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IMBA

Business Research Methodology


Kuang-Wen Wu
2014/02/24
Agenda
Review of Master Thesis Structure
What is Research?
Why Study Business Research?
Language of Research
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Master Thesis
Introduction
Research Background
Research Purpose
Research
Questions/Hypotheses
Literature Review
Related to your topic
Research Method
Decide research scope
Decide how to collect data
Decide how to analyze
data
Data Analysis
Choose proper methods
Conclusion
Contribution
Theoretical Implications
Managerial Implications
Research Limitations
Suggestions for Future
Research
Reference
What is Research?
Research is the systematic process of
collecting and analyzing information to
increase our understanding of the
phenomenon under study (Leedy &
Ormrod, 2010).
Business Research
A process of determining, acquiring,
analyzing, synthesizing, and disseminating
relevant business data, information, and
insights to decision makers in ways that
mobilize the organization to take
appropriate business actions that,
in turn, maximize business performance.
The Research Process
Categories of Research
Applied Research
aims to discovering
solutions for
immediate
problems or
opportunities
Basic (Pure)
Research
aims to solve perplexing
questions or obtain new
knowledge of an
experimental or
theoretical nature that
has little direct or
immediate impact on
action, performance, or
policy decisions
Types of Studies
Reporting
Explanatory Predictive
Descriptive
Language of Research (1/3)
Variables
Models
Theory
Terms used
in research
Constructs
Operational
definitions
Propositions/
Hypotheses
Conceptual
schemes
Concepts
Language of Research (2/3)
A concept is a bundle of meanings or
characteristics associated with certain concrete,
unambiguous events, objects, conditions, or
situations
A conceptual scheme is the interrelationship
between concepts and constructs.
An operational definition defines a variable in
terms of specific measurement and testing
criteria.
A variable is used as a synonym for the
construct being studied.
Language of Research (3/3)
A proposition is a statement about observable
phenomena that may be judged as true or false.
A hypothesis is a proposition formulated for
empirical testing.
A theory is a set of systematically interrelated
concepts, definitions, and propositions that are
advanced to explain or predict phenomena.
A model is a representation of a system
constructed to study some aspect of that
system.
J ob Redesign (Constructs and Concepts)
Concept
Operational Definitions
Freshman
Sophomore
J unior
Senior
< 30 credit hours
30-50 credit hours
60-89 credit hours
> 90 credit hours
How can we define the variable
class level of students ?
A Variable Is the Property Being Studied
Variable
Event Act
Characteristic Trait
Attribute
Types of Variables
Dichotomous
Male/Female
Employed/ Unemployed
Discrete
Ethnic background
Educational level
Religious affiliation
Continuous
Income
Temperature
Age
Independent and Dependent Variable
Synonyms
Independent
Variable (IV)
Predictor
Presumed cause
Stimulus
Predicted from
Antecedent
Manipulated
Dependent
Variable (DV)
Criterion
Presumed effect
Response
Predicted to.
Consequence
Measured outcome
Relationships Among Variable Types
Moderating Variables (MV)
The introduction of a four-day week (IV) will lead
to higher productivity (DV), especially among
younger workers (MV)
The switch to commission from a salary
compensation system (IV) will lead to increased
sales (DV) per worker, especially more
experienced workers (MV).
The loss of mining jobs (IV) leads to acceptance
of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family-
supporting income (DV) particularly among
those with a limited education (MV).
Relationships Among Variable Types
Extraneous Variables (EV)
With new customers (EV-control), a switch to
commission from a salary compensation system
(IV) will lead to increased sales productivity (DV)
per worker, especially among younger workers
(MV).
Among residents with less than a high school
education (EV-control), the loss of jobs (IV) leads
to high-risk behaviors (DV), especially due to the
proximity of the firing range (MV).
Relationships Among Variable Types
Intervening Variables (IVV)
The switch to a commission compensation
system (IV) will lead to higher sales (DV) by
increasing overall compensation (IVV).
A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings
activity (DV), especially when free prizes are
offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers
(EV-control). The results come from enhancing
the motivation to save (IVV).
Propositions and Hypotheses
Brand Manager J ones (case) has a
higher-than-average achievement
motivation (variable).
Brand managers in Company Z (cases)
have a higher-than-average achievement
motivation (variable).
Generalization
Hypothesis Formats
Descriptive
Hypothesis
In Detroit, our potato
chip market share
stands at 13.7%.
American cities are
experiencing budget
difficulties.
Research
Question
What is the market
share for our potato
chips in Detroit?
Are American cities
experiencing budget
difficulties?
Relational Hypotheses
Correlational
Young women (under
35) purchase fewer units
of our product than
women who are older
than 35.
The number of suits
sold varies directly with
the level of the business
cycle.
Causal
An increase in family
income leads to an
increase in the
percentage of income
saved.
Loyalty to a grocery
store increases the
probability of purchasing
that stores private brand
products.
Sound Reasoning
Exposition Argument
Induction Deduction
Types of Discourse
Deductive vs. Inductive
Which one is betterIt depends.
Theory
Observation
Hypothesis
Logic
(Deductive)
Empirical
Generalization
(Inductive)
Qualitative Quantitative
Explain
Develop
Deductive Reasoning
Inner-city household
interviewing is especially
difficult and expensive
This survey involves
substantial inner-city
household interviewing
The interviewing in this
survey will be especially
difficult and expensive
Inductive Reasoning
Why didnt sales increase during our
promotional event?
Regional retailers did not have sufficient stock
to fill customer requests during the
promotional period
A strike by employees prevented stock from
arriving in time for promotion to be effective
A hurricane closed retail outlets in the region
for 10 days during the promotion
Why Didnt Sales Increase?
Tracys Performance