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DULAY, Anthony Mark V.


E303: Kundts Tube Velocity of Sound in Solid


Among the experiments the group already
performed, this has the shortest time to consume
and the simplest so far. Since there are only limited
Kundts Tube Apparatus from the laboratory room,
the section wait for one hour before we started. And
while waiting to them, The professor give us a free
time to eat breakfast but the group dont want to
waste their time without doing anything, so they
decided to do the excel for the computation and the
table for the data sheet.

It is written in the procedure that the group are the
one who will make the set up but as the laboratory
assistant gave the tube it is already fix and ready
to use because if they are the one that will put the
lycopodium powder it will be messy and it is also
for our convinience.


A. Kundts Tube with lycopodium powder
B. Meter Stick
C. Thermometer
D. Cloth

As needed the powder inside the tube was
absolutely dry and distributed properly and equally.
The group also measure the length of the rod used
in the experiment as well as the room temperature
using the thermometer provided. And they also
make sure that the disk inside the tube and placed
at the center so that it could not affect the waves.
As the professor discuss the procedures, some of
the members try to grip the rod and do some
strokes to it but unfortunately they did not made a
good and perfect waves since they did not pull the
cloth completely off the rod and they did not apply
the proper technique that is acquired.
Figure 1. Set up for Experiment 303 Kundts
Tube: Velocity of sound in solid
Figure 2.Front view of Kundts Tube showing the
lycopodium powder inside it
After gathering data, just like the youngs modulus
and the density of the rod, the group started to grip
the rod and made some strokes in back direction
only and not back and forth to have a consistent
result of waves in the tube.
After making some high pitch of sound using the
rod and rosin on it, successive powder hips are
present in the tube and the group measured it by
averaging those powder segments.
And After gathering the data needed, the group
computed the velocity of sound with 2 different
equation and compare the answers.

length of metal rod Lr 91.50 cm
average length powder
segments La

9.20 cm
temperature of air t 28 C
velocity of sound in air
348.8 m/s
velocity of sound in the
rod vr
(from Equation 3)
3469.04 m/s
velocity of sound in the
rod vr
(from textbook)
3475 m/s
percentage error 0.17 %
density of the rod 8520 m/s
velocity of sound in the
rod vr
(From Equation 4)
3268.14 m/s
percentage error 5.95 %
Figure 3 Some is observing the equal distribution of
the powder, and some are measuring the length of the
rod, and recording the data gathered.
Figure 4 Showing the gripping of the rod to make
high pitch of sound and waves on the tube.

Figure 5 Measuring the length of the powder
We got higher percentage error if we would
compare it with other group may be because we
used different velocity of sound in the rod from the
internet because there are many kinds of rod and
we got the velocity which is farther than the value
we have get. And may be some of the inconsistency
of our result is because of the average length of the
powder segments.


This shows how we get our data with the formula
given to us provided in the laboratory manual.
Heres the solution of our best result gathered.

Length of Metal Rod, Lr = 91.50 cm.
Average Length Powder Segments, La = 9.20 cm.
Temperature of air, t = 28 C
Velocity of sound in the rod, Vr = 3475 m/s
Youngs Modulus of the rod, Y = 9.1010
Density of the rod, = 8520 kg/m

Determining the velocity of sound in air,
Va :

= 332 + 0.6 ()

= 332 + 0.6 (28)

= 348.8 /

Determining the velocity of sound in the
rod, Vr : (from Equation 3)

= (

) (

= (
) (348.8)

= 3469.04 /

Percentage Error

% =

% =
|3475 3469.04 |
100 %
% = 0.17%

Determining the velocity of sound in the
rod, Vr : (from Equation 4)


= 3268.14 /

Percentage Error:

