
Fax: 514-933-8639
MEXICO
Baldor Sales Office
Oficina Corporativa de Ventas y
Centro de Distribucin
Blvd. al Aeropuerto Km. 2
Col. San Jos El Alto
Len , Gto. CP 37545
Tel. (47) 7761 2030
Fax (47) 7761 2010