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CONTENTS

Section 23. Nuclear Medicine


1. GENERAL ASPECTS
2. RADIOBIOLOGY
2.1. Radiochemistry and nuclear physics
2.2. Radiation hygiene
3. DIAGNOSIS, TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT
3.1. Tracer techniques
4. TREATMENT
5. APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE
5.1. Nervous system and sense organs
5.2. Skin and appendages
5.3. Musculoskeletal system
5.4. Cardiovascular system
5.5. Hemopoietic and lymphoreticular systems
5.6. Respiratory system
5.7. Digestive system
5.8. Urogenital system
5.9. Endocrine system
5.10. Breast
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS

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Copyright E 2007, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
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RECORD FORMAT
Chapter heading

10. HIGHER NERVOUS FUNCTION DISORDERS


Sub-chapter heading
10.2 Epilepsy
Item number

Title of article in English

285. Turcots syndrome confirmed by molecular


biological tests (Fren)

Code of article language

Non-English title

SYNDROME DE TURCOT CONFIRM PAR BIOLOGIE


MOLCULAIRE

Author name(s)

Jeannin S., Lebrun C., Van Den Bos F. et al.

Corresponding author, plus


the correspondence address

[C. Lebrun, Service de Neurologie, Hpital Pasteur, 30,


voie romaine, 06002 Nice, France]

Abbreviated journal title

REV. NEUROL. 2006 162/6-7 (741-746)

Code of summary languages

Summ in ENGL, FREN

Year of publication, volume


number and issue number
Page numbers of the article
in the original journal

Abstract in English

Introduction. Turcots syndrome is characterized clinically by


the concurrence of a primary brain tumor and a familial adenomatous polyposis or a hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal
cancer. Observation. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman
who underwent in 1995 neuro-oncological treatment for an
anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III according to the World
Health Organization classification). Treatment included complete surgery, radiotherapy, a first-line nitrosourea-based
chemotherapy regimen and a second-line platinium saltbased regimen. It was then noted that the patients brother had
colorectal cancer. A genetic study detected a germ-line mutation on the hMSH2 gene specific of HNPCC syndrome
(Human Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer). Colonoscopy
was normal. Eight years after the diagnosis, the patient developed a gliomatosis cerebri and died. Conclusion. Relevant
personal and familial history can provide the clue to the diagnosis of Turcots syndrome. Molecular diagnosis may contribute to appropriate care of affected patients. E Masson.

1. GENERAL ASPECTS
306. Analysis of the kinetic isotope effects on initial rates in
transient kinetics - Palfey B.A. and Fagan R.L. [B.A. Palfey, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical
School, 1301 Catherine Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0606, United
States] - BIOCHEMISTRY 2006 45/45 (13631-13640) - summ in
ENGL
A method was described recently for circumventing the difculties in determining intrinsic kinetic isotope effects from eigenvalues
obtained in transient kinetic experiments (Maniscalco, Tally, and
Fisher (2004) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 425, 165-172). The
method, based on the isotope effects on initial rates of formation of
intermediates, was validated by numerical simulation for only a few
linear reaction sequences. A general analytical proof of the validity
of the method is given in this work. The mathematical approach,
using rate laws and LH pitals rule, allows more complex reaction
o
schemes to be analyzed. Several are analyzed in this article, illustrating the broad applicability and possible complications in this
approach for determining intrinsic isotope effects. Some possible
applications are noted, with particular attention being paid to nonlinear reaction schemes, the effect of measuring signals rather than
concentration, and the ability to distinguish stepwise from concerted
reactions. 2006 American Chemical Society.
2. RADIOBIOLOGY
307. The development of cryoprobe nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy for the rapid detection of organic contaminants in
potable water - Charlton A.J., Donarski J.A., Jones S.A. et al.
[A.J. Charlton, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ,
United Kingdom] - J. ENVIRON. MONIT. 2006 8/11 (1106-1110) summ in ENGL
The detection of trace levels of a range of organic contaminants
(including pesticides, toxins and an explosive) in potable water, using cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy with limited sample preparation
and rapid acquisition times, is described. Emphasis is placed on the
applicability of NMR spectroscopy for use in emergency scenarios
as the unbiased nature of the technique facilitates the detection and
characterization of unknown compounds at levels as low as 50 g
L-1 . The Royal Society of Chemistry 2006.
308. Ranges of 40 keV ions in polycrystalline tungsten and gold
- Santry D.C. [D.C. Santry, National Research Council of Canada,
Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, Ont., K1A
OR6, United States] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/12 (15281537) - summ in ENGL
Integral range proles for various 40 keV radioactive ions from
7 Be to 204 Tl were measured in tungsten and gold using sectioning techniques based on anodizing and stripping. Measured range
distributions exhibited long tails extending into the metals. Median
range values for a given ion were the same in tungsten as in gold, but
were about 1.7 times greater than calculations of projected ranges
based on the SRIM computer code. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
309. Accreditation experience of radioisotope metrology laboratory of Argentina - Iglicki A., Mil M.I., Furnari J.C. et al.
a
[A. Iglicki, Laboratorio de Metrologa de Radiois topos, Comisi n

o
o
Nacional de Energa At mica, , Argentina] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.

o
2006 64/10-11 (1171-1173) - summ in ENGL
This work presents the experience developed by the Radioisotope
Metrology Laboratory (LMR), of the Argentine National Atomic
Energy Commission (CNEA), as result of the accreditation process of the Quality System by ISO 17025 Standard. Considering
the LMR as a calibration laboratory, services of secondary activity determinations and calibration of activimeters used in Nuclear
Medicine were accredited. A peer review of the ( / ) - coincidence system was also carried out. This work shows in detail
the structure of the quality system, the results of the accrediting
audit and gives the number of non-conformities detected and of
observations made which have all been resolved. 2006 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
Section 23 vol 70.2

310. Radionuclide metrology in the life sciences: Recent advances and future trends - Zimmerman B.E. [B.E. Zimmerman,
Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, Division of
Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer
Strasse 5, Box 200, A-1400 Vienna, Austria] - APPL. RADIAT.
ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1351-1359) - summ in ENGL
This paper reviews activities in the eld of radionuclide metrology
applied to the life sciences between the years 2000 and 2005. The
requirements for accuracy and consistency in making radioactivity
measurements in radiation medicine, coupled with an increased
awareness of the role of measurement standards in quality assurance programmes, has prompted a great deal of research in this area.
During the past 5 years, particular emphasis has been on: (1) the development of primary standards for radionuclides, (2) development
of secondary/transfer standards, (3) development of radionuclide
standards for brachytherapy, and (4) inter-laboratory comparisons
at the end-user level. Activities carried out by National Metrology
Institutions in these areas are reviewed and a look at future trends
is presented. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
See also: 529, 540, 583.

2.1. Radiochemistry and nuclear physics


311. A new alpha-emitter for nuclear medicine: 230 U - Alfassi
Z.B., Bonardi M., Groppi F. and Menapace E. [Z.B. Alfassi, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev,
Beer Sheva 84105, Israel] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006
270/2 (483-487) - summ in ENGL
The limited number of radionuclides emitting alpha-particles and
their limited availability is discussed. A new alpha-emitter 230 U (T
1/2 = 20.8 d, 100% ) is suggested and its preparation from thorium target bombarded by accelerated protons (via initial formation
of 230 Pa (T1/2 = 17.4 d, 8.4% decay to 230 U)), or 4 He is discussed.
The Empire II model was used to calculate the excitation functions
for the different products from bombardment of Th by protons. The
calculated thick target yield for 230 Pa is 0.6 mCi/ A h, leading to
about 24 Ci/ A h of 230 U or about 150 Ci/ A h in the case of
e
o
alpha-bombardment. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
312. Development of a radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for determination of rhenium in biological and
environmental samples at ultratrace level - Ku era J., Byrne
c
A.R., Mizera J. et al. [J. Ku era, Nuclear Physics Institute, CZ-250
c
68 Rez near Prague, Czech Republic] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL.
CHEM. 2006 269/2 (251-257) - summ in ENGL
Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid
extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from
1M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a
polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1M HCl were developed for
accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental
samples at the sub-ng g-1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range
of 0.1 to 2.4 ng g-1 were determined in several botanical reference
materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of 10 ng g-1
was found. Signicantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng g-1 were
found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae
Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously
been determined suggested possible competition between Re and
Tc in the accumulation process. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
313. Stable isotope tracer marking of individual boll weevils
- James W.D., Showler A.T., Westbrook J.K. and Armstrong J.S.
[W.D. James, Center for Chemical Characterization and Analysis,
Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, United
States] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2 (267-270) summ in ENGL
Stable isotope markers have been used to study animal nutrition
for several decades and more recently to study the foraging and
cultural habits of imported re ants. In this work, we have extended that effort to evaluate the potential for marking boll weevils,
Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with the rare earth element samarium to aid in studies of
insect invasion and pest eradication protocols. Neutron activation
63

analysis (NAA) was performed on the marked boll weevils as well


as plant material from the cotton squares on which the insects were
fed. Samarium levels in non-dosed insects average about 20 ng/g
or about 100 pg total element per insect. Our computed average
determination limit was 36 pg samarium/weevil. The determination
limit for cotton plant squares and leaves averaged 3.5 ng/g and 8.2
ng/g, respectively. These initial results indicate the NAA method is
capable of identifying individual marked insects which have assimilated 1 ng of samarium, a ten-fold increase in content over average
blank values. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
314. NAA methods for determination of nanogram amounts of
arsenic in biological samples - Zeisler R., Mackey E.A., Lamaze
G.P. et al. [R. Zeisler, National Institute Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD, United States] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM.
2006 269/2 (291-296) - summ in ENGL
The determination of arsenic at natural levels in biological materials remains difcult. Many analytical techniques cannot detect the
low levels present in typical biological tissues and other techniques
suffer from interferences. This paper reviews uses of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at NIST to determine nanogram amounts
of arsenic in biological reference materials with radiochemical (RNAA) or instrumental (INAA) procedures. INAA is compromised
by high activities from 24 Na, 82 Br, and 32 P that may be formed
during irradiation of biological tissues, and result in detection limits
as high as 0.1 g. Lower detection limits have been achieved using
state-of-the-art gamma-ray spectrometry systems in INAA and a
variety of procedures in RNAA. These techniques and procedures
were applied recently at NIST to the determination of arsenic in
urine, nutritional supplements, and total diet samples. 2006
Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
315. Beta-exposure in a neutron activation laboratory - Belandi
T.J. and Landsberger S. [T.J. Belandi, University of Texas, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory Pickle Research Campus,
R-9000, Austin, TX 78712, United States] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL.
CHEM. 2006 269/2 (297-302) - summ in ENGL
In virtually all neutron activation analysis laboratories, researchers are given lm badges known as thermoluminescence
dosimeters (TLDs) that are monitored on a monthly basis. Sometimes additional pocket dosimeters are worn to get a daily reading
of exposure, while in other instances ring badges are worn to assess
beta doses. However, more than often little consideration is given
to beta-exposure rates that arise from the plethora of radionuclides
produced in the many types of samples irradiated. A common mistake is to assess gamma-exposures of activated samples that rely
on the use of a beta-shield on the survey meter. Our experimental
results have shown that there are many high energy beta-particles
from neutron activated samples that can easily penetrate the betashield and thus give an underestimation of the total beta-exposure.
2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
316. Medical elementology as a new scientic discipline Zaichick V. [V. Zaichick, Medical Radiological Research Centre,
Korolev Str. 4, Obninsk 249020, Russian Federation] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2 (303-309) - summ in ENGL
All legitimate scientic disciplines are characterized by: (1)the clear denition of subjects of the study and its corresponding
clear-cut name, (2) some accepted postulates, (3) set of research
methods, (4) methods of quality control and processing of the obtained information, and (5) specic terminology and denitions.
The inaccuracies and uncertainties in medical elementology as a
new scientic discipline are discussed and some corresponding
statements are made. Another and no less important problem of
medical elementology is the critical unsatisfactory reproducibility
of data. The complex arrangements required for the harmonization
of data acquired for studies in medical elementology are offered.
Main strategic aims and tactical tasks of the new scientic discipline
are outlined. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
317. Overall measurement uncertainty of k0 -based neutron activation analysis - Smodi B. and Bu ar T. [B. Smodi, Jozef
s
c
s
Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2 (311-316) - summ in ENGL
64

Special aspects of the uncertainty quantication in k0 -NAA are


discussed and applied in accordance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), on a model case. The
uncertainty budget is calculated highlighting the contribution and
the importance of the different parameters to be taken into account.
The importance of the nuclide-specic and neutron uence-specic
approach in estimating individual uncertainty contributions is emphasized and demonstrated by examples of Au, Cr, Rb, and Sb
determinations. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
318. Activity characterization of 192 Ir brachytherapy wires Damasceno A.L.O., Iwahara A., Silva M.A.L. and Estrada J.J.S.
[A.L.O. Damasceno, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pca. Gal.

Tib rcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil] - J. RADIOANAL.


u
NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2 (317-323) - summ in ENGL
The radionuclide 192 Ir has been increasingly used as a brachytherapy source and manufactured in different geometry forms (thin
wires, hairpins, needles or point sources). A procedure for the
characterization of the activity content of 192 Ir wire sources was
developed in order to establish the secondary standard activity measurement system based on the ionization chamber set up at Brazilian
National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI). Firstly, the ion current of the ionization chamber is measured and,
subsequently, the activity is determined in a destructive analysis.
This procedure enables obtaining the calibration factor for wire
sources that can be used for further activity determination of similar
sources in a non-destructive analysis. Accurate activity determination is needed for dosimetric measurements and for helping the
manufacturers to improve its quality control programs. 2006
Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
319. Assessment of the short-lived non-pure positron-emitting
nuclide 120 I for PET imaging - Herzog H., Qaim S.M., Tellmann
L. et al. [H. Herzog, Institute of Medicine, Forschungszentrum
Juelich, 52425 Juelich, Germany] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL.
IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1249-1257) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: The non-pure positron-emitting iodine isotope 120 I (T
124 I. 120 I has a positron
1/2 =81 min) is a short-lived alternative to
abundance more than twice that of 124 I and a maximum positron
energy of 4 MeV. This study was undertaken to evaluate and characterise the qualitative and quantitative PET imaging of 120 I. Methods:
120 I was produced via the 120 Te(p,n) reaction on highly enriched
120 Te. The measurements were done with the Siemens scanner
HR+ and the 2D PET scanner GE PC4096+. A cylinder containing
three cold inserts and a phantom resembling a human brain slice
were used to evaluate half-life, positron abundance and background
correction. To analyse the image resolution, a 1-mm tube placed in
water was lled with 120 I and 18 F. Comparisons with 18 F, 124 I and
123 I (measured with SPECT) were made using the Hoffman 3D brain
phantom. Results: The half-life of 81.1 min was reproduced by the
PET measurements. The PET-based positron abundance ranged
from 47.9% to 55.0%. The reconstructed image resolution found
with the HR+ was 5.4 mm FWHM (12.3 mm FWTM), in contrast to
4.6 mm (8.6 mm) when using 18 F. Erroneous positive and negative
numbers of radioactivity found in the cold inserts became nearly
zero when the background of -coincidences was corrected for.
Images of the Hoffman phantom were inferior to those obtained
when 18 F or 124 I was applied but superior to the 123 I-SPECT images. Conclusion: Our data show that 120 I of high radionuclidic
purity can be regarded as a suitable nuclide for the PET imaging of
radioiodine-labelled pharmaceuticals. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
320. A facile method for post-conjugation prosthetic radioiodination of "mini-peptides" - Amartey J.K. and Esguerra C. [J.K.
Amartey, Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King
Faisal Specialist Hospital, Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box
3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/12 (1549-1554) - summ in ENGL
Prosthetic radioiodination methods were developed to facilitate
the labeling of proteins devoid of tyrosine(s) or when these moieties
are crucial for biological activity. This method involves the use of
the so-called Bolton-Hunter-type reagents. However, the in vivo
instability of the label prompted the search for more stable groups.
Although these second generation reagents have worked well with
proteins and peptides, the current reaction scheme takes a long time
Section 23 vol 70.2

to perform. A simplied method may be more appropriate especially from radiation safety point of view. More importantly, for
short-lived halogens, advantage may be gained utilizing a shorter
reaction time. Recently we reported on the radioiodination of interleukin-8 (IL-8) using the pyridine carboxylate-derived activated
ester. We have successfully conjugated this prosthetic group to
tri- and tetrapeptides harboring the somatostatin (SST) receptor
recognition units and characterized by HPLC and MS. The radioiodination was accomplished using the Iodogen method in a
reasonable yield (mean = 60 %). The total synthesis time was approximately 60 min, which was 3-4 times shorter than the classical
two-step method. Preliminary biodistribution of the radiolabeled
peptide showed uptake in some of the organs known to express SST
receptors. Injection of a low specic activity tracer signicantly
decreased the retention of radioactivity in these organs. 2005
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
321. Regression analysis for comparing protein samples with
labeled mass spectrometry - Eckel-Passow J.E., Oberg A.L., Therneau T.M. et al. [J.E. Eckel-Passow,
Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW,
Rochester, MN 55905, United States] - BIOINFORMATICS 2006
22/22 (2739-2745) - summ in ENGL
Motivation: Using stable isotopes in global proteome scans,
labeled molecules from one sample are pooled with unlabeled
molecules from another sample and subsequently subjected to massspectral analysis. Stable-isotope methodologies make use of the fact
that identical molecules of different stable-isotope compositions are
differentiated in a mass spectrometer and are represented in a mass
spectrum as distinct isotopic clusters with a known mass shift. We
describe two multivariable linear regression models for 16 O/18 O stable-isotope labeled data that jointly model pairs of resolved isotopic
clusters from the same peptide and quantify the abundance present
in each of the two biological samples while concurrently accounting for peptide-specic incorporation rates of the heavy isotope.
The abundance measure for each peptide from the two biological
samples is then used in down-stream statistical analyses, e.g. differential expression analysis. Because the multivariable regression
models are able to correct for the abundance of the labeled peptide
that appear as an unlabeled peptide due to the inability to exchange
the natural C-terminal oxygen for the heavy isotope, they are particularly advantageous for a two-step digestion/labeling procedure.
We discuss how estimates from the regression model are used to
quantify the variability of the estimated abundance measures for
the paired samples. Although discussed in the context of 16 O/18 O
stable-isotope labeled data, the multivariable regression models are
generalizable to other stable-isotope labeled technologies. 2006
Oxford University Press.
16 O/ 18 O stable-isotope

322. International guidance on the establishment of quality assurance programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear
medicine - Zimmerman B.E., Herbst C., Norenberg J.P. and Woods
M.J. [B.E. Zimmerman, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics
Section, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy
Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 200, A-1400 Vienna, Austria] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1142-1146) - summ
in ENGL
A new guidance document for the implementation of quality
assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy
Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the
principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in
developing countries, to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement services to the nuclear medicine community.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
323. Photon-photon coincidences for activity determination:
I-125 and other radionuclides - Schrader H. [H. Schrader,
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116
Braunschweig, Germany] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1179-1185) - summ in ENGL
Theory and experiment of photon-photon coincidence counting
with distance variation for activity standardisation of radionuclide
solutions are described. The activity of an I-125 solution from
an international comparison organised by the BIPM in 2004 was
Section 23 vol 70.2

determined. The value obtained agrees with other methods within a


limit of 0.2%. The extension of this activity standardisation method
to other radionuclides such as Cd-109 with I-125 as a tracer nuclide,
In-111, Am-241 and I-124 with a radionuclidic impurity of I-125
is studied. Achieved uncertainties of the activities of Cd-109 and
In-111 are of the order of 1.5%. The activity values of sources
of Am-241 are determined relative to each other. Am-241 is used
for checking the measuring system and as a long-lived reference
source. After decay of the order of several I-124 half-lives, sources
of I-124 with I-125 are measured to determine the I-125 activity
portion. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
324. Application of Monte Carlo simulation to the prediction of
extrapolation curves in the coincidence technique - Dias M.S.,
Takeda M.N. and Koskinas M.F. [M.S. Dias, Instituto de Pesquisas
Energ ticas e Nucleares: IPEN, CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes
e
2242, 05508-000 S o Paulo, SP, Brazil] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
a
2006 64/10-11 (1186-1192) - summ in ENGL
A technique for simulating all detection processes in a 4 ( ,e,X)- coincidence system by means of the Monte Carlo technique is
described. This procedure yields a more realistic behaviour of the
extrapolation curve as compared to the usual polynomial t. The
present paper describes its application to the standardisation of a
typical pure beta emitter, namely 35 S, by the efciency tracing
technique, and an EC-gamma radionuclide, namely 133 Ba. The
calculated extrapolations were compared to experimental values
obtained at the IPEN. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
325. Calculation of electron deposition in proportional counters
- Ibarra M.R. and Garca-Tora o E. [M.R. Ibarra, Laboratorio de

n
Metrologa de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Com
plutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spain] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/10-11 (1193-1197) - summ in ENGL
Efciency extrapolation is a common technique in the standardization of radionuclides by the technique of 4 - coincidences. It
can be achieved in two ways: adding thin lms onto the radioactive
source or by electronic discrimination in a pressurized 4 - system. The last case is the most extensively used actually in metrology
laboratories. There is a need to know the electron energy loss inside
the proportional counter as a function of the electron energies and
working pressures. Calculations of electron energy loss have been
performed for electron energies in a range from a few keV to 2 MeV
in a mixture of Ar(90%) CH4 (10%) and for pressures ranging from
100 to 2000 kPa in a 5 cm radius proportional counter. Wall effects,
such as electron backscattering, are included in the calculations.
Results are provided in the form of graphs and some recommendations are given about the optimal values of the energies that can
be used to perform the extrapolation in the standardization of some
radionuclides. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
326. Standardization of 18 F by coincidence and LSC methods
- Roteta M., Garca-Tora o E. and Rodrguez Barquero L. [E.

Garca-Tora o, Laboratorio de Metrologa de Radiaciones Ionizan


n

tes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spain] APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1199-1202) - summ in ENGL
The nuclide 18 F disintegrates to 18 O by + emission (96.86%)and electron capture (3.14%) with a half-life of 1.8288 h. It is
widely used in nuclear medicine for positron emission tomography
(PET). A radioactive solution of this nuclide has been standardized
by two techniques: coincidence measurements with a pressurized
proportional counter and liquid scintillation counting using the
CIEMAT/NIST method. One ampoule containing a solution calibrated in activity was sent for measurement at the International
Reference System maintained by the BIPM. Results are in excellent agreement with SIR values. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
327. Standardization of tritiated water by two improved methods - Stanga D., Moreau I. and Cassette P. [D. Stanga, National
Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei IFIN-HH, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele, R-077125,
Romania] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1203-1206) summ in ENGL
Tritiated water has been standardized in the framework of a
French-Romanian cooperation by two improved methods: liquid
65

scintillation counting based on the triple to double coincidence ratio


method and the internal gas proportional counting used in conjunction with a tritium generator for chemical reduction of water. The
uncertainties of measurement for both methods were smaller than
0.6% and the two results were consistent within these uncertainties,
indicating that either method is equally suited for standardizing
tritiated water. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
328. Random-summing correction and pile-up rejection in the
sum-peak method - Capogni M., Ceccatelli A., De Felice P. and
Fazio A. [M. Capogni, ENEA-Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle
Radiazioni Ionizzanti, via Anguillarese, 301, I-00100 Rome, Italy]
- APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1229-1233) - summ in
ENGL
The sum-peak counting method was applied for 125 I absolute activity measurement. Count rate-dependent corrections for random
summing and dead time effects were experimentally determined at
different count rates and in several experimental conditions. Two
NaI(Tl) crystals of different volumes were used. They were connected to pulse recording systems with different characteristics, with
or without pile-up rejection live-time corrector circuits (PUR/LTC).
A theoretical model was proposed to explain the different behaviours found experimentally. It is shown that count rate-dependent
effects are drastically reduced by the use of PUR/LTC. 2006
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
329. Standardization of 99m Tc - Sahagia M. [M. Sahagia, National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering
Horia Hulubei, IFIN-HH, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest, RO-77125,
Romania] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1234-1237) summ in ENGL
The radioactivity of 99m Tc was standardized by the 4 PCcoincidence method with two different modes. One is using coincidences between (119.5-142.6) keV conversion electrons and K
X-rays, and the other is coincidences between the 2.13 keV conversion electrons and 140.5 keV -rays. The background of the K
X-ray peak and the sensitivity of the proportional counter (PC) to
140 keV -rays were the main sources of uncertainties in the rst
case and low detection efciency for conversion electrons in the
second case. General coincidence equations were written, with
specic forms, for the three measurement variants, including literature variant. Comparison with the ionization chamber calibration
is reported. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
330. Standardization of 241 Am solution - Koskinas M.F., Silva
E.A., Yamazaki I.M. and Dias M.S. [M.F. Koskinas, Instituto de
Pesquisas Energ ticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Centro do
e
Reator de Pesquisas-CRPq, C.P. 11049, Pinheiros, 05422-970 -Sao
Paulo- SP, Brazil] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (12381241) - summ in ENGL
The standardization of 241 Am solution has been undertaken using
- coincidence system. The 4 proportional counter used
a4
for alpha detection has a 0.1 mm thick Al window in the outside
wall in order to minimize -ray attenuation. The extrapolation
technique was applied to determine the activity of the solution. The
variation of alpha efciency has been made using external absorbers
and by the electronic discrimination. The results from the two methods were compared and are in agreement within the experimental
uncertainty. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
331. NIST 222 Rn emission standards - Volkovitsky P. [P. Volkovitsky, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg,
MD 20899-0001, United States] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/10-11 (1249-1252) - summ in ENGL
NIST radon standards are hermetically sealed polyethylene capsules lled with 226 Ra solution. Recently, four new series of
standards with activities 5, 50, 500, and 5000 Bq were prepared.
The measured emanation fraction agrees with a calculation that
accounts for the radon accumulated inside the polyethylene walls
of the capsule. Obtained solubility of radon in polyethylene is
approximately frac(4, 5) of the solubility of radon in water. The
radon diffusion coefcient in low-density polyethylene is 7.2 10-8
cm2 / s. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
66

332. Preparation and activity measurement of electrodeposited


alpha-emitting sources - Lee K.B., Man Lee J., Soon Park T.
and Oh P.-J. [K.B. Lee, Korea Research Institute of Standards and
Science, Daejeon, 305-600, South Korea] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
2006 64/10-11 (1260-1264) - summ in ENGL
Alpha-emitting 238 Pu and 241 Am sources on stainless steel substrates have been prepared using a new electrodeposition method
based on an ammonium oxalate-ammonium sulfate electrolyte containing diethyl triamino pentaacetic acid. The deposition yield is
determined by measuring the activity of the sources using a highefciency 2
proportional counter and a backscattering chamber
designed and fabricated for this purpose. Optimal electrodeposition
parameters have been determined for 241 Am, enabling manufacture
of standard alpha-emitting sources with minimal radioactive waste.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
333. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard
solutions - Gabrielle Iroulart M. [M. Gabrielle Iroulart, LNELaboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette,
F-91191 Cedex, France] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1265-1270) - summ in ENGL
Optimal thermodynamic stability conditions must prevail when
radioactivity standard solutions are prepared. These conditions are
studied, they relate to: The nature of the radioactive ion, which
makes it possible to establish the pH of the solubilization medium
at a given concentration, The carrier concentration, which is determined by considering the radionuclide production method and the
prior concentration in the original solution from the supplier, The
most stable oxidation state of the radioactive ion and of the carrier ion, which must be considered at the pH established by the
solubilization medium. A procedure for all the glassware used in
preparation has been implemented. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
334. Experimental and MC determination of HPGe detector
efciency in the 40-2754 keV energy range for measuring point
source geometry with the source-to-detector distance of 25 cm
- Dryak P. and Kovar P. [P. Dryak, Czech Metrology InstituteInspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI), Radiova 1, CZ-102 00
Prague 10, Czech Republic] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1346-1349) - summ in ENGL
A precise model of a 40% relative efciency p-type HPGe detector was created for photon detection efciency calculation using the
MCNP code. All detector parameters were determined by different
experiments. No experimental calibration points were used for the
modication of detector parameters. The model was validated by
comparing calculated and experimental full energy peak efciencies
in the 40-2754 keV energy range, for point-source geometry with
the source-to-detector distance of 25 cm. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
335. Kr-81m calibration factor for the npl ionisation chamber Johansson L. and Stroak A. [L. Johansson, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW, United Kingdom]
- APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1360-1364) - summ in
ENGL
A general method has been developed for the measurement of
the activity concentration of 81m Kr gas. Due to its short half-life,
13.1 s, this gas has to be eluted from a 81 Rb/81m Kr generator. The
81 Rb parent has a half-life of about 4.6 h. The calibration was done
in two steps: rstly, a -ray spectrometer was calibrated using 51 Cr
and 139 Ce sources, nuclides with -ray energies bracketing that of
81m Kr (190.5 keV). The measurement geometry was equivalent to
that of the 81m Kr measurement; the sources were inserted into two
collimated PTFE tubes in front of the -ray detector. Secondly,
a calibration factor for the NPL radionuclide calibrator was determined with a specially designed ionisation chamber insert. The
81m Kr gas passed in front of the -ray detector in PTFE tubing
before and after entering the ionisation chamber. The calibration
factor for 81m Kr in the radionuclide calibrator with this geometry
was independent of the gas ow rate within determined limits. The
analytical calculations of the activity determination, uncertainties
and measurement criteria are discussed. Crown Copyright 2006.
Section 23 vol 70.2

336. Assessing the 210 At impurity in the production of 211 At


for radiotherapy by 210 Po analysis via isotope dilution alpha
spectrometry - Schultz M.K., Hammond M., Cessna J.T. et al.
[M.K. Schultz, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Radioactivity Group, 100 Bureau Drive, MS8462, Gaithersburg,
MD 21702, United States] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1365-1369) - summ in ENGL
A method for assessing the impurity 210 At in cyclotron-produced
211 At via isotope dilution alpha spectrometry is presented. The
activity of 210 At is quantied by measuring the activity of daughter
nuclide 210 Po. Counting sources are prepared by spontaneous deposition of Po on a silver disc. Activity of 210 At (at the time of 210 Po
maximum activity) is found to be 83.5 9.0 Bq, corresponding to an
atom ratio (210 At:211 At at the time of distillation) of 0.010 0.007%
(k = 2). The method produces high-quality alpha spectra, with
baseline alpha-peak resolution and chemical yields of greater than
85%. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
337. Monte Carlo calculations of calibration and geometry correction factors of a radionuclide calibrator - Olovcov V. and
s
a
Havelka M. [V. Olovcov , Czech Metrology Institute, Radiov 1,
s
a
a
102 00 Prague, Czech Republic] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/10-11 (1370-1374) - summ in ENGL
The activity of radioactive pharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine is usually determined using well-type
high-pressure ionization chambers. For the Bqmeter chamber (Consortium BQM, Czech Republic) a Monte Carlo model was created
using the MCNP4C2 code. Basic chamber characteristics for two
sample containers of various geometry (a vial and an ampoule) were
calculated and compared with measurements. As the pharmaceuticals are often measured in various syringes, the chamber response
for samples in syringes was also studied. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
338. Nuclear decay data: Observations and reections - Nichols
A.L. [A.L. Nichols, Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and
Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria] - APPL.
RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1384-1391) - summ in ENGL
Decay data constitute an important feature of nuclear physics
that plays a signicant role in the various work programmes of
members and associates of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM). At the invitation of the ICRM, a review
has been undertaken with the joint aims of emphasising decay-data
achievements over the previous 10 years, and highlighting inadequacies that remain to be addressed in the future. 2006 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
339. Absolute activity measurement of the electron-capturebased radionuclides 139 Ce, 125 I, 192 Ir and 65 Zn by liquid
scintillation coincidence counting - Van Wyngaardt W.M. and
Simpson B.R.S. [W.M. Van Wyngaardt, Radioactivity Standards
Laboratory, CSIR NML, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank 7700
Cape Town, South Africa] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1454-1458) - summ in ENGL
Four radionuclides with electron-capture-based decay schemes
have been directly measured by a liquid scintillation coincidence
extrapolation technique. 125 I, 192 Ir and 65 Zn were measured as part
of international key comparisons held under the auspices of the
International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The 139 Ce
measurements formed part of a regional comparison organized by
the Asia Pacic Metrology Programme (APMP). Since 139 Ce decays purely by electron-capture, the basic method is described for
this radionuclide. Results and difculties encountered are discussed
and uncertainty budgets are presented. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
340. A new method for secondary standard measurements
with the aid of liquid scintillation counting - Kossert K. [K.
Kossert, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Department 6.1, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany] APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1459-1464) - summ in ENGL
A new secondary standard measuring procedure based on liquid
scintillation counting has been developed at PTB. In this procedure,
the efciency curve, i.e. the counting efciency of the nuclide
Section 23 vol 70.2

to be investigated as a function of the tritium counting efciency,


is-in contrast to the CIEMAT/NIST method-not calculated but determined by experiment. For the measurements, gamma-emitting
activity standards are used which were calibrated by other methods. The procedure was successfully used to calibrate solutions
of the radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 65 Zn, 85 Sr and 125 I with small
uncertainties. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
341. Standardization of 222 Rn by LSC and comparison with
- and -spectrometry - Cassette P., Sahagia M., Grigorescu
L. et al. [M. Sahagia, Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and
D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, P.O. Box MG6, Bucharest, RO-77125, Romania] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/10-11 (1465-1470) - summ in ENGL
Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was used for the measurement of 222 Rn in equilibrium with its daughters, with detection
efciency close to 5. The appropriate corrections were considered,
including one related to the probability that the 165- s half-life
214 Po decays during the dead time of the counter initiated by the
disintegration of his parent nuclide, 214 Bi. The dead-time determination of a commercial LS counter is also presented using a 222 Rn
standard source. The LSC 222 Rn sources were prepared by transfer
of 222 Rn produced by a solid 226 Ra source into LSC cocktail frozen
at 77 K, ame-sealed afterwards. They were measured using the
LNHB triple coincidence counter with adjustable extending-type
dead-time unit, between 8 and 100 s; two different procedures
were used to calculate an effective dead time and then to deduce
the counting rate extrapolated to zero dead-time value. The LSC
results were compared with those obtained by cryogenic -particle
spectrometry (LNHB system) and by -ray spectrometry for the
same radon source in the LSC vial; the geometry transfer coefcient was calculated using the ETNA software. Measurement
results and uncertainties are discussed. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
342. Activity measurements of the high-energy pure -emitters
and 90 Y by the TDCR efciency calculation technique Simpson B.R.S. and Van Wyngaardt W.M. [B.R.S. Simpson, Radioactivity Standards Laboratory, CSIR NML, 15 Lower Hope Road,
Rosebank 7700 Cape Town, South Africa] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
2006 64/10-11 (1481-1484) - summ in ENGL
The absolute activities of the pure -emitters 89 Sr and 90 Y have
been determined by a direct method, namely the triple-to-double
coincidence ratio (TDCR) efciency calculation technique. This
undertaking has extended further the number of radionuclides that
have been standardized by this non-extrapolation liquid scintillation (LS) method. Both measurements were carried out within the
framework of international key comparisons under the auspices of
the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The
TDCR results agreed well with those of other participating national
laboratories, most using alternative (tracer) methods. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
89 Sr

343. Mean values of the LMM Auger transition in a KLM model


- Malonda A.G., Carles A.G. and Garcia G. [A.G. Malonda, Departamento Proyectos Estrat gicos, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense
e
22, 28040 Madrid, Spain] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1485-1491) - summ in ENGL
The standardization of radionuclides decaying by electron capture
can be carried out in LS counters by the CIEMAT/NIST method.
The KLM model considers a simplied atomic rearrangement model
in which all L- and M-subshells have been averaged. In this paper,
instead of considering the 22 rearrangement pathways of the KLM
model, we concentrate our analysis on the pathways corresponding to L-Auger electron transition. It is proved that the counting
efciency depends strongly on the energy E(LMM). Therefore, it
is important to know the optimum value for E(LMM) and how to
obtain it. To this end, the equations of the probabilities and the
reduced energies for 3816 atomic rearrangement pathways have
been derived. To average the equations, a computer program called
MOYEN has been developed. The energy E(LMM) has been computed for 55 Fe and 125 I from different mean value denitions.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
67