% =

100 %
% =
|3469.04 3268.14|
100 %
% = 6.14%

In this experiment, Kundts Tube: Velocity of
Sound in Solid, we only consume shorter time in
performing the experiment compared to the past
experiments weve already done. It is expected that
we can get small percentage error since it is not
about temperature. As the cloth with rosin was grip
and has been rubbed on the rod, it produces high
pitch and longitudinal waves were produced in a
metal rod and on air column. And in minimizing the
percentage error of our experiment as we measure
the length of the powder segments, we get its
average. And because this experiment was very
simple we used to try several trials to see if we are
getting the correct average length of the powder
As we get the data we want to see, we use the
equation 3 on the laboratory manual:

= (

) (

to get the velocity of sound in the rod equal to
3469.04 m/s and comparing it to the velocity of
sound in the rod from the internet we attain the
0.17 percentage error. And after that we also get
the velocity of sound in the rod using the equation
4 in the laboratory manual:

And it gives us the result 3268.14 m/s and we
compare it to the velocity of sound using equation
3 and we get the 6.14 percentage error. We got
higher percentage error if we will compare the both
velocity it is maybe because the first factor that
made it wrong is the density weve used in the
experiment since there are many kinds of rod we
got different density compared to the other group,
and as what Ive written earlier is the average
length of the segments.
I just observed that it would be better if the data
needed in the experiment will be indicated on the
laboratory manual because in our case we get
different kinds of rods and this made our data
inaccurate and different from others, even if we
have internet there are many different data that we
can use which gave us a hard time to compute
small percentage error. And as we brought back the
laboratory apparatus to the laboratory assistant
they told us that we should not rotate the tube, so
I just concluded that if we did not rotate the tube it
will be harder for us to measure the segments
because it is not clear anymore to see the length.


Our objectives in this experiment were achieve by
our group which were, to determine the velocity of
the sound in a metal rod and, to determine the
speed of sound in the tube applying the principles
of resonance.
The theory is that the sound in solid can be
determined by applying the principle of resonance.
In this experiment, when the metal rod was
vibrated, it produced longitudinal waves similar to
resonating air column in a tube open at both ends.
By using the principle of resonance, we were able
to compute the speed of sound in a metal rod by
equating the frequencies of the metal rod and air.
The computed speed of sound in metal rod was
3469.04 m/s, which is relatively close to the value
of the 3268.14 m/s from the equation 4.
We attain everything on the objectives by trying
several attempts on the rod and gathered many
data as we can with the given time given to us. By
the stroke applied to the rod, it produces friction as
well as longitudinal waves on the tube from the rod
at equal frequency that result with having a high
pitch sound. The velocity of sound was known
because of the visible wave pattern made of
lycopodium powder.
The changes in velocity of sound in solid in the
experiment with the changes in the position of the
nodes, as it divided the rod into a certain segment
I can say that the division is inversely proportional
on the changes of the velocity. And based from the
definition that the velocity of sound in an air column
can be described as either closed or open type. Its
difference is that the wave produced, to be specific,
it is about the nodes and the antinodes. Since we
used the closed type on our experiment antinode is
the open end and node is the close end. And with
this experiment we also consider the density and
youngs modulus of the rod, wherein the velocity is
directly proportional to the youngs modulus while
inversely proportional to the density of the rod.


I would like to express my special thanks to my
group mates who help each other to made this
laboratory report, on gathering data from the
experiment and not wasting their time on doing non
sense things while waiting for the laboratory
apparatus. And I would also like to thank the
student assistants who guide me and suggest some
corrections on my previous laboratory where I can
make a better laboratory report. Lastly, my high
school friends who cheer me up and encourage me
to give enough time in doing this report.


[1] Young, H. D., Freedman, R. A., & Ford, L.,
UNIVERSITY PHYSICS with Modern Physics,
twelfth, 2008

Laser is an abbreviation
of Light Amplification
by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Our ears vibrate in a similar way
to the original source of the
vibration, allowing us to hear
many different sounds.

Albert Einstein pointed out that the
faster you move, the heavier you
Traveling in space makes you 2.5-5
cm taller
SOURCE: http://4bernoulli.blogspot.com