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ELEM ENT S AND CO M PO UNDS

Boiling points
G The boiling point i sthe temperature
at whi ch a liquid becomesa gas.
G The parti clesi n a li qui d are held
together by the strong forcesof
attracti on that exi st between them.
The parti clesvi brate and are able to
move around, but they are held closely
together. When a li qui d i sheated to i ts
boi li ng poi nt, the parti clesgai n kinetic
energy, movi ng faster and faster.
Eventually, they gai n suffi ci ent energy
to break away from each other and
exi st separately. There i sa large
i ncrease i n the volume of any
substance goi ng from a li qui d to a gas.
G Wi thi n groupsof metalli c elements,
the boi li ng poi nt decreasesdown the
group. The converse i strue for non-
metals: the melti ng poi nt i ncreases
down the group.
G The more reacti ve metalsi n group 1
have relati vely low boi li ng poi nts.
Transition metalsgenerally have very
hi gh boi li ng poi nts.
G The noble gasesexi st assi ngle atoms
wi th only weak forcesof attracti on
between them. Consequently, thei r
boi li ng poi ntsare very low because i t
takesrelati vely li ttle energy to
overcome these forces.
G Usi ng the fi rst si x peri odsmi nusthe
lanthanide series, the di agram
hi ghli ghtsthe element wi th the
hi ghest boi li ng poi nt i n a peri od.
E le m e n ts wh o se b o i li n g p o i n ts
a re th e g re a te st i n th e i r p e ri o d
C C a rb o n
S i S i li c o n
V V a n a d i u m
M o M o ly b d e n u m
R e R h e n i u m
Boiling points of the
elements C
boiling point
gas
group
group 1
kinetic energy
lanthanide series
liquid
noble gases
transition metals
Key words
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