344. Monte Carlo calculations of spectra and interaction probabilities for photons in liquid scintillators for use in the
standardization of radionuclides - Zimmerman B.E. [B.E.
Zimmerman, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section,
Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency,
Wagramer Strasse 5, Box 200, A-1400 Vienna, Austria] - APPL.
RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1492-1498) - summ in ENGL
The probabilities for the interaction of photons, Pint , in three
different liquid scintillators (toluene, Ultima Gold, and Hionic
Fluor) were calculated as a function of energy for three different
geometries using the Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE and EGSnrcMP. The agreement in Pint values between the two codes in
all of the geometries and scintillators for energies above 100 keV
was within 0.5 %. The agreement was better than 4 % for
energies between 20 and 100 keV. No substantive differences in
the normalized absorbed energy spectra were observed for initial
photon energies in the range of 20-1000 keV. The inuence of scintillator composition on the simulation results was investigated in
the context of a possible conict in the published composition data
for Hionic Fluor. A difference in interaction probability of about
27% was observed at 20 keV when an alternate composition having
lower amounts of S and P is used. At 100 keV, the differences were
within the calculational uncertainties. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
345. Implementation of the TDCR liquid scintillation method at
CNEA-LMR, Argentina - Arenillas P. and Cassette P. [P. Arenillas,
Laboratorio de Metrologa de Radiois topos, Comisi n Nacional de

o
o
Energa At mica, , Argentina] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10
o
11 (1500-1504) - summ in ENGL
During the last two years, a triple-to-double coincidence ratio
(TDCR) system was assembled and adjusted at the CNEA-LMR,
Argentina. The new counting system will add complementary capabilities to the absolute measurements section of the CNEA-LMR.
This work describes its implementation and validation. Several
checks and a set of beta-emitting standard solutions were used
in order to perform the validation experiments. In preliminary
measurements, a 3 H LNHB solution with reference activity concentration of (119.7 0.9) kBq/g on 11 November 2003 was used.
The CNEA-LMR TDCR counter gave, at the same reference date,
an activity concentration of (120 1) kBq/g. Results and improvements are presented in detail. Concerning the asymmetry of the
system, the quantum efciency of the three photomultiplier tubes
was studied for different operating conditions of the focusing voltage. The counter also includes an automatic system to change the
efciency by defocusing the photomultipliers and on the other hand,
it was coupled to a HPGe detector to also measure beta-gamma
coincidences. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
346. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter
- Razdolescu A.C., Broda R., Cassette P. et al. [A.C. Razdolescu,
National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering
Horia Hulubei- IFIN-HH, Atomistilor str. 407, Bucharest, Romania] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1510-1514) - summ in
ENGL
The paper summarizes the IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid
scintillation counter used for the implementation of the TDCR
method. The electronic unit was recently extended to record the
three individual double coincidence ratios to take into account the
differences in the quantum efciencies of the three-photomultiplier
tubes. Some details of the electronic system and the data processing are given. The critical point of a TDCR counter is to adjust
correctly the discriminator levels on the three channels under the
single electron peak. The paper describes the method of adjustment
based on the evolution of the dark counting rate versus the discriminator level. Also indicated is the inuence of the discrimination
level on the activity results as measured at IFIN-HH using a 3 H
standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was
checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of
CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A
set of ready-to-measure 63 Ni sources in liquid scintillator, in sealed
counting vials, was prepared and dispatched for measurement to
all these laboratories. The paper describes designs of the TDCR
counters used. An analysis and discussion of the measurement
results is given. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
68

347. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions - Gasparro J., Hult M., Bonheure
G. and Johnston P.N. [M. Hult, EC-JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel,
Belgium] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1130-1135) summ in ENGL
Optimisation of the connement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma.
In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti,
MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint
European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7 Be, 54 Mn, 56 Co, 57 Co, 58 Co and 46 Sc) were
measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found
to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision
thresholds for some activation products were determined in order
to aid in giving upper bounds for the ux of charged particles.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
348. Response calculation for standard ionization chambers in
the APMP using EGS4 Monte Carlo code - Sato Y., Yunoki A.,
Hino Y. and Yamada T. [Y. Sato, National Metrology Institute of
Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1, Umezono, Ibaraki, 305-8568,
Japan] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1211-1214) - summ
in ENGL
In the APMP radioactivity group (TCRI), a series of intercomparisons were conducted between member laboratories, with the aim to
improve the calibration of ionization chambers used as secondary
standards for radioactivity measurement. Several sources were sent
to the participating institutes and the measurement results of calibration factors have been compared. Good agreement between
laboratories was found for radioisotopes where the major contribution to the ionization current stems from high-energy gamma rays.
It was expected in this energy region that these ratios would become
unity for any type of chamber by normalizing with the same type
of reference sources. However, where the dominating contribution
to the measured ionization current is due to the presence of low-energy gamma rays, there were some serious discrepancies between
participating institutes. In order to understand these differences,
Monte Carlo simulation has been utilized by studying the effects of
changing the wall thickness of the re-entrant well, the materials of
the sample holder and the composition of the ionizing gas. 2006
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
349. Standardization of 152 Eu and 154 Eu by 4 -4
coincidence method and 4 ( + ) integral counting - Yamada T.,
Nakamura Y., Kawada Y. et al. [T. Yamada, Japan Radioisotope
Association, 2-28-45, Hon-komagome, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8941,
Japan] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1220-1224) - summ
in ENGL
The 4 -4 coincidence counting and 4 ( + ) integral counting techniques were applied for the standardization of 152 Eu and
154 Eu. In these techniques, the -detector is composed of two thin
plastic scintillators sandwiching the source coupled with a slender
photomultiplier tube. This -detector was inserted into a large
well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for -ray detection, making
a 4 -4
detector conguration. The results obtained by the
above two techniques were in good agreement and consistent with
the results of international comparisons. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
350. Primary standardization of 72 Ga - Koskinas M.F., Moreira
D.S., Takeda M.N. et al. [M.F. Koskinas, Instituto de Pesquisas
Energ ticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Centro do Reator de
e
Pesquisas - CRPq, C.P. 11049, Pinheiros, 05422-970 Sao Paulo,
SP, Brazil] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1225-1228) summ in ENGL
The activity of 72 Ga sources produced by irradiation at the IEAR1 reactor have been performed in a 4
- coincidence system
by using the extrapolation technique. The measurements were undertaken selecting two windows in the -channel, in order to check
the consistency of the results. A Monte Carlo calculation was
Section 23 vol 70.2

performed in order to predict the behavior of the observed activity


as a function of the 4
detector efciency and the results were
compared to experimental values. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
351. A PET imaging system dedicated to mammography - Varela

J. [J. Varela, Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fsica Exp. de Partculas


(LIP), Lisboa, Portugal] - RADIAT. PHYS. CHEM. 2007 76/2 (347350) - summ in ENGL
The imaging system Clear-PEM for positron emission mammography, under development within the framework of the Crystal
Clear Collaboration at CERN, is presented. The detector is based
on pixelized LYSO crystals optically coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD) and readout by a fast low-noise electronic system.
A dedicated digital trigger and data acquisition system is used for
on-line selection of coincidence events with high efciency, large
bandwidth and negligible dead-time. The detector module performance was characterized in detail. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
352. Performance of triple coincidence imaging as an addition
to dedicated PET - Abuelhia E., Kacperski K., Kafala S. and
M Spyrou N. [E. Abuelhia, Department of Physics, University of
Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom] - RADIAT.
PHYS. CHEM. 2007 76/2 (351-356) - summ in ENGL
In this work, we investigate the performance of semiconductor detectors imaging capabilities in three-photon annihilation processes
in order to combine this novel imaging modality with conventional
positron emission tomography. The spatial resolution is studied as
a function of detector positions and selected energy window. This
was measured from different experimental arrangements and found
to be in the range between 3.3-3.9 cm with a mean of 3.5 0.1 cm.
Scatter and random events, coincidence timing resolution and count
rate performance are discussed. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
353. Applications of PET-CT in clinical practice: Present and
future - Costa D.C. [D.C. Costa, IBILI, Faculdade de Medicina,
Universidade de Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal] - RADIAT.
PHYS. CHEM. 2007 76/2 (357-359) - summ in ENGL
Radionuclide imaging and specially positron emission tomography (PET) has already demonstrated its benets in three major
medical subjects, i.e. neurology, cardiology and particularly clinical oncology. More recently the combination of PET and X-ray
computed tomography (CT) as PET-CT led to a signicant increment of the already large number of clinical applications of this
imaging modality. This "anatomy-metabolic fusion" also known as
Metabolic Imaging has its future assured if we can: (1) improve resolution reducing partial volume effect, (2) achieve very fast whole
body imaging, (3) obtain accurate quantication of specic functions with higher contrast resolution and, if possible, (4) reduce
exposure rates due to the unavoidable use of ionizing radiation.
2006.
354. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of U(VI) and Th(IV)sorption on a zeolitic volcanic tuff - Humelnicu D., Drochioiu
G., Sturza M.I. et al. [D. Humelnicu, Department of Inorganic and
Analytical Chemistry, Al.I. Cuza University, 11 - Carol I Blvd.,
700506 - Iasi, Romania] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006
270/3 (637-640) - summ in ENGL
The sorption behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) from simulated waste
solutions on a zeolitic volcanic tuff from Nereju (Vrancea, Romania) has been studied in the absence of the ionic competition as a
function of contact time, radioactive ions concentration, temperature
and pH using a batch mode technique. The effect of the above-mentioned parameters on the sorption efciency was discussed. The
apparent thermodynamic parameters of the sorption of uranium and
thorium onto the considered volcanic tuff were calculated, showing
that the process is endothermic and higher temperatures favor the
sorption process. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
355. Radiochemical separation of 88 Y from a SrCl2 target using
chelating resin Chelex 100 - Aardaneh K., Perrang C., Dolley S.
et al. [K. Aardaneh, iThemba Labs., P.O. Box 722, Somerset West
Section 23 vol 70.2

7129, South Africa] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/3


(641-643) - summ in ENGL
Yttrium-88 was produced from irradiation of a SrCl2 target (4.8 g,
pressed into a 19 mm disc) by 33 MeV proton beam at a current
of up to 90 A. Chelating resin Chelex 100 (H+ form, 100-200
mesh) was used for the separation of yttrium radionuclides (including 88 Y) from strontium. 0.01M nitric acid was used for the
dissolution of target (100 ml), retention of Y and elution of Sr (200
ml). For the elution of yttrium, 25 ml 1M HNO3 was employed.
The column was 4 cm long with internal diameter of 1.6 cm. The
ow rate was 1 ml/min throughout the separation procedure. The
88 Y recovery yield was 94% average and the stable Sr content in
the nal product (5 ml 0.1M HCl) was estimated to be less than 3
ppm. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
356. Diatom: A potential bio-accumulator of gold - Chakraborty
N., Pal R., Ramaswami A. et al. [N. Chakraborty, Department
of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkata 700019, India] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006
270/3 (645-649) - summ in ENGL
The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia
obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae,
has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed
better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral
and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg kg-1
or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living
cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator
of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the
media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom
was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of
dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with cone.
HNO3 . 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
357. Rapid method for 226 Ra and 228 Ra analysis in water samples - Maxwell III S.L. [S.L. Maxwell III, Westinghouse Savannah
River Company, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808, United States]
- J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/3 (651-655) - summ in
ENGL
The measurement of radium isotopes in natural waters is important for oceanographic studies and for public health reasons.
Radium-226 (T1/2 = 1620 y) is one of the most toxic of the longlived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life
and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The analysis of 226 Ra and 228 Ra
in natural waters can be tedious and time-consuming. Different
sample preparation methods are often required to prepare 226 Ra and
228 Ra for separate analyses. A rapid method has been developed
at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory that effectively
separates both 226 Ra and 228 Ra (via 228 Ac) for assay. This method
uses MnO2 Resin from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA)to preconcentrate 226 Ra and 228 Ra rapidly from water samples,
along with 133 Ba tracer. DGA Resin (Eichrom) and Ln-Resin
(Eichrom) are employed in tandem to prepare 226 Ra for assay by
alpha-spectrometry and to determine 228 Ra via the measurement of
228 Ac by gas proportional counting. After preconcentration, the
manganese dioxide is dissolved from the resin and passed through
stacked Ln-Resin-DGA Resin cartridges that remove uranium and
thorium interferences and retain 228 Ac on DGA Resin. The eluate
that passed through this column is evaporated, redissolved in a
lower acidity and passed through Ln-Resin again to further remove
interferences before performing a barium sulfate microprecipitation.
The 228 Ac is stripped from the resin, collected using cerium uoride microprecipitation and counted by gas proportional counting.
By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid ow rates,
sample preparation time is minimized. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
358. Elemental concentrations of some Ayurvedic drugs using
energy dispersive XRF - Mahawatte P., Dissanayaka K.R. and
Hewamanna R. [P. Mahawatte, Department of Nuclear Science,
University of Colombo, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka] - J. RADIOANAL.
NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/3 (657-660) - summ in ENGL
Elemental concentration of nineteen Ayurvedic drugs have been
measured using energy dispersive X-ray uorescence analysis.
Concentrations of nineteen elements: Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn,
69

Fe Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Hg have been determined using
emission transmission method with Mo target. K, Ca and Fe were
detected in all samples and their concentrations ranged from 0.352.88%, 0.346-8.65% and 0.007-36.7%, respectively. Maximum
concentration measured in other elements ranged from 0.006% to
40.7%. The multi element and non-destructive nature of the method
offers a simple way to establish the quality of the drugs that contain
heavy metals in considerable concentration. 2006 Akad miai
e
Kiad .
o
359. Complex formation of uranium(VI) with 4-hydroxy-3methoxybenzoic acid and related compounds - Vulpius D.,
Geipel G., Baraniak L. et al. [D. Vulpius, Forschungszentrum
Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314
Dresden, Germany] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/3
(661-667) - summ in ENGL
The complex formation of uranium(VI) with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as well as with benzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic
acid was studied. In aqueous solution weak carboxylic 1 : 1
complexes, are formed in which the carboxyl group is bidentately coordinated to the metal atom. The logarithmic stability
constants of these complexes regarding the reaction of the uranyl ion with the single charged anion of the respective ligands are
2.78 0.02, 2.68 0.04, and 2.71 0.04 at an ionic strength of 0.1
mol/l (NaClO4 ) and at 25C. Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoato)dioxouranium(VI) was obtained as a crystalline compound if the
concentrations of the starting components for the synthesis are increased. The monoclinic compound has a reections-rich X-ray
powder diffraction pattern. The lattice constants are a = 13.662(9)

A, b = 21.293(7) A, c = 11.213(3) A, = 107.49(4), and V =

e
o
3111(2) A.3 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
360. Emergent magnetic moments produced by self-damage in
plutonium - McCall S.K., Fluss M.J., Chung B.W. et al. [S.K. McCall, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue,
Livermore, CA 94550, United States] - PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI.
U. S. A. 2006 103/46 (17179-17183) - summ in ENGL
Plutonium possesses the most complicated phase diagram in the
periodic table, driven by the complexities of overlapping 5f electron
orbitals. Despite the importance of the 5f electrons in dening the
structure and physical properties, there is no experimental evidence
that these electrons localize to form magnetic moments in pure
Pu. Instead, a large temperature-independent Pauli susceptibility indicates that they form narrow conduction bands. Radiation
damage from the -particle decay of Pu creates numerous defects
in the crystal structure, which produce a signicant temperaturedependent magnetic susceptibility, (T), in both -Pu and -Pu
(stabilized by 4.3 atomic percent Ga). This effect can be removed
by thermal annealing above room temperature. By contrast, below 35 K the radiation damage is frozen in place, permitting the
evolution in (T) with increasing damage to be studied systematically. This result leads to a two-component model consisting of
a Curie-Weiss term and a short-ranged interaction term consistent
with disorder-induced local moment models. Thus, it is shown
that self-damage creates localized magnetic moments in previously
nonmagnetic plutonium.
361. Standardisation of 54 Mn and 65 Zn using a software coincidence counting system - Havelka M., Auerbach P. and Sochorov J.
a
[M. Havelka, Czech Metrology Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing
Radiation, Radiov 1, 102 00 Prague, Czech Republic] - APPL.
a
RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1215-1219) - summ in ENGL
The activities of 54 Mn and 65 Zn have been determined by 4 (PC)coincidence counting, with efciency variation performed by the
conventional method of altering the self-absorption in the sources
as well as by the computer discrimination method. The standardisation of 65 Zn presents some complications requiring optimisation
of the -ray energy window settings to achieve a linear efciencyextrapolation curve. Determination of these optimal settings by the
conventional coincidence method is a tedious task. These difculties have been reduced by the utilisation of a software coincidence
counting system that records time and amplitude information of
individual pulses from coincidence measurements, where the coincidence parameters are set after the data collection process has
70

completed, facilitating multiple data evaluations on a single data set.


The optimal -ray energy window settings for the 65 Zn standardisation were derived from the results of the 54 Mn standardisation,
as well as from studies of the 65 Zn data itself. The setting of the PC
channel thresholds for K and both (K+L) electrons is also discussed.
The results are compared with those attained using conventional
coincidence counting. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
362. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference
Material - Outola I., Filliben J., Inn K.G.W. et al. [I. Outola,
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD
20899, United States] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (12421247) - summ in ENGL
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through
an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certied
values for the radionuclides, the median method was found to be
the most representative technique. The certied values were provided for 13 radionuclides and information values were given for
15 more radionuclides. Results for the natural decay series showed
disequilibrium in both the uranium and thorium series. 2006
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
363. Certied reference material for radionuclides in sh esh
sample IAEA-414 (mixed sh from the Irish Sea and North Sea)
- Pham M.K., Sanchez-Cabeza J.A., Povinec P.P. et al. [M.K. Pham,
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Marine Environment
Laboratory (MEL), MC 98000, , Monaco] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
2006 64/10-11 (1253-1259) - summ in ENGL
A certied reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in sh
sample IAEA-414 (mixed sh from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is
described and the results of the certication process are presented.
Nine radionuclides (40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 238 Pu,
239+240 Pu and 241 Am) were certied for this material. Information
on massic activities with 95% condence intervals is given for six
other radionuclides (90 Sr, 210 Pb(210 Po), 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 240 Pu 241 Pu).
Less frequently reported radionuclides (99 Tc, 129 I, 228 Th, 230 Th and
237 Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also included. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control
of the analysis of radionuclides in sh sample, for the development
and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The
material is available from IAEA, Vienna, in 100 g units. 2006
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
364. Comparison of calculated spectra for the interaction of photons in a liquid scintillator. Example of 54 Mn 835 keV emission
- Cassette P., Ahn G.H., Alzitzoglou T. et al. [P. Cassette, LNELNHB, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex, France] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
2006 64/10-11 (1471-1480) - summ in ENGL
The CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods in liquid scintillation
counting, initially developed for the activity standardization of purebeta radionuclides, have been extended to the standardization of
electron capture and beta-gamma radionuclides. Both methods require the calculation of the energy spectrum absorbed by the liquid
scintillator. For radionuclides emitting X-rays or -rays, when the
energy is greater than a few tens of keV the Compton interaction is
important and the absorption is not total. In this case, the spectrum
absorbed by the scintillator must be calculated using analytical or
stochastic models. An illustration of this problem is the standardization of 54 Mn, which is a radionuclide decaying by electron capture.
The gamma transition, very weakly converted, leads to the emission
of an 835 keV photon. The calculation of the detection efciency
of this radionuclide requires the calculation of the energy spectrum
transferred to the scintillator after the absorption of the gamma ray
and the associated probability of absorption. The validity of the
method is thus dependent on the correct calculation of the energy
transferred to the scintillator. In order to compare the calculation
results obtained using various calculation tools, and to provide the
metrology community with some information on the choice of these
tools, the LS working group of the ICRM organised a comparison
of the calculated absorbed spectra for the 835 keV photon of 54 Mn.
The result is the spectrum of the energy absorbed by the scintillator
per emission of an 835 keV gamma ray. This exercise was proposed
for a standard 20 ml LS glass vial and for LS cocktail volumes of
Section 23 vol 70.2

10 and 15 ml. The calculation was done for two different cocktails:
toluene and a widely used commercial cocktail, Ultima Gold . The
paper describes the results obtained by nine participants using a total
of 12 calculation codes. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

presents the results of comparisons for the radiopharmaceuticals


nuclides 131 I and 99 Tcm and proves that the implementation of
a radionuclide metrology network is feasible and viable. 2006
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

365. Synergic quenching effects of water and carbon tetrachloride in liquid scintillation gel samples - Grau Carles A. [A. Grau
Carles, IMAFF, CSIC, C/ Serrano 113b, 28006 Madrid, Spain]
- APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1505-1509) - summ in
ENGL
Although both water and carbon tetrachloride induce chemical
quenching when incorporated to Insta Gel, the quenching power
of carbon tetrachloride is nearly two orders of magnitude greater
than that of water. This huge difference shows how different the
chemical quenching mechanisms among quenchers can be. One
remarkable fact of all pure -ray nuclides is that calibration curves
do not depend on the water to scintillator volume ratio or on the
nature of the quencher. The fact is clearly surprising, because two
tritium samples of different water to scintillator and quencher to
scintillator volume ratios may have identical counting efciencies.
As we shall prove, this fact is only possible when the external quench
parameter of both samples is the same. We study the synergies in
quenching generated when carbon tetrachloride is added to a sample
in gel phase. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

368. Absolute counting of 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals - Yuan


M.-C., Pang H.-F. and Wang C.-F. [M.-C. Yuan, National Radiation
Standard Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No.
1000, Wunhua Rd., Longtan Township 32546, Taiwan] - APPL.
RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1380-1383) - summ in ENGL
The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) has provided
188 Re radiopharmaceuticals for hospitals in Taiwan. To enhance
the accuracy of commercial radionuclide calibrators used by radiopharmacies and hospitals, and to ensure that patients receive
proper doses of these radiopharmaceuticals, it is very important to
standardize this nuclide. The 4 - coincidence counting method
was used to standardize the mass activities of 188 Re in this study.
At the same time, three well type ionization chambers, Centronic
IG11-N20, Centronic IG11-A20, and ISOCAL-IV, were calibrated
by the standardized solutions of the nuclide. In this research, the
calibration gures of ISOCAL-IV for the nuclide were consistent
with the results of National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK). The
outcome implied that the results of coincidence counting did mutually agree. On the other hand, the radionuclide calibrator in the
radiopharmacy was producing measurement errors of about 20%
when using the manufacturers recommended calibration setting: an
accurate correction factor has now been determined in this study.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

366. Computational aspects in modelling the interaction of lowenergy X-rays with liquid scintillators - Grau Carles A. and
Grau Malonda A. [A. Grau Carles, IMAFF, CSIC, C/ Serrano
113b, 28006 Madrid, Spain] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11
(1515-1519) - summ in ENGL
The commercial liquid scintillators available nowadays are
mostly complex cocktails that frequently include non-negligible
amounts of heavier elements than the commonly expected carbon
or hydrogen. In May 1993, nine laboratories agreed to participate
in the frame of the EUROMET project in a comparison of the activity concentration measurement of 55 Fe. One particular aspect of
the results that caught ones eye was a small systematic difference
between the activity concentrations obtained with Ultima GoldTM
and Insta Gel. The detection of the radiation emitted by EC nuclides involves, in addition to the atomic rearrangement generated
by the capture of the electron by the nucleus, a frequently ignored
secondary atomic rearrangement process due to photoionization.
Such a process can be neglected for scintillators that only contain
hydrogen and carbon, e.g., toluene, but must be taken into account
when the EC nuclide solution is incorporated to cocktails with heavier elements, e.g., Ultima GoldTM . All along the present year, an
improved version of the program EMI has been developed. This
code adds the photoionization reduced energy correction to the previous versions, and successfully explains the systematic difference
between the measured activity concentrations of 55 Fe in Ultima
GoldTM and Insta Gel. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
367. Implementation of a national metrology network of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine - dos Santos J.A., Iwahara
A., Ncoli I.G. et al. [J.A. dos Santos, Coordenacao de Instalacoes

Radiativas (CORAD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rua General Severiano 90, Botafogo, CEP 22290-040 RJ,
Brazil] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1114-1118) - summ
in ENGL
The Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Brazil routinely use
dose calibrators to measure the activity of solutions containing radiopharmaceuticals. These solutions are administered to patients
with the intention to diagnose or treat illnesses. However, for
optimal results, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be
determined as accurately as possible. The National Laboratory for
Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) led, since 1998, a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals
administered to patients in the NMS with the purpose promoting
quality control. This program has been carried out successfully in
Rio de Janeiro, but there is a need to implement it around the country. This can be resolved through the implementation of a network
of regional laboratories at various locations throughout the national
territory. Currently, such a network is active at a second site, located
in Braslia, covering the needs of the Center-West Region, and at a

third site, located in Porto Alegre, in the South Region. This work
Section 23 vol 70.2

369. Radiopharmaceutical management of 90 Y/111 in labeled antibodies: Shielding and quantication during preparation and
administration - Van Hemert F.J., Sloof G.W., Schimmel K.J.M.
et al. [Dr. F.J. Van Hemert, Department of Nuclear Medicine,
Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam,
Netherlands] - ANN. NUCL. MED. 2006 20/8 (575-581) - summ in
ENGL
Background: The combined application of potent -emitting isotopes for therapy with -emitting isotopes for scintigraphy requires
a profound regimen concerning team member safety and radionuclide quantication. Methods: We have developed materials
and methods for a proper and easy manipulation of 90 Y during
preparation and administration of 90 Y/ 111 In pharmaceuticals used
for radioimmunotherapy. Results: The efcacy of the shielding
measures is documented. Protocols for the calibration of -dose
calibrators with respect to 90 Y are extended to the assessment of
quench-corrected liquid scintillation counting of 90 Y. The contribution of 90 Y backscatter to 111 In counting is quantied. Newly
developed shielding equipment allows an adequate administration
of relatively large volumes (100 ml) of 90 Y/ 111 In labeled pharmaceuticals to patients. Conclusions: The procedures described
combine pharmaceutical (Good Manufacturing Practice) and radiation safety requirements with an accurate logging of relevant data.
See also: 379, 393, 397, 398, 399, 407, 410, 412, 413, 419, 420,
421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 428, 430, 445, 458, 488, 489, 525, 528,
530, 587.
2.2. Radiation hygiene
370. Assessment of errors caused by X-ray scatter and use
of contrast medium when using CT-based attenuation correction in PET - Ay M.R. and Zaidi H. [H. Zaidi, Division of
Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, 1211 Geneva 4,
Switzerland] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11
(1301-1313) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: Quantitative image reconstruction in positron emission
tomography (PET) requires an accurate attenuation map of the object under study for the purpose of attenuation correction. Current
dual-modality PET/CT systems offer signicant advantages over
stand-alone PET, including decreased overall scanning time and increased accuracy in lesion localisation and detectability. However,
the contamination of CT data with scattered radiation and misclassication of contrast medium with high-density bone in CT-based
attenuation correction (CTAC) are known to generate artefacts in
71

the attenuation map and thus the resulting PET images. The purpose
of this work was to quantitatively measure the impact of scattered
radiation and contrast medium on the accuracy of CTAC. Methods:
Our recently developed MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo X-ray CT
simulator for modelling both fan- and cone-beam CT scanners and
the Eidolon dedicated 3D PET Monte Carlo simulator were used to
generate realigned PET/CT data sets. The impact of X-ray scattered
radiation on the accuracy of CTAC was investigated through simulation of a uniform cylindrical water phantom for both a commercial
fan-beam multi-slice and a prototype cone-beam at panel detectorbased CT scanner. The inuence of contrast medium was studied by
simulation of a cylindrical phantom containing different concentrations of contrast medium. Moreover, an experimental study using an
anthropomorphic striatal phantom was conducted for quantitative
evaluation of errors arising from the presence of contrast medium by
calculating the apparent recovery coefcient (ARC) in the presence
of different concentrations of contrast medium. Results: The analysis of attenuation correction factors (ACFs) for the simulated
cylindrical water phantom in both fan- and cone-beam CT scanners
showed that the contamination of CT data with scattered radiation
in the absence of scatter removal causes underestimation of the true
ACFs, namely by 7.3% and 28.2% in the centre for the two geometries, respectively. The ARC was 190.7% for a cylindrical volume
of interest located in the main chamber of the striatal phantom containing contrast medium corresponding to 2,000 Hounseld units,
whereas the ARC was overestimated by less than 5% for the main
chamber and by 2% for the left/right putamen and caudate nucleus
compared with the absence of contrast medium. Conclusion: Without X-ray scatter compensation, the visual artefacts and quantitative
errors in at panel detector-based cone-beam geometry are substantial and propagate cupping artefacts to PET images during CTAC.
Likewise, contrast-enhanced CT images may create considerable
artefacts during CTAC in regions containing high concentrations of
contrast medium. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
See also: 396.

3. DIAGNOSIS, TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT


371. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements: Results from
total diet studies supported by the IAEA - Parr R.M., Aras
N.K. and Iyengar G.V. [R.M. Parr, RMP, Langackergasse 28a, 1190
Vienna, Austria] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1
(155-161) - summ in ENGL
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many
years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by
nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA).
This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more
than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the
application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special
equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation
was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition
in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium,
iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than
the dietary requirements. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
372. Availability of essential elements in bhasmas: Analysis of
Ayurvedic metallic preparations by INAA - Kumar A., Nair
A.G.C., Reddy A.V.R. and Garg A.N. [A. Kumar, Department of
Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, India]
- J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (173-180) - summ in
ENGL
Twenty bhasmas based on Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg, Ag, K, As, Cu, Sn
and gemstones have been analyzed for main constituent elements
along with minor (Na, K, Mg, Ca, P), trace (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn,
Hg) and toxic elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA) including their C, H, N and S contents. Siddhamakaradhwaja, an Hg preparation and Swet parpati of K were found to be
stoichiometrically HgS and KNO3 , respectively. K/P varies in a
wide range of 0.23 to 12 though for most bhasmas (n = 12) it is
in a close range of 2.3 1.2. Results for intercomparison studies
72

e
of Marine Sediment IAEA-433 are included. 2006 Akad miai
Kiad .
o
373. Elemental analysis of leaves and extracts of Casearia
medicinal plants by instrumental neutron activation analysis
- Yamashita C.I., Saiki M. and Serti J.A.A. [C.I. Yamashita, Neue
tron Activation Analysis Laboratory, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof.
Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 S o Paulo, Brazil] - J. RADIOANAL.
a
NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (181-186) - summ in ENGL
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (ESIAA) was applied to
determine the inorganic composition of leaves and extracts from
three different species of Casearia genus plant (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua). Statistical analysis of the analytical data of
leaf showed that the three Casearia species present similar elemental
composition. Extract from C. sylvestris showed signicantly different inorganic content in comparison with the two other species.
Certied reference material NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves was
analyzed for quality control. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
374. Short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis
of essential and trace elements in curry leaves (Murraya Koenigii) and their organic constituents by GC-MS - Choudhury
R.P., Jain G. and Garg A.N. [R.P. Choudhury, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247 667, India] J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (187-195) - summ in
ENGL
Fourteen samples of fresh curry leaves (Murraya Koenigii) were
collected from 13 states of India and analyzed for 6 minor (Ca,
Cl, K, Mg, Na and P) and 14 trace (Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg,
Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se Th and Zn) elements by 2-minute irradiation
in a reactor followed by high resolution -ray spectrometry. Peach
Leaves (SRM-1547) and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) were used
as comparator standards. Phosphorus was determined by counting
the -activity from 32 P using an end-window GM counter. Most
elements were found to vary in a wide range depending on their
origin of location, e.g., Na (104-455 g/g), K (10.3-30.3 mg/g), Ca
(9.44-28.3 mg/g), Mg (1.14-7.19 mg/g), P (0.43-1.69 mg/g), Mn
(24.8-63.0 /g), Fe (72.5-195 g/g), Se (40.1-131 ng/g) and Zn
(7.90-70.5 g/g). Variation in the elemental concentrations of the
same species of different origin may be attributed to ecological and
geographical variations. Further, column and thin layer chromatography were used for separating three organic constituents from
the ethanolic extract; 3-methylthiopropanenitrile; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl ester) and 1-penten-3-ol and
characterized by IR and GC-MS. Inorganic elements may be present
as complexes with the organic compounds. 2006 Akad miai
e
Kiad .
o
375. Analysis of the chemical elements in leaves infected by
fumagina by X-ray uorescence technique - Blonski M.S., Appoloni C.R., Parreira P.S. et al. [M.S. Blonski, State University
of Londrina, Center of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics,
C.P. 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, Brazil] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL.
CHEM. 2006 270/1 (197-201) - summ in ENGL
Energy dispersion X-ray uorescence technique (EDXRF) was
employed to study the effects of the fumagina disease through the
elementary chemical composition of leaves. The experimental setup
consisted of a Mo X-ray tube (K = 17.44 keV) with Zr lter and
a Si(Li) detector. The measurements were performed with infected
and healthy leaves of citric plants. The elements Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and
Zn were quantied. For all the elements of interest the measured
detection limit was at the order of g g -1 . 2006 Akad miai
e
Kiad .
o
376. Differences between elemental composition of orange juices
and leaves from organic and conventional production systems
- Turra C., Fernandes E.A.N., Bacchi M.A. et al. [C. Turra, Universidade de S o Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura,
a
Caixa Postal 96, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Brazil] - J. RADIOANAL.
NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (203-208) - summ in ENGL
A comprehensive sampling of organic and conventional oranges
was carried out in Bebedouro, an important citrus producing region of Brazil. The soils, leaves and fruits of the variety Valencia
(Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) were analyzed. The chemical characterization was
Section 23 vol 70.2

accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).


