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Thalamus
Mass of gray matter, egg shaped
Two thalami, on either side of 3
rd
ventricle- connected by interthalamic connection.
Relays all sensations except olfactory
Important in crude sensation (for detailed localization & interpretation cerebral cortex)
Relations
Anterior Interventricular foramen
Posterior pineal body, posterior commissure
Superior tela choroidia, fornix (midline)
choroid plexus of lateral ventricle
(thalamus forms a part of the floor of the lateral ventricle)
Inferior hypothalamus, tegmentum of mid brain
Medial 3
rd
ventricle, interthalamic connection
Lateral internal capsule, lentiform nucleus















Cerebrum

Diencephalon
3
rd
ventricle
Thalamus
Hypothalamus

Cerebral hemisphere
Cortex (grey matter)
Internal white matter
Basal ganglia

Cerebrum

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Important thalamic nuclei






lateral geniculate body(LGB)relays vision(optic tract)
medial geniculate body(MGB)relays hearing(lateral leminiscusinferior colliculus)

Hypothalamus
Controls autonomic nervous system
Controls endocrine system
Maintains body homeostasis
Contributes to the limbic system-Emotion & behavior, memory, sexual drive.

Relations
Anterior optic chiasma, lamina terminalis, anterior commissure
Posterior tegmentem of the mid brain
Superior thalamus
Inferior (AP)optic chiasma, tuber cinerium & infundibulum, mammilary bodies
Medial 3
rd
ventricle


Hypophyseal portal system
Carries releasing & release inhibitory hormones to the pituitary (eg. GnRH, GHRH, GHIH)
Formed by a branch of the internal carotid artery.


1)Ventral posterior nucleus

Ventral posterolateral
Relays spinal & medial leminisci

Ventral posteromedial
Relays trigerminal & taste


1)Ventral posterior nucleus

Ventral posterolateral
Relays spinal & medial leminisci

Ventral posteromedial
Relays trigerminal & taste


Ventral posterior nucleus

Ventral posterolateral(VPL)
Relays spinal & medial leminisci
(sensations from the body)
Ventral posteromedial(VPM)
Relays trigerminal & taste
(sensations from face)


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Q. Regarding the thalamus,
a) Has the body of the fornix on its superior aspect.
b) Is separated from the lentiform nucleus by the external capsule.
c) Has bands of gray matter connecting the thalami of both sides.
d) Has the medial leminiscus ending in its VPL.
e) Has the anterior pole forming the posterior boundary of the interventricular foraman.

CEREBELLUM
Posterior cranial fossa
Posterior to 4
th
ventricle, pons & medulla oblongata.
Two cerebellar hemispheres joined by the median vermis
3 lobes
-anterior
primary fissure
-middle
(posterior)
Uvulonodular fissure

-flocculonodular -
Outer-grey cortex
Inner-white matter
Intracerebellar nuclei-masses of grey matter embedded in white matter

Cortex
3 layers (outerinner)
-molecular layer
-purkinje cell layer-purkinje cells
-granular layer

Functional areas
1. Cortex of the vermis-movements of the long axis of the body
2. Intermediate zone-controls muscles of distal parts of limbs
3. Lateral zone-planning of sequential movements of the entire body

Intracerebellar nuclei
Afferent
Intracerebellar nuclei cortex(purkinje cells)
efferent
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Functions of cerebellum
Cerebellum has no direct neuronal connections with the lower motor neurons, but excerts its
influence indirectly through the cerebral cortex and brainstem.
Coordination of precise movements
How?
By continuously compairing the output of the motor area of cerebral cortex with the
proprioceptive information received from the site of muscle action.

Brings about necessary adjustment by influencing the activity of the lower motor
neurons.
CLINICAL
-Signs & symptoms are limited to the same side of the body.
-No Paralysis ,sensory loss or atrophy.
Signs of cerebellar lesion - A2 R2 D3 TiN
1. Ataxia- disturbance of voluntary movement.
2. Atonia (*hypotonia)
3. Reflex disturbances-eg. Pendular knee jerk
4. Rebound phenomenon.
5. Dysdiadochokinasia-inability to perform alternating movements regularly and rapidly
6. Disarthria (slurred speech)
7. Dismetria eg.past pointing
8. Tremor intentional (tremor in fine movements)
9. Nystagmus-rythmical oscillations of eyes)

Vermis syndrome- fall forwards or backwards
Cere. hemisphere syndrome- fall to the side of the lesion
Cerebellar
peduncle
Superior
(with midbrain)
Middle
(with pons)
Inferior
(with medulla oblongata)
Afferent
pathways
Ant.spinocerebellar o Corticopontocerebellar
o Cerebroreticulocerebellar

o Post. spinocerebellar
o Cerebro-olivocerebellar
o Cerebroreticulocerebellar
o Cuneocerebellar
o From vestibular nerve
Efferents