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PHE1IDH 2014 practice exam questions

1. Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell. The
bell in classical conditioning terms would be referred to as a

(a) conditioned stimulus
(b) conditioned response
(c) unconditioned stimulus
(d) unconditioned response
(e) none of the above

2. An observed increase in tantrum behaviour after a child
receives a sweet after throwing a tantrum, would best be
described from the childs perspective as:

(a) stimulus generalisation
(b) positive reinforcement
(c) negative reinforcement
(d) positive punishment
(e) both (a) and (c)

3. Which situation would tend to produce the strongest learning
over time:

(a) praising a patient every time he/she performs a
rehabilitation exercise
(b) praising a patient after every 4 minutes of
rehabilitation exercises
(c) praising a patient before they begin the
rehabilitation exercise
(d) praising a patient after every 10 minutes of
rehabilitation exercises
(e) praising a patient after an average of 4 minutes of
rehabilitation exercises


4. One can increase the total amount of information which is held
in short term memory by:

(a) using mnemonic devices
(b) elaborative rehearsal
(c) constructive remembering
(d) combining information into chunks
(e) none of the above

5. Interference with the retention of new information due to
previously learned material is called:

(a) proactive inhibition (interference)
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) the tip-of-the tongue phenomenon
(d) repression
(e) retroactive inhibition (interference)

6. IQ tests are valid predictors of:

(a) one's general ability to function in the real world
(b) an individual's motivation
(c) school success
(d) creative abilities
(e) racial background

7. Approximately what percentage of the population will
have an IQ less than 70:

(a) 10%
(b) 20%
(c) 0.05%
(d) 2%
(e) 7%

8. A state of psychological tension induced by a need is
called a(n):

(a) want
(b) drive
(c) stimulus
(d) reflex
(e) instinct

9. A person's desire to perform a task for its own reward is
driven by:

(a) extrinsic motivation
(b) instinct
(c) internal locus of control
(d) intrinsic motivation
(e) goal setting

10. Goal setting is best achieved by using which of the
following strategies:

(a) setting measurable goals
(b) setting challenging yet achievable goals
(c) setting short, medium and long-term goals
(d) (a) and (b)
(e) (a), (b) and (c)

11. Which of the following alternatives is not normally
included in Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs :

(a) universalisation
(b) food and water
(c) self-actualisation
(d) basic biological needs
(e) (a) and (c)

12. According to Erikson's psychosocial theory the major
conflict which must be resolved in adolescence centres

(a) identity versus role-confusion
(b) autonomy versus shame and doubt
(c) integrity versus despair
(d) generativity versus stagnation
(e) basic trust versus basic mistrust

13. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development a
primary school child would be in:

(a) the formal operational stage
(b) the concrete operational stage
(c) the sensorimotor stage
(d) the pre-operational stage
(e) the stage of industry versus inferiority

14. If you decide that a fellow student has performed well on
an exam because she/he is intelligent and conscientious
you have made a:

(a) free will attribution
(b) situational attribution
(c) deterministic attribution
(d) dispositional attribution
(e) unstable attribution

15. According to the PHE1IDH lectures, the use of
psychoactive drugs is associated with:

(a) a persons genetic background
(b) a persons early environmental background
(c) social learning
(d) (a) and (c)
(e) (a), (b) and (c)

16. ______________ is a strong and intense fear that is evoked in
response to a particular situation

(a) A phobia
(b) Tension
(c) Generalized anxiety disorder
(d) A somatoform disorder
(e) Panic disorder


17. What is the first stage in the sensory processing of

(a) Specialized neurons break down and analyze
the features of nerve impulses
(b) A neural representation is compared with
previously stored information
(c) Sensory stimuli activate specialized receptors
(d) Several stimulus pieces are organized into a
neural representation
(e) We recognize the stimulus because of a
perceptual schema

18. The severity of experienced stress is influenced by:

(a) the predicability of occurrence of the stressor
(b) the person's degree of control over the stressor
(c) cognitive appraisals of the stressor
(d) (a) and (b) only
(e) (a), (b) and (c)

19. Secondary appraisal in the stress process is best defined

(a) perception of the negative consequences of not
(b) ongoing assessment of available coping
(c) labelling an environmental event as threatening
(d) rationalisation
(e) conflict resolution

20. Stress can potentially lead to an increased risk of
coronary heart disease through:

(a) an increased risk of the build up of cholesterol
(b) directly suppressing the immune system
(c) an increase in behaviours such as smoking
(d) (a) and (c)
(e) a reduction in the B-lymphocyte response


21. The second stage of Selyes General Adaptation
Syndrome theory of how stress might lead to illness is:

(a) alarm
(b) exhaustion
(c) the time when you are most likely to display
symptoms of being ill
(d) resistance
(e) the first time that the sympathetic nervous system
and adrenal glands are activated

22. Which of the following statements concerning
depression is true:

(a) depression is more common amongst females
than males
(b) people may require either more or less sleep
when depressed
(c) people may find it difficult to concentrate when
(d) people may feel suicidal when depressed
(e) all of the above

23. According to the Cognitive-Behavioural approach to

(a) maladaptive behaviour is likely to be a result of
faulty thinking patterns
(b) the most efficient approach to treatment is to
target the patients thinking patterns
(c) the way we think is closely related with how we
feel and behave
(d) (a) and (c)
(e) (a), (b) and (c)

24. Older men are at risk of dangerously increasing their drug
use when:

(a) they retire without other interests that are meaningful to
(b) their spouse or partner dies
(c) their work becomes more meaningful to them
(d) (a) and (b)
(e) (a), (b), and (c)

25. According to the PHE1IDH lectures, the phenomenon of
tolerance in drug dependency:

(a) means increasing doses of the drug are required to get
the same desired psychological result
(b) ought only to be displayed by the health or human
services professional when dealing with legal drug use
(c) always occurs with all possible effects of the drug, both
psychological and non-psychological
(d) occurs when the drug dependent person is intoxicated
(e) occurs when sharply reducing or ceasing using the drug

26. According to Carl Rogers, in order for positive client
change to occur, the helping professionals use of
congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic

(a) are neither necessary nor sufficient
(b) are sufficient, but not necessary
(c) are necessary, but not sufficient
(d) should be confined to the early parts of the session (the
primacy effect)
(e) none of the above are true

27. According to Rogers, the helping professionals condition
of empathic understanding is best described as:

(a) being honest and authentic with the client
(b) thinking of the client as fundamentally good
(c) seeking to understand the client as thoroughly as
(d) echoing the clients body posture
(e) (a) and (d)

28. In PHE1IDH Case Enquiry 1, Kat hugs Ana to stop her
crying/throwing a tantrum; in terms of the effect on Kats
behaviour this is an example of:

(a) negative punishment
(b) stimulus generalisation
(c) social learning
(d) a conditioned response
(e) negative reinforcement