Indications for a difference between organic and conventional orange juices and leaves were obtained by applying univariate and
multivariate statistical analysis. There were differences between
samples for Br, Co, Cs, La and Rb from both systems. 2006
Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
377. Assessment of daily dietary intake of Hg and some essential
elements in diets of children from the Amazon region - Farias
L.A., Favaro D.I.T., Maihara V.A. et al. [L.A. Farias, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, LAN/CRPQ, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Caixa
Postal 11049, 05422-970 S o Paulo, Brazil] - J. RADIOANAL.
a
NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (217-223) - summ in ENGL
Daily dietary intake of Hg and some essential elements in diets
of children from communities in the Ja National Park, Amazon
u
region, were assessed. Diet samples were analyzed for total Hg
content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and Ca,
Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn contents by instrumental neutron activation
analysis. The weekly tolerable provisional intake for Hg in the
communities studied varied from 13 to 57 g of Hg per kg of
body weight, exceeding the limit of 5 g kg-1 set by the WHO.
Comparison of the daily dietary intake values to the new Dietary
Reference Intakes (4-8 years), showed prevalence of inadequacy.
2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
378. Treatment response evaluation by functional imaging

(Fren) - EVALUATION DE LA REPONSE AU TRAITEMENT PAR IMAGERIE


e
e
FONCTIONNELLE - Fournier L.-S., Cu nod C.-A., Cl ment O. and
Frija G. [L.-S. Fournier, Service de radiologie, h pital europ en Geo
e
orges-Pompidou, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France] - CANCER
RADIOTHER. 2006 10/6-7 (484-487) - summ in FREN, ENGL
Imaging in cancer plays a capital role to guide the clinician in his
choice of therapies. We will discuss the new techniques available to
predict and evaluate treatment response in oncology. The method
of reference to evaluate treatment response is based on the measure of lesion size. Functional imaging doesnt evaluate size, but
rather a physiological or molecular feature, which is probably modied earlier in response to treatment. Dynamic contrast-enhanced
functional imaging of microcirculation follows the biodistribution
of a contrast agent and analyses tumour vascularization. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging differentiates free and
restrained water molecules in tissues, reecting tumor cellularity.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is an application of MRI
that yields information on the metabolic content of a tissue. It detects relative quantities of various molecules which differ in tumour
compared to normal tissue. Positon-emission tomography using
18 FDG is a nuclear medicine technique which gives information
on tissue metabolism. Captation of FDG is proportional to the
proliferative activity and the number of viable cells in a tumour.
Human studies concerning these techniques are still quite preliminary, and the medical community must determine their potential
in clinical practice to evaluate treatment response in oncology.
2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
379. An overview of copper radionuclides and production of
61 Cu by proton irradiation of nat Zn at a medical cyclotron
- Rowshanfarzad P., Sabet M., Reza Jalilian A. and Kamalidehghan M. [P. Rowshanfarzad, Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine
Department, Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine
(NRCAM), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 31485498 Moazzen Blvd., Rajaeeshahr, Karaj, Iran] - APPL. RADIAT.
ISOT. 2006 64/12 (1563-1573) - summ in ENGL
In this article, production methods and applications of copper
radionuclides are overviewed with special attention toward 61 Cu,
due to its interesting nuclear properties. Selection of production
parameters for 61 Cu including: appropriate nuclear reaction, proton
beam energy, target thickness and targetry method are discussed for
NRCAM 30 MeV medical cyclotron. 64 Zn(p, )61 Cu was selected
as the best reaction and 61 Cu was produced by 22 MeV proton
bombardment of a 80 m thick natural zinc target. After 180
Ah irradiation, the resultant activity of 61 Cu was 6.006 Ci (12.015
mCi/ Ah). The chemical separation method was easy, quick and
efcient (>95%) and yielded a no carrier added product with high
chemical and radionuclidic purity (>99%). Detailed comparison
Section 23 vol 70.2

with previous production methods conrms that our results are superior to other reports published to date. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
380. In vivo quantitation of intratumoral radioisotope uptake
using micro-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography - Carlson S.K., Classic K.L., Hadac E.M.
et al. [Dr. S.K. Carlson, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic,
200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 559005, United States] - MOL.
IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (324-332) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the ability
of micro-single photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) to accurately quantitate
intratumoral radioisotope uptake in vivo and to compare these measurements with planar imaging and micro-SPECT imaging alone.
Procedures: Human pancreatic cancer xenografts were established
in 10 mice. Intratumoral radioisotope uptake was achieved via intratumoral injection of an attenuated measles virus vector expressing
the NIS gene (MV-NIS). On various days after MV-NIS injection, 123 I planar and micro-SPECT/CT imaging was performed.
Tumor activity was determined by dose calibrator measurements
and region-of-interest (ROI) image analysis. Agreement and reproducibility of tumor activity measurements were assessed by
Bland-Altman plots and Lins concordance correlation coefcient
(CCC). Results: Intratumoral radioisotope uptake was detected in
all mice. Scatterplots demonstrate strong agreement (CCC=0.93)between micro-SPECT/ CT ROI image analysis and dose calibrator
tumor activity measurements. The differences between dose calibrator activity measurements and those obtained with ROI image
analysis of micro-SPECT alone and planar imaging are less accurate
and more variable (CCC=0.84 and 0.78, respectively). Conclusions:
Micro-SPECT/CT can be used to accurately quantify intratumoral
radioisotope uptake in vivo and is more reliable than planar or
micro-SPECT imaging alone. Academy of Molecular Imaging
2006.
381. 99m Tc-Sestamibi, A sensitive probe for In Vivo imaging of
P-Glycoprotein inhibition by modulators and mdr1 antisense
oligodeoxynucleotides - Jekerle V., Wang J.-H., Scollard D.A. et
al. [M. Piquette-Miller, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Toronto, 144 College St., Toronto, ON M5S 3M2,
Canada] - MOL. IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (333-339) - summ in
ENGL
Purpose: We tested the suitability of 99m Tc-sestamibi to image
the inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistance in tumor cells and xenografts after antisense treatment and/
or inhibition with a novel Pgp modulator WK-X-34. Procedure:
Pgp inhibition was measured by daunorubicin transport assays and
uorescence microscopy in resistant A2780/Adr cells treated with
WK-X-34 and antisense. A2780/Adr xenograft mice were dosed
with mdr1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides intratumorally for three
days; next, mice were treated with WK-X-34, followed by 99m Tcsestamibi injection. Mice were imaged, sacriced, and tissues
collected. Images and isolated tissues were analyzed for 99 Tc distribution. Pgp expression was analyzed by immunouorescence
and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Both
WK-X-34 and mdr1 antisense treatments signicantly inhibited Pgp
activity in vitro and in xenografts. Biodistribution results correlated with results from the 99m Tc-sestamibi images. Mdr1 mRNA
and Pgp were signicantly down-regulated by antisense treatments.
Conclusions: 99m Tc-sestamibi is a sensitive probe to monitor Pgp
inhibition by different mechanisms in vivo in tumor xenografts.
Academy of Molecular Imaging 2006.
382. Current status of alpha-particle spectrometry - Garca
Tora o E. [E. Garca-Tora o, Laboratorio de Metrologa de
n

Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040


Madrid, Spain] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (12731280) - summ in ENGL
This paper describes the status of alpha-particle spectrometry.
Some of the main contributions made to this eld in the last
years are reviewed. Topics covered include instrumentation, source
characterization, numerical analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and
applications. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
73

383. Optimization of counting times for short-lived gamma-ray


emitters in air lter samples - Korun M. [M. Korun, Jo ef Stefan
z
Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
2006 64/10-11 (1329-1332) - summ in ENGL
A methodology for the optimization of the counting times in
a series of measurements of gamma-ray emitters in air lters is
presented. In the optimal measurement regime in measurements of
all the lters in a batch, the same minimum detectable activity is
attained. It is shown how the number of lters, the properties of the
gamma-ray emitter and the equipment inuence the measurement
time of the batch of lters and the minimum detectable activity
attained. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
384. Prociency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a
simulated ssion product reference spectrum - Karhu P., De
Geer L.-E., McWilliams E. et al. [P. Karhu, CTBTO, PTS, IMS/RM, P.O. Box 1200, A-1400 Vienna, Austria] - APPL. RADIAT.
ISOT. 2006 64/10-11 (1334-1339) - summ in ENGL
Within the prociency test programme for the radionuclide
laboratories supporting the verication of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the
characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference
material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual
Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of
a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The
method was found suitable for a prociency test assessing laboratories gamma spectroscopic analysis. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
385. Image reconstruction for positron emission tomography
using fuzzy nonlinear anisotropic diffusion penalty - Zhu H.,
Shu H., Zhou J. et al. [H. Zhu, PingYang Road, MinHang District,
Shanghai 201102, China] - MED. BIOL. ENG. COMPUT. 2006
44/11 (983-997) - summ in ENGL
Iterative algorithms such as maximum likelihood-expectation
maximization (ML-EM) become the standard for the reconstruction in emission computed tomography. However, such algorithms
are sensitive to noise artifacts so that the reconstruction begins to
degrade when the number of iterations reaches a certain value. In
this paper, we have investigated a new iterative algorithm for penalized-likelihood image reconstruction that uses the fuzzy nonlinear
anisotropic diffusion (AD) as a penalty function. The proposed
algorithm does not suffer from the same problem as that of MLEM algorithm, and it converges to a low noisy solution even if the
iteration number is high. The fuzzy reasoning instead of a nonnegative monotonically decreasing function was used to calculate
the diffusion coefcients which control the whole diffusion. Thus,
the diffusion strength is controlled by fuzzy rules expressed in a
linguistic form. The proposed method makes use of the advantages
of fuzzy set theory in dealing with uncertain problems and nonlinear AD techniques in removing the noise as well as preserving the
edges. Quantitative analysis shows that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is suitable to produce better reconstructed images
when compared with ML-EM, ordered subsets EM (OS-EM), Gaussian-MAP, MRP, TV-EM reconstructed images. International
Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2006.

3.1. Tracer techniques


387. Alkyl-uorinated thymidine derivatives for imaging cell
proliferation. I. The in vitro evaluation of some alkyl-uorinated thymidine derivatives - Toyohara J., Hayashi A., Gogami A.
et al. [J. Toyohara, Probe Research Section, Department of Molecular Probe, Molecular Imaging Center, Chiba, 263-8555, Japan] NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/6 (751-764) - summ in ENGL
Derivatives of 2 -deoxyuridine that contain uoroalkyl groups at
the C5 position and derivatives of thymidine that contain uoroalkyl groups at the N3 position were synthesized and examined in
three in vitro assays designed to evaluate their potential as radiopharmaceuticals for imaging cellular proliferation. Three of the
former nucleosides and ve of the latter were synthesized. The
three assays were as follows: (a) phosphoryl transfer assay, which
showed that all three of the former nucleosides and four of the latter
ones were phosphorylated by recombinant human thymidine kinase
1 (TK1) and that N3 -(2-uoroethyl)-thymidine (NFT202) was the
most potent substrate of the eight nucleosides studied; (b) transport
assay, which indicated that all eight nucleosides had good afnity
for an 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9- -d-ribofuranosylpurine-sensitive
mouse erythrocyte nucleoside transporter, with inhibition constants
in the range of 0.02-0.55 mM; and (c) degradation assay, which
showed that all but one of the former nucleosides and none of the
latter were degraded by recombinant Escherichia coli thymidine
phosphorylase (an enzyme that catalyzes the glycosidic bond of
thymidine and 2 -deoxyuridine derivatives). From these in vitro
screening assays, we selected NFT202 as a candidate for subsequent
in vivo evaluation because this compound met the three minimum
requirements of the in vitro screening assays and had the most potent
phosphorylation activity as a substrate for recombinant human TK1.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

386. Exercise acutely increases renal transit time of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in a post-liver transplant patient
- Murthy R., Chahal M., Appel G. et al. [Dr. R. Van Heertum,
Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Harkness Pavillion, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032,
United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (829-834) - summ
in ENGL
This case demonstrates the effect of exercise on the clearance
of Tc-99m MAG3 in a patient with renal insufciency status postliver transplant. Even after furosemide administration, the tracer
was retained in the kidneys after exercise. This is in contrast to
normal clearance demonstrated on a baseline study performed 3
days previously. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

388. Reducing renal uptake of 90 Y- and 177 Lu-labeled alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues - Miao
Y., Fisher D.R. and Quinn T.P. [Y. Miao, Department of Internal
Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211,
United States] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/6 (723-733) - summ
in ENGL
Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the
tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90 Y- and 177 Lu-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys3,4,10 , d-Phe7 ,
Arg11 ] -melanocyte stimulating hormone3-13 fDOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSHg through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid
(Glu) to the peptide sequence. Methods: A new peptide
of DOTA-Re(Glu2 , Arg11 )CCMSH was designed, synthesized
and labeled with 90 Y and 177 Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 90 Yand 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH was determined in
B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results: 90 Yand 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH exhibited signicantly
(P<.05) less renal uptake values than 90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTARe(Arg11 )CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose
administration. The renal uptake values of 90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTARe(Glu2 , Arg11 )CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of
90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h
postinjection. 90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH
displayed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios than 90 Y- and 177 LuDOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after
dose administration. The tumor-to-kidney uptake ratio of 90 Y- and
177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH was 2.28 and 1.69 times
of 90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h
postinjection. The 90 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH
activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidney.
Conclusions: Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to
the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake
values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90 Y- and
177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu2, Arg11 )CCMSH, facilitating their potential
applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

See also: 401, 431, 435, 441, 446, 451, 460, 461, 462, 466, 468,
469, 474, 475, 477, 479, 482, 489, 491, 496, 503, 504, 513, 516,
517, 518, 520, 525, 539, 541, 542, 543, 547, 548, 553, 560, 562,
563, 564, 566, 575, 586, 591, 596, 598, 602, 603.

389. The apparent positive cooperativity of in vivo [3 H]PK11195 binding in mouse brosarcoma - Momosaki S., Hosoi R.,
Takai N. et al. [S. Momosaki, Course of Allied Health Sciences,

74

Section 23 vol 70.2

Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 5650871, Japan] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/6 (797-800) - summ in
ENGL
To evaluate the binding properties of peripheral benzodiazepine
receptor (PBR) in mouse brosarcoma, [3 H]PK-11195 binding, in
vitro and in vivo, was investigated using either tissue dissection
or autoradiographic method. The binding characteristics in brosarcoma were compared with those in the kidney. The results of
an in vitro saturation study revealed that the maximal numbers of
PBR binding sites (Bmax ) in brosarcoma and in the kidney were
almost the same (kidney: 5.2 pmol/mg protein; brosarcoma: 5.0
pmol/mg protein). On the other hand, the binding afnity (Kd ) in
brosarcoma was lower than that in the kidney (kidney: 0.45 nM;
brosarcoma: 1.34 nM). It is noteworthy that the in vivo binding
of [3 H]PK-11195 in brosarcoma increased with increasing doses
of [3 H]PK-11195 (in the dose range of 0.03-1 mg/kg), whereas that
in the kidney decreased with competitive inhibition. The apparent
positive cooperativity of [3 H]PK-11195 binding in brosarcoma
was only observed under in vivo conditions and might be possibly
related to the incoordination of PBR subunits. 2006 Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.
390. Natural radioactivity traces in South-Brazilian cereal ours
by gamma-ray spectrometry - Scheibel V., Appoloni C.R. and
Schechter H. [V. Scheibel, Department of Physics, State University of Londrina, CCE, C.P.6001, 86051-990 Londrina, Brazil] J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (163-165) - summ in
ENGL
Cereal ours are the major component of the Brazilian diet and are
also important exportation products. Radioactivity concentrations
of 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs were determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal ours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye
and oat our) to verify the radiological security of these foodstuffs.
The measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry
using a 66% relative efciency HPGe detector. The 40 K our activities, at 95% of condence level were in: soy 474 3 Bq kg-1 ;
corn 30.0 0.3 Bq kg-1 ; rye 94 1 Bq kg-1 ; manioc 67 1 Bq kg-1 ;
oat 76 1 Bq kg-1 and wheat 36.2 0.4 Bq kg-1 . The lower limit
of detection for 40 K ranged from 0.54 to 1.43 Bq kg-1 . The 137 Cs
activities in our samples were: soy 0.07 Bq kg-1 , corn 0.01
Bq kg-1 , oat 0.03 Bq kg-1 and in wheat, manioc and rye 0.02
Bq kg-1 . The highest concentrations levels of 232 Th and 226 Ra
were 0.69 0.04 Bq kg-1 and 0.44 0.03 Bq kg-1 , respectively, in
soy our. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
391. Analysis of beers from Brazil with synchrotron radiation
total reection X-ray uorescence - Moreira S., Vives A.E.S.,
Zucchi O.L.A.D. et al. [S. Moreira, State University of Campinas,
FEC/UNICAMP, P. O. Box 6021, 13083-852 Campinas, Brazil] J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 270/1 (167-171) - summ in
ENGL
In this study the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn
and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers
were determined by synchrotron radiation total reection X-ray
uorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with
the limits established by the Brazilian legislation and the nutritional
values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL, USA). The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence
Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, in
Campinas, S o Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for exa
citation. A small volume of 5 l of beers containing an internal
standard used to correct geometry effects was analyzed without pretreatment. The measuring time was 100 seconds and the detection
limits obtained varied from 1 g l -1 for Mn and Fe to 15 g l-1 for
e
o
P. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
392. The role of emission tomography in pharmacokinetic and
pharmacodynamic studies in clinical psychopharmacology Malizia A.L. [A.L. Malizia, Psychopharmacology Unit, University
of Bristol, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1
3NY, United Kingdom] - J. PSYCHOPHARMACOL. 2006 20/4
SUPPL. (100-107) - summ in ENGL
Position Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) can be used for both pharmacokinetic
and pharmacodynamic measures in vivo in man. As such they have
Section 23 vol 70.2

a wide range of applications including description of neurochemical changes in disease, occupancy, brain effects of medicines and
discovery and validation of biomarkers. The power of these tools
is in their chemical specicity and sensitivity, and in the ability to
describe processes in vivo, thus documenting the effects of genetic
and environmental interactions. The future of these technologies
is dependent on an investment in bringing out and validating new
radiotracers. 2006 British Association for Psychopharmacology.
393. Preparation of 18 F labeled amino acid O-(2-[18 F] uoroethyl)-L-tyrosine using indirect and direct labeling methods Wang M., Yin D., Cheng D. et al. [M. Wang, Radiopharmaceutical
Centre, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL.
CHEM. 2006 270/2 (439-443) - summ in ENGL
18 F-labeled amino acid O-(2-[18 F]uoroethyl)-L- tyrosine ([18 F]FET) has been used as an in vivo positron emission tomography
(PET) tracer for tumor metabolitic imaging. Here, the synthesis
of [18 F]FET using two different methods is reported. The rst
Method (I) for the [18 F]FET synthesis was an indirect labeling
route, which was a two-step reaction consisting of uorination of
1,2-bis(tosyloxy)ethane and uoroalkylation of unprotected L-tyrosine. The second Method (II) was a direct labeling route which was
the direct nucleophilic radiouorination of the protected precursor
N-BOC-(O-(2-tosyloxyethyl))-L-tyrosine methyl ester, followed by
a rapid removal of the protecting group. For the rst method, the
radiochemical yield was about 45% at the end of synthesis (EOS),
and the radiochemical purity was over 97%. The radiochemical
yield in the second method was 40% (EOS) on an average, and the
radiochemical purity was over 96%. Microwave heating was also
introduced into the synthesis of [18 F]FET. For Method I, each of
two steps could be completed within 2-3 minutes under microwave
conditions and the radiochemical yields were 85% and 95%, respectively, which was reasonably high and reproducible. For Method II,
the highest labeling efciency in the radiouorinated step was 37%
in the synthesis time of 3 minutes under microwave conditions.
2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
394. Scintigraphic imaging of P-glycoprotein expression with
a radiolabelled antibody - Van Eerd J.E.M., De Geus-Oei L.F., Oyen W.J.G. et al. [J.E.M. Van Eerd, Department of Nuclear
Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box
9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED.
MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1266-1272) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane efux pump protein that is involved in multidrug resistance (MDR). Tumour cells
with high P-gp expression show poor response to cancer treatment
with several chemotherapeutics. In vivo targeting and visualisation
of P-gp expression would allow MDR to be evaluated non-invasively prior to treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate
the feasibility of visualising P-gp expression in tumours using a
monoclonal anti-P-gp antibody, 15D3. Methods: Nude BALB/c
mice with subcutaneously growing human uterine sarcoma cell tumours with either high (MES-SA/D 5 1977) or low (MES-SA
1976) P-gp expression were used. When tumours were 0.2-0.4 g,
mice received 131 I-15D3 or 111 In-DTPA-15D3 monoclonal anti-Pgp antibody intravenously. Images were acquired up to 3 days p.i.
and radioactivity concentration in various tissues was determined after euthanisation of the animals. Results: The images demonstrated
that radioactivity accumulated to a higher concentration in high P-gp
expressing tumours than in the low P-gp expressing MES-SA 1976
tumour. Furthermore, visualisation of the P-gp expressing tumours
was superior with 111 In-DTPA-15D3 than with 131 I-15D3. After
injection of 111 In-DTPA-15D3, the high P-gp expressing MESSA/D 5 1977 tumours were clearly visualised at 3 days p.i. The
biodistribution data indicated that radioactivity concentration in the
high P-gp expressing tumours was higher than in the tumours with
low P-gp expression (20.78 1.42 %ID/g for MES-SA/Dx5 1977
tumours and 8.39 3.78 %ID/g for MES-SA 1976 tumours for
111 In-DTPA-15D3). Conclusion: The 111 In-labelled monoclonal
anti-P-gp antibody clearly visualised P-gp expression in a human
uterine sarcoma tumour in nude mice. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
395. Risk assessment in liposarcoma patients based on FDG PET
imaging - Brenner W., Eary J.F., Hwang W. et al. [W. Brenner,
75

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany] EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1290-1295) summ in ENGL
Purpose: Tumor grade and subtype are considered standard parameters for risk assessment in patients with liposarcoma. The
aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of [18 F]uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-derived maximum standardized uptake
value (SUVmax ) for prediction of outcome in liposarcoma patients.
Methods: 18 F-FDG PET was performed in 54 patients with liposarcoma prior to therapy. SUVmax was calculated for each tumor
and results were correlated with tumor grade, subtype, and relapsefree survival. Results: SUVmax ranged from 0.4 to 15.9 (mean
3.6) and was signicantly lower in grade I than in grade II and
grade III tumors. SUVmax was 2.3 1.7, 3.5 1.5, 4.8 2.5, and
5.6 5.8 in well-differentiated, myxoid/round cell, dedifferentiated,
and pleomorphic subtypes, respectively. Borderline differences
(p=0.059) were found between tumor SUVmax in patients with and
without relapse. Using a SUV of 3.6 as cut-off, the accuracy in
predicting a relapse was 75%. Tumor grade yielded a lower accuracy for predicting relapse (50%), as did tumor subtype (35%). In
Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with a SUVmax >3.6 had
a signicantly shorter disease-free survival of 21 months compared
with 44 months in patients with a SUV max 3.6. Tumor grading
and tumor subtype did not yield signicant differences. Conclusion: Pretherapy tumor SUV obtained by FDG PET imaging was
a more useful parameter for risk assessment in liposarcoma than
tumor grade or subtype. A SUVmax of more than 3.6 resulted in
a signicantly reduced disease-free survival and identied patients
at high risk for developing early local recurrences or metastatic
disease. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
396. Radiation protection in radionuclide therapies with 90 Yconjugates: Risks and safety - Cremonesi M., Ferrari M.,
Paganelli G. et al. [G. Paganelli, Division of Nuclear Medicine,
European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti, 435, 20141 Milan,
Italy] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (13211327) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: The widespread interest in 90 Y internal radionuclide
treatments has drawn attention to the issue of radiation protection
for staff. Our aim in this study was to identify personnel at risk
and to validate the protection devices used. Methods: 90 Y-MoAb
(Zevalin, 15 cases, 1.1 GBq/patient) and 90 Y-peptide (90 Y-DOTATOC) systemic (i.v., 50 cases, 3.0 GBq/patient) and locoregional
(l.r., 50 cases, 0.4 GBq/patient) treatments were considered. Radiolabelling was carried out in a dedicated hot cell. Tele-tongs, shielded
(PMMA: polymethylmethacrylate) syringes/vials and an automatic
dose fractionating system were used. Operators wore anti-X-ray
and anti-contamination gloves, with TLD dosimeters placed over
the ngertips. For i.v. administration, activity was administered by
a dedicated system; for l.r. administration, during activity infusion
in the brain cavity, tongs were used and TLDs were placed over the
ngertips. The air kerma-rate was measured around the patients.
Results: The use of devices provided a 75% dose reduction, with
mean ngertip doses of 2.9 mGy (i.v. MoAbs), 0.6 mGy (i.v. peptides)/ radiolabelling procedure and 0.5 mGy/l.r. administration.
The mean effective dose to personnel was 5 Sv/patient. The air
kerma-rate around the patients administered i.v. 90 Y-peptides were
3.5 (1 h) and 1.0 (48 h) Gy/h at 1 m. Patient hospitalisation
of 6 h (l.r.)/48 h (i.v.) guaranteed that the recommended limits
of 3 mSv/year to family members and 0.3 mSv/year to the general population (Council Directive 97/43/Euratom) were respected.
Conclusions: When specic procedures are adopted, a substantial
improvement in 90 Y manipulation is attainable, reducing doses and
increasing safety. For the widespread clinical use of 90 Y-conjugates,
a completely automatic labelling procedure is desirable. 2006
Springer-Verlag.
397. Preparation and evaluation of 89 Zr-Zevalin for monitoring
of 90 Y-Zevalin biodistribution with positron emission tomography - Perk L.R., Visser O.J., Stigter-Van Walsum M. et al.
[G.A.M.S. Van Dongen, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and
Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117,
1007 MB, Amsterdam, Netherlands] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL.
IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1337-1345) - summ in ENGL
76

Purpose: To evaluate whether 89 Zr can be used as a PET


surrogate label for quantication of 90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (
90 Y-Zevalin) biodistribution and dosimetry before myeloablative
radioimmunotherapy. Methods: Zevalin was labelled with 89 Zr by
introducing N-succinyldesferal (N-sucDf) as a second chelate. For
comparison of the in vitro stability of 89 Zr-Zevalin and 88 Y-Zevalin
(as a substitute for 90 Y), samples were incubated in human serum
at 37C up to 6 days. Biodistribution of 89 Zr-Zevalin and 88 YZevalin was assessed at 24, 48, 72 and 144 h p.i. by co-injection in
nude mice bearing the non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) xenograft
line Ramos. The clinical performance of 89 Zr-Zevalin-PET was
evaluated via a pilot imaging study in a patient with NHL, who had
undergone [18 F]FDG-PET 2 weeks previously. Results: Modication of Zevalin with N-sucDf resulted in an N-sucDf-to-antibody
molar ratio of 0.83 0.04. After radiolabelling and purication, the
radiochemical purity and immunoreactivity of 89 Zr-Zevalin always
exceeded 95% and 80%, respectively. 89 Zr-Zevalin showed the
same stability in serum as 88 Y-Zevalin, with a radiochemical purity
>95% during a period of 6 days. The co-injected 89 Zr-Zevalin
and 88 Y-Zevalin conjugates showed a very similar biodistribution,
except for liver and bone accumulation at 72 and 144 h p.i., which
was signicantly higher for 89 Zr than for 88 Y. PET images obtained after injection of 89 Zr-Zevalin showed clear targeting of all
known tumour lesions. Conclusion: 89 Zr-Zevalin and 88 Y-Zevalin
showed a very similar biodistribution in mice, implying that 89 ZrZevalin-PET might be well suited for prediction of 90 Y-Zevalin
biodistribution in a myeloablative setting. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
398. Production and separation of no-carrier-added radioactive
tracers of yttrium, strontium and rubidium from heavy-ion irradiated germanium target: Applicability to the standardization
of a separation technique for production of positron-emitting
radionuclide 86 Y - Pal S., Chattopadhyay S., Das M.K. and
Sudersanan M. [S. Pal, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha
Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, 700 064, India] - APPL.
RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/12 (1521-1527) - summ in ENGL
Among various positron-emitting radionuclides, certain radioisotopes of Y, Sr and Rb have important applications in diagnostic and
therapeutic nuclear medicine. In the present work, an attempt has
been made to produce some of those radioisotopes by irradiating a
natural Ge-target material with heavy-ion oxygen (16 O+6 ) projectiles. An effective radiochemical separation scheme was developed
to isolate Y, Sr and Rb radiotracers from the irradiated Ge-matrix
in no-carrier-added form with a view to applying those radiotracers
for standardization of a technique for the radiochemical separation
of Y from natural Sr target. The standardized separation technique
could be utilized for the production of the positron-emitting 86 Y
from an enriched 86 Sr target irradiated at a medical cyclotron.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
399. Automated no-carrier-added synthesis of [1-11 C]-labeled
d- and l-enantiomers of lactic acid - Drandarov K., Schubiger
P.A. and Westera G. [G. Westera, Center for Radiopharmaceutical
Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, University
Hospital Z rich, CH-8091 Zurich, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland]
u
- APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006 64/12 (1613-1622) - summ in ENGL
The rst purely chemical method for automated no-carrier-added
synthesis of [1-11 C]-labeled d(R)- and l(S)-2-hydroxypropanoic
acid (lactic acid) was developed for experimental neurophysiology studies and position emission tomography (PET) diagnosis.
Starting from sodium 1-hydroxyethanesulfonate and [11 C]HCN
(trapped as [11 C]KCN) the intermediate dl-(R,S)-[1-11 C]-2-hydroxypropanenitrile was prepared. Its rapid acid hydrolysis gave
dl-(R,S)-[1-11 C]lactic acid, which was isolated by preparative
reversed phase HPLC and automatically injected on a second preparative C18 HPLC column coated with a chiral selector, where both
[1-11 C]lactic acid enantiomers were separated by chiral ligandexchange chromatography. Two novel chiral selectors for HPLC
enantiomeric separation of -hydroxy acids, namely d(R)- or l(S)-2-amino-3-methyl-3-(5-phenylpentylsulfanyl)-butanoic acid were
utilized for the preparative HPLC separation of the [1-11 C]lactic
acid enantiomers. The preparation of the selectors and the coating
procedure for the manufacturing of the preparative chiral HPLC
Section 23 vol 70.2

columns are described. A highly efcient trap for [11 C]HCN is presented. The whole radiosynthesis is automated, takes about 45 min
and leads to more than 80% decay corrected overall radiochemical
yield of each enantiomer (up to 2.5 GBq) with over 99% radiochemical, chemical and enantiomeric purity. The specic activity at the
end of the synthesis is about 400 GBq/ mol. 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
All rights reserved.
400. Use of PET for evaluation of treatment response in oncology

(Fren) - PLACE ACTUELLE DE LA TEP DANS LEVALUATION DES TRAITEMENTS EN ONCOLOGIE - Bourguet P. [P. Bourguet, D partement
e
dimagerie m dicale, centre Eug` ne-Marquis, rue Bataille-dese
e
Flandres-Dunkerque, 35042 Rennes cedex, France] - CANCER
RADIOTHER. 2006 10/6-7 (334-337) - summ in FREN, ENGL
18 FDG -PET is now usually included in the treatment strategy,
for the staging or the diagnosis of recurrence. In lymphoma, PET
is well documented for evaluation of tumour response. For solid
tumours, despite good published results, the accuracy of PET has
to be conrmed by large series of patients. A good interpretation of
PET needs a SUV analysis. New radiotraceurs of the nuclear synthesis could certainly improve the accuracy of response evaluation
by PET. 2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
401. Amplication strategies in MR imaging: Activation and
accumulation of sensing contrast agents (SCAs) - Querol M.
and Bogdanov Jr. A. [Dr. A. Bogdanov Jr., Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave.
North, Worcester, MA 01655, United States] - J. MAGN. RESON.
IMAGING 2006 24/5 (971-982) - summ in ENGL
We review new strategies for the development of Gd3+ -based T1relaxation agents and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation
transfer (PARACEST) "sensing" contrast agents (SCAs) designed
specically to detect small molecules or enzymatic activity in living systems. The rst class of agents exhibits molecular "sensing"
properties as a result of water coordination sphere effects, cleavage, or synthesis of reactive precursor compounds that recombine
with macromolecules with the resultant formation of immobilized
or rotationally constrained paramagnetic cations. This effect results in changes of water proton relaxation times. The second class
(PARACEST) comprises a family of lanthanide-based paramagnetic
compounds suitable for CEST imaging. The need for both types
of MR agents is justied by efforts to utilize magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) to visualize ne structures in living tissue, and to
increase the molecular specicity of MRI. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
402. Can administration of metoclopramide reduce artefacts
related to abdominal activity in myocardial perfusion SPECT?
- Gr ning T., Brogsitter C., Khonsari M. et al. [Dr. T. Gr ning, Deu
u
partment of Nuclear Medicine, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth PL6
8DH, United Kingdom] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12
(953-957) - summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial perfusion SPECT is frequently affected by artefacts related to abdominal activity. Metoclopramide
has been suggested to relieve this, but two previous studies
have shown conicting results. METHODS: Ninety-ve patients
received 10 mg metoclopramide orally after injection of Tc-tetrofosmin for the stress scan and 86 patients had metoclopramide
after their rest injection. A control group of 82 patients did not
receive metoclopramide. Scans were evaluated visually by three
readers. RESULTS: Metoclopramide given before the stress scan
led to abdominal activity being visually better in 16 scans, worse
in 10, and unchanged in 67 scans, compared to the same patients
rest scan without metoclopramide administration. Metoclopramide
administered before the rest scan resulted in abdominal activity in 11
scans being visually better, in 19 worse, and 53 scans were deemed
unchanged. These differences were not signicant. The number of
repeat stress or rest scans was not signicantly different between patients who had received metoclopramide and those who had not. The
administration of metoclopramide, irrespective of whether it was
given before the stress or rest scan, made no signicant difference
to inferior wall-to-abdomen count ratio. CONCLUSION: Neither
qualitative nor quantitative analysis showed an effect of metoclopramide on abdominal activity in myocardial perfusion SPECT.
2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Section 23 vol 70.2

403. Preparation of 99mTc-Nanocoll for use in sentinel node


localization: Validation of a protocol for supplying in unit-dose
syringes - OBrien L.M., Dufn R. and Millar A.M. [Dr. A.M.
Millar, Department of Pharmacy, Royal Inrmary of Edinburgh,
Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, United Kingdom] NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (999-1003) - summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVES: To determine if Tc-Nanocoll is affected by storage in a syringe, passage through an R-Lock or mixing with Patent
Blue V dye. METHODS: A Nanocoll kit was reconstituted at 280
MBq/5 ml. Samples of 0.5 ml were drawn into 3 ml Plastipak
syringes. After 1 h and 6 h, adsorption of Tc on a syringe was
measured and the following tests of quality were performed on
samples from the kit and a syringe: Tc-pertechnetate impurity by
thin-layer chromatography, the percentage of Tc on particles >100
nm by Nuclepore ltration and particle size by photon correlation
spectroscopy. These tests were also applied to samples that had
been passed through an R-Lock or mixed with Patent Blue V. Each
experiment was performed ve times. RESULTS: In all samples,
adsorption of Tc on syringes was <1%, Tc-pertechnetate impurity
was <2%, >95% of Tc was labelled to particles <100 nm in diameter, the mean particle diameter was 6.6 nm and the particles had
a diameter of <12 nm. All tests showed no signicant difference
(P>0.05, n=5) between Tc-Nanocoll from the original kit and a
syringe at either 1 h or 6 h. Similar results were obtained with
samples that had been passed through an R-Lock or mixed with
Patent Blue V. CONCLUSIONS: A capped 3 ml Plastipak syringe
is a suitable container in which to supply Tc-Nanocoll. Neither
passage through an R-Lock nor mixing with Patent Blue V affects
the quality of Tc-Nanocoll. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
Inc.
404. Training of staff for the delivery of PET/CT services in the
UK - Perkins A.C., Gordon I., Read J. and Ellis B. [Prof. A.C.
Perkins, Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, United Kingdom] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN.
2006 27/12 (1005-1010) - summ in ENGL
Evidence for the cost effectiveness of PET/CT imaging is now
driving the widespread introduction of PET/CT services throughout
the UK. The provision of PET/CT facilities will require a workforce of medical, scientic, technical and engineering staff who are
adequately trained and t for purpose. Suitably trained staff in this
speciality are scarce. The development and accreditation of training
courses and other educational resources for training programmes in
all disciplines will therefore be required at a national and regional
level. The implementation of PET/CT training can be achieved
more cost-effectively by developing multi-professional learning resources whenever possible. It is intended that the recommendations
would be implemented by close co-operation of both public and private healthcare providers together with educational establishments.
2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
405. Comparison of SPECT aerosol deposition data with twentyfour-hour clearance measurements - Fleming J.S., Quint M.,
Bolt L. et al. [Dr. J.S. Fleming, Department of Nuclear Medicine,
Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, SO16 6YD, United
Kingdom] - J. AEROSOL MED. DEPOSITION CLEAR. EFF.
LUNG 2006 19/3 (261-267) - summ in ENGL
Three-dimensional (3D) radionuclide imaging provides detailed
information on the distribution of inhaled aerosol material within
the body. Analysis of the data can provide estimates of the deposition per airway generation. Information on regional distribution
of deposited aerosol can also be obtained from 24-hour clearance
measurements. In this study, a nebulizer was used to deliver a
radiolabeled aerosol to nine human subjects. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to assess the
distribution of aerosol deposition per airway generation. The deposition pattern was also estimated using measurements of the aerosol
remaining in the lung 24 h after inhalation. The error in the SPECT
value was assessed by simulation and that in the 24-h clearance
value by repeat analysis. The mean fraction of lung deposition
in the conducting airway (CADF) from SPECT was 0.21. The
corresponding 24-h clearance value was 0.23. These values were
not signicantly different. There was a weak but non-signicant
correlation between the SPECT and 24-h measurements (r = 0.49).
The standard error of the difference was 0.11. The corresponding
77

errors on the SPECT and 24-h clearance measurements were 0.04


and 0.05, respectively. There was no systematic difference between
the values of conducting airways deposition obtained from 24-h
measurements and SPECT. However, there were random differences on individual subjects, which were larger than the estimated
measurement errors. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
406. Imaging probes targeting matrix metalloproteinases - Van
De Wiele C. and Oltenfreiter R. [C. Van De Wiele, Department
of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, De Pintelaan 185,
9000 Ghent, Belgium] - CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006
21/5 (409-417) - summ in ENGL
During the past few years, several imaging probes targeting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been developed. Most of
these probes have been validated in animal models. Overall, results derived from most of these studies have been disappointing.
Whether or not this relates to shortcomings of the imaging probes
used or to the set-up of the reported studies is currently unclear.
Firstly, MMPs targeted in these studies, MMP-1, -2 and -9, are cell
secreted and their expression is known to vary extensively within
one tumor type, depending on the stage of development of the tumor
and on the presence of naturally occurring TIMPs. Given the lack of
data on the levels of MMP expression by incoculated tumor tissue at
the time of imaging in most studies reported, it cannot be excluded
that the negative results reported are, in fact, false-negative imaging
results. Secondly, given that most of the agents used for imaging are
intrinsically broad-spectrum agents, their higher afnity for specic
subsets of MMPs does not necessarily imply that a positive imaging result also corresponds to overexpression of specic subsets of
MMPs, as suggested in some papers published. Accordingly, wellcharacterized tumor models need to be developed for the purpose
of validating currently available, as well as future, MMP-imaging
probes. So far, only 111 In-DTPA-N-TIMP-2 has been injected in
patients, respectively suffering from Kaposi Sarcoma. Imaging results obtained with this agent proved disappointing. Imaging results
obtained with other MMP-targeting probes in patients are awaited.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
407. Preparation and use of 131 I magic gel as a dosimeter for
targeted radionuclide therapy - Courbon F., Love P., Chittenden
S. et al. [F. Courbon, Nuclear Medicine Department, University
Hospital, Avenue Jean Poulh` s 31000, Toulouse, France] - CANe
CER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/5 (427-436) - summ in
ENGL
Clinical interest in targeted radiotherapy is increasing, but accurate dosimetry studies are difcult to achieve. The aim of this
study was to investigate the preparation and use of a "normoxic"
polymer gel (with a tissue-equivalent density), known as MAGIC
gel, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for non-sealed source
dosimetry. MAGIC gel samples were mixed with deionized water
(MAGIC95 ) or a solution of131 I ( 131 I-MAGIC95 ). By measuring
the radioinduced variations of R2 values (relaxivity) of irradiated
gels, we analyzed the response of MAGIC95 and MAGIC samples to external photon beam or 131 I irradiation (131 I-MAGIC95 ).
MRI showed that a homogeneous dose distribution from 131 I can
be achieved if the MAGIC gel, at a temperature of approximately
35C, is mixed in 131 I solution and the resulting mixture shaken
gently for 30 minutes. It is important that the vials are completely
lled, as residual air reduces polymerization and causes spontaneous
polymerization stripes. Responses of MAGIC95 or MAGIC gels to
external photon beam irradiation are similar. The variations of R2
values for 131 I-MAGIC 95 gel depend on the absorbed dose and not
on the duration of the irradiation being reproducible from one batch
of gel to another. MAGIC gel responses to 131 I or external beam
irradiation (EBI) are different. Our preliminary results suggest that
radiolabeled "normoxic" polymer can be easily and safely produced.
Radiolabeled MAGIC gel may, therefore, be suitable for the creation
of phantoms dedicated to nonsealed source dosimetry. Mary Ann
Liebert, Inc.
408. The diagnostic role of radioactivity in sentinel nodes in oral
and oropharyngeal cancer - Kov cs A.F., D bert N., Walendzik
a
o
H. et al. [A.F. Kov cs, Department of Oromaxillofacial Plasa
tic Surgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical School,
House 21, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main D-60590,
78

Germany] - CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/5 (535543) - summ in ENGL


Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB), using radioactive tracers, is
a novel, interesting tool in the staging of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (OOSCC), which could lead
to a reduced rate of elective neck dissections. The aim of the study
was to evaluate the ranking of measured radioactivity in the sentinel
lymph nodes (SLNs) and to correlate these ndings with histopathological results to assess the number of SLN being sufcient for
exact staging of the neck. In 77 consecutive patients with T1-4
OOSCC clinically and positron emission tomography-staged NO,
between 15 and 55 MBq of Tc-99m-labeled albumin-microcolloids
were injected peritumorally and 213 SLNs were excised by small
skin incisions using a gamma probe 2-3 hours later. The counts per
second (cps) were measured ex vivo and excised SLNs were ranked
according to their cps dening the LN with the highest activity as
primary SLN, followed by a 2nd, 3rd, and so forth, SLN. Elective
neck dissections were not performed. Median activity was 213 cps.
All levels harbored SLNs with a maximum (43%) in level II and a
minimum in level V (1%). SLNs in level II had signicantly higher
tracer accumulation (median, 289 cps) than those in levels I (144
cps) and IV (149 cps), but distant levels did not have signicantly
lower counts, compared to proximal. Eight (8) pathologically positive SLNs in 7 patients (7/77 = 9%; median activity, 157 cps) were
detected. The median counts of the positive SLNs were not signicantly different from those of the 205 negative SLNs (235 cps). The
positive SLN was the one with the highest tracer accumulation in 4
cases, with the second highest in 1 case, and with the third highest
tracer accumulation in 2 cases. Three (3) positive SLN were in level
IB, 4 in level IIA, and I in level III. One (1) patient had 2 positive
SLNs: a SLN with the third highest activity in level IIB and a SLN
with the fth highest activity in level III. In OOSCC, excision of
only 1 SLN is not feasible. The positive SLNs were not necessarily
the hottest nodes. Utilizing radiotracer lymphatic mapping, the 3
SLNs with the highest activity should be excised for exact staging
of the neck in patients with T1-3 tumors. Excision of all radioactive
nodes is recommended until further studies will prove this result.
Large T4a tumors should not be staged using SNB. Mary Ann
Liebert, Inc.
409. Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of
carbon-11 labeled 2 -carbomethoxy-3 -(3 -((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl)nortropanes: Candidate radioligands for in vivo
imaging of the serotonin transporter with positron emission
tomography - Stehouwer J.S., Jarkas N., Zeng F. et al. [M.M.
Goodman, Department of Radiology, Emory University, 1364
Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States] - J. MED.
CHEM. 2006 49/23 (6760-6767) - summ in ENGL
2 - Carbomethoxy- 3 - (3 - ((Z)- 2- iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane
(mZIENT,
1)
and
2 -carbomethoxy-3 -(3 -((Z)-2-bromoethenyl)
phenyl)nortropane (mZBrENT, 2) were synthesized and evaluated for binding
to the human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters
(SERT, DAT, and NET, respectively) using transfected cells. Both
1 and 2 have a high afnity for the SERT (Ki = 0.2 nM) and are
160 times more selective for the SERT than the DAT. Compound
2 has a signicantly higher afnity for the NET than 1, and this may
be a result of the different size and electronegativity of the halogen
atoms. MicroPET imaging in nonhuman primates with [11 C]1 and
[11 C]2 demonstrated that both tracers behave similarly in vivo with
high uptake being observed in the SERT-rich brain regions and
peak uptake being achieved in about 55 min postinjection. Chase
studies with citalopram and methylphenidate demonstrated that
this uptake is the result of preferential binding to the SERT. 2006
American Chemical Society.
410. Standardization of radionuclide by (LS)- coincidence
counting using the geometry-efciency variation method Hwang H.-Y., Sung K.S., Lee K.B. et al. [T.S. Park, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, P.O.Box 102, Yuseong,
Daejeon, 305-600, South Korea] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT. 2006
64/10-11 (1119-1123) - summ in ENGL
A liquid scintillation counting method consisting of three photomultiplier tubes for beta counters and a NaI(Tl) gamma counter has
been developed for the standardization of radionuclides with the
Section 23 vol 70.2

- coincidence technique. The beta detection efciency functions


are obtained by means of a geometry-variation method developed
in the present work; an array of beta detectors is moved uniformly
at the same time from a centrally located counting vial to 50 mm.
The method has been applied in the standardization of 60 Co and
134 Cs. Unquenched liquid scintillation samples with nominal count
rates from 1000 to 6000 s-1 were prepared. The observed beta
detection efciencies with this method are from 90 to 45% in the
case of 60 Co, and from 84 to 50% for 134 Cs. The output of each beta
channel is summed together and compared with gamma data by the
coincidence analyzer. The dead time of each counting channel is
adjusted to be 20 s, sufciently long to suppress the afterpulses in
the beta counting channel. The activity of each sample is determined
by using the Cox and Isham formula. The obtained results are in
good agreement with KRISS certied values. 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
All rights reserved.
411. Trafcking of dietary fat in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats - Jackman M.R., Kramer R.E., MacLean P.S. and
Bessesen D.H. [M.R. Jackman, Univ. of Colorado, Denver and
Health Sciences Center, PO Box 6511, F-8305, Aurora, CO 80045,
United States] - AM. J. PHYSIOL. ENDOCRINOL. METAB. 2006
291/5 (E1083-E1091) - summ in ENGL
The trafcking of dietary fat was assessed in obesity-prone
(OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) male and female rats. Test meals
containing [1- 14 C]palmitate were delivered through gastric feeding
tubes while rats consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) or after
5 days of a high-fat diet (HFD). Over the subsequent 24 h, the
appearance of 14 C was followed in the GI tract, skeletal muscles
(SM), liver, adipose tissues (AT), and expired CO2 . There was no
difference in the production of 14 CO2 between OP and OR rats
consuming a HCD. However, after 5 days on HFD, OR rats produced signicantly more 14 CO 2 after the test meal than OP rats
(P < 0.001 females, P = 0.03 males). The differential oxidation
of dietary fat between OP and OR rats on HFD was not due to
differences in absorption but rather was associated with preferential
disposition of tracer to AT in OP rats. Measurements of lipoprotein
lipase in part explained increased tracer uptake by AT in OP rats
but were not consistent with increased SM tracer uptake in OR
rats. Surprisingly, female rats oxidized more tracer than male rats
irrespective of phenotype or diet. These results are consistent with
the notion that differences in the partitioning of dietary fat between
storage in AT and oxidation in SM and liver that develop shortly
after the introduction of a HFD may in part underlie the differential
tendency for OR and OP rats to gain weight on this diet. Copyright
2006 the American Physiological Society.
412. Methods and applications of positron-based medical
imaging - Herzog H. [H. Herzog, Institute of Medicine,
Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, Germany] - RADIAT.
PHYS. CHEM. 2007 76/2 (337-342) - summ in ENGL
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic imaging
method to examine metabolic functions and their disorders. Dedicated ring systems of scintillation detectors measure the 511 keV
-radiation produced in the course of the positron emission from
radiolabelled metabolically active molecules. A great number of
radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, or 18 F positron
emitters have been applied both for research and clinical purposes
in neurology, cardiology and oncology. The recent success of PET
with rapidly increasing installations is mainly based on the use of
[18 F]uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in oncology where it is most useful
to localize primary tumours and their metastases. 2006 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
413. Carbon-10: Example of cyclotron production of positron
emitters as an open research eld - Alves F., Lima J.J.P., Nickles
R.J. and Jensen M. [F. Alves, Escola Superior de Tecnologia da
Sa de de Coimbra, Avenida 5 de Outubro, P-3046 Coimbra, Poru
tugal] - RADIAT. PHYS. CHEM. 2007 76/2 (343-346) - summ in
ENGL
This paper supports the thesis that signicant improvement of
PET output response to clinical questions can be achieved by innovation in radionuclide production. Moreover, that development
can be performed with the resources available at a clinical centre.
Carbon-10 production parameters studies are used as example. A
Section 23 vol 70.2

technical methodology for measurement of excitation function of


nuclear reactions yielding short-lived radionuclides, performed to
measure cross section values of the 10 B(p,n)10 C reaction in a PETdevoted cyclotron, is presented. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
414. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3 H]choline, [114 C] acetate and [18 F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells Hara T., Bansal A. and DeGrado T.R. [T.R. DeGrado, Department
of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis,
IN 46202-9028, United States] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8
(977-984) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2-18 F]uoro-2-deoxyglucose, [18 F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron
emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate
cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been
claried. Methods: The uptake of [methyl-3 H]choline, [1-14 C]acetate and [18 F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3
cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic
conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined.
Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake
ve to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells
showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed
an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake
and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed
a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake
and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in
a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but
no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both
PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as
follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These
ndings may help to explain PET imaging ndings of the diverse
responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake
of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for
underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed
subsequent to antiandrogen therapy. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved.
415. Radioiodinated VEGF to image tumor angiogenesis in a
LS180 tumor xenograft model - Yoshimoto M., Kinuya S., Kawashima A. et al. [M. Yoshimoto, Division of Health Sciences,
Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, 920-0942, Japan] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (963-969) summ in ENGL
Introduction: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis. A method involving noninvasive detection of angiogenic
activity in vivo would provide diagnostic information regarding
antiangiogenic therapy targeting vascular endothelial cells as well
as important insight into the role of vascular endothelial growth
factor (VEGF) and its receptor (t-1 and KDR) system in tumor
biology. We evaluated radioiodinated VEGF121 , which displays
high binding afnity for KDR, and VEGF165 , which possesses high
binding afnity for t-1 and low afnity for KDR, as angiogenesis
imaging agents using the LS180 tumor xenograft model. Methods:
VEGF121 and VEGF165 were labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T
method. Biodistribution was observed in an LS180 human colon
cancer xenograft model. Additionally, autoradiographic imaging
and immunohistochemical staining of tumors were performed with
125 I-VEGF . Results: 125 I-VEGF
125 I-VEGF
121
121 and
165 exhibited strong, continuous uptake by tumors and the uterus, an organ
characterized by angiogenesis. 125 I-VEGF121 uptake in tumors was
twofold higher than that of 125 I-VEGF165 (9.12 98 and 4.79 1.08
%ID/g at 2 h, respectively). 125 I-VEGF121 displayed higher tumor
to nontumor (T/N) ratios in most normal organs in comparison with
125 I-VEGF . 125 I-VEGF
165
121 accumulation in tumors decreased
with increasing tumor volume. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analyses conrmed that the difference in 125 I-VEGF121
tumor accumulation correlated with degree of tumor vascularity.
Conclusion: Radioiodinated VEGF121 is a promising tracer for
noninvasive delineation of angiogenesis in vivo. 2006 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.
79

416. Blood ow dependence of the intratumoral distribution


of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding in intact mouse
brosarcoma - Amitani M., Zhang M.-R., Noguchi J. et al. [M.
Amitani, Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes,
Molecular Imaging Center, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555, Japan] NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (971-975) - summ in ENGL
The intratumoral distribution of [11 C]AC-5216 binding, a novel
peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, was examined by
autoradiography both in vitro and in vivo using a murine brosarcoma model. The regional distribution of [11 C]AC-5216 in a tumor
in vivo was signicantly heterogeneous; the uptake of [11 C]AC5216 was comparatively higher in the outer rim of the tumor and
was lower in the central area. In contrast, the images obtained
following the injection of [11 C]AC-5216 with a large amount of
nonlabeled PK11195 showed a relatively homogeneous distribution,
suggesting that [11 C]AC-5216 uptake represented specic binding
to PBRs. In vitro autoradiograms of [11 C]AC-5216 binding were
also obtained using the section of the brosarcoma that was the same
as that used to examine in vivo binding. In vitro autoradiographic
binding images showed homogeneous distribution, and signicant
discrepancies of the intratumoral distribution of [11 C]AC-5216 were
observed between in vivo and in vitro images. The in vivo images of
[11 C]AC-5216 uptake, compared with those of [14 C]iodoantipyrine
uptake, obtained by dual autoradiography to evaluate the inuence
of blood ow revealed the similar intratumoral distributions of both
tracers. These results indicate that the delivery process from the
plasma to the tumor might be the rate-limiting step for the intratumoral distribution of PBR binding in vivo in a brosarcoma model.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
417. Synthesis and biological evaluation of potent v 3 -integrin
receptor antagonists - Dijkgraaf I., Kruijtzer J.A.W., Frielink C. et
al. [I. Dijkgraaf, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands] - NUCL.
MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (953-961) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: v 3 Integrin is expressed in sprouting endothelial
cells in growing tumors, whereas it is absent in quiescent blood vessels. In addition, various tumor cell types express v 3 integrin.
v 3 Integrin, a transmembrane heterodimeric protein, binds to
the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) amino acid sequence of
extracellular matrix proteins such as vitronectin and plays a pivotal
role in invasion, proliferation and metastasis. Due to the selective
expression of v 3 integrin in tumors, radiolabeled RGD peptides
and peptidomimetics are attractive candidates for tumor targeting.
Methods: A cyclic RGD peptide, a peptoid-peptide hybrid, an
all-peptoid and a peptidomimetic compound were synthesized, conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N ,N ,N -tetraacetic
acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with 111 In. Their in vitro and
in vivo v 3 -binding characteristics were determined. Results:
IC50 values were 236 nM for DOTA-E-c(RGDfK), 219 nM for
DOTA-peptidomimetic, >10 mM for DOTA-all-peptoid and 9.25
mM for the peptoid-peptide hybrid DOTA-E-c(nRGDfK). 111 Inlabeled compounds, except for [111 In]DOTA-all-peptoid, showed
specic uptake in human v 3 -expressing tumors xenografted in
athymic mice. Tumor uptake for [111 In]DOTA-E-c(RGDfK) was
1.73 0.4% ID/g (2 h postinjection) and that of [111 In]DOTApeptidomimetic was 2.04 0.3% ID/g. Tumor uptake for the
peptoid-peptide hybrid [111 In]DOTA-E-c(nRGDfK) was markedly
lower (0.45 0.07% ID/g). The all-peptoid [111 In]DOTA-E-c(nRGnDnFnK) did not show specic uptake in tumors (0.11 0.04%
ID/g). Conclusions: The peptidomimetic compound and the cyclic
RGD peptide have a high afnity for v 3 integrin, and these
compounds have better tumor-targeting characteristics than the peptoid-peptide hybrid and the all-peptoid. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.
418. Species differences in metabolites of PET ligands: serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor antagonists 3-trans-FCWAY and
3-cis-FCWAY - Ma Y., Lang L., Kiesewetter D. et al. [W.C.
Eckelman, Molecular Tracer LLC, Bethesda, MD 20892, United
States] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1013-1019) - summ in
ENGL
Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), combined
with commercially available hepatocytes, has become an indispensable tool in evaluating the presence of these metabolites in target
80

tissues, especially in the brain. Results from in vitro metabolism


studies using hepatocytes from different species can demonstrate
species differences. Using these techniques, we evaluated the metabolic prole of 3-cis-FCWAY and 3-trans-FCWAY in rat, monkey
and human hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were used to produce metabolites in vitro, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
was used to identify these metabolites. We found that the metabolic
proles of rat, monkey and human hepatocytes differ dramatically.
In rats, aromatic ring oxidation was the major metabolic pathway
for both 3-cis-FCWAY and 3-trans-FCWAY; 3-trans-FCWAY had
more metabolites (cyclohexane ring oxidation) than 3-cis-FCWAY.
In humans, hydrolysis of amide linkage was the major metabolic
pathway. In monkeys, both pathways (oxidation and amide hydrolysis) were found in the metabolites. We also found that 3-cis-FCWAY
had the slowest deuorination of FCWAY analogues in all species.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
419. An approach based on the SIR measurement model for
determining the ionization chamber efciency curves, and a
study of 65 Zn and 201 Tl photon emission intensities - Michotte C., Pearce A.K., Cox M.G. and Gostely J.-J. [C. Michotte,
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de
Breteuil, F-92312 S` vres Cedex, France] - APPL. RADIAT. ISOT.
e
2006 64/10-11 (1147-1155) - summ in ENGL
The measurement model used to determine ionization chamber
efciency curves accounts from the outset for impurity corrections
and beta spectrum shapes. The curves are represented by exponentials of polynomials whose coefcients are adjusted using non-linear
least-squares minimization. The curves are validated by comparing with SIR key comparison reference values (KCRVs) and other
published curves. The associated covariance matrix is also evaluated. Deviations from model predictions for 65 Zn and 201 Tl using
recommended nuclear data are studied. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
rights reserved.
420. Bioavailability of 99m Tc-Ha-paclitaxel complex [ 99m Tc-ONCOFID-P] in mice using four different administration routes Mel ndez-Alafort L., Riondato M., Nadali A. et al. [L. Mel ndeze
e
Alafort, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of
Padua, via Marzolo, 5, 35131 Padova, Italy] - J. LABEL. COMPD.
RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (939-950) - summ in ENGL
Paclitaxel, an anti-tumour drug, shows good results against breast
and ovarian cancer. However, its therapeutic response is associated
with toxic side-effects caused by the agent used to dissolve it. Recently paclitaxel was linked to the linear polysaccharide hyaluronic
acid (HA), showing good solubility, stabilization, localization and
a reduction of cytotoxic side-effects. To study potential therapeutic
applications, HA-paclitaxel bioconjugate (ONCOFID-P) was labelled with 99m Tc by the addition of 99m Tc-pertechnetate, SnCl2 and
sodium gluconate. The reaction mixture was incubated for 90 min at
65C and puried by size exclusion chromatography. The obtained
99m Tc-ONCOFID-P had 100% radiochemical purity and was stable
in a phosphate buffer dilution 1:100 for 6 h at 37C. 99m Tc-ONCOFID-P bioavailability studies were carried out in healthy mice
using four different administration pathways. The analysis showed
that after intravenous administration more than 80% of the injected
radiopharmaceutical was found in liver and spleen. Intraperitoneal,
intravesical and oral administrations showed that all the 99m TcONCOFID-P remained at the administration site. These results
demonstrate that ONCOFID-P administered intravenously could be
used for liver metastasis therapy due to its high physiological and
receptor-specic liver uptake, while intravesical, intraperitoneal and
oral administration of ONCOFID-P could be used for local treatment
of supercial cancers. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
421. Highly efcient preparation of carbon-14 labeled, auxin
herbicide 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid - Pearson N.R.
and Lardie T.S. [N.R. Pearson, Dow AgroSciences, 9330 Zionsville
Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46268, United States] - J. LABEL. COMPD.
RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (965-972) - summ in ENGL
A highly efcient, seven-step route has been developed for
the preparation of 2,6-[14 C2 ]-4-amino-3,5,6 -trichloropicolinic
acid ([14 C2 ]-1, 2,6-[14 C2 ]-picloram) from 2,6-[14 C2 ]-pentachloropy ridine. The method involves the stepwise, highly selective and
high yield introduction of amino and carboxylic acid groups to the
Section 23 vol 70.2

4- and 2-positions, respectively, of pentachloropyridine affording


[14 C2 ]-1 in an overall radiochemical yield of >70% with the use of
only one formal purication step. Copyright 2006 John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd.
422. An improved synthesis of isotope labeled 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone - Jian Z., Ray T., Wu A. and Jones L. [Z. Jian, Isotope
Chemistry, Early Development, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, One
Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936, United States] - J. LABEL.
COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (979-984) - summ in ENGL
[13 C6 ]6-Hydroxychlorzoxazone, a major P450 metabolite of
chlorzoxazone, was synthesized from [13 C6 ]benzene in an overall
18% yield. An improved procedure for converting 4-chloro-6- nitrosoresorcinol to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone was developed, with a
yield more than double that previously reported in the literature.
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
423. Synthesis of deuterium and 15 N-labelled 2,5-Bis[5-amidino2- pyridyl]furan and 2,5-Bis[5-(methoxyamidino)-2-pyridyl]furan - Ismail M.A. and Boykin D.W. [D.W. Boykin, Department
of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, United
States] - J. LABEL. COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (985996) - summ in ENGL
The acetate salt of 2,5-bis[5-amidino-2-pyridyl]furan-d2/ 15 N2
(4) was synthesized from 2,5-bis[5-cyano-2-pyridyl] furan-d2 (2),
through the bis-O-acetoxyamidoxime followed by hydrogenation. Compound 2 was obtained via a Stille coupling reaction
of 6-chloronicotinonitrile with 2,5-bis[tri-n-butyltin]-furan-d2 (1). 2,5-bis[5-amidino-2-pyridyl)furan-d6 (10) was synthesized from
2,5-bis[5-cyano-2-pyridyl)furan-d6 (9) via a direct reaction with
lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide, followed by deprotection with
ethanolic HCl. 15 N and/or deuterium-labelled methoxy-amidines
5a-d2 / 15 N2 , 5b-d8 , 12, 14-d6 were prepared in good yield via direct
methylation of their respective diamidoximes with either dimethylsulfate-d0 or dimethylsulfate-d6 in DMF solution and using LiOH
as a base. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
424. Radiosynthesis of 6-([18 F]uoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18 F]FAHA) for PET imaging of histone deacetylase
(HDAC) - Mukhopadhyay U., Tong W.P., Gelovani J.G. and
Alauddin M.M. [M.M. Alauddin, Box 059, 1515 Holcombe Blvd.,
Houston, TX 77030, United States] - J. LABEL. COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (997-1006) - summ in ENGL
Radiosynthesis of a novel substrate for histone deacetylase (HDAC), 6-([18 F]uoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18 F]FAHA,
[18 F]-3) is reported. For precursor synthesis, compound 1 (6amino-1-hexanoicanilide) was prepared by the reaction of 6-amino
hexanoic acid with thionyl chloride in dichloroethane followed
by addition of aniline. Compound 1 was reacted with bromoacetic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the presence of
triethylamine to produce the precursor compound 6-(bromoacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide 2. Fluorination reactions were performed
using tetrabutylammonium uoride in various solvents at 80C to
prepare the unlabeled reference compound 3. Radiouorinations
were performed using either n-Bu4 N18 F or K18 F/kryptox, and the
crude product was puried by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The radiochemical yields were 9-13% decay corrected
(d.c.) with an average of 11% using K18 F/kryptox, and specic
activity > 2 GBq/ mol at the end of synthesis. The synthesis time
was 67-75 min from the end of bombardment (EOB). Copyright
2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
425. Impact of PKM linkers on biodistribution characteristics
of the 99m Tc-labeled cyclic RGDfK dimer - Liu S., He Z., Hsieh
W.-Y. et al. [S. Liu, School of Health Sciences, Purdue University,
550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States] BIOCONJUGATE CHEM. 2006 17/6 (1499-1507) - summ in ENGL
This report describes synthesis of three new cyclic RGDfK peptide conjugates, HYNIC-PKM-SU016 (PKM = E, K and PEG4) and
in vivo evaluation of the impact of PKM linkers on biodistribution
characteristics of their ternary ligand complexes [99m Tc(HYNICPKM-SU016)1 (tricine)(TPPTS)] in athymic nude mice bearing the
MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer xenografts. Results from biodistribution studies show that PKM linkers have minimal impact on
the integrin v 3 binding capability of radiotracers. Even though
Section 23 vol 70.2

they have different charges under physiological conditions, all three


linkers (E, K, and PEG4) are able to reduce the uptake of 99m Tclabeled E[c(RGDfK)]2 in blood, kidneys, liver, and lungs, and
increase target-to-background (T/B) ratios at > 30 min postinjection. E and K may have advantages over PEG4 due to a combination
of relatively low liver uptake and high tumor/liver and tumor/lung
ratios of ternary ligand complexes [99m Tc(HYNIC-PKM-SU016)(tricine)-(TPPTS)] (PKM = E and K). 2006 American Chemical
Society.
426. Preparation and biological characterization of isomeric
oxocomplexes with tetradentate S4 ligands derived
from meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid for labeling of biomolecules - Seifert S., Heinrich T., Jentschel C. et al. [S. Seifert,
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut f r Radiopharmazie, PF
u
510 119, D-01314 Dresden, Germany] - BIOCONJUGATE CHEM.
2006 17/6 (1601-1606) - summ in ENGL
A new type of tetradentate S4 ligand has been synthesized by
bridging two molecules of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for
stable binding and easy conjugation of rhenium-188 to tumor
targeting structures. The stereoisomeric tetrathiolato S4 ligands
form very robust anionic ve-coordinated oxorhenium(V) and oxotechnetium(V) complexes. Two routes for the preparation of
the 188 Re(V) oxocomplexes with (iBu) 2 N(O)C-C(SH)C(SH)C(O)NH(CH2 )3 NH(CH 2 )3 NHC(O)C(SH)C(SH)C(O)N(iBu)2 (ligand
1) and its hydrophilic crown ether derivative (ligand 2) were tested
and optimized. Several isomers were separated by HPLC from the
preparation solutions and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The
identity of the species obtained was determined by comparison with
the HPLC proles of reference 185/187 Re analogues and 99/99m Tc
complexes which were characterized by ESI-MS. All of them were
absolutely stable in rat and human plasma solutions. Challenge
experiments with cysteine corroborated the high inertness of the
isomers toward ligand exchange reactions. Various in vivo samples, taken off at different times from blood, intestine, and urine of
rats, conrmed the high in vivo stability of the 188 Re-S4 complexes.
Biodistribution studies using male Wistar rats were performed and
exhibited a high uptake and fast clearance from the liver of the more
lipophilic cis and trans isomers of complex I (log Po/w between 1.5
and 1.7), whereas the isomers of the hydrophilic complex II (log
Po/w about -1.75) were rapidly excreted via the renal and the hepatobiliary pathway. The low level of activity in the stomach conrms
good in vivo stability. Thus, these new 188 Re-S4 complexes fulll
the requirements for a stable and high specic activity labeling
of biomolecules with rhenium-188. 2006 American Chemical
Society.
188 Re(V)

See also: 429, 432,


453, 454, 455, 459,
478, 480, 481, 483,
500, 501, 505, 506,
521, 522, 523, 527,
546, 550, 551, 552,
574, 576, 577, 578,
608, 609, 613, 614.

434, 436, 439, 440, 444,


463, 464, 465, 467, 470,
486, 488, 490, 492, 493,
507, 508, 509, 511, 512,
530, 531, 532, 533, 536,
554, 555, 557, 558, 559,
590, 592, 597, 599, 600,

447,
471,
494,
513,
537,
561,
601,

448,
472,
495,
514,
538,
565,
604,

449,
473,
496,
515,
544,
568,
605,

450,
476,
497,
519,
545,
570,
606,

4. TREATMENT
427. A 99m Tc-labeled gemcitabine bisphosphonate drug conjugate as a probe to assess the potential for targeted chemotherapy
of metastatic bone cancer - El-Mabhouh A.A., Angelov C.A.,
Cavell R. and Mercer J.R. [J.R. Mercer, Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.
T6G 2N8, Canada] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/6 (715-722) summ in ENGL
Introduction: A novel compound with the potential for "targeted"
therapy for cancer patients was prepared using a conjugate between
the potent anticancer drug Gemzar (gemcitabine) and a bisphosphonate. This conjugate would be expected to accumulate at sites of
bone metastatic cancer by virtue of an afnity of the bisphosphonate for bone undergoing osteoclastic and osteoblastic remodeling.
Release of the anticancer drug at the site of the tumor would provide
high local concentrations of the drug but avoid systemic toxicity.
Methods: The conjugate was tested for bone binding by labeling
81

with technetium-99m and using an in vitro test procedure with either


puried hydroxyapatite (HA) or powdered bovine bone. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies in mice were used to determine
the excretion and bone-binding characteristics of the test compound.
Results and Conclusions: The conjugate binds readily to powdered
bone and HA using the in vitro test systems. In animal studies, the
conjugate is found predominantly in bone with low soft tissue uptake after intravenous dosing. Unbound compound undergoes renal
excretion. The gemcitabine bisphosphonate complex is a promising
lead compound for investigation in metastatic bone cancer that may
provide a therapeutic effect without undue toxicity. 2006 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.
428. Auger radiation targeted into DNA: A therapy perspective
- Buchegger F., Perillo-Adamer F., Dupertuis Y.M. and Bischof
Delaloye A. [F. Buchegger, Service of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland] - EUR. J. NUCL.
MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1352-1363) - summ in ENGL
Background: Auger electron emitters that can be targeted into
DNA of tumour cells represent an attractive systemic radiation
therapy goal. In the situation of DNA-associated decay, the high
linear energy transfer (LET) of Auger electrons gives a high relative
biological efcacy similar to that of particles. In contrast to
radiation, however, Auger radiation is of low toxicity when decaying outside the cell nucleus, as in cytoplasm or outside cells during
blood transport. The challenge for such therapies is the requirement
to target a high percentage of all cancer cells. An overview of Auger
radiation therapy approaches of the past decade shows several research directions and various targeting vehicles. The latter include
hormones, peptides, halogenated nucleotides, oligonucleotides and
internalising antibodies. Discussion: Here, we will discuss the
basic principles of Auger electron therapy as compared with vectorguided and radiation. We also review some radioprotection
issues and briey present the main advantages and disadvantages
of the different targeting modalities that are under investigation.
2006 Springer-Verlag.
429. Lanthanide-loaded liposomes for multimodality imaging
and therapy - Zielhuis S.W., Seppenwoolde J.-H., Mateus V.A.P.
et al. [J.F.W. Nijsen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University
Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht,
Netherlands] - CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/5
(520-527) - summ in ENGL
Many advanced molecular imaging agents are currently being
investigated preclinically. Especially, liposomes, have proven to
be very promising carrier systems for diagnostic agents for use in
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as for therapeutic agents
to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, nanosized liposomes
were designed and labeled with the radionuclides, holmium-166
(both a beta- and gamma-emitter and also highly paramagnetic) or
technetium-99m, and coloaded with paramagnetic gadolinium allowing multimodality SPECT and MR imaging and radionuclide
therapy with one single agent. Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid bisoctadecylamide (an amphiphilic molecule with a
chelating group suitable for labeling with radionuclides) and gadoliniumacetylacetonate (GdAcAc) (a small lipophilic paramagnetic
molecule) were incorporated in liposomes. The liposomes were
characterized by measuring their mean size and size distribution,
gadolinium content, and radiochemical stability after incubation in
human serum at 37C. The MRI properties (in vitro) were determined by use of relaxivity measurements at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla in
order to evaluate their potency as imaging agents. Results: The
liposomes were successfully labeled with holmium-166, resulting
in a high labeling efciency (95% 1%) and radiochemical stability
(> 98% after 48 hours of incubation), and coloaded with GdAcAc.
Labeling of liposomes with technetium-99m was somewhat less
efcient (85% 2%), although their radiochemical stability was
sufcient (95% 1% after 6 hours of incubation). MRI measurements showed that the incorporation of GdAcAc had a strong effect
on the MRI relaxivity. Conclusions: The synthesized liposomes
allow for multimodality imaging and therapy, which makes these
new agents highly attractive for future applications. Mary Ann
Liebert, Inc.
82

430. Induction of apoptosis in human tumor cells after exposure


to Auger electrons: comparison with -ray exposure - Urashima
T., Nagasawa H., Wang K. et al. [A.I. Kassis, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States] NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1055-1063) - summ in ENGL
To clarify the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in four human
solid tumor cell lines, clonogenic cell survival (indicator of radiosensitivity) and induction of caspase-3 (CASP-3)/caspase-3-like
proteases (CASP-3LP) and the production of DNA fragmentation
(markers for apoptosis) were studied in RKO, LS174T, MCF7 and
TE671 cells exposed to DNA-incorporated Auger-electron-emitting 125 I (5-[125 I]iodo-2 -deoxyuridine) or -radiation. Clonogenic
survival was assessed by colony-forming assay, CASP-3/CASP3LP induction with a uorogenic substrate and DNA fragmentation
by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. For 125 I, log
dose-survival curves had no shoulder [high-linear-energy-transfer
(LET)-like] and decreased exponentially at different rates in various
cell lines. Induction of CASP-3/CASP-3LP in radiosensitive RKO
and LS174T cells was threefold greater than that in radioresistant
TE671 and MCF7 cells. Nucleosomal laddering in 125 I-radiosensitive cell lines was dose-dependent, and no laddering was detected in
radioresistant lines. For -radiation, the survival curve for LS174T
cells was monoexponential and that for the other lines exhibited a
distinct shoulder (low-LET-like). The most radiosensitive cell line,
LS174T, showed the highest induction of CASP-3/CASP-3LP, and
the most radioresistant line, TE671, showed the lowest induction.
Although DNA laddering was not detectable in TE671 cells, it was
observed in other lines, being most prominent in LS174T cells.
We conclude that apoptosis initiated by DNA-incorporated 125 I is
dose-dependent, correlates with cell radiosensitivity and takes place
through a CASP-3-mediated pathway, whereas that after -irradiation probably occurs via a CASP-3-independent pathway and/or a
CASP-3-mediated pathway and does not correlate with cell radiosensitivity. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
See also: 433, 442, 443, 445, 461, 499, 529, 535, 549, 555, 567,
571, 572, 573, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588,
589, 592, 593, 594, 595, 607, 610, 611, 612, 615.

5. APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE


431. Present role and future prospects of positron emission tomography in clinical oncology - Oriuchi N., Higuchi T., Ishikita T.
et al. [N. Oriuchi, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear
Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-3922 Showa-machi, Maebashi 371-8511, Japan] - CANCER SCI. 2006
97/12 (1291-1297) - summ in ENGL
Positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a signicant
molecular imaging technique in clinical oncology and cancer research. PET with 18 F-uorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) demonstrates
elevated glucose consumption by tumor cells, and is used clinically
for the accurate staging and restaging of cancer, planning of radiotherapy, and predicting response or lack of response in the early
stages of treatment. Combined PET and computed tomography
(PET-CT) provides both functional and morphological information
of the disease to allow accurate diagnosis of cancer. PET with
new radiotracers such as protein synthesis markers and proliferation markers, as well as hypoxia and receptor-binding agents, will
offer patient-specic images in order to yield tailored diagnostic
and prognostic information. 2006 Japanese Cancer Association.
432. Synthesis and evaluation of a 99m Technetium labeled chitin-binding protein as potential specic radioligand for the
detection of fungal infections in mice - Siaens R., Eijsink V.G.H.,
Vaaje-Kolstad G. et al. [R. Siaens, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent,
Belgium] - Q. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (155166) - summ in ENGL
Aim. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used to exploit differences
between microorganisms in order to distinguish fungal from bacterial infection. Chitin, abundant in the cell wall of fungi, is not
present in mammalian or bacterial cells and therefore represents a
highly specic target to localize fungal infection. In this study, we
have examined the potential of chitin-binding protein (CBP21) from
Section 23 vol 70.2

Serratia marcescens as a specic radiotracer for the detection of invasive fungal infections. Methods. CBP21 was labeled with 99m Tc
via hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and its characteristics were
analyzed. In vitro binding studies with polymorphic chitin forms
and microorganisms (fungi as well as bacteria) were performed. In
vivo biodistribution of the compound was studied in immunocompromised mice with bacterial and fungal infections in the left and
right thigh muscle, respectively, using 99m Tc-HYNIC-myoglobin as
size-matched control and 67 Ga-citrate as positive control. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 1 and 7 h postinjection of the tracer.
Results. 99m Tc-HYNIC-CBP21 was labeled with a radiochemical
yield of 61% and a specic activity of 22.3 MBq/nmol. Highest in
vitro binding percentages were found with -chitin (86.8 2.4%).
Binding interactions to fungi were higher than to bacteria (P<0.05).
In vivo, best ratios of fungal infection versus bacterial infection were
seen at 5 and 7 h (3.6 1.2 and 2.9 1.4, respectively) postinjection
of the tracer. Maximum uptake of the tracer in fungal infections
(0.63 0.11%ID/g) at 7 h was signicantly (P<0.05) higher than
uptake seen in bacterial infections (0.34 0.11%ID/g) or the uptake of 99m Tc-HYNIC-myoglobin (P<0.05) in the same infections
(0.35 0.11%ID/g, respectively, 0.3 0.01%ID/g). Conclusion.
This study shows that 99m Tc-HYNIC-CBP21 is able to specically
interact with chitin in vitro. Scintigraphy and postmortem in vivo
data indicate that 99m Tc-HYNIC-CBP21 is able to distinguish fungal infection from bacterial infection probably due to a specic
interaction of the protein with the chitin in the fungal cell wall.
433. Treatment of infection with radiolabeled antibodies - Dadachova E. and Casadevall A. [Dr. E. Dadachova, Department of
Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1695A
Eastchester Rd., Bronx, NY 10461, United States] - Q. J. NUCL.
MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (193-204) - summ in ENGL
The eld of infectious diseases is in urgent need of new approaches to antimicrobial therapy. Radio-immunotherapy (RIT) has
evolved into successful therapy for certain malignancies. Published
preclinical and clinical investigations have demonstrated that radiolabeled microorganism-specic antibodies localize to tissue sites
of bacterial and fungal infection. The potential of RIT as an antimicrobial treatment strategy has not been developed clinically,
which could reect lack of awareness of the difcult problems
in clinical infectious diseases by the nuclear medicine community
and of RIT by the infectious diseases physicians. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using RIT for treating murine
cryptococcosis using a monoclonal antibody to Crypto-coccus neoformans capsular glocuronoxylomannan labeled with Bismuth-213
or Rhenium-188. Subsequently, we showed the applicability of
RIT to bacterial (Strepto-coccus pneumonia) and viral (HIV-1)infections. Treatment did not cause aqute hematologic toxicity
in treated animals. The mechanisms of RIT of infection include
killing of microbial cells by "direct hit" and "cross-re" effects,
promotion of apoptosis-like death, cooperation with macrophages
and modulation of the inammatory response. RIT for infection
is theoretically useful for any microbe susceptible to radiation, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The promise of this
technique is based on the fact that the technology is largely in place
and that the only requirements are availability of microbe-specic
monoclonal antibodies and suitable radionuclides. In fact, one could
anticipate that targeting microbes will be easier than targeting neoplastic cells when the enormous antigenic differences between host
and microbes are taken into consideration. However, considerable
basic work remains to be done to ascertain the optimal conditions
for the efcacy of RIT for infection.
434. Stem cells: A regenerative pharmaceutical - Shanthly N.,
Aruva M.R., Zhang K. et al. [Dr. M.L. Thakur, Radiopharmacological Division, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson
University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United
States] - Q. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (205-216) summ in ENGL
Stem cells (SC), found in both adult and fetal tissues, are selfrenewing elements that can generate the various cell types in the
body. There are 3 classes of SC: totipotent, multipotent, and pluripotent. The SC with a signicant developmental potential are
the embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the early
stages of mammalian embryo. SC possess regenerative properties
Section 23 vol 70.2

and this offers unprecedented opportunities for developing medical


therapies for debilitating diseases. Hematopoietic SC have been
used successfully in bone marrow transplants for over 40 years.
Pluripotent SC offer renewable source of replacement of cells and
tissues to treat a myriad of diseases. However there are limiting factors. Adult SC are rare and cannot multiply as the ES.
Pluripotent SC have great therapeutic potential, but face technical
challenges. A serious concern is the ethical issue since they are
derived from human embryos or fetal tissue. Quite often SC have
been targets of mutations and risk carcinogenesis. Various markers
have been identied based on the uniqueness of SC receptors and
in vivo tracking studies using nanocolloids and radioactive tracers
have been performed. Though 111 In-oxine has been used to image
SC transplants, PET with a high spatial resolution would be ideal.
Currently 2 agents are being studied, 18 F-FDG and 64 Cu-Pyruvaldehyde bi(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone). The following few pages
bring forth the various limitations and summarize progress made in
SC utilization so as to create awareness of SC research in ISORBE
community and to foster strategy that ISORBE community can
disseminate information and exchange knowledge on radio labeled
SC.
435. SPECT/CT imaging using a spiral CT scanner for anatomical localization: Impact on diagnostic accuracy and reporter
condence in clinical practice - Roach P.J., Schembri G.P., Ho
Shon I.A. et al. [Dr. P.J. Roach, Department of Nuclear Medicine,
Royal North Shore Hospital, Pacic Highway, Sydney, NSW, Australia] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (977-987) - summ in
ENGL
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incremental benet in routine clinical
practice of computed tomography (CT) scans acquired for anatomical localization on an integrated SPECT/CT which incorporates
a spiral CT scanner, in comparison with conventional planar and
SPECT scanning. METHODS: The rst 50 studies acquired on
the integrated system were evaluated by two experienced nuclear
medicine physicians who were aware of the patients clinical history. These included bone scans, gallium scans, octreotide scans,
sestamibi parathyroid scans and MIBG scans. For each patient
study, abnormalities were assessed on planar and SPECT images
for location and provisional diagnosis and a quantitative scale was
used to assess reporter condence. The fused SPECT/CT images
were then reviewed and the location and provisional diagnosis noted
and reporter condence was assessed using the same quantitative
scale. RESULTS: There were 129 abnormalities detected in 50
patient studies. For localization of abnormalities, the inclusion
of the CT resulted in a minor change in 16% of cases and a signicant change in 11% over planar/SPECT imaging alone. The
condence of localization was improved moderately in 19% and
improved signicantly in 6%. For diagnosis, SPECT/CT resulted
in a minor change in 10% and a signicant change in 9% over
planar/SPECT imaging. The condence of diagnosis was improved
moderately in 10% and improved signicantly in a further 10% of
cases. For the nal scan interpretation, there would have been no
change in 44% patients, a minor change in 30% and a signicant
change in 26% with the use of SPECT/CT. CONCLUSION: Use of
integrated SPECT/CT with a high spatial resolution, spiral CT used
for anatomical localization improves accuracy and reporter condence in clinical practice. As a result, nal reports were different
in 56% of the cases, including being signicantly different in 26%
patients compared to reporting with planar/SPECT alone. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
436. Positron emission tomography: current use in internal
medicine and future developments (Fren) - LA TOMOGRAPHIE

DEMISSION DE POSITONS EN MEDECINE INTERNE : APPLICATIONS ACTUELLES ET PERSPECTIVES DAVENIR - Raynaud F.-R., Huglo D. and

Steinling M. [F.-R. Raynaud, Service de m decine nucl aire et


e
e
dimagerie fonctionnelle, h pital Claude-Huriez, CHRU de Lille,
o
59037 Lille cedex, France] - REV. MED. INTERNE 2006 27/12
(932-945) - summ in FREN, ENGL
Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET) is a promising imaging technique that has already
proven effective in modifying patient care in oncology. Fluorodeoxyglucose still remains the main radiopharmaceutical agent
routinely used for PET imaging. A growing interest has recently
83

lead to broaden PET research on benign disorders. The eld of


inammatory or immune diseases and globally the eld of internal
medicine could also be impacted by FDG-PET. Main points: Great
vessels vasculitides and fever of unknown origin have both been
studied by several teams and could become indications for PET.
In addition, current indications now extend to paraneoplastic syndromes. It is thus possible to foresee that the clinical applications
for PET will continue to expand in these patients. Perspectives
and projects: In the future, inammatory arthritis, chronic inammatory bowel diseases, sytemic erythematous lupus, histiocytosis,
or pulmonary and retroperitoneal brosis might benet from PET
even if, available data remains scarce to this day. Although PET
will probably alter the landscape of patient management in internal medicine in the near future, additional clinical research is still
needed to ascertain the exact role of PET. 2006 Elsevier Masson
SAS. All rights reserved.
437. Imaging molecular and cellular events in transplantation
- George A.J.T., Bhakoo K.K., Haskard D.O. et al. [Dr. A.J.T.
George, Department of Immunology, Imperial College London,
Hammersmith Campus, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom] TRANSPLANTATION 2006 82/9 (1124-1129) - summ in ENGL
Imaging methods such as nuclear medicine (including positron
emission tomography), magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound,
and optical imaging can be used to provide information about the
expression of genes, and the location of molecules and cells in intact
animals or patients. In the setting of transplantation, this will allow
monitoring of inammatory responses, as well as the state of the
graft. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of different
approaches to imaging will be discussed, as well as their potential application to transplantation. 2006 Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Inc.
438. Automatic arm removal in PET and CT images for deformable registration - Gong L., Pathak S., Alessio A. and
Kinahan P. [L. Gong, Insightful Corporation, 1700 Westlake Ave.,
Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, United States] - COMPUT. MED.
IMAGING GRAPH. 2006 30/8 (469-477) - summ in ENGL
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is rapidly expanding its role in clinical practice for cancer management. The high
sensitivity of PET for functional abnormalities associated with cancer can be confounded by the minimal anatomical information it
provides for cancer localization. Computed tomography (CT)provides detailed anatomical information but is less sensitive to
pathologies than PET. Thus, combining (i.e., registering) PET and
CT images would enable both accurate and sensitive cancer localization with respect to detailed patient anatomy. An additional
application area of registration is to align CT-CT scans from serial
studies on a patient on a PET/CT scanner to facilitate accurate assessment of therapeutic response from the co-aligned PET images.
To facilitate image fusion, we are developing a deformable registration software system using mutual information and a B-spline
model of the deformation. When applying deformable registration
to whole body images, one of the obstacles is that the arms are
present in PET images but not in CT images or are in different
positions in serial CT images. This feature mismatch requires a
preprocessing step to remove the arms where present and thus adds
a manual step in an otherwise automatic algorithm. In this paper, we
present a simple yet effective method for automatic arm removal.
We demonstrate the efciency and robustness of this algorithm on
both clinical PET and CT images. By streamlining the entire registration process, we expect that the fusion technology will soon nd
its way into clinics, greatly beneting cancer diagnosis, staging,
therapy planning and treatment monitoring. 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
All rights reserved.
See also: 609, 613, 614.

5.1. Nervous system and sense organs


439. Excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson disease: A
SPECT study - Matsui H., Nishinaka K., Oda M. et al. [H.
Matsui, Department of Neurology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-3-20
84

Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka, 530-0005, Japan] - SLEEP 2006


29/7 (917-920) - summ in ENGL
Study Objectives: The underlying pathologic mechanism of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Parkinson disease and the
relative contributions of brain function to this process are poorly
understood. We compared brain perfusion images between patients
with Parkinson disease and EDS and those without EDS using n-isopropyl-p-123I iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed
tomography. Design: Clinical study. Setting: Sumitomo Hospital.
Patients: Thirteen patients with Parkinson disease with EDS (EDS
group) and 27 patients with Parkinson disease without EDS (noEDS group) were studied. Whether or not each case had EDS was
determined according to the response to the Epworth Sleepiness
Scale: patients with an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score 10 were
included in the EDS group, and patients with an Epworth Sleepiness
Scale score 9 were included in the no-EDS group. Measurements and Results: There were signicant hypoperfusions in the
left parietal and temporal association cortex in the EDS group. In
the multivariable logistic regression model, attention and decreased
regional cerebral blood ow of the left parietal association cortex
and right caudate and increased regional cerebral blood ow of the
right thalamus were the independent and signicant factors. Conclusions: The cortical hypofunction relative to hyperfunction of the
brain stem may relate to EDS in Parkinson disease. This is the rst
imaging study about EDS in Parkinson disease, and further studies
are required.
440. Synthesis and evaluation of benzothiophene derivatives as
ligands for imaging -amyloid plaques in Alzheimers disease Chang Y.S., Jeong J.M., Lee Y.-S. et al. [J.M. Jeong, Department of
Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine,
Seoul, 110-744, South Korea] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/6
(811-820) - summ in ENGL
The imaging of the distribution of -amyloid (A ) plaques
in the brain is becoming an important diagnostic modality in
Alzheimers disease (AD). Here, we synthesized novel benzothiophene derivatives and labeled them with 18 F for the
potential diagnostic imaging of AD patients using positron
emission tomography.
The Ki values of benzothiophene
derivatives were evaluated by competitive binding assay using 2-(3 -[125 I]iodo-4 -N-methylaminophenyl)benzothiazole as a
radioligand and A (1-40) or A (1-42) aggregates as receptors. All synthesized benzothiophene derivatives showed high
binding afnities (Ki =0.28-6.50 nM) to both A (1-40) and
A (1-42) aggregates. Binding afnities were increased by O-alkylation or N-alkylation of 2-(4 -hydroxyphenyl)benzothiophene
or 2-(4 -aminophenyl)benzothiophene. Biodistribution studies
of 2-(4 -O-(2 -[18 F]uoroethyl)hydroxyphenyl)benzothiophene
([18 F]2c) and 2-(4 -O-(3 -[18 F]uoropropyl)hydroxyphenyl)benzothiophene ([18 F]2d) in normal mice were performed after
intravenous injection through the tail vein. In biodistribution data,
[18 F]2c and [18 F]2d showed high initial brain uptakes at 2 min
(5.2 0.4% and 3.3 0.2% ID/g, respectively), and brain activities
washed out to 2.0 0.2% and 0.5 0.1% ID/g at 4 h, respectively. In
conclusion, benzothiophene derivatives showed excellent binding
afnities for A aggregates and high initial brain uptakes in normal
mice. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
441. Functional brain imaging in combined motor and sleep
disorders - Hilker R., Burghaus L., Razai N. et al. [R. Hilker, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Cologne, , Germany]
- J. NEUROL. SCI. 2006 248/1-2 (223-226) - summ in ENGL
The pathophysiology of sleep-related motor diseases and sleep
dysfunction in movement disorders is widely unknown as yet.
Functional brain imaging, in particular radioisotope and magnetic
resonance techniques, are powerful tools to investigate possible
pathomechanisms of combined sleep and motor dysregulation. In
patients with Restless legs syndrome (RLS), only a subtle striatal
dopamine decit was found in PET and SPECT despite a good
treatment effect of dopaminergic drugs. Functional MRI suggested a central generator of periodic limb movements during sleep
(PLMs) in RLS. In contrast, a marked striatal dopamine depletion
was demonstrated in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder
(RBD) as the base for the clinical and nosological overlap of RBD
with parkinsonian disorders. PET and SPECT also suggested that
Section 23 vol 70.2

sleep abnormalities in Parkinsons disease (PD), such as REM sleep


diminution or increased PLMs, are indirect manifestations of the
primary striatal dopamine deciency. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.
442. Evaluation of semi-quantitative scoring system for metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scans in patients with relapsed
neuroblastoma - Messina J.A., Cheng S.-C., Franc B.L. et al.
[Dr. K.K. Matthay, Department of Pediatrics, Box 0106, University
of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States] - PEDIATR.
BLOOD CANCER 2006 47/7 (865-874) - summ in ENGL
Background. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of two semi-quantitative scoring systems to assess response
to 131 I- metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) therapy in recurrent neuroblastoma. Procedures. Diagnostic mIBG scan pairs (n = 57) were
collected for patients who underwent 131 I-mIBG therapy for relapsed neuroblastoma. Two scoring systems were designated:
Method 1, which divided the body into nine segments to view
osteomedullary lesions with an additional tenth segment to assess
soft tissue involvement; and Method 2, which divided the body into
seven segments without a corresponding compartment for soft tissue involvement. Four nuclear medicine physicians independently
assigned extension and intensity scores utilizing both methods, and
separately recorded their impression of whether the post-therapy
scan had improved, not changed, or worsened. Inter- and intraobserver concordance and correlation with overall response and
progression-free survival (PFS) were performed. Results. Method
1 produced the highest inter-observer concordance and was used to
calculate the relative extension scores (post-therapy score divided
by pre-therapy score), which correlated signicantly with overall
response. Patients who achieved complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) (n = 21) had lower relative extension scores,
compared to those without response (P < 0.001). The readers
overall impression associated highly (P < 0.001) with the relative
extension scores though results were less quantitative. Concordance
was higher if initial scores were >5. Relative extension score did
not predict PFS. Conclusion. Semi-quantitative scoring of mIBG
scans provides a more reliable method of assessing response in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma than qualitative impression. The
reproducibility and high inter-observer concordance makes mIBG
score an important component of overall response criteria in patients
with recurrent neuroblastoma. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
443. Clinicopathologic features of aggressive meningioma
emphasizing the role of radiotherapy in treatment - Engenhart-Cabillic R., Farhoud A., Sure U. et al. [Dr. Prof. R.
Engenhart-Cabillic, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Philipps University Hospital, Baldingerstrae, 35033 Marburg,
Germany] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (641-646) summ in ENGL, GERM
Background and Purpose: Although meningiomas are typically
benign, they occasionally behave in an aggressive fashion and carry
a less favorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to review the
clinical, radiologic and histopathologic features of these aggressive
variants as well as the outcome after multimodality therapy. Patients
and Methods: 16 patients with atypical meningiomas (n = 11) and
anaplastic meningiomas (n = 5) were treated in the Departments of
Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology at the University Hospital
of Philipps University Marburg, Germany, between 1997 and 2003.
Tumor grading was based on new WHO criteria. There were eleven
men and ve women with a mean age of 54 years. The median
follow-up period was 34 months. Results: A total of 24 surgical procedures were performed for these 16 patients. Only seven
patients underwent postoperative fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients with atypical meningioma received radiotherapy only
for the recurrent disease. Six patients (37.5%) experienced tumor
recurrence after a mean period of 27.2 months in spite of gross total
resection. Radiographic ndings suggestive of aggressiveness were
observed mostly with WHO grade III meningiomas. By comparing
the proliferation rate in four cases with atypical meningioma operated twice, the recurrent tumor had a higher proliferation rate than
the rst tumor in three cases. A special proliferation pattern was
noticed in MIB-1 with anaplastic meningiomas. The mean overall
survival period was 66.5 months. There was no mortality among
patients with atypical meningioma, while four out of ve patients
Section 23 vol 70.2

with anaplastic meningioma died during follow-up. Conclusion:


Considering the higher rate of recurrence in aggressive meningiomas even after radical surgical excision and the possibility that the
recurrent tumor is more aggressive than the original one, surgery
should be combined with postoperative fractionated radiotherapy to
improve local tumor control. The peculiar focal expression patterns
of anaplastic meningioma in MIB-1 might be a marker of such
malignant development. Urban & Vogel.
444. Acceleration of normal-tissue damage expression by early
stimulation of cell proliferation in rat spinal cord - Nieder C.,
Andratschke N., Price R.E. and Kian-Ang K. [Dr. C. Nieder, Klinik
und Poliklinik f r Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkolou
gie, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technischen Universit t M nchen,
a u
Ismaninger Strae 22, 81675 M nchen, Germany] - STRAHLENu
THER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (680-684) - summ in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: To examine experimental strategies for prevention of
radiation-induced late spinal cord damage. Material and Methods:
The effects of treatment with high, proliferation-stimulating doses of
platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) administered at various times
after radiotherapy of rat spinal cord, and aiming at increased tissue
regeneration, were studied in an established model. Animals were
followed and monitored for expression of radiation myelopathy
(RM), which was conrmed by histopathologic diagnosis. Results:
High doses of PDGF given 8 weeks after radiotherapy signicantly
accelerated the development of RM compared to control animals
(Figure 1). Such effects were observed also for concomitant treatment, but not for PDGF administration after 12 or 15 weeks (Figure
2). On the microscopic level, the spinal cord showed more pronounced vascular damage with vessel necroses and hemorrhages
(Figure 3). Conclusion: These data suggest that the vascular system plays an important role during development of RM and that
early stimulation of cell proliferation negatively inuences the time
course of spinal cord damage. Further experiments should address
different concepts of tissue regeneration or damage prevention.
Urban & Vogel.
445. Tumor delineation using PET in head and neck cancers:
Threshold contouring and lesion volumes - Ford E.C., Kinahan
P.E., Hanlon L. et al. [E.C. Ford, Johns Hopkins Medical Center,
Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States]
- MED. PHYS. 2006 33/11 (4280-4288) - summ in ENGL
Tumor boundary delineation using positron emission tomography
(PET) is a promising tool for radiation therapy applications. In this
study we quantify the uncertainties in tumor boundary delineation
as a function of the reconstruction method, smoothing, and lesion
size in head and neck cancer patients using FDG-PET images and
evaluate the dosimetric impact on radiotherapy plans. FDG-PET
images were acquired for eight patients with a GE Advance PET
scanner. In addition, a 20 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with six
FDG-lled spheres with volumes of 1.2 to 26.5 cm3 was imaged.
PET emission scans were reconstructed with the OSEM and FBP
algorithms with different smoothing parameters. PET-based tumor
regions were delineated using an automatic contouring function set
at progressively higher threshold contour levels and the resulting
volumes were calculated. CT-based tumor volumes were also contoured by a physician on coregistered PETCT patient images. The
intensity value of the threshold contour level that returns 100% of
the actual volume, IV100, was measured. We generated intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for an example head and
neck patient, treating 66 Gy to CT-based gross disease and 54 Gy
to nodal regions at risk, followed by a boost to the FDG-PET-based
tumor. The volumes of PET-based tumors are a sensitive function
of threshold contour level for all patients and phantom datasets.
A 5% change in threshold contour level can translate into a 200%
increase in volume. Phantom data indicate that IV100 can be set as a
fraction, f, of the maximum measured uptake. Fractional threshold
values in the cylindrical water phantom range from 0.23 to 0.51.
Both the fractional threshold and the threshold-volume curve are
dependent on lesion size, with lesions smaller than approximately
5 cm3 displaying a more pronounced sensitivity and larger fractional threshold values. The threshold-volume curves and fractional
threshold values also depend on the reconstruction algorithm and
smoothing lter with more smoothing requiring a higher fractional
85

threshold contour level. The threshold contour level affects the


tumor size, and therefore the ultimate boost dose that is achievable
with IMRT. In an example head and neck IMRT plan, the D95 of
the planning target volume decreased from 7770 to 7230 cGy for
42% vs 55% contour threshold levels. PET-based tumor volumes
are strongly affected by the choice of threshold level. This can have
a signicant dosimetric impact. The appropriate threshold level
depends on lesion size and image reconstruction parameters. These
effects should be carefully considered when using PET contour
andor volume information for radiotherapy applications. 2006
American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
446. An analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activity in depression - Fitzgerald P.B.,
Oxley T.J., Laird A.R. et al. [P.B. Fitzgerald, Alfred Psychiatry
Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University, Department
of Psychological Medicine, Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Vic. 3004,
Australia] - PSYCHIATRY RES. NEUROIMAGING 2006 148/1 (3345) - summ in ENGL
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is currently
undergoing active investigation for use in the treatment of major depression. Recent research has indicated that current methods used
to localize the site of stimulation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
(DLPFC) are signicantly inaccurate. However, little information
is available on which to base a choice of stimulation site. The aim of
the current study was to systematically examine imaging studies in
depression to attempt to identify whether there is a pattern of imaging results that suggests an optimal site of stimulation localization.
We analysed all imaging studies published prior to 2005 that examined patients with major depression. Studies reporting activation
in DLPFC were identied. The DLPFC regions identied in these
studies were analysed using the Talairach and Rajkowska-GoldmanRakic coordinate systems. In addition, we conducted a quantitative
meta-analysis of resting studies and studies of serotonin reuptake
inhibitor antidepressant treatment. There was considerable heterogeneity in the results between studies. Changes in Brodmann area
9 were relatively consistently identied in resting, cognitive activation and treatment studies included in the meta-analysis. However,
there was little consistency in the direction of these changes or the
hemisphere in which they were identied. At this stage, the results
of imaging studies published to date have limited capacity to inform
the choice of optimal prefrontal cortical region for the use in rTMS
treatment studies. 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
447. Two-year follow-up of amyloid deposition in patients with
Alzheimers disease - Engler H., Forsberg A., Almkvist O. et
al. [Prof. Dr. A. Nordberg, Karolinska Institutet, Department of
Neurobiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Novum,
S-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden] - BRAIN 2006 129/11 (2856-2866) summ in ENGL
Beta amyloid is one of the major histopathological hallmarks
of Alzheimers disease. We recently reported in vivo imaging
of amyloid in 16 Alzheimer patients, using the PET ligand Nmethyl[11 C]2-(4 - methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole
(PIB). In the present study we rescanned these 16 Alzheimer patients after 2.0 0.5 years and have described the interval change in
amyloid deposition and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose
(rCMRGlc) at follow-up. Sixteen patients with Alzheimers disease
were re-examined by means of PET, using PIB and 2-[ 18 F]uoro-2deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) after 2.0 0.5 years. The patients were all
on cholinesterase inhibitor treatment and ve also on treatment with
the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist memantine. In order
to estimate the accuracy of the PET PIB measurements, four additional Alzheimer patients underwent repeated examinations with
PIB within 20 days (test-retest). Relative PIB retention in cortical
regions differed by 3-7% in the test-retest study. No signicant
difference in PIB retention was observed between baseline and follow-up while a signicant (P < 0.01) 20% decrease in rCMRGlc
was observed in cortical brain regions. A signicant negative correlation between rCMRGlc and PIB retention was observed in the
parietal cortex in the Alzheimer patients at follow-up (r = 0.67, P =
0.009). A non-signicant decline in Mini-Mental State Examination
(MMSE) score from 24.3 3.7 (mean standard deviation) to 22.7
6.1 was measured at follow-up. Five of the Alzheimer patients
showed a signicant decline in MMSE score of >3 (21.4 3.5 to
86

15.6 3.9, P < 0.01) (AD-progressive) while the rest of the patients
were cognitively more stable (MMSE score = 25.6 3.1 to 25.9
3.7) (AD-stable) compared with baseline. A positive correlation
(P = 0.001) was observed in the parietal cortex between Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVL) test score and rCMRGlc at follow-up
while a negative correlation (P = 0.018) was observed between
RAVL test and PIB retention in the parietal at follow-up. Relatively
stable PIB retention after 2 years of follow-up in patients with mild
Alzheimers disease suggests that amyloid deposition in the brain
reaches a plateau by the early clinical stages of Alzheimers disease
and therefore may precede a decline in rCMRGlc and cognition. It
appears that anti-amyloid therapies will need to induce a signicant
decrease in amyloid load in order for PIB PET images to detect
a drug effect in Alzheimer patients. FDG imaging may be able
to detect a stabilization of cerebral metabolism caused by therapy
administered to patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimers
disease. The Author (2006). Published by Oxford University
Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.
448. Neuroimaging in late-life depression - Vaishnavi S. and
Taylor W.D. [S. Vaishnavi, Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry Fellowship Hopkins Hospital, 550 N. Broadway, Baltimore,
MD 21205, United States] - INT. REV. PSYCHIATRY 2006 18/5
(443-451) - summ in ENGL
Late-life depression may be associated with vasculopathy. Neuroimaging has been a critical tool in exploring the relationship between
this form of depression and vascular factors. Magnetic resonance
imaging has been the most widely used tool, but there is potential
to use other structural imaging techniques as well as functional
neuroimaging methodologies. Neuroimaging may potentially be
utilized at some point as a biomarker for late-life depression, thus
helping with diagnosis and guiding treatment. 2006 Informa UK
Ltd.
449. Serotonin 1A receptor availability in patients with schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: A positron emission
tomography imaging study with [11 C]WAY 100635 - Frankle
W.G., Lombardo I., Kegeles L.S. et al. [W.G. Frankle, Departments
of Psychiatry and Radiology, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States]
- PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2006 189/2 (155-164) - summ in
ENGL
Background: Postmortem and positron emission tomography
(PET) studies have reported several alterations in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A ) binding parameters in patients with schizophrenia.
This study examines 5-HT 1A availability in vivo in individuals with
schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder. Materials and methods: Twenty-two medication-free individuals with schizophrenia
or schizo-affective disorder and 18 healthy subjects underwent PET
scans with [11 C]WAY 100635. Regional distribution volumes (V T ,
in milliliters per gram) were derived using a two-tissue compartment
kinetic model. Outcome measures for 5-HT 1A availability included
binding potential (BP) and the specic to nonspecic equilibrium
partition coefcient (V 3 ). Eleven brain regions with high density
of 5-HT1A were included in the analysis. Results: No signicant
differences were observed in regional BP or V 3 between patients
and controls. No signicant relationships were observed between
regional 5-HT1A availability and symptom severity. Conclusion:
The postmortem literature reports increased 5-HT 1A binding in the
prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. This study did not detect differences in 5-HT1A binding. Whereas in two recently published PET
studies, one reports increased binding in the temporal lobe while
the other reports decreased binding in the amygdala. These inconsistencies suggest that the alterations demonstrated in postmortem
studies cannot be reliably detected at the resolution achieved with
PET. This raises the question as to whether major changes in the
level of expression of the 5-HT1A receptor play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
450. Spect measurements of regional cerebral perfusion and
carbondioxide reactivity: Correlation with cerebral collaterals
in internal carotid artery occlusive disease - De Boorder M.J.,
Van Der Grond J., Van Dongen A.J. et al. [Dr. J. Hendrikse, Dept.
of Radiology (Hp E 01.132), University Medical Center Utrecht,
Section 23 vol 70.2

PO Box 85500, GA 3508 Utrecht, Netherlands] - J. NEUROL. 2006


253/10 (1285-1291) - summ in ENGL
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess
the regional variation in cerebral perfusion, vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and the role of cerebral collaterals in patients with
symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods: Seventeen
functionally independent patients (60 9 years, mean SD) with a
unilateral symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion and a <30%
contralateral ICA stenosis were investigated. (99 m) Tc-hexamethyl
propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission computed
tomography (SPECT) was performed to study cerebral blood ow
in rest and during a CO2 challenge in the cerebellum, temporal lobe,
occipital lobe, basal ganglia, frontal lobe and parietal lobe. Time
of ight and phase contrast MRA were used to study collateral ow
via circle of Willis. Results: In rest, cerebral perfusion on the
side ipsilateral to the ICA occlusion was decreased compared with
the contralateral side in the basal ganglia (p<0.05), frontal lobe
(p<0.01) and parietal lobe (p<0.01). During a CO2 challenge only
the ipsilateral frontal lobe demonstrated a perfusion decrease compared with the contralateral frontal lobe (p<0.05). Furthermore,
in patients without collateral ow via the anterior circle of Willis
the perfusion of the ipsilateral frontal lobe was signicantly decreased (p<0.01) during the CO2 challenge and crossed cerebellar
diaschisis with a decreased perfusion on the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere was detected (p<0.05). No cerebral blood ow
(CBF) differences were found for present/absent collateral ow via
the posterior communicating artery. Conclusion: Regional assessment of cerebral perfusion and VMR with SPECT demonstrated
the heterogeneity of cerebral hemodynamics and the importance of
collateral ow via the anterior circle of Willis. 2006 Steinkopff
Verlag.
451. Neurologic and radiologic manifestations of three girls surviving acute carbon monoxide poisoning - Hon K.-L.E., Yeung
W.-L., Ho C.-H.A. et al. [Dr. K.-L.E. Hon, Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales
Hospital, Clinical Sciences Building, Shatin, Hong Kong] - J.
CHILD NEUROL. 2006 21/9 (737-741) - summ in ENGL
We report the neurologic and radiologic manifestations of three
adolescent girls with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The girls
were found collapsed and unconscious in a bathroom where liquid
petroleum gas was being used as heating fuel. As hyperbaric oxygen therapy was not available locally, they only received oxygen
supplementation via nasal cannula (4 L/minute) as treatment in
the rst 2 days. On transfer to a tertiary center in Hong Kong,
evolving neurologic manifestations of visual acuity and eld decits, confusion, and focal motor weaknesses were observed. Focal
infarctions were evident in cerebral computed tomography in one
patient and cortical lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in all
three patients. [18 F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission
tomography (PET) revealed additional decreased metabolism in the
basal ganglia in two patients, which was typical of carbon monoxide poisoning. The neurologic decits resolved completely at 3
weeks after the exposure, but psychologic symptoms succeeded.
This report serves to alert clinicians to the varied neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations and psychologic impairment even with the
same duration of carbon monoxide poisoning. PET might be more
sensitive in detecting cerebral injuries specic for carbon monoxide
poisoning.
452. Does dose rate affect efcacy? The outcomes of 256 Gamma
Knife surgery procedures for trigeminal neuralgia and other
types of facial pain as they relate to the half-life of cobalt Balamucki C.J., Stieber V.W., Ellis T.L. et al. [Dr. V.W. Stieber,
Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, School
of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1030, United States] - J.
NEUROSURG. 2006 105/5 (730-735) - summ in ENGL
Object. Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is a treatment option for
patients with refractory typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN), TN with
atypical features, and atypical types of facial pain. The Gamma
Knifes 201 60 Co sources decay with a half-life of 5.26 years. The
authors examined whether the decrease in dose rate over 4.6 years
between Co source replacements affected the control rates of facial
pain in patients undergoing GKS. Methods. The authors collected
complete follow-up data on 239 of 326 GKS procedures performed
Section 23 vol 70.2

in patients with facial pain. Patients were classied by their type


of pain. The isocenter of a 4-mm collimator helmet was targeted
at the proximal trigeminal nerve root, and the dose (80-90 Gy) was
prescribed at the 100% isodose line. Patients reported the amount
of pain control following radiosurgery by answering a standardized
questionnaire. Eighty percent of patients experienced greater than
50% pain relief, and 56% of patients experienced complete pain
relief after GKS. Neither dose rate nor treatment time was signicantly associated with either the control rate or degree of pain relief.
A signicant association between the type of facial pain and the pain
control rate after GKS was observed (p < 0.001; Pearson chi-square
test). In their statistical analysis, the authors accounted for changes
in prescription dose over time to prevent the dose rate from being
a confounding variable. There was no observable effect of the
dose rate or of the treatment duration within the typical period to
source replacement. Conclusions. Patients with facial pain appear
to receive consistent treatment with GKS at any time during the rst
half-life of the Co sources.
453. Two-year follow-up in 150 consecutive cases with normal
dopamine transporter imaging - Marshall V.L., Patterson J., Hadley D.M. et al. [Dr. V.L. Marshall, Institute of Neurological
Sciences, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, G51 4TF,
United Kingdom] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (933937) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Functional pre-synaptic dopamine brain imaging is generally abnormal when parkinsonism is
degenerative (such as in idiopathic Parkinsons disease) and normal in patients with non-degenerative movement disorder (such
as essential tremor). However, some patients diagnosed as early
Parkinsons disease have normal presynaptic dopamine imaging.
Follow-up of patients with normal imaging should help determine
whether such patients truly have degenerative parkinsonism (and
therefore represent false negative imaging results), or emerge as
cases of non-degenerative parkinsonism (and therefore represent
initial clinical over-diagnosis of Parkinsons disease). METHODS
AND RESULTS: One hundred and fty cases with normal I-FP-CIT
SPECT undertaken during routine care over a 3-year period were
reviewed 2.4 years (interquartile range, 2.2-3.1 years) after SPECT.
Diagnosis after follow-up was non-degenerative parkinsonism or
tremor in 146 (97%), who did not progress clinically, and degenerative parkinsonism in four (3%), in whom clinicial progression
was noted. Anti-Parkinson therapy was used in 36, and withdrawn
in 27 with no deterioration in 25. Patients strictly fullling Brain
Bank criteria (part 1) were more likely to undergo a trial of antiParkinson therapy (P<0.05) but were no more likely to maintain or
respond to anti-Parkinson therapy than those not fullling criteria.
CONCLUSION: The clinical prole and therapy response during
follow-up of patients with normal presynaptic dopamine imaging
supports the diagnosis of a non-degenerative movement disorder in
nearly all cases. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
454. Discrimination between parkinsonian syndrome and essential tremor using articial neural network classication of
quantied DaTSCAN data - Hamilton D., List A., Butler T. et
al. [D. Hamilton, Department of Medical Physics, Lincoln County
Hospital, Greetwell Road, Lincoln LN2 5QY, United Kingdom] NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (939-944) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND: In the semi-quantitative assessment of DaTSCAN images, it has been suggested that the ratio of tracer
accumulation in the putamen to that in the caudate nucleus may
be helpful and could allow parkinsonian syndromes progression to
be assessed. Separation of ratio values has been reported when
early Parkinsons disease is compared with essential tremor. The
separation is lost, however, when the Parkinsons disease is not early
stage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a two-stage analysis can
differentiate between parkinsonian syndromes, of various stages,
and essential tremor, and whether such a two-stage analysis can be
undertaken in a single step using articial neural networks (ANNs).
METHODS: Data from 18 patients were analysed. Quantication
was undertaken by manually drawing irregular regions of interest (ROIs): over each caudate nucleus and putamen and over an
occipital cortex area near the posterior edge of the brain. A twostage analysis was undertaken and was repeated, in a single step,
using an ANN. RESULTS: The rst stage, of the two-stage analysis,
87

identied 12 patients with non-early parkinsonian syndromes. The


remaining six patients were then successfully classied into early
parkinsonian syndromes and essential tremor. The ANN analysis
successfully discriminated parkinsonian syndromes from essential
tremor, in all patients, in a single step. CONCLUSIONS: The
two-stage process provides a method for classifying early disease
without being compromised by the noise from non-early disease.
The results of the single stage ANN analysis were very denite
and it may be considered to have potential in the quantication of
DaTSCAN images for clinical use. 2006 Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Inc.
455. Regional cerebral blood ow in Parkinsons disease as an
indicator of cognitive impairment - Derejko M., Sawek J., Wieczorek D. et al. [Dr. M. Derejko, Neurophysiology Department,
Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego Street 9, 02-957
Warsaw, Poland] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (945951) - summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of regional cerebral blood
ow (rCBF) decits in Parkinsons disease patients in relation to
cognitive decline and to assess the clinical usefulness of single
photon emission tomography (SPET) scanning in differentiation
between Parkinsons disease patients with dementia and those without cognitive decits. METHODS: We performed Tc-ECD SPET
in 60 patients with idiopathic Parkinsons disease (F: 25, M: 35),
with average age of 68.4 years (SD 7.3, range 51-81 years). All
patients were examined neurologically with the assessment of stage
and severity of Parkinsons disease (Hoehn-Yahr scale, UPDRS,
Schwab-England scale). Detailed neuropsychological examination
was performed in each Parkinsons disease patient. On the basis
of DSM-IV criteria of dementia and the results obtained in psychological examination, the whole group was divided into three
subgroups: I, with no cognitive changes (n=17); II, with mild cognitive impairment (n=25); and III, with dementia (n=18). RESULTS:
There was noticeable signicant decrease of perfusion in all areas
in Parkinsons disease patients when compared to the age-matched
control group of healthy volunteers (n=20). In group III, perfusion
was signicantly decreased (when compared to groups I and II),
particularly in parietal and temporal areas with the predominance of
the left side. Regression analysis revealed two independent factors
related to dementia: decrease of perfusion within left temporal lobe
and its increase within left thalamus. CONCLUSION: Parkinsons
disease patients with dementia showed left temporo-parietal hypoperfusion as compared to a group of patients without dementia,
which resembles perfusion decits described in Alzheimers disease. The hypoperfusion of the left temporal lobe with increase
of rCBF within the left thalamus might be clinically useful in discrimination of Parkinsons disease patients with dementia against
those without cognitive impairment. 2006 Lippincott Williams
& Wilkins, Inc.
456. Dysregulation of endogenous opioid emotion regulation circuitry in major depression in women - Kennedy S.E., Koeppe
R.A., Young E.A. and Zubieta J.-K. [Dr. J.-K. Zubieta, Department
of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Molecular
and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, 205 Zina Pitcher Pl, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0720, United States] - ARCH. GEN. PSYCHIATRY
2006 63/11 (1199-1208) - summ in ENGL
Context: There is extensive evidence implicating dysfunctions in
stress responses and adaptation to stress in the pathophysiological
mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans. Endogenous opioid neurotransmission activating -opioid receptors is
involved in stress and emotion regulatory processes and has been
further implicated in MDD. Objective: To examine the involvement
of -opioid neurotransmission in the regulation of affective states
in volunteers with MDD and its relationship with clinical response
to antidepressant treatment. Design: Measures of -opioid receptor availability in vivo (binding potential [BP]) were obtained
with positron emission tomography and the -opioid receptor selective radiotracer carbon 11-labeled carfentanil during a neutral
state. Changes in BP during a sustained sadness challenge were obtained by comparing it with the neutral state, reecting changes in
endogenous opioid neurotransmission during the experience of that
emotion. Setting: Clinics and neuroimaging facilities at a university
medical center. Participants: Fourteen healthy female volunteers
88

and 14 individually matched patient volunteers diagnosed with MDDwere recruited via advertisement and through outpatient clinics.
Interventions: Sustained neutral and sadness states, randomized and
counterbalanced in order, elicited by the cued recall of an autobiographical event associated with that emotion. Following imaging
procedures, patients underwent a 10-week course of treatment with
20 to 40 mg of uoxetine hydrochloride. Main Outcome Measures:
Changes in -opioid receptor BP during neutral and sustained sadness states, negative and positive affect ratings, plasma cortisol and
corticotropin levels, and clinical response to antidepressant administration. Results: The sustained sadness condition was associated
with a statistically signicant decrease in -opioid receptor BP in
the left inferior temporal cortex of patients with MDD and correlated with negative affect ratings experienced during the condition.
Conversely, a signicant increase in -opioid receptor BP was observed in healthy control subjects in the rostral region of the anterior
cingulate. In this region, a signicant decrease in -opioid receptor
BP during sadness was observed in patients with MDD who did not
respond to antidepressant treatment. Comparisons between patients
with MDD and controls showed signicantly lower neutral-state opioid receptor BP in patients with MDD in the posterior thalamus,
correlating with corticotropin and cortisol plasma levels. Larger
reductions in -opioid system BP during sadness were obtained
in patients with MDD in the anterior insular cortex, anterior and
posterior thalamus, ventral basal ganglia, amygdala, and periamygdalar cortex. The same challenge elicited larger increases in the
BP measure in the control group in the anterior cingulate, ventral
basal ganglia, hypothalamus, amygdala, and periamygdalar cortex.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate differences between women
with MDD and control women in -opioid receptor availability
during a neutral state, as well as opposite responses of this neurotransmitter system during the experimental induction of a sustained
sadness state. These data demonstrate that endogenous opioid neurotransmission on -opioid receptors, a system implicated in stress
responses and emotional regulation, is altered in patients diagnosed
with MDD. 2006 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
457. Elevated monoamine oxidase A levels in the brain: An
explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major depression
- Meyer J.H., Ginovart N., Boovariwala A. et al. [Dr. J.H. Meyer,
College Street Site, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, PET
Centre, 250 College St, Toronto, Ont. M5T 1R8, Canada] - ARCH.
GEN. PSYCHIATRY 2006 63/11 (1209-1216) - summ in ENGL
Context: The monoamine theory of depression proposes that
monoamine levels are lowered, but there is no explanation for how
monoamine loss occurs. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an
enzyme that metabolizes monoamines, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Objective: To determine whether MAO-A
levels in the brain are elevated during untreated depression. Setting:
Tertiary care psychiatric hospital. Patients: Seventeen healthy and
17 depressed individuals with major depressive disorder that met
entry criteria were recruited from the care of general practitioners
and psychiatrists. All study participants were otherwise healthy
and nonsmoking. Depressed individuals had been medication free
for at least 5 months. Main Outcome Measure: Harmine labeled
with carbon 11, a radioligand selective for MAO-A and positron
emission tomography, was used to measure MAO-A DVS (specic distribution volume), an index of MAO-A density, in different
brain regions (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior
cingulate cortex, caudate, putamen, thalamus, anterior temporal
cortex, midbrain, hippocampus, and parahippocampus). Results:
The MAO-A DVS was highly signicantly elevated in every brain
region assessed (t test; P = .001 to 3 10 -7 ). The MAO-A DVS was
elevated on average by 34% (2 SDs) throughout the brain during major depression. Conclusions: The sizable magnitude of this nding
and the absence of other compelling explanations for monoamine
loss during major depressive episodes led to the conclusion that elevated MAO-A density is the primary monoamine-lowering process
during major depression. 2006 American Medical Association.
All rights reserved.
458. LINAC radiosurgery for intracranial cavernous malformation: 10-year experience - Huang Y.-C., Tseng C.-K., Chang
C.-N. et al. [P.-W. Hsu, Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung
Section 23 vol 70.2

Memorial Hospital, No 5, Fu-shin St, Kweishan, Tauoyuan, Taiwan]


- CLIN. NEUROL. NEUROSURG. 2006 108/8 (750-756) - summ
in ENGL
Background: The annual hemorrhage rate of intracranial cavernous malformation (CM) is reported to range from 0.23% to
1.1%. Because of the low hemorrhage rate, operating on a deep
symptomatic lesion with or without hemorrhage is considered controversial. For the prevention of hemorrhage, radiosurgery is an
alternative method, targeting smaller lesions and delivering higher
doses of radiation. Linear accelerator (LINAC) radiosurgery, aside
from the gamma knife (GK), is not often discussed in the treatment
of CM. Patients and methods: From 1995 to 2005, 30 patients
presenting with hemorrhage or seizures, aged 14-79 years (mean
24.0 years) with single (27 patients) or multiple (three patients)CMs received LINAC radiosurgery at our institute. Six patients
received LINAC radiosurgery following craniotomy for residual
lesions revealed by the follow-up MRI. The temporal lobe was the
most common site for CM in this series (n = 8), followed by the
brain stem (n = 7). Thirty patients received 34 radiosurgery treatments with peripheral doses ranging from 800 cGy to 2200 cGy.
The mean follow-up time was 59.9 months (range 1-122 months).
Results: One patient re-bled post-radiosurgery (0.67% in 149.75
observation-years). Two patients had asymptomatic post-LINAC
edema (6.7%). Those three patients were symptom-free during the
follow-up period. Conclusion: We suggest that LINAC radiosurgery is a relatively safe technique for treating deep or residual CM,
although the actual effectiveness for CM obliteration is not known.
2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
459. Anxiety and regional cortical glucose metabolism in patients with Alzheimers disease - Hashimoto H., Monserratt L.,
Nguyen P. et al. [Dr. H. Hashimoto, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi,
Osaka-city, Osaka 545-8585, Japan] - J. NEUROPSYCHIATRY
CLIN. NEUROSCI. 2006 18/4 (521-528) - summ in ENGL
In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between
anxiety and regional cortical metabolism in Alzheimers disease.
Using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the authors evaluated
anxiety in 41 patients with Alzheimers disease. Regional cortical
glucose metabolism was measured using [18 F] uorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography in the resting state. Relationships were assessed using voxel-based (SPM2) and anatomic
region-based analyses. Higher NPI anxiety score (frequency
severity) was associated with lower metabolism in bilateral entorhinal cortex, anterior parahippocampal gyrus, and left superior
temporal gyrus and insula. Functional activity changes in distinct
regions of the cortex contribute to the expression of anxiety in
Alzheimers disease. Copyright 2006 American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
460. The role of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Lewy body disease in patients with
dementia in a memory clinic - Hanyu H., Shimizu S., Hirao K.
et al. [H. Hanyu, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023,
Japan] - DEMENTIA GERIATR. COGN. DISORD. 2006 22/5-6
(379-384) - summ in ENGL
Reduction in cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake is a characteristic feature of Parkinsons disease (PD) and
dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and is useful in distinguishing them from other neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this
study was to investigate the role of this method of scintigraphy in
the differential diagnosis of dementia in our Memory Clinic. We
performed MIBG scintigraphy in patients with dementia referred to
the Memory Clinic and compared the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M)ratio of MIBG uptake. Thirty out of 32 patients with DLB and all
9 PD with dementia patients had reduced H/M ratios, whereas 37
out of 40 patients with Alzheimers disease had normal H/M ratios.
Most patients with vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and
other dementias had normal H/M ratios. The overall sensitivity to
positively identify patients with Lewy body disease (including DLB
and PD with dementia) was 95%, and the specicity to distinguish
them from patients with other types of dementias was 87%. MIBG
scintigraphy showed a high sensitivity for the detection of Lewy
body disease, and also a high specicity for discrimination from
Section 23 vol 70.2

other types of dementia. The scintigraphy may provide a valuable


and adjunctive method in the diagnosis of Lewy body disease and a
differential diagnostic tool for patients with dementias. Copyright
2006 S. Karger AG.
461. 3 -deoxy-3 -[F-18]uorothymidine positron emission tomography in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme:
Comparison with Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance
imaging - Yamamoto Y., Wong T.Z., Turkington T.G. et al. [Dr. Y.
Yamamoto, Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division,
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States] MOL. IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (340-347) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: The accumulation of 3 -deoxy-3 -[F-18]uorothymidine (FLT) on positron emission tomography (PET) images in
patients with glioblastoma multiforme was evaluated and correlated with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhancement in
magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Methods: FLT studies in 10 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme were retrospectively
investigated. Dynamic emission data were acquired for 60 minutes
immediately after injection of FLT. The standardized uptake value
(SUV) for tumor and reference tissue (contralateral hemisphere and
ipsilateral cerebellum) was calculated. The volumes of the metabolically active part of the tumor (VPET ) and that of the Gd-DTPA
enhancing part of the tumor (VMR ) were calculated. Results: FLT
uptake in tumors peaked before 5 minutes and sometimes as early
as 0.5 minutes, and reached a constant level at approximately 10
minutes after injection. The reference tissue time-activity curves
had an early peak and reached a constant low background level.
All tumors had increased FLT uptake and showed Gd-DTPA enhancement. The SUV in tumor was signicantly higher than that
in the reference tissue (P < 0.0001). A signicant correlation between VPET and VMR was found (P < 0.0001) although there was a
difference in the areas of Gd-DTPA enhancement and FLT uptake.
Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that FLT-PET may
be useful for the detection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
Our data in a relatively small patient population do not support
a clear-cut relationship between FLT accumulation and Gd-DTPA
enhancement. Further pathologic correlation will determine if it
can be used for detecting recurrent tumoral disease. Academy of
Molecular Imaging 2006.
462. Global cerebral blood ow in relation to cognitive performance and reserve in subjects with mild memory decits Boles Ponto L.L., Magnotta V.A., Moser D.J. et al. [Dr. L.L. Boles
Ponto, Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Center, Department
of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa, IA 52242, United States] MOL. IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (363-372) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms underlying cognitive reserve in subjects with mild memory
decits by using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods:
Global cerebral blood ow (gCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve
(CVR) measurements were performed in 15 elders (5 men, 10
women, 62-84, 71.8- 6.2 years) meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). PET consisted of quantitative [15 O]water
determinations of CBF, two at baseline and one postadministration of acetazolamide (ACZ). Results: Mean gCBF were 44.9 5.5
during counting, 44.5 6.7 for the memory task, and 60.2 4.8
ml/min/100 g for post-ACZ (CVR of 33.9 13.2%). Task-related
gCBF change was signicantly related to memory score, performance on the Trail Making Test B (Trails-B), premorbid IQ, and
education, and differed signicantly between the learning-based
groups. Conclusions: Cognitive reserve appears analogous to cardiac reserve. The ability to alter gCBF paralleled performance
on general cognitive measures, was enhanced in higher levels of
cognitive reserve, and was impaired in individuals who no longer
appear to benet from repeated exposure to testing. Academy of
Molecular Imaging 2006.
463. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,2, and 3 and restless legs
syndrome: Striatal dopamine D2 receptor status investigated
by [11 C] Raclopride positron emission tomography - Reimold
M., Globas C., Gleichmann M. et al. [Dr. K. B rk, Institute of
u
Brain Research, University of T bingen, Calwerstr. 3, D-72076
u
T bingen, Germany] - MOV. DISORD. 2006 21/10 (1667-1673) u
summ in ENGL
89

In spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), up to 30% of patients complain


of restless legs syndrome (RLS). In primary RLS, a putative role of
the dopaminergic system has been postulated. To assess dopaminergic function in SCA 1, 2, and 3, dopamine D2 receptor binding
potential (BP) was assessed by [11 C]raclopride positron emission
tomography in 10 SCA patients, 4 of whom suffered from RLS as
demonstrated by polysomnography. BP was compared to 9 agematched control subjects. In 2 SCA patients, striatal BP was clearly
reduced (<2 SD below the mean of controls). However, there
were no signicant group differences between SCA and controls,
largely owing to a signicantly higher variance of striatal BP in
SCA. BP was negatively correlated with disease duration. The t
suggests an increased BP in early stages, followed by a moderate
decline in all quantied regions (caudate, dorsal putamen, ventral
striatum) presumably reecting a progressive loss of D2 receptors.
RLS in SCA was not accompanied by a signicant reduction of D2
receptor availability in the striatum. This missing correlation may
point to an extrastriatal origin of RLS. 2006 Movement Disorder
Society.
464. Dopamine transporters, D2 receptors, and glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration - Klaffke S., Kuhn A.A., Plotkin
M. et al. [Dr. A. Kupsch, Department of Neurology, University
Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany]
- MOV. DISORD. 2006 21/10 (1724-1727) - summ in ENGL
Alterations in presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic system and cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration
(CBD) were assessed to evaluate the potential usefulness of different imaging methods for CBD. 123 I-FP-CIT/123 I- -CIT SPECT
and 123 I-IBZM SPECT as well as 18 F-FDG PET were performed in
eight CBD patients. Decreased presynaptic dopamine transporter
binding was found in all CBD patients while D2 receptor binding
was reduced in only one patient. 18 F-FDG PET displayed a contralateral. hypometabolism in cortical and subcortical areas in seven
out of eight patients. Our results demonstrate that glucose metabolism and DAT are reduced, while D2 receptors may be frequently
preserved in CBD. 2006 Movement Disorder Society.
465. Voxel-based analysis of PET amyloid ligand [11C]PIB uptake in Alzheimer disease - Kemppainen N.M., Aalto S., Wilson
I.A. et al. [Dr. J.O. Rinne, Turku PET Centre, University of Turku,
P.O. Box 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland] - NEUROLOGY 2006 67/9
(1575-1580) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND: PET studies with N-methyl-[C]2-(4 :-methylaminophenyl)-6- hydroxybenzothiazole ([C]PIB) have revealed an
increased tracer uptake in several brain regions in Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To employ voxel-based analysis method
to identify brain regions with signicant increases in [C]PIB uptake
in AD vs healthy control subjects, indicative of increased amyloid accumulation in these regions. METHODS: We studied 17
patients with AD and 11 control subjects with PET using [C]PIB as tracer. Parametric images were computed by calculating
a region-to-cerebellum ratio over 60 to 90 minutes in each voxel.
Group differences in [C]PIB uptake were analyzed with statistical
parametric mapping (SPM) and automated region-of-interest (ROI)analysis. RESULTS: SPM showed increased uptake (p < 0.001) in
the frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal cortices as well as in the
posterior cingulate and the striatum. No signicant differences
in uptake were found in the primary sensory and motor cortices,
primary visual cortex, thalamus, and medial temporal lobe. These
results were supported by automated ROI analysis, with most prominent increases in AD subjects in the frontal cortex ([C]PIB uptake
163% of the control mean) and posterior cingulate (146%) followed
by the parietal (146%) and temporal (145%) cortices and striatum
(133%), as well as small increases in the occipital cortex (117%) and
thalamus (115%). CONCLUSIONS: Voxel-based analysis revealed
widespread distribution of increased [C]PIB uptake in Alzheimer
disease (AD). These ndings are in accordance with the distribution
and phases of amyloid pathology in AD, previously documented in
postmortem studies. 2006 AAN Enterprises, Inc.
466. Clinical correlates of levodopa-induced dopamine release
in Parkinson disease: A PET study - Pavese N., Evans A.H., Tai
Y.F. et al. [Dr. P. Piccini, Division of Neurosciences, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN,
90

United Kingdom] - NEUROLOGY 2006 67/9 (1612-1617) - summ


in ENGL
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between clinical improvement and in vivo synaptic dopamine (DA) release after a single
oral dose of levodopa (LD) in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 16 patients with advanced PD
with [C]raclopride (RAC) PET. Each patient had RAC PET twice:
once when medication had been withdrawn and once after an LD
challenge. On the day of the LD challenge scan, oral 250 mg LD/25
mg carbidopa was given before scanning. Unied Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores were rated in an "off" state
before LD and again at the end of PET. RESULTS: All the patients
were still in "on" state at the end of their LD challenge RAC PET
scans. Following LD, mean caudate and putamen RAC binding potentials (BPs) were signicantly lower vs baseline, consistent with
increased synaptic DA. Individual LD-induced improvements in
UPDRS score correlated signicantly with reductions in putaminal
BP. Additionally, large putaminal RAC BP changes were associated
with higher dyskinesia scores. When motor UPDRS subitems were
examined, improvements in rigidity and bradykinesia, but not in
tremor or axial symptoms, correlated with putamen DA release.
CONCLUSION: In advanced Parkinson disease, the improvement
of rigidity and bradykinesia and the presence of dyskinesias after a
single dose of oral levodopa are governed by the level of dopamine
generated at striatal D2 receptors. In contrast, relief of parkinsonian
tremor and axial symptoms is not related to striatal synaptic dopamine levels and presumably occurs via extrastriatal mechanisms.
2006AAN Enterprises, Inc.
467. Assessing whole brain perfusion changes in patients with
REM sleep behavior disorder - Mazza S., Soucy J.P., Gravel

P. et al. [Dr. J. Montplaisir, Centre dEtude du Sommeil et des


e
Rythmes Biologiques, H pital du Sacr -Cur de Montr al, 5400
o
e
Boul. Gouin Ouest, Montr al, Que. H4J 1C5, Canada] - NEUROLe
OGY 2006 67/9 (1618-1622) - summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regional cerebral perfusion in
patients with idiopathic REM behavior disorder (RBD) in order
to establish the topography of networks involved. METHODS:
We performed cerebral blood ow evaluation using Tc-Ethylene
Cysteinate Dimer (ECD) SPECT on eight patients with polysomnographically conrmed RBD and nine age-matched controls.
Comparisons were made using SPM2. RESULTS: We found increased perfusion in the pons and putamen bilaterally and in the
right hippocampus. In addition, we observed a decreased perfusion
in frontal (Brodmann area [BA] 4, 6, 10, 43, 44, 47 bilaterally and
left BA 9, 46) and temporo-parietal (BA 13, 22, 43 bilaterally and
left BA 7, 19, 20, 21, 39, 40, 41, 42) cortices. CONCLUSION:
Perfusional abnormalities in patients with REM behavior disorder
were located in the brainstem, striatum, and cortex. These abnormalities are consistent with the anatomic metabolic prole of
Parkinson disease. 2006AAN Enterprises, Inc.
468. Dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in antipsychotic-nave schizophreniform psychosis - Harrison B.J., Y cel

u
M., Shaw M. et al. [B.J. Harrison, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry
Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne,
, Australia] - PSYCHIATRY RES. NEUROIMAGING 2006 148/1
(23-31) - summ in ENGL
Reports of abnormal activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are common in functional neuroimaging studies of
schizophrenia, although very few have examined brain activity in
patients close to the onset of illness. In this H15 O PET study, eight
2
young male patients with rst-episode schizophreniform psychosis
and age-matched control subjects performed a version of the Stroop
task that we have previously shown to engage the middle-frontal
gyrus. At the time of testing, patients were antipsychotic-nave

and were scanned within 1 week of initial contact with our clinical
program. All patients received a later diagnosis of schizophrenia 6
months after participating in the study. Whole-brain (within-group)and region-of-interest (between-group) analyses were carried out
and data underwent spatial reproducibility testing. Compared with
healthy subjects, patients showed signicantly greater reaction-time
(RT) interference but normal RT accuracy on the Stroop task. This
pattern correlated with signicant under-activation of the posterior
left middle-frontal gyri in the patient versus control group. These
Section 23 vol 70.2

ndings support an emerging model of impaired cognitive control


in schizophrenia and suggest that there is signicant dysfunction of
the dlPFC close to the onset of illness that may coincide with, or
be modulated by, the transition-to-illness phase. 2006 Elsevier
Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
469. Gamma knife radiosurgery for epilepsy related to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor - Kwon K.-H., Lee J.-I., Hong
S.-C. et al. [Dr. J.-I. Lee, Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung
Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50
Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, South Korea] - STEREOTACTIC FUNCT. NEUROSURG. 2006 84/5-6 (243-247) - summ in
ENGL
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) is a well-known
epileptogenic lesion with favorable seizure outcome after surgical
resection. However, sometimes surgery may be difcult technically,
and epilepsy may continue throughout the patients lifetime despite
surgical intervention. We report a case of intractable epilepsy related
to DNT that was treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS).
The frequency of seizure was reduced remarkably after GKRS, and
nally a seizure-free state was accomplished in two years. Neuropsychological tests also showed improvement. It is suggested that
GKRS may be an effective and less invasive alternative treatment
for the patients in whom surgical treatment is difcult. Copyright
2006 S. Karger AG.
470. Increased occupancy of dopamine receptors in human striatum during cue-elicited cocaine craving - Wong D.F., Kuwabara
H., Schretlen D.J. et al. [Dr. D.F. Wong, Radiology-Nuclear
Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns
Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 North Caroline St, Baltimore,
MD 21287-0807, United States] - NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2006 31/12 (2716-2727) - summ in ENGL
In all, 19 research subjects, with current histories of frequent
cocaine use, were exposed to cocaine-related cues to elicit drug
craving. We measured the change of occupancy of dopamine at
D2-like receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) and
inferred a change of intrasynaptic dopamine (endogenous dopamine
release), based on the displacement of radiotracer [ 11 C]raclopride.
Receptor occupancy by dopamine increased signicantly in putamen of participants who reported cue-elicited craving compared to
those who did not. Further, the intensity of craving was positively
correlated with the increase in dopamine receptor occupancy in the
putamen. These results provide direct evidence that occupancy of
dopamine receptors in human dorsal striatum increased in proportion to subjective craving, presumably because of increased release
of intrasynaptic dopamine. 2006 Nature Publishing Group All
rights reserved.
471. Frontal lobe metabolic decreases with sleep deprivation
not totally reversed by recovery sleep - Wu J.C., Gillin J.C.,
Buchsbaum M.S. et al. [Dr. J.C. Wu, UC Irvine Department of
Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine,
CA 92697-3960, United States] - NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 2006 31/12 (2783-2792) - summ in ENGL
We studied the effects of total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep
in normal subjects using position emission tomography with 18Fdeoxyglycose. Sleep deprivation resulted in a signicant decrease
in relative metabolism of the frontal cortex, thalamus, and striatum.
Recovery sleep was found to have only a partial restorative effect on
frontal lobe function with minimal reversal of subcortical decits.
Sleep may be especially important for maintenance of frontal lobe
activity. 2006 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.
472. Assessment of regional GABAA receptor binding using
positron emission tomography in spastic
type cerebral palsy - Lee J.D., Park H.-J., Park E.S. et al. [J.D.
Lee, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Shinchon-dong,
Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, South Korea] - NEUROIMAGE
2007 34/1 (19-25) - summ in ENGL
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) due to hypoxic-ischemic
insult to the immature brain, chorioamnionitis and maternal infection are the major etiological factors of spastic type cerebral
palsy (CP). Despite advances in preventing and treating certain
18 F-uoroumazenil

Section 23 vol 70.2

causes of CP, the number of patients has remained essentially unchanged and the pathophysiological mechanisms related to motor
dysfunction remain poorly understood. In this study, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric
acid (GABA) receptor PET imaging using [18 F]-uoroumazenil
showed increased GABAA receptor binding in the bilateral motor and visual cortices in spastic diplegia (SD) type CP patients
(n = 20) compared with normal controls (n = 10). As GABAA
receptor signaling modulates biological perception and production
of movement, complex motor skills and use-dependent plasticity in
the motor cortex, increased GABAA receptor binding in the motor
cortex might play a important role in poor motor control. Decreased
GABAA receptor binding was seen in the brain stem in SD CP patients, which appears to be related to spastic symptom. 2006
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
473. Variations in the human pain stress experience mediated by
ventral and dorsal basal ganglia dopamine activity - Scott D.J.,
Heitzeg M.M., Koeppe R.A. et al. [Dr. J.-K. Zubieta, University
of Michigan, Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, 205
Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0720, United States] - J.
NEUROSCI. 2006 26/42 (10789-10795) - summ in ENGL
In addition to its involvement in motor control and in encoding
reward value, increasing evidence also implicates basal ganglia dopaminergic mechanisms in responses to stress and aversive stimuli.
Basal ganglia dopamine (DA) neurotransmission may then respond
to environmental events depending on their saliency, orienting the
subsequent responses of the organism to both positive and negative
stimuli. Here we examined the involvement of DA neurotransmission in the human response to pain, a robust physical and emotional
stressor across species. Positron emission tomography with the DA
D2 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11 C]raclopride detected significant activation of DA release in dorsal and ventral regions of the
basal ganglia of healthy volunteers. Activation of nigrostriatal
(dorsal nucleus caudate and putamen) DA D2 receptor-mediated
neurotransmission was positively associated with individual variations in subjective ratings of sensory and affective qualities of the
pain. In contrast, mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens) DA activation,
which may impact on both D2 and D3 receptors, was exclusively
associated with variations in the emotional responses of the individual during the pain challenge (increases in negative affect and
fear ratings). These data demonstrate that basal ganglia dopamine
D2 receptor-mediated neurotransmission is involved in responses to
pain and that it contributes to individual variations in the pain experience at the levels of physical and emotional elements, albeit with
different neuroanatomical substrates. Copyright 2006 Society
for Neuroscience.
474. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: Past, present and future: How to improve patient selection? - Rijbroek A., Wisselink
W., Vriens E.M. et al. [A. Rijbroek, Department of General Surgery,
Kennemer Gasthuis, PO Box 417, NL-2000 AK Haarlem, Netherlands] - EUR. NEUROL. 2006 56/3 (139-154) - summ in ENGL
Background: The role of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for
asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) remains a matter of
debate. It seems that not only the degree of stenosis, but also other
factors have to be taken in account to improve patient selection
and increase the benet of CEA for aCAS. Methods and Results:
The literature pertaining aCAS was reviewed in order to describe
the natural history, risk of stroke and benet of CEA for patients
with aCAS in regard to several factors. Conclusion: The benet
of CEA for aCAS is low. Current factors inuencing the indication for CEA are severity of stenosis, age, contralateral disease,
stenosis progression to >80%, gender, concomitant operations and
life expectancy. To improve patient selection investigations will
concentrate on plaque characteristics and instability and cerebral
hemodynamics and metabolism. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG.
475. The impact of auditory cortex activity on characterizing
and treating patients with chronic tinnitus - First results from
a PET study - Langguth B., Eichhammer P., Kreutzer A. et al.
[Dr. B. Langguth, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,
University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstrae 84, 93053 Regensburg, Germany] - ACTA OTO-LARYNGOL. 2006 126/SUPPL. 556
(84-88) - summ in ENGL
91

Conclusion: Unilaterally increased metabolic activity within the


primary auditory cortex (PAC) represents a robust nding in tinnitus
patients. Targeting these hyperactive areas with image-guided low
frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) results in subjective tinnitus reduction. More pronounced activation of
the PAC predicted higher resistance to rTMS. Objectives: [18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) was used
to assess metabolic activity within the central auditory system in
tinnitus. The study investigated whether patterns of neuronal activity correlate with clinical features or may be used for the prediction
of treatment outcome. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with
chronic tinnitus underwent PET imaging followed by low frequency
rTMS treatment. Neuroimaging data were compared with clinical
parameters and treatment outcome. Results: PET data demonstrated
an asymmetric activation of the central auditory system. Seventeen
patients revealed increased activity of the primary auditory cortex
on the left side, three on the right side. The extent of hypermetabolic activity prior to treatment correlated signicantly with tinnitus
reduction after rTMS, but not with clinical characteristics such as
tinnitus severity, tinnitus laterality or tinnitus duration. 2006
Taylor & Francis.
476. Human umbilical cord blood cells do not improve sensorimotor or cognitive outcome following transient middle cerebral
artery occlusion in rats - M kinen S., Kekarainen T., Nystedt J.
a
et al. [J. Jolkkonen, Department of Neuroscience and Neurology,
University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland] BRAIN RES. 2006 1123/1 (207-215) - summ in ENGL
The present study investigated effects of human umbilical cord
blood (HUCB) cells on sensorimotor, cognitive, and histological
outcome in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Halothane anesthetized adult male Wistar rats were
subjected to transient MCAO for 2 h. HUCB cells (mononuclear
1-5 107 or Lin- cells 1-5 105 ) were administered intravenously
after 24 h recovery. The limb-placing test was performed on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20. In addition, beam-walking
and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function at baseline, and on postoperative days 4, 12, and 20. Morris water-maze
was used to assess cognitive performance on postoperative days
22-24. Subsequently, rats were perfused for measurement of infarct
volumes and detection of HUCB cells by immunohistochemistry
(MAB1281). MCAO rats showed a partial spontaneous recovery
in sensorimotor function during the follow-up. However, the recovery prole was similar in MCAO controls and in MCAO rats
that received HUCB cells. HUCB did not affect impaired watermaze performance of MCAO rats. Only few human nuclei-specic
MAB1281-positive cells were detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere
in MCAO rats that received HUCB cells. Infarct volumes did not
differ between the experimental groups. A group of additional rats
were used to further study biodistribution of intravenously given
111 In-oxine-labelled mononuclear HUCB cells in MCAO and shamoperated rats. SPECT imaging data indicated a high tracer uptake in
the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney, but not in the brain immediately
after administration or 24 h post-administration. The present study
suggests that HUCB cells do not improve functional recovery or
histological outcome in MCAO rats after systemic administration
because of limited migration of cells in the ischemic brain. 2006
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
477. Diagnosis of dementia using perfusion SPECT imaging at
the patients initial visit to a cognitive disorder clinic - Uchida
Y., Minoshima S., Okada S. et al. [Dr. Y. Uchida, Departments of
Radiology, Chiba University, School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana,
Chuuou-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8677, Japan] - CLIN. NUCL.
MED. 2006 31/12 (764-773) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic
accuracy of brain perfusion SPECT in patients visiting the cognitive disorder clinic for initial evaluation using 3D-SSP compared
with using standard transaxial section. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard transaxial section displays and 3D-SSP z-score maps
obtained after administration of Tc-99m ECD or I-123 IMP were
randomly interpreted in 315 patients who visited initially to the
cognitive disorder clinic (age 46-88 years; 162 women, 153 men).
Sensitivity, specicity, positive predictive value, negative predictive
92

value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. RESULTS:
One hundred thirty-seven patients were clinically diagnosed with
Alzheimer disease and 178 patients were diagnosed with other disorders and age-associated cognitive decline. Sensitivity, specicity,
positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic
accuracy calculated using standard transaxial display were 61%,
70%, 61%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, and using the 3D-SSP
z-score map were 90%, 74%, 73%, 90%, and 81%, respectively.
Particularly, the sensitivity value improved in mild cases compared
with severe cases using 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance with 3DSSP was superior in both mild dementia (Az = 0.64 [section] vs 0.81
[3D-SSP], P = 0.001) and severe dementia (Az = 0.75 [section] vs
0.90 [3D-SSP], P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Brain perfusion
SPECT was useful for diagnosis in patients who come to the cognitive disorder clinic for initial evaluation using 3D-SSP. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
478. Evaluation of primary brain tumors with FLT-PET: Usefulness and limitations - Saga T., Kawashima H., Araki N. et
al. [Dr. T. Saga, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular
Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1
Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan] - CLIN. NUCL. MED.
2006 31/12 (774-780) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: The purpose of this report was
to investigate the potential of positron emission tomography using
F-18 uorodeoxythymidine (FLT-PET) in evaluating primary brain
tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FLT-PET was performed
in 25 patients with primary brain tumors. FLT uptake in the lesion
was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and the tumor-to-normal tissue
ratio (TNR). SUVmax and TNR were compared with the histologic
grade and the expression of the proliferation marker (Ki-67). RESULTS: FLT uptake in normal brain parenchyma was very low,
resulting in the visualization of brain tumors with high contrast.
Both SUVmax and TNR signicantly correlated with the malignant grade of brain gliomas, in which high SUVmax/TNR was
obtained for high-grade gliomas. Patients with primary lymphoma
also showed SUVmax/TNR equivalent to glioblastoma. There was
a positive correlation between SUVmax/TNR and the Ki-67 index.
In contrast, spuriously high SUVmax and TNR were obtained in 3 of
6 patients with suspected recurrent tumors (2 patients with recurrent
grade 2 glioma and one patient with postoperative granuloma), all of
which showed lesion enhancement on MRI after Gd administration.
CONCLUSIONS: FLT-PET can be used to evaluate the malignant
grade and proliferation activity of primary brain tumors, especially
malignant brain tumors. However, the presence of benign lesions
showing blood-brain barrier disruption cannot be distinguished from
malignant tumors and needs to be carefully evaluated. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
479. Parietal lobe epileptic focus identied on SPECT-MRI fusion imaging in a case of epilepsia partialis continua - Matthews
R., Franceschi D., Xia W. et al. [Dr. Prof. R. Matthews, Department of Radiology, HSC Building, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony
Brook, NY 11794, United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12
(826-828) - summ in ENGL
Epilepsia partialis continua, or "Kozhevnikov syndrome," is a
rare condition characterized by persistent localized motor seizures
usually localized in a distant limb. It is most often seen in children
under 16 years old without gender preference. We report a 12year-old girl with epilepsia partialis continua who presented to the
emergency room after the onset of seizures. Routine electroencephalography (EEG) was performed with no clear ictal localization.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable. Ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with
Tc-99m exametazime fused with MRI images revealed a parietal
lobe epileptic focus within the superior segment of the postcentral
gyrus. This case illustrates a rare disorder with an unusual epileptic
localization identied by SPECT-MRI fusion. 2006 Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
480. Differential uptake of [18 F]FET and [3 H]l-methionine in
focal cortical ischemia - Salber D., Stoffels G., Pauleit D. et al.
[K.-J. Langen, Department of Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience
Section 23 vol 70.2

and Biophysics, Research Center J lich, PO Box 1913, D-52425


u
J lich, Germany] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1029-1035) u
summ in ENGL
Amino acids such as [11 C-methyl]l-methionine are particularly
useful in brain tumor diagnosis, but unspecic uptake (e.g., in cerebral ischemia) has been reported. O-(2-[18F]uoroethyl)-l-tyrosine
([18 F]FET) shows a clinical potential similar to that of l-methionine
(MET) in brain tumor diagnosis but is applicable on a wider clinical
scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of [18 F]FET and [3 H]MET in focal cortical ischemia in rats by dual-tracer
autoradiography. Methods: Focal cortical ischemia was induced
in 25 CDF rats using the photothrombosis (PT) model. At different time points up to 6 weeks after the induction of PT, [18 F]FET
and [3 H]MET were injected intravenously. Additionally, contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in
10 animals. One hour after tracer injection, brains were cut in
coronal sections and evaluated by dual-tracer autoradiography. Lesion-to-brain (L/B) ratios were calculated by dividing the maximal
uptake in the lesion by the mean uptake in the brain. An L/B
ratio of >2.0 was considered indicative of pathological uptake.
Histological slices were stained by cresyl violet and supplemented
by immunostainings for glial brillary acidic protein (GFAP) and
CD68 in selected cases. Results: A variably increased uptake of
both tracers was observed in the PT lesion and its demarcation zone
up to 7 days after PT for [18 F]FET and up to 6 weeks for [3 H]MET.
The cutoff level of 2.0 was exceeded in 12/25 animals for [18 F]FET
and in 18/25 animals for [3 H]MET. Focally increased tracer uptake
matched contrast enhancement in MRI in 3/10 cases for [18 F]FET
and in 5/10 cases for [3 H]MET. Immunohistochemical staining in
lesions with differential uptake of [18 F]FET and [3 H]MET revealed
that selective uptake of [18 F]FET was associated with GFAP-positive astrogliosis while selective [3 H]MET uptake correlated with
CD68-positive macrophage inltration. Conclusions: [18 F]FET,
like [3 H]MET, may exhibit signicant uptake in the periphery of
cortical infarctions, which has to be considered in the differential
diagnosis of unknown brain lesions. There are discrepancies between [18 F]FET and [3 H]MET uptake in the area of infarctions
that appear to be caused by the preferential uptake of [18 F]FET in
reactive astrocytes versus the preferential uptake of [3 H]MET in
macrophages. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
481. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11 C]MPEPy as a potential
PET ligand for mGlu5 receptors - Severance A.J., Parsey R.V.,
Kumar J.S.D. et al. [R.V. Parsey, Department of Psychiatry, New
York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, United States] NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1021-1027) - summ in ENGL
Excessive activation via the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5 ) has been implicated in depression, neuropathic
pain and other psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. A mGluR5 radioligand for in vivo quantication by positron
emission tomography (PET) would facilitate studies of the role of
this receptor in disease and treatment. 3-Methoxy-5-pyridin-2-ylethynylpyridine (MPEPy), a selective and high-afnity antagonist
at the mGluR5 receptor was selected as a candidate ligand; a recent
publication by Yu et al. [Nucl Med Biol 32 (2005) 631-640] presented initial micro-PET results for [11 C]MPEPy with enthusiasm.
Building on their efforts, we report as unique contributions (1) an
improved chemical synthesis method, (2) the rst data using human
tissue, (3) phosphor images for rat brain preparations, (4) a novel
comparison of anesthetic agents and (5) in vivo data in baboon. In
vitro phosphor imaging studies of this ligand using human and rat
brain tissue demonstrated high specic binding in the hippocampus,
striatum and cortex with minimal specic binding in the cerebellum. In contrast, in vivo micro-PET studies in rats using urethane
anesthesia, PET studies in baboons using isourane anesthesia and
ex vivo micro-PET studies in unanesthetized rats each showed little
specic binding in the brain. Despite the promising in vitro results,
the low signal-to-noise ratio found in vivo does not justify the use
of [11 C]MPEPy as a PET radiotracer in humans. 2006 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.
482. Clonic perseveration in the subacute stage of Japanese
encephalitis - Ono Y., Manabe Y., Sakai K. et al. [Y. Manabe, Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization, Okayama
Section 23 vol 70.2

Medical Center, 1711-1 Tamasu, Okayama, 701-1192, Japan] - J.


NEUROL. SCI. 2006 251/1-2 (107-109) - summ in ENGL
We report a very rare case of Japanese encephalitis (JE) presenting with reversible stereotyped movement in the subacute stage.
A 58-year-old woman presented with high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and consciousness disturbance. Cranial magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) of uid attenuated inversion recovery
(FLAIR) and T2-weighted image (WI) showed high intensity areas
in the bilateral thalamus, caudate nucleus and hippocampus. She
developed coma, convulsion, and ballism in the acute stage. One
month after onset, she showed rhythmic, stereotyped, repetitive
movements with hypoperfusion in the thalamus and frontal cortex
on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Three
months later, her stereotyped movement improved accompanied by
recovery of hypoperfusion in the thalamus and frontal cortex on
SPECT. We speculated that her stereotyped movement was clonic
perseveration due to frontal dysfunction induced by thalamofrontal
disconnection. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
483. Evaluation of [14 C]phenylacetate as a prototype tracer for
the measurement of glial metabolism in the rat brain - Inoue O.,
Hosoi R., Momosaki S. et al. [O. Inoue, Biomedical Physics and
Engineering Laboratory, Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan] - NUCL. MED.
BIOL. 2006 33/8 (985-989) - summ in ENGL
[14 C]Phenylacetate was designed as a prototype tracer for the
measurement of glial metabolism, and its potency in comparison
with that of [14 C]acetate was evaluated in this study. Normal rats
were intravenously injected with [14 C]phenylacetate or [14 C]acetate, and radioactivity concentrations were measured in the plasma,
cerebral cortex, cerebellum and peripheral tissues by dissection
method. In addition, [14 C]phenylacetate uptake in the rat brain was
compared by autoradiography with that of [14 C]acetate following
the injection of uorocitrate, a selective glial toxin, into the brain.
[14 C]Phenylacetate was rapidly taken up into the brain and was
retained at high levels up to 20 min postadministration. The levels
of [14 C]phenylacetate in the cerebral cortex were about threefold
higher than those of [14 C]acetate at 1 min postinjection. Microinjection of uorocitrate into the right striatum resulted in a signicant
decrease of the uptake of both [14 C]phenylacetate and [14 C]acetate
into the right striatum. Radiochemical analysis conrmed the rapid
hydrolysis of [14 C]phenylacetate in the rat brain, with less than 20%
of radioactivity representing unmetabolized [14 C]phenylacetate at
1 min postinjection. These results suggest that [14 C]phenylacetate
is rapidly taken up into the brain and is hydrolyzed and converted to
[14 C]acetate. [14 C]Phenylacetate may have the potential to serve as
a tracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in an intact brain.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
484. Kinetic modeling of PET-FDG in the brain without blood
sampling - Bentourkia M. [M. Bentourkia, Department of Nuclear
Medicine and Radiobiology, University of Sherbrooke, 3001, 12th
Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Que. J1H 5N4, Canada] - COMPUT.
MED. IMAGING GRAPH. 2006 30/8 (447-451) - summ in ENGL
The aim in this work is to report a new method to calculate parametric images from a single scan acquisition with positron emission
tomography (PET) and uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the human
brain without blood sampling. It is usually practical for research or
clinical purposes to inject the patient in an isolated room and to start
the PET acquisition only for some 10-20 min, about 30 min after
FDG injection. In order to calculate the cerebral metabolic rates
for glucose (CMRG), usually several blood samples are required.
The proposed method considers the relation between the uptake of
the tracer in the cerebellum as a reference tissue and the population
based input curve. Similar results were obtained for CMRG values
with the present method in comparison to the usual autoradiographic
and the non-linear least squares tting of regions of interest. 2006
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
485. The substantia nigra pars compacta and temporal processing - Jahanshahi M., Jones C.R.G., Dirnberger G. and Frith
C.D. [M. Jahanshahi, Cognitive Motor Neuroscience Group, Sobell
Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United
93

Kingdom] - J. NEUROSCI. 2006 26/47 (12266-12273) - summ in


ENGL
The basal ganglia and cerebellum are considered to play a role
in timing, although their differential roles in timing remain unclear.
It has been proposed that the timing of short milliseconds-range
intervals involves the cerebellum, whereas longer seconds-range
intervals engage the basal ganglia (Ivry, 1996). We tested this hypothesis using positron emission tomography to measure regional
cerebral blood ow in eight right-handed males during estimation
and reproduction of long and short intervals. Subjects performed
three tasks: (1) reproduction of a short 500 ms interval, (2) reproduction of a long 2 s interval, and (3) a control simple reaction
time (RT) task. We compared the two time reproduction tasks with
the control RT task to investigate activity associated with temporal
processing once additional cognitive, motor, or sensory processing
was controlled. We found foci in the left substantia nigra and the left
lateral premotor cortex to be signicantly more activated in the time
reproduction tasks than the control RT task. The left caudate nucleus
and right cerebellum weremoreactive in the short relative to the long
interval, whereas greater activation of the right putamen and right
cerebellum occurred in the long rather than the short interval. These
results suggest that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are engaged
by reproduction of both long and short intervals but play different
roles. The fundamental role of the substantia nigra in temporal
processing is discussed in relation to previous animal lesion studies
and evidence for the modulating inuence of dopamine on temporal
processing. Copyright 2006 Society for Neuroscience.
486. Estimation of oxygen metabolism in a rat model of permanent ischemia using positron emission tomography with
injectable15 O-O2 - Temma T., Magata Y., Kuge Y. et al. [Dr.
Y. Magata, Laboratory of Genome Bio-Photonics, Photon Medical
Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-201 Handayama, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan] - J. CEREB. BLOOD
FLOW METAB. 2006 26/12 (1577-1583) - summ in ENGL
The threshold of cerebral blood ow (CBF) into infarction in rats
has been indicated to be similar to that in patients. However, CBF
does not reect metabolic function, and so estimations of oxygen
metabolism have been required. Here, we estimated changes in
oxygen metabolism after occluding the right middle cerebral artery
(MCA) in rats using an injectable 15 O-O2 we developed. A decrease
in CBF (left: 0.67 0.22 mL/min/g, right: 0.44 0.17 mL/min/g,
P<0.05) and compensatory increase in the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) (left: 0.42 0.13, right: 0.50 0.19, P<0.05) were
observed at 1-h after occlusion. In contrast, a marked decrease in
CBF and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and a collapse of the
compensatory OEF mechanism were found at 24 h after occlusion.
Injectable 15 O-O2 could be used to reliably estimate oxygen metabolism in an infarction rat model with positron emission tomography.
2006 ISCBFM. All rights reserved.
487. A feasibility study of [11 C]SA4503-PET for evaluating
sigma 1 receptor occupancy by neuroleptics: The binding of
haloperidol to sigma1 and dopamine D2 -like receptors - Ishiwata K., Oda K., Sakata M. et al. [Dr. K. Ishiwata, Positron Medical
Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Nakacho,
Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022, Japan] - ANN. NUCL. MED. 2006
20/8 (569-573) - summ in ENGL
We investigated feasibility of positron emission tomography
(PET) with [11 C]SA4503 for evaluating the sigma1 receptor occupancy rate by neuroleptics. Haloperidol, which is well known
to bind dopamine D 2 -like receptor (D2R) as well as to be a
representative non-selective antagonist for sigma1 receptor ( 1R),
was selected as a model drug. Three healthy male subjects underwent 60-min [11 C]raclopride- PET and 90-min [11 C]SA4503-PET
scans successively at a 120-min interval twice in a day for baseline
measurement and on another day for haloperidol-loading measurement 16 hours after peroral administration of 3 mg of haloperidol.
Binding potential (BP) of [11 C]raclopride and [ 11 C]SA4503 was
quantitatively evaluated and the 1R and D2R occupancy rates
were determined. D2R occupancy rates by haloperidol were 64%
and 62% in the caudate and putamen, respectively, 16 h after the administration, while 1R occupancy rates were approximately 80%
in all seven regions investigated including the caudate, putamen
and cerebellum 18 h after the administration, suggesting that the
94

1R receptor occupancy rate by haloperidol was slightly larger


than the D2R receptor occupancy rate. We concluded that [11 C]SA4503-PET can be used for evaluating the 1R occupancy rates
by neuroleptics or other drugs.
488. Synthesis and PET evaluation of (R)-[S-methyl-11 C]thionisoxetine, a candidate radioligand for imaging brain
norepinephrine transporters - Schou M., Pike V.W., Varrone
A. et al. [M. Schou, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical
Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden]
- J. LABEL. COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (1007-1019) summ in ENGL
Introduction: (R)-3-(2-(methylthio)phenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropan-1-amine [(R)-thionisoxetine; 1] is a potent inhibitor of
the norepinephrine transporter (NET). We aimed to label 1 with
carbon-11 (t1/ 2 = 20.4 min) for evaluation as a radioligand for imaging NET in living brain with positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods: Methyl 3-(2-((R)-3-(methylamino)-1- phenylpropoxy)phenylthio)-propanoate (MPPP) and 1 were each prepared from
o-hydroxythiophenol in three steps. Treatment of MPPP with potassium t-butoxide and [11 C]methyl iodide in tetrahydrofuran gave
[5-methyl- 11 C]thionisoxetine ([11 C]1), which was puried with
HPLC. The distribution of radioactivity in brain after intravenous
injection of [11 C]1 into cynomolgus monkey was followed with
PET and the appearance of radiometabolites in plasma monitored
with radio-HPLC. Results: [11 C]1 was obtained in high yield from
[11 C]methyl iodide. Of the radioactivity injected into monkey, 2.4%
entered brain. Ratios of radioactivity in thalamus, mesencephalon,
occipital cortex and caudate to that in cerebellum at 93 min were
1.3, 1.2, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. The radioactivity in plasma corresponding to unchanged radioligand decreased to 53% at 45 min,
with the remainder represented by hydrophilic radiometabolites.
Conclusions: MPPP is an effective precursor for 11 C-methylation
to [11 C]1, suggesting that the S- -propionic acid methyl ester protecting group may have wider value in the 11 C-labeling of aryl
methyl suldes. However, the relatively low ratios of radioactivity
to the cerebellum together with an unexpected accumulation of
radioactivity in the caudate, makes [11 C]1 an unpromising NET
radioligand. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
See also: 611.
5.2. Skin and appendages
489. Determinants of selenium in the toenail biomonitor - Morris J.S., Spate V.L. and Ngwenyama R.A. [J.S. Morris, University
of Missouri-Columbia, Research Reactor Center, Columbia, MO
65211, United States] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2
(283-290) - summ in ENGL
The evaluation of human nails as a measure of selenium intake and to assess selenium status in critical tissues is now being
used routinely to investigate hypotheses relating selenium status to
chronic disease, especially cancer. In this study we report on our
observations of the major determinants of toenail selenium concentrations. Toenail specimens (3575) were, under a protocol we
provided, self-collected by adult females (1940, 54.3%) and males
(1635, 45.7%) living in 111 of Missouris 114 counties. The healthconscious participants ranged in age from 18 to 94 years with means
of 53.7 14.1 and 56.4 14.2 years for females and males, respectively. Selenium supplement use was over represented, 39.1% and
42.7%, and smoking was under represented, 7.5% and 7.8%, for
females and males, respectively. The major determinants of toenail selenium concentration were supplement use, sex and cigarette
smoking. We found no overall correlations with age, body mass
index or diet selection. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
490. Synthesis and evaluation of 90 Y-DOTA-colchicine conjugate in murine brosarcoma model - Satpati D., Korde A., Pandey
U. et al. [M. Venkatesh, Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha
Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India] - J. LABEL.
COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (951-958) - summ in ENGL
Colchicine is a cytotoxic bioactive alkaloid that exhibits its action by microtubular binding. With an aim to develop a tumor
targeted radio-therapeutic agent, colchicine has been functionalized
Section 23 vol 70.2

to trimethylcolchicinic acid and conjugated to the isothiocyanato


derivative of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane tetracetic
acid). DOTA coupled colchicine was radiolabeled with 90 Y, one
of the most commonly used therapeutic radioisotope. Complexation of 200 g of the conjugate with 90 Y was carried out at pH
4.5 with an incubation time of 45 min at 70C. Complexation yield
of 90 Y-DOTA-NCS-colchicine was conrmed to be >98% using
C-18 reverse phase HPLC system. 90 Y-colchicine complex could
be differentiated from 90 Y-p-NCS-benzyl-DOTA on the basis of
difference in their retention times 8 and 4 min, respectively in a
standardized HPLC system. Biodistribution studies in Swiss mice
brosarcoma tumor model showed an uptake of 0.8% ID/g tumor
at 3 h.p.i. that was retained till 24 h.p.i. 90 Y-DOTA-NCS-colchicine
complex showed excellent pharmacokinetics with major portion of
the radioactivity being excreted out within 3 h.p.i. and no accumulation of radioactivity in vital organs. Copyright 2006 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

5.3. Musculoskeletal system


491. Development of an irradiation/shielding cavity for in vivo
neutron activation analysis of manganese in human bone Pejovi -Mili A., Byun S.H., Chettle D.R. et al. [A. Pejovi -Mili ,
c
c
c
c
Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont. M5B 2K3, Canada] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2 (417-420) - summ in ENGL
Manganese is essential to human life for normal neurological
and skeletal functions. Longstanding, excessive exposure to Mn
compounds may result in manganism, a Parkinsons disease like
syndrome. Prolonged exposure to Mn at low levels can result in
memory decit, loss of motor control and reduction in the renement of certain bodily motions. A feasibility study of measuring
Mn concentrations in human bone with in vivo neutron activation
analysis (IVNAA) was previously reported.1 Since then, an irradiation/shielding cavity, consisting of moderator, gamma-ray lter,
neutron reector, and shield walls, was constructed for the clinical
application of Mn IVNAA,2 and an upgraded IVNAA system is
reported here. The minimum detectable limit is 0.081 mg in the
hand, which is toward the lower end of the estimated bone Mn level
of 0.065 to 1 mg in the hand of healthy subjects. A signicantly
lower radiation dose is delivered than in the reported feasibility
study. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
492. FDG-PET and CT patterns of bone metastases and their
relationship to previously administered anti-cancer therapy Israel O., Goldberg A., Nachtigal A. et al. [O. Israel, Department
of Nuclear Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, 35254,
Israel] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (12801284) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: To assess 18 F-uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in
bone metastases in patients with and without previous treatment,
and compare positive positron emission tomography (PET) with
osteolytic or osteoblastic changes on computed tomography (CT).
Methods: One hundred and thirty-one FDG-PET/CT studies were
reviewed for bone metastases. A total of 294 lesions were found in
76 patients, 81 in untreated patients and 213 in previously treated
patients. PET was assessed for abnormal FDG uptake localised
by PET/CT to the skeleton. CT was evaluated for bone metastases and for blastic or lytic pattern. The relationship between the
presence and pattern of bone metastases on PET and CT, and prior
treatment was statistically analysed using the chi-square test. Results: PET identied 174 (59%) metastases, while CT detected 280
(95%). FDG-avid metastases included 74/81 (91%) untreated and
100/213 (47%) treated lesions (p<0.001). On CT there were 76/81
(94%) untreated and 204/213 (96%) treated metastases (p NS). In
untreated patients, 85% of lesions were seen on both PET and CT
(26 blastic, 43 lytic). In treated patients, 53% of lesions were seen
only on CT (95 blastic, 18 lytic). Of the osteoblastic metastases,
65/174 (37%) were PET positive and 98/120 (82%), PET negative
(p<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate
that when imaging bone metastases, prior treatment can alter the
relationship between PET and CT ndings. Most untreated bone
metastases are PET positive and lytic on CT, while in previously
treated patients most lesions are PET negative and blastic on CT.
Section 23 vol 70.2

PET and CT therefore appear to be complementary in the assessment


of bone metastases. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
493. Nuclear medicine methods for evaluation of skeletal infection among other diagnostic modalities - El-Maghraby T.A.F.,
Moustafa H.M. and Pauwels E.K.J. [Prof. E.K.J. Pauwels, Leiden
University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands] - Q. J. NUCL. MED.
MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (167-192) - summ in ENGL
Skeletal infection continues to be a common and difcult
condition clinical practice and early accurate diagnosis is very challenging. Clinical and laboratory features of skeletal infections are
not always present, may be confusing, and are nonspecic for bone
infection in its early stages, therefore, several imaging modalities
are used for early detection of osteomyelitis. Plain lms should
always be the rst step in the imaging assessment of osteomyelitis,
however, the sensitivity for X-ray radiography has been reported to
range from 43% to 75%, and the specicity from 75% to 83%. Over
years, scintigraphic procedures have become an essential part of the
diagnostic procedure for osteomyelitis. The standard approach for
bone scintigraphy with tech 99m Tc labeled methylene diphosphonate
to assess for osteomyelitis is to perform a three-phase procedure.
The sitive uptake on all three phases is highly sensitive or osteomyelitis (sensitivity 73% to 100%). 67 Ga citrate gained more
attention for the more specic diagnosis of osteomyelitis due to
its known capacity to localize in cases of active infection and pus.
The reported specicity for 67 Ga scintigraphy in osteomyelitis is
around 67-70% and the specicity is much higher (92%) when 67 Ga
single photon emission tomography was obtained. Labeled white
blood cell (WBC) imaging has become the procedure of choice
to diagnose most cases of skeletal infections except for those of
the spine. Labeling of leucocytes can be done either by 111 In or
99m Tc labeled hexamethylpropylene amineoxime. The sensitivity
and specicity for labeled WBCs are in the high range of 80%
to 90%. [18 F]uorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(PET) has been found to accumulate non-specically at sites of infection and inammation. Investigational studies showed that PET
is particularly valuable in the evaluation of chronic osteomyelitis
and infected prostheses. Other imaging modalities include sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI). The sensitivity and specicity of CT for the diagnosis of
osteomyelitis has not been established clearly and are in the range
of 65% to 75%. The sensitivity of MRI for osteomyelitis has been
generally reported as being between 82% and 100%, and specicity
between 75% and 96%. Cases of osteomyelitis commonly referred
to diagnostic imaging departments include chronic osteomyelitis,
diabetic foot infections, vertebral osteomyelitis, joint prostheses
and patients with suspected reinfection. These specic entities
need special attention and careful selection of the correct tracer or
combination of imaging modalities that is best suited for the proper
therapeutic management protocols.
494. Intra- and juxta-articular osteoid osteoma: A diagnostic
challenge - Franceschi F., Marinozzi A., Papalia R. et al. [F.
Franceschi, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Biomedico University, Via Longoni, 83, 00155 Rome, Italy] ARCH. ORTHOP. TRAUMA SURG. 2006 126/10 (660-667) - summ
in ENGL
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumour in young adults. The clinical
manifestations are generally typical nocturnal pain that prevents
sleep and that is alleviated with aspirin. When the typical clinical and radiological features are present, diagnosis is not difcult.
Problems in the differential diagnosis may arise in connection with
an unusual location. We report on the clinical features, radiographic
and histopathological ndings, treatment, and results of four patients
who were managed for an intra- or juxta-articular osteoid osteoma
at our medical centre between 2000 and 2002 and in whom the
initial diagnosis was erroneous and delayed from 1 to 10 years. In
order to remove these lesions, we performed a CT-guided en block
retrograde resection under arthroscopic control for juxta-articular
osteoid osteomas (knee) and an arthroscopy-assisted en block antegrade resection in two cases of intra-articular osteoid osteoma
(elbow and shoulder). None of the osteoid osteomas recurred in
the follow-up period, and each patient got relief from pain.
Springer-Verlag 2006.
95

495. Positron emission tomography in musculoskeletal sarcomas


- Hawkins D.S. [Dr. D.S. Hawkins, Childrens Hospital, Regional
Medical Center, Mailstop B6653, 4800 Sand Point Way, Seattle,
WA 98105, United States] - CURR. OPIN. ORTHOP. 2006 17/6
(573-577) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances in
the use of positron emission tomography in the evaluation and
treatment of musculoskeletal sarcomas. RECENT FINDINGS:
Most radiographic methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging
or computed tomography, cannot distinguish the histologic grade
of musculoskeletal sarcomas and are inaccurate in predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy. [F]Fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron
emission tomography is a noninvasive imaging modality that measures the metabolic activity of malignant tissue semiquantitatively,
improving the ability to distinguish benign or low-grade malignancies from high-grade sarcoma. Recent retrospective analyses of
soft tissue sarcomas and Ewing sarcomas have demonstrated that
[F]uorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography changes
with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are associated with recurrence-free
survival. The optimal timing of [F]uorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography to determine metabolic response and
cut-points to distinguish metabolic response remain incompletely
dened. [F]Fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography
may have additional roles in the initial staging of sarcomas, and
detecting local and distant recurrence. SUMMARY: [F]Fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography evaluation may rene
the preoperative characterization of musculoskeletal sarcomas, and
improve disease staging, assessment of response to neoadjuvant
therapy and detection of recurrence. Further prospective studies
are necessary to determine the optimal utilization of [F]uorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. 2006 Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
496. Diagnostic values of sonography for assessment of sternal
fractures compared with conventional radiography and bone
scans - Jin W., Yang D.M., Kim H.C. and Ryu K.N. [Dr. W. Jin,
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, 149 Sangil-dong, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 134-090, South Korea] J. ULTRASOUND MED. 2006 25/10 (1263-1268) - summ in ENGL
Objective. This study was prospectively undertaken to evaluate
the diagnostic value of sonography for detection of sternal fractures.
We compared sonographic, conventional radiographic, and bone
scan examinations of sternal fractures. Methods. Fifty consecutive
patients (26 male and 24 female; mean age, 45.2 years) were evaluated. Conventional radiography and sonography were performed
in all patients, and bone scans were performed in 39 patients. All
patients had acute pain and tenderness in anterior midline chest areas. Sonography was performed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists
within 1 to 2 days after admission. Patients underwent conventional radiography at admission and bone scans within 4 to 7 days
after admission. Two radiologists reviewed all imaging ndings
by means of consensus. In addition, sonography was performed
in 20 asymptomatic patients in a normal control group. Results.
Conventional radiography depicted sternal fractures in 12 of 50
patients. Sternal fractures were detected in 31 of 50 patients on
sonography. Fractures on sonography were located in the manubrium (8 cases), upper sternal body (11 cases), mid sternal body
(5 cases), and lower sternal body (7 cases). Bone scans showed
sternal hot uptakes (accumulations of the radionuclide used) in 18
of 39 patients. In the control group, there were no bony defects or
abnormal contours. Conclusions. We could detect sternal fractures
more effectively with sonography than with conventional radiography and bone scans. In addition, sternal fracture locations showed
relatively even distributions, and focal fractures in the manubrium
were not easily detected on bone scans. 2006 by the American
Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
497. Cold defect on bone scan in a vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty - Lavely W.C., Malhotra A.D., Ziessman
H.A. and Murphy K.P.J. [W.C. Lavely, The Russell H. Morgan
Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of
Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N.
Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States] - SKELET.
RADIOL. 2006 35/12 (946-948) - summ in ENGL
Percutaneous vertebroplasty using bone cements is increasingly
96

being used to stabilize osteoporotic spinal compression fractures.


Although the scintigraphic appearance of compression fractures has
been well-described, the post-vertebroplasty bone scan appearance
has not. This case report describes a characteristic cold defect of a
vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty. ISS 2006.
498. Femoral head viability after Birmingham resurfacing hip
arthroplasty: Assessment with use of [18 F] uoride positron
emission tomography - Forrest N., Welch A., Murray A.D. et
al. [N. Forrest, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine
and Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Germany] - J. BONE JT. SURG. SER. A 2006
88/SUPPL. 3 (84-89) - summ in ENGL
Background: Total hip resurfacing has become increasingly popular over the last decade. There remains concern about the effect
of the surgical approach on femoral head viability and the role of
resurfacing in the management of established osteonecrosis. In view
of these concerns, we examined femoral head viability following
resurfacing through a modied anterolateral approach. Methods:
The viability of the femoral heads of ten patients who had undergone successful unilateral Birmingham hip resurfacing was assessed
with use of positron emission tomography in conjunction with the
injection of uorine at a mean of twenty months after surgery. For
each patient, in both the hip that had undergone resurfacing and
the contralateral nonresurfaced hip, activity was measured in four
regions of interest: the lateral aspect of the femoral head, the medial
aspect of the femoral head, the lateral aspect of the femoral neck,
and the proximal aspect of the femur. The uptake of uorine in each
area was converted to standard uptake volumes. Results: No areas
of osteonecrosis were seen in the femoral head of any patient. There
were no signicant differences in the standard uptake volumes as
measured in the four regions of the nonresurfaced hips, whereas
the median values were higher in all four regions of the resurfaced
hips. The difference between the values in the resurfaced hips
compared with those in the nonresurfaced hips was only signicant
(p < 0.05) in the lateral aspect of the femoral head. Conclusions:
This study establishes positron emission tomography in conjunction
with injection of uorine as a possible modality for the assessment
of femoral head viability after hip resurfacing. Viability following successful Birmingham hip resurfacing performed through a
modied anterolateral approach has also been demonstrated. The
increase in bone activity that was seen in the resurfaced hips in our
study group may be related to bone remodeling or reperfusion of
small areas of osteonecrosis. This technique offers the potential to
study femoral head perfusion and viability following all types of
resurfacing. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level IV. Copyright
2006 by the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
499. Samarium-153 EDTMP reduces multiple bone metastasis

besides pain relieve (Fren) - REDUCTION DES METASTASES OSSEUSES


`

APRES TRAITEMENT AU SAMARIUM 153- EDTMP EN COMPLEMENT DE SON


EFFET ANTALGIQUE - Haffaf E.M. and Oufriha N. [E.M. Haffaf,

H pital Central de lArm e, Service de M decine Nucl aire, BP


o
e
e
e
244, 16050 Kouba, Alger, Algeria] - MED. NUCL. 2006 30/10
(659-662) - summ in ENGL, FREN
This case report shows an almost disappearance of multiple painful bone metastases, on a 99m Tc-HMDP bone scintigraphy, about
three months after administration of 153 Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet
) in a 78-year-old man with hormone refractory prostate adenocarcinoma. One 153 Sm-EDTMP reduced the PSA level in this patient
by more than 70% for at least 2 months. It raises the possibility
that this radiopharmaceutical could have therapeutic effect on bone
metastasis in addition to its bone pain palliation effect.
500. Imaging of musculoskeletal infections - Palestro C.J., Love
C. and Miller T.T. [Dr. C.J. Palestro, Division of Nuclear Medicine,
Long Island Jewish Medical Center, 270-05 76th Avenue, New
Hyde Park, NY 11040, United States] - BEST PRACT. RES. CLIN.
RHEUMATOL. 2006 20/6 (1197-1218) - summ in ENGL
Imaging procedures are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs should be
performed whenever musculoskeletal infection is suspected. Even
when not diagnostic, radiographs are useful. They provide an
anatomic overview of the region of interest, including pre-existing conditions that could inuence the selection and interpretation
Section 23 vol 70.2

of subsequent procedures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is


sensitive, provides superb anatomic detail, does not use ionizing
radiation, and is rapidly completed. This technique is especially
valuable for septic arthritis, spinal osteomyelitis, and diabetic foot
infections. Among the radionuclide procedures, three-phase bone
imaging is readily available, and very accurate in unviolated bone.
Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of complicating osteomyelitis such as prosthetic joint infections. This test
is also useful in unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and the
neuropathic joint. Gallium imaging is a useful adjunct to MIR in
spinal infection. 18F-2-uoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) will likely play an important role,
especially in the evaluation of spinal infection. 2006 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
501. Osteomyelitis - Sia I.G. and Berbari E.F. [Dr. E.F. Berbari,
Section of Orthopedic Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of
Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55902, United States] BEST PRACT. RES. CLIN. RHEUMATOL. 2006 20/6 (1065-1081) summ in ENGL
Osteomyelitis can result from hematogenous or contiguous microbial seeding of the bone. Staphylococcus aureus is the most
common infecting microorganism. Although any bone can potentially develop osteomyelitis, long-bone, vertebral, and foot
osteomyelitis account for the majority of cases. Conrmatory diagnosis of osteomyelitis often depends on the results of a bone
biopsy and bone cultures. Radiologic and laboratory studies are
often helpful in leading to the diagnosis, determining the extent of
the disease, and following up selected patients with osteomyelitis.
Optimal therapy for osteomyelitis requires the collaboration of a
multidisciplinary team of physicians. Debridement is often needed
in contiguous osteomyelitis, whereas acute hematogenous and vertebral osteomyelitis can often be treated with a prolonged course of
antimicrobial therapy. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
502. Relationship between local perfusion and FFA uptake in
human skeletal muscle - No effect of increased physical activity
and aerobic tness - Hannukainen J.C., Nuutila P., Kaprio J. et
al. [J.C. Hannukainen, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, FIN-20521
Turku, Finland] - J. APPL. PHYSIOL. 2006 101/5 (1303-1311) summ in ENGL
We investigated heredity-independent effects of increased physical activity and aerobic tness on skeletal muscle free fatty acid
(FFA) uptake, perfusion, and their heterogeneity at rest and during
exercise. Also, the relationship between local skeletal muscle FFA
uptake and perfusion was studied. Nine young adult male monozygotic twin pairs with signicant difference in physical activity
[229 min (SD 156) average time spent for conditioning exercise
per week in more and 98 min (SD 71) in less active twins, P =
0.013] and aerobic tness [18% (SD 10) difference in maximum
O2 uptake] between brothers were studied using positron emission
tomography. Submaximal knee-extension exercise increased perfusion, FFA uptake, and oxygen uptake in quadriceps femoris muscles
6-10 times compared with resting values (P < 0.001). More active
twins tended to utilize more oxygen, while no differences were
found in muscle perfusion or FFA uptake between groups. Mean
perfusion and FFA uptake correlated strongly at a whole muscle
level, both at rest (r = 0.97, P = 0.03 in more and r = 0.98, P = 0.02
in less active twins) and during exercise (r = 0.99, P = 0.01 and r
= 0.94, P = 0.06), but at the voxel level (87 mm3 ) correlation was
only moderate during exercise [r = 0.73 (SD 0.08) vs. r = 0.74 (SD
0.10), P = 0.92] and weak at rest [r = 0.28 (SD 0.13) vs. r = 0.33 (SD
0.21), P = 0.58]. Exercise decreased both perfusion and FFA uptake
heterogeneity within the muscles (P < 0.001) similarly in both
groups. In conclusion, long-term history of moderately increased
physical activity tends to enhance muscle oxidative metabolism,
but it does not have any signicant inuence on the FFA uptake or
perfusion rates or their heterogeneity in skeletal muscle. Submaximal knee-extension exercise decreases heterogeneity of muscle FFA
uptake and perfusion and improves matching between local muscle
perfusion and FFA uptake. Thus it seems that the genetic inuence
is more important to determine the heterogeneity of perfusion and
FFA uptake in skeletal muscle than exercise training. Copyright
2006 the American Physiological Society.
Section 23 vol 70.2

503. Characteristics of skeletal stress fractures in female military recruits of the Israel defense forces on bone scintigraphy
- Hod N., Ashkenazi I., Levi Y. et al. [Dr. T. Horne, P.O. Box
6396, Jerusalem 91063, Israel] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12
(742-749) - summ in ENGL
AIM: Clinical surveys on stress fractures (SF) in female military
recruits are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the
scintigraphic ndings and classify the distribution and pattern of SF
in a group of female recruits of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone scans of 146 female
recruits (age range, 19-20.6 years) with suspected SF were assessed
retrospectively. The SF lesions were classied qualitatively into 4
grades of bone response according to the classication criteria introduced by Zwas et al. SF location and distribution were analyzed, and
in several cases, the abnormalities were correlated radiographically.
RESULTS: One hundred forty-six female recruits were examined,
of which 93 (64%) had bone scan ndings of SF with a total of 247
SF. Forty-eight patients (with or without SF) had shin splints, 32 had
thigh splints, and 34 had normal scans. Several SF were detected in
sites that were not clinically suspected. Thirty-nine percent of the
SF were located in the feet (tarsal bones 22.7%, metatarsal 16.2%),
36.8% in tibiae (predominantly in the midthird), 15.7% in femurs,
6.5% in the pubic and sacroiliac regions, and 2% in the bula. SF
in the tibiae and femurs were mainly located in the posterior aspect
of the medial cortical region. Forty-nine percent of the patients
had bilateral SF. The SF were classied on a 4-grade scale: 41.3%
were grade I, 37.2% grade II, 15.8% grade III, and 5.7% grade IV.
Thirty-three percent of the patients had one site of SF, 31% had 2
sites, 7.5% had 3 sites, 12% had 4 sites, 7.5% had 5 sites, and 9%
had more than 5 sites of SF. Different grades of lesions were often
found in the same patient. Sixty-ve percent of the patients had
SF in the feet, 59% in the tibiae, 26% in the femurs, 14% in the
pubic or sacroiliac regions, and 5% in the bula. Radiography was
performed in 15% of the patients. Only one patient had a positive
nding on radiography. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that
lower leg SF are not uncommon in female military recruits. We
clearly distinguished between SF and shin splints, which have important clinical consequences on treatment. Most of the SF were
mild (grade I and II) located in the feet and tibiae. This study
supports the experience gained in other studies, and emphasizes the
signicant number of pubic and sacroiliac SF in female soldiers,
which is signicantly higher in comparison with previous reports
on male soldiers. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
504. MRI-negative, bone scintigram-positive in early osteonecrosis of the knees - Warwick B.J.M., Caristo V., Hartin N. et al.
[Dr. H. Van Der Wall, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Concord
Hospital, Hospital Road, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia] - CLIN.
NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (750-753) - summ in ENGL
Nontraumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone is a well-reported complication of glucocorticoid therapy for immunologic and
malignant disease. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with
no history of trauma who presented with a 5-day history of increasing pain in both knees after cord blood transplantation for
acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Plain lm and magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) were reported as normal. Bone scintigraphy revealed evidence of bilateral avascular necrosis in the distal femora.
MRI subsequently became abnormal several weeks later. The case
illustrates the natural history of AVN, in which changes that are detected by MRI can take several weeks to develop. The scintigraphic
ndings inuenced early management of the condition. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
505. F-18 FDG PET/CT evaluation of osseous and soft tissue
sarcomas - Iagaru A., Quon A., McDougall I.R. and Gambhir S.S.
[Dr. S.S. Gambhir, Stanford University School of Medicine, James
H. Clark Center, 150 East Wing, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford,
CA 94305-5427, United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12
(754-760) - summ in ENGL
INTRODUCTION: Osseous and soft tissue sarcomas (OSTS)represent a histologic heterogeneous group of malignant tumors.
Most of the current clinical data on the role of F-18 FDG PET
in sarcomas come from patients studied with dedicated PET and
less frequently with hardware fusion PET/CT. Therefore, we were
prompted to review our experience with F-18 FDG PET/CT in
97

OSTS. METHODS: This is a retrospective study (January 2003December 2005) of 44 patients with histologic diagnoses of OSTS
who had F-18 FDG PET/CT at our institution. The group included
22 men and 22 women with an age range of 2 of 84 years (average,
37 20.2 years). The administered doses of F-18 FDG range 4.1 to
19.5 mCi (average, 14.3 3 mCi). Reinterpretation of the imaging
studies for accuracy and data analysis from medical records was
performed. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specicity of combined
F-18 FDG PET/CT were 100% (95% condence interval [CI] =
75.7-100) and 93.3% (95% CI = 78.7-98.1) for the primary OSTS,
and 80% (95% CI = 58.4-91.9) and 86.4% (95% CI = 66.7-95.2) for
metastases. When interpreted separately, CT outperformed PET
for pulmonary metastases detection: CT was 76.5% sensitive and
88% specic, whereas PET was only 57.1% sensitive but 96.4%
specic. For detection of other metastases, CT was 82.3% sensitive and 76% specic, with PET demonstrating 78.6% sensitivity
and 92.8% specicity. CONCLUSION: Relatively similar results
(except better specicity for PET and PET/CT) were noted when
examining the rate of metastases detection, excluding pulmonary
lesions. However, CT had a better detection rate for pulmonary
metastases when compared with PET alone. A negative PET scan
in the presence of suspicious CT ndings in the chest cannot reliably exclude pulmonary metastases from OSTS. 2006 Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
506. Instability of spine - Remarks to radiological-clinical

correlation (Czch) - INSTABILITA PATERE - POZNAMKY K RADIO


LOGICKO-KLINICKE KORELACI - Nekula J., Myslive ek M. and
c
Chmelov J. [Dr. J. Nekula, Synkova 2, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Rea
public] - CESKA RADIOL. 2006 60/6 (434-441) - summ in CZCH,
ENGL
Instability of spine is still not precisely dened clinically and its
radiological criteria are continually improving anal more precise
due to development of new imaging methods. The diagnostics is
still based on functional X-ray pictures. In the cervical area the
nding based on functional X-ray pictures is still rather reliable, but
the radiography examination of lumbar spine is complicated, since
the mobility of vertebrae in standing position is limited and false
negative pictures may be reached. A certain improvement is offered
by X-ray pictures in the sitting position. The magnetic tesonance
imaging represents an important progress in diagnostics. It uncovers
traumatic damage of disc-ligamentous apparatus, in an instability of
degenerative etiology there are important paradiscal changes of bone
marrow according to Modic. Scintigraphy is helpful in differential
diagnostics between pseudo-inammatory changes of the end-plate
disease type and bacterial spondylodiscitis or in the selection of
facet for intervention therapy. It is essential for the diagnostics
of spine instability that the clinical nding correlates with imaging
methods.
See also: 534, 608, 612.
5.4. Cardiovascular system
507. Three-dimensional recovery time dispersion map by 64channel magnetocardiography may demonstrate the location of
a myocardial injury and heterogeneity of repolarization - Nakai
K., Izumoto H., Kawazoe K. et al. [Dr. K. Nakai, The Department
of Laboratory Medicine, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimaru,
Morioka 020-8505, Japan] - INT. J. CARD. IMAGING 2006 22/3-4
(573-580) - summ in ENGL
Background: QT dispersion reveals heterogeneities in the repolarization time in the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the
ventricular myocardium. In this study, we report on a 3D function map of recovery time (RT) dispersions as measured by
64-channel magnetocardiography (MCG). Methods: MCG were simultaneously recorded in 29 controls and 21 patients with previous
myocardial infarction (MI). The 3D current density was calculated
from 64-channel MCG data in the Bz component using a space lter. The heart outline, reconstructed from the integrated the current
density, revealed both the atrium and ventricle. The RT for the
intervals between QRS onset and the time of the maximum dT/dt
of T wave, and the peak to the end of the T wave (Tpeak -negative
dT/dt) were automatically measured by means of a computer from
98

3D MCG data. The corrected RT (RTc ) and corrected Tpeak -negative dT/dt were then calculated using Bazetts formula. The 3D
RTc and the corrected Tpeak -negative dT/dt dispersion map were
superimposed on the heart outline generated by MCG. Results: The
RTc was signicantly longer for the MI group than in the control
group (67 25 ms1/2 vs. 16 6 ms1/2 ) (p <0.0001). The corrected
Tpeak -negative dT/dt dispersions in each patient was also signicantly longer for the MI group than in the control group (35 27
ms1/2 vs. 10 5 ms1/2 ) (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the 3D RTc
and Tpeak -negative dT/dt dispersion maps corresponded with the
space location of MI, as dened by Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial
imaging Conclusions: 3D RTc and Tpeak -negative dT/dt dispersion
maps in the ST segment, obtained by 64-channel MCG may be used
demonstrate the location of a myocardial injury and heterogeneities
of repolarization. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.
508. 99m Tc-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli: Pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into
plasma clots in vivo and in vitro - Edwards D., Lewis J., Battle
M. et al. [D. Edwards, Research and Development, GE Healthcare
Bio-Sciences, Grove Centre, White Lion Road, Little Chalfont, HP7
9LL, United Kingdom] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING
2006 33/11 (1258-1265) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: 99m Tc-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of
NC100668 is similar to a region of human 2 -antiplasmin, which is
a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was
to conrm the uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668 into forming plasma clot
and to establish the biodistribution of 99m Tc-NC100668 in Wistar
rats. Methods: The in vitro plasma clot uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668
and other compounds with known afnities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot
uptake of radioactivity of 99m Tc- NC100668 in normal Wistar rats
and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were
investigated. Results: The in vitro uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668
was greater than that for [14 C]dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate
of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of 99m TcNC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed
that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine,
with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and
retention of 99m Tc-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than
could be accounted for by non-specic accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. Conclusion: 99m Tc-NC100668 was
retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image
thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that 99m TcNC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism.
2006 Springer-Verlag.
509. The relationship between variables of 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac imaging and clinical status of the patients
with diastolic heart failure - Sugiura M., Yamamoto K., Takeda Y.
et al. [Y. Takeda, Department of Internal Medicine and Bioregulation, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences,
Nagoya, Japan] - INT. J. CARDIOL. 2006 113/2 (223-228) - summ
in ENGL
Background: The status of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity
in patients with diastolic heart failure has not been fully understood. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac images are valuable
for evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Methods: We
obtained 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac images from 34
consecutive patients with moderate heart failure and an ejection
fraction of 45%. Results: The decay-corrected washout rate of
123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine correlated with each plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (standardized correlation
coefcient = 0.305, p < 0.05), New York Heart Association functional class (standardized correlation coefcient = 0.364, p < 0.02),
and exercise capacity (standardized correlation coefcient = - 0.388,
p < 0.04). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the washout
rate independently predicted plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (standardized regression coefcient = 0.367, p <
0.02). In a univariate regression, the washout rate did not significantly correlate with the presence of ischemic heart disease (p =
0.254); in a multivariate regression, the presence of ischemic heart
disease did not predict the washout rate. For the 14 patients with
Section 23 vol 70.2

sinus rhythm, there was a marginal negative correlation between


the E / A velocity ratio of the transmitral ow and washout rate
(standardized correlation coefcient = - 0.518, p < 0.07). Conclusions: In diastolic heart failure, cardiac sympathetic nerve activity
increases proportionally to severity of the disease. 2005 Elsevier
Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
510. In Vivo 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Provides a Noninvasive Measure of Carotid
Plaque Inammation in Patients - Tawakol A., Migrino R.Q.,
Bashian G.G. et al. [Dr. A. Tawakol, Department of Medicine
(Cardiac Unit), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical
School, Boston, MA, United States] - J. AM. COLL. CARDIOL.
2006 48/9 (1818-1824) - summ in ENGL
Objectives: Given the importance of inammation in atherosclerosis, we sought to determine if atherosclerotic plaque inammation
could be measured noninvasively in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Background: Earlier PET studies using
uorodeoxyglucose (FDG) demonstrated increased FDG uptake in
atherosclerotic plaques. Here we tested the ability of FDG-PET to
measure carotid plaque inammation in patients who subsequently
underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods: Seventeen patients with severe carotid stenoses underwent FDG-PET imaging
3 h after FDG administration (13 to 25 mCi), after which carotid
plaque FDG uptake was determined as the ratio of plaque to blood
activity (target to background ratio, TBR). Less than 1 month after
imaging, subjects underwent CEA, after which carotid specimens
were processed to identify macrophages (staining with anti-CD68
antibodies). Results: There was a signicant correlation between
the PET signal from the carotid plaques and the macrophage staining
from the corresponding histologic sections (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001).
When mean FDG uptake (mean TBR) was compared with mean
inammation (mean percentage CD68 staining) for each of the 17
patients, the correlation was even stronger (r = 0.85; p < 0.0001). Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake did not correlate with plaque area,
plaque thickness, or area of smooth muscle cell staining. Conclusions: We established that FDG-PET imaging can be used to assess
the severity of inammation in carotid plaques in patients. If subsequent natural history studies link increased FDG-PET activity in
carotid arteries with clinical events, this noninvasive measure could
be used to identify a subset of patients with carotid atherosclerosis
in need of intensied medical therapy or carotid artery intervention to prevent stroke. 2006 American College of Cardiology
Foundation.
511. Radionuclide vascular imaging and characterization of human metabolic endothelial surface lining - Sinzinger H. and
Granegger S. [Dr. H. Sinzinger, Department of Nuclear Medicine,
University of Vienna, W hringer G rtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna,
a
u
Austria] - Q. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (226235) - summ in ENGL
Atherosclerotic vascular disease is the leading cause of death in
the Western world. Early diagnostic non-invasive imaging is thus
of key interest. Despite a large number of successful attempts in
experimental conditions, radionuclide vascular imaging in human
has not been very successful. Why is that? Experimental lesions are
well dened and homogenous with respect to age, size, intensity and
structure. Morphological and biochemical evaluations after radionuclide imaging demonstrate excellent correlation in experimental
animals. Human lesions, in contrast, are extremely heterogeneous.
Certain aspects, such as lesion monitoring (platelets, low-density
lipoprotein) do work. Targeting specic antigens in atherosclerotic
lesions with a variety of different antibodies, however, has not
succeeded. If we learn to better understand functional imaging
information vascular imaging data eventually are better than widely
considered as a consequence of a lacking comparative standard for
the functional activity of the vascular wall. More basic experimental information is required to improve application and optimize
information. Stem cell research is the next upcoming approach to
give nuclear medicine a chance to demonstrate its clinical value in
a rapidly developing new discipline.
512. Myocardial damages in systemic sclerosis detected by gated
myocardial perfusion SPECT and sympathetic imaging - Nakajima K., Kawano M., Hasegawa M. et al. [Dr. K. Nakajima,
Section 23 vol 70.2

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa University Hospital,


13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan] - CIRC. J. 2006
70/11 (1481-1487) - summ in ENGL
Background: Cardiac involvement is an important factor for the
appropriate management of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The possibility for detecting early myocardial damage was investigated using
99m Tc methoxyisobutyliso- nitrile (MIBI) gated perfusion single
photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 123 I metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) sympathetic imaging. Methods and
Results: Twenty-three patients with SSc and 14 control subjects
were studied. The severity of SSc was dened by disease type and
semi-quantitative skin thickness scores. A myocardial perfusion
study was performed using 99m Tc MIBI exercise-rest study, and
systolic and diastolic parameters were calculated from the volume
curve of the gated SPECT. 123 I MIBG was evaluated by segmental defects, a heart-to-mediastinum ratio and washout rate (WR).
No signicant exercise-induced ischemia was observed and the
left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal range in patients with SSc. However, diastolic function calculated by time to
peak lling (TPF) in the early diastole was signicantly prolonged
in SSc compared with the control group (184 35 ms, 160 25
ms, p=0.030) and more rapid MIBG WR from the myocardium
(18.2 7.0% vs 11.1 4.3%, p=0.0015). Compared with the control
group, the severe group with either diffuse SSc or a skin thickness
score 10 had more prolonged TPF/RR interval than the less severe group. Both diastolic and sympathetic abnormali-ties were
observed in 7 (30%) patients, and 1 abnormality in 17 (74%) patients with SSc. Conclusions: In patients with SSc, either diastolic
dysfunction or sympathetic derangement, or both were observed
even without induced ischemia and normal ventricular contractility.
Based on these subclinical early ndings, further follow-up studies
are recommended.
513. Calcied occlusion of the right coronary artery in Kawasaki disease: Evidence of myocardial ischaemia using cardiac
technetium-99m-tetrofosmin perfusion single-photon emission
computed tomography - Beamish J., OConnell M.J., El Khuffash
A. et al. [C.J. McMahon, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Our
Ladys Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland] ARCH. DIS. CHILD. 2006 91/11 (926-928) - summ in ENGL
We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who developed Kawasaki
disease at 5 months of age. The patient developed severe aneurysmal
disease of both the left and right coronary arteries. He eventually developed total calcied occlusion of the right coronary artery despite
long-term treatment with aspirin. Catheterisation showed no antegrade ow into the right coronary artery, with retrograde ow from
the left coronary system into the right coronary. At the most recent
follow-up he was asymptomatic, with normal exercise tolerance and
a negative exercise stress test. Single-photon emission computed
tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging was carried
out during stress and at rest using intravenous persantine (dipyridamole) and technetium-99m tetrofosmin. During stress, there were
prominent left ventricular apical and anteroseptal defects, which
normalised at rest. SPECT during stress and at rest may detect
subclinical ischaemia and inuence further management options in
such patients.
514. Transient ischemic dilatation of the left ventricle with severe post stress left ventricular dysfunction in the setting of
severe aortic stenosis and normal coronary arteries - Kowalski
M., Harkness B.A. and Ananthasubramaniam K. [K. Ananthasubramaniam, Henry Ford Heart and Vascular Institute, K-14, Henry
Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202, United
States] - INT. J. CARD. IMAGING 2006 22/6 (779-783) - summ in
ENGL
Transient ischemic dilatation (TID) of the left ventricle observed
during single photon myocardial perfusion emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important non-perfusion nding that may
not only suggest underlying signicant (usually multi-vessel) coronary artery disease (CAD) but also an independent prognostic factor
of adverse outcomes regardless of abnormal or normal perfusion
nding. We present a patient with no signicant epicardial coronary
disease who had signicant TID and considerable decrease in the
left ventricular ejection fraction with left ventricular dilatation after
a rest-stress Tc-99 tetrofosmin SPECT study in the setting of severe
99

aortic stenosis. With the advent of gated SPECT imaging the additive value of determining rest and post stress EF, as demonstrated
in this case, aided in the recognition of TID and transient decrease
in the left ventricular ejection fraction. These are not necessarily
related to obstructive epicardial coronary disease, but are a result
of severe aortic valve disease causing subendocardial ischemia in
the setting of multilple other non-ischemic etiologies of TID such
as left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetes mellitus. Springer
Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.
515. Noninvasive Imaging in Myocarditis - Skouri H.N., Dec
G.W., Friedrich M.G. and Cooper L.T. [Dr. L.T. Cooper, Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States]
- J. AM. COLL. CARDIOL. 2006 48/10 (2085-2093) - summ in
ENGL
Increased recognition of the role of inammation in acute and
chronic dilated cardiomyopathy has revived an interest in noninvasive imaging for detection of myocarditis. Diagnostic strategies
that are based on molecular imaging promise to further advance
our understanding and improve diagnostic precision. This article
reviews the strengths and limitations of common clinical tests used
for the diagnosis of myocarditis, with a focus on the emerging
role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Novel imaging
modalities that are currently in preclinical development are discussed with recommendations for future clinical research. 2006
American College of Cardiology Foundation.
516. Noninvasive Characterization of Myocardial Molecular Interventions by Integrated Positron Emission Tomography and
Computed Tomography - Wagner B., Anton M., Nekolla S.G. et
al. [Dr. F.M. Bengel, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universit t M nchen, , Germany] - J. AM. COLL.
a u
CARDIOL. 2006 48/10 (2107-2115) - summ in ENGL
Objectives: We sought to investigate the usefulness of integrated
positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography
(CT) for in vivo characterization of an angiogenesis-directed
molecular intervention. Background: Controversies about the effectiveness of molecular therapies for cardiovascular disease have
prompted the need for more powerful noninvasive imaging techniques. Methods: In a model of regional adenoviral transfer of
the VEGF121 gene to myocardium of healthy pigs, PET-CT using
multiple molecular-directed radiotracers was employed. Results:
Two days after gene transfer, successful transgene expression was
noninvasively conrmed by a reporter probe targeting co-expressed
HSV1-sr39tk reporter gene. The CT-derived ventricular function
and morphology remained unaltered (left ventricular ejection fraction 57
5% in adenovirus-injected animals vs. 53
5% in
controls; p = 0.36). Increased regional perfusion was identied in
areas overexpressing VEGF (myocardial blood ow during adenosine-induced vasodilation 1.47 0.49 vs. 1.14 0.27 ml/g/min in
remote areas; p = 0.01), corroborating in vivo effects on microvascular tone and permeability. Finally, regional angiogenesis-associated
v 3 integrin expression was not enhanced, suggesting little contribution to the perfusion increase. Fusion of CT morphology
and tracer-derived molecular signals allowed for accurate regional
localization of biologic signals. Findings were validated by control vectors, sham-operated animals, and ex vivo tissue analysis.
Conclusions: Integrated PET-CT has the potential to dissect cardiovascular biologic mechanisms from gene expression to physiologic
function and morphology. The VEGF overexpression in healthy
myocardium increases myocardial perfusion without signicant upregulation of v 3 integrin adhesion molecules early after the
intervention. 2006 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
517. Imaging Stem Cells Implanted in Infarcted Myocardium
- Zhou R., Acton P.D. and Ferrari V.A. [Dr. R. Zhou, Department
of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United
States] - J. AM. COLL. CARDIOL. 2006 48/10 (2094-2106) - summ
in ENGL
Stem cell-based cellular cardiomyoplasty represents a promising
therapy for myocardial infarction. Noninvasive imaging techniques
would allow the evaluation of survival, migration, and differentiation status of implanted stem cells in the same subject over time.
This review describes methods for cell visualization using several
corresponding noninvasive imaging modalities, including magnetic
100

resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon


emission computed tomography, and bioluminescent imaging. Reporter-based cell visualization is compared with direct cell labeling
for short- and long-term cell tracking. 2006 American College
of Cardiology Foundation.
518. Clinical signicance of perfusion techniques utilising different physiological mechanisms to detect myocardial viability: A
comparative study with myocardial contrast echocardiography
and single photon emission computed tomography - Hickman
M., Janardhanan R., Dwivedi G. et al. [R. Senior, Department of
Cardiovascular Medicine, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, HA1
3UJ, United Kingdom] - INT. J. CARDIOL. 2007 114/1 (139-140) summ in ENGL
Myocardial uptake using 99m Tc-sestamibi single photon emission
computed tomography (SPECT) depends largely on myocardial
microvascular volume. Myocardial contrast echocardiography
(MCE) is a relatively new technique that detects not only microvascular volume but also blood ow. These differing mechanisms
may affect the relative accuracies of MCE and SPECT for detecting
myocardial viability (MV) early after acute myocardial infarction
(AMI) and thrombolysis. Accordingly 56 patients underwent resting transthoracic echocardiography, low-power MCE and SPECT
7
2 days following rst AMI and thrombolysis. Contractile
reserve (CR) was assessed 3 months following revascularization.
The sensitivity and specicity of MCE and SPECT were 83% and
78% (p = ns) and 78% and 45% (p < 0.01) respectively. MCE was
the only multivariate predictor of global recovery of function and
CR (OR = 3.5, p = 0.01). The different physiological mechanisms
employed by MCE and SPECT translate into different relative accuracies for the detection of MV. 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
rights reserved.
519. Quantitative assessment of the atherosclerotic burden of
the aorta by combined FDG-PET and CT image analysis: a
new concept - Bural G.G., Torigian D.A., Chamroonrat W. et al.
[A. Alavi, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Hospital of the
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States]
- NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1037-1043) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: Our objective was to develop a technique for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis in the aorta by combining
standard uptake values (SUVs) in the aortic wall with volumetric
data provided by computed tomography (CT). Methods: Eighteen
patients who had both 18-uorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast-enhanced CT of the chest and
abdomen were selected. All had homogeneous diffuse FDG wall
uptake in four segments of the aorta. We divided the patients into
three groups according to their age and measured FDG uptake in
all four segments of the aorta by calculating the mean SUV for
each segment. On each axial CT image, region-of-interest tracings
along the inner and outer wall contours of the aorta were generated.
The inner surface area was subtracted from the outer surface area.
The net area values for each segment were subsequently multiplied
by slice thickness to calculate arterial wall volume. By multiplying
SUV with wall volume, we were able to calculate the atherosclerotic
burden (AB) for each segment of the aorta. We compared the aortic
wall volumes, SUVs and AB values in each arterial segment for each
age group. Results: In each aortic wall segment, AB values, SUVs
and wall volumes increased with age (P<.05). Conclusion: AB can
be used as an indicator of the extent of the atherosclerotic process
in the aorta through the use of both metabolic and morphologic data
provided by FDG-PET and CT, respectively. This may allow for
the optimal screening, diagnosis and management of patients with
this common and potentially lethal disorder. 2006 Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.
520. Scintigraphic demonstration of myocardial perfusion and
ischaemia associated with coronary artery bypass grafting - Larstorp A.C.K., Lund Sraas C., Tnnessen T. et al. [S.E. Kjeldsen,
Department of Cardiology, University of Oslo, Ulleval Hospital,

Oslo, Norway] - SCAND. CARDIOVASC. J. 2006 40/6 (354-362) summ in ENGL


Objectives. To assess if myocardial perfusion scintigraphy
(MPS) at rest can be of value in elucidating myocardial perfusion,
ischaemia and perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) associated
Section 23 vol 70.2

with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design. This


was a prospective randomized study of patients undergoing elective
CABG. Forty-eight patients in the control group underwent serial
ECG recordings and measurements of CK-MB and cTnT. Fifty-four
patients in the study group were additionally examined with MPS
preoperatively and 2-4 days and 6 weeks postoperatively. Results.
The study showed a highly signicant (p<0.001) improvement in
myocardial radionuclide uptake from preoperatively to 2-4 days
postoperatively. Judged from ECG and enzymatic changes, two
control patients and one study patient only had PMI and no additional cases of PMI were demonstrated by MPS. Conclusion. MPS
at rest showed that CABG signicantly improved myocardial perfusion, by demonstrating an increase in radionuclide uptake. In
diagnosing PMI, we found that MPS provided no additional information beyond cardiac biochemical markers and ECG changes.
521. Evaluation of novel cationic 99m Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complexes as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion
imaging - He Z., Hsieh W.-Y., Kim Y.-S. and Liu S. [S. Liu, School
of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 479072051, United States] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1045-1053) summ in ENGL
This report describes the evaluation of three cationic
99m Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complexes - [99m Tc(CO) (L)]+ (L=N-meth3
oxyethyl- N,N- bis[2- (bis(3- ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine
(ME-PNP),
N-[15-crown-5)-2-yl]-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine
(15C5-PNP)
and
N-[18-crown-6)-2-yl]-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine (18C6-PNP)) - as potential radiotracers for myocardial
perfusion imaging. Biodistribution, imaging and metabolism
studies were performed using Sprague-Dawley rats. It was
found that bisphosphine ligands have a signicant impact on
the biodistribution characteristics and clearance kinetics of their
cationic 99m Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complexes.
Among the three
radiotracers evaluated in this study, [99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+
has a very high initial heart uptake and is retained in the rat
myocardium for >2 h. It also shows rapid clearance from the liver
and lungs. The heart/liver ratio of [99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+
is 2.5 times better than that of 99m Tc-sestamibi at 30 min
postinjection. [99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+ is almost identical to
99m TcN-DBODC5 with respect to heart uptake, heart/lung ratio and
heart/liver ratio. Results from metabolism studies show that there
is no signicant metabolism for [99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+ in the
urine, but it does show a small metabolite peak (<10%) in the
radio high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of
the feces sample at 120 min postinjection. Results planar imaging
studies demonstrate that [99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+ has a much
better liver clearance prole than 99m Tc-sestamibi and might give
clinically useful images of the heart as early as 30 min postinjection.
[99m Tc(CO)3 (15C5-PNP)]+ is a very promising candidate for more
preclinical evaluations in various animal models. 2006 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.
522. Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal vein: Report
of a case - Sakamoto A., Tanaka K., Matsuda S. et al. [A.
Sakamoto, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of
Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 8128582, Japan] - SURG. TODAY 2006 36/12 (1098-1100) - summ in
ENGL
Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid
or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease seen mainly
in arteries. It is very unusual for these cystic masses to develop in a
vein. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with leg swelling
caused by ACD arising in the popliteal vein. The swelling appeared
after a long period of standing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)showed a popliteal cystic mass and venography showed disrupted
venous ow. We resected the cyst wall without venous reconstruction, after which venous blood ow normalized and her symptoms
subsided. To our knowledge, this is only the third documented
case of ACD arising in the popliteal vein. A misdiagnosis could
easily have been made, since the mass was not obvious on physical
examination and the only symptom was intermittent swelling. Thus,
it is important to be aware of ACD as a possible diagnosis when
examining patients with a swelling in the leg. 2006 SpringerVerlag Tokyo.
Section 23 vol 70.2

523. Usefulness of rapid low-dose/high-dose 1-day 99m Tc-sestamibi ECG-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission
computed tomography - Matsumoto N., Sato Y., Suzuki Y. et
al. [Dr. Y. Sato, Department of Cardiology, Nihon University,
Surugadai Hospital, 1-8-13 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
101-8309, Japan] - CIRC. J. 2006 70/12 (1585-1589) - summ in
ENGL
Background: The clinical usefulness of a rapid rest lowdose/stress high-dose (dose ratio =1:5) 99m Tc-sestamibi myocardial
perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)protocol for the detection of coronary artery disease was evaluated.
Methods and Results: In 89 patients, rest images were obtained
immediately after the injection of 99m Tc-sestamibi (256.1 28.4
MBq) followed by drinking water (400 ml). Exercise or vasodilator stress test was performed immediately after the completion of
rest imaging with the injection of 99m Tc-sestamibi (1312.3 167.6
MBq). Prior to the post-stress imaging, patients were asked again to
drink water (400 ml) in order to eliminate subdiaphragmatic tracer
activity. The myocardial count ratio (stress/rest) of 99m Tc-sestamibi
was calculated. Image quality was scored using a 4-point scale system (4= excellent, 3= good, 2= poor, 1= unacceptable). Coronary
angiography was performed in 56 patients within 1 month of the
SPECT scan. All patients successfully performed the protocol and
total examination time was 108 7 min. The myocardial count ratio
of 99m Tc-sestamibi was always greater than 6. The image quality
was satisfactory both at rest (3.4 0.9) and after stress (3.9 0.2).
The sensitivity and specicity to detect coronary artery stenosis
>50% was 84% and 97%, respectively. Conclusions: This rapid
one-day 99m Tc-sestamibi protocol provides adequate image quality
and diagnostic accuracy for detecting coronary artery disease.
524. Syntheses of [14 C]BAY 59-7939 and its radiolabeled metabolite M-4 - Pleiss U., Seidel D. and Grosser R. [U. Pleiss, Bayer
HealthCare AG, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany] J. LABEL. COMPD. RADIOPHARM. 2006 49/11 (929-934) - summ
in ENGL
BAY 59-7939 is a novel, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor in clinical
development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic
diseases. Radiolabeled BAY 59-7939 was required for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME studies). The
BAY 59-7939 was labeled with carbon-14 in the carboxamide group
in one step in an overall radiochemical yield of 85% starting from 4-f
4-[(5S)-5-(aminomethyl)-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl] phenylgmorpholin-3-one and 5-chlorothiophene-2-[14 C]carboxylic acid. The
radiolabeled metabolite M-4 was prepared in 77% yield starting
from [1-14 C]glycine and 5-chlorothiophene-5-carboxylic acid. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
525. Comparative binding of 125 I-and 99m Tc-labeled native and
glycated low-density lipoprotein to human microvascular endothelial cells-potential for atherosclerosis imaging? - Sobal G.,
Menzel E.J. and Sinzinger H. [G. Sobal, Department of Nuclear
Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, A-1090,
Vienna, Austria] - J. RECEPT. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 2006
26/5-6 (693-707) - summ in ENGL
Native (n), glycated (g), and glycoxidated (go) low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were labeled with 125 I or 99m Tc, and the labeling
efciency and binding were assessed for potential use of these LDL
compounds in imaging analysis of atherosclerotic lesions (PPARreceptors) by determining the number of specic receptors for
nLDL, gLDL or goLDL on human microvascular endothelial cells
as well as the KD s using either 125 I-or 99m Tc-labeled LDLs. The
specic activity of labeled gLDL and goLDL was much higher
(for goLDL 20 times higher) than that of nLDL. Gel ltration
of labeled LDLs revealed, however, that 99m Tc-g/goLDL is signicantly degraded by the labeling reaction. No fragmentation
was observed for 99m Tc-nLDL and all the 125 I-labeled LDL forms.
Binding studies using both 125 I-and 99m Tc-nLDL indicated a weak
binding afnity (KD s 10-7 mol/L) to human microvascular endothelial cells. The bindin afnity of 125 I-g/goLDL to these cells was
signicantly higher (KD 10-9 mol/L) and could be increased further
by preactivation of the endothelial cells using TNF . Incubation
with 99m Tc-goLDL, however, did not result in specic binding of
the ligand, possibly as a consequence of the fragmentation of the
101

lipoprotein during the labeling. Scatchard transformation of the


binding data with 99m Tc-gLDL revealed the presence of only a few
binding sites. This was in contrast to the results obtained with 125 Ilabeled gLDL, which revealed a much higher membrane density of
scavenger receptors for this ligand. We conclude that for in vitro
binding studies as well as for potential in vivo imaging, only 125 Ilabeled goLDL should be used, whereas nLDL may be applied as
125 I-or 99m Tc-labeled ligand. Copyright Informa Healthcare.
526. Comprehensive cardiac assessment with multislice computed tomography: Evaluation of left ventricular function and
perfusion in addition to coronary anatomy in patients with previous myocardial infarction - Henneman M.M., Schuijf J.D.,
Jukema J.W. et al. [Dr. J.J. Bax, Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden,
Netherlands] - HEART 2006 92/12 (1779-1783) - summ in ENGL
Objective: To evaluate a comprehensive multislice computed
tomography (MSCT) protocol in patients with previous infarction,
including assessment of coronary artery stenoses, left ventricular
(LV) function and perfusion. Patients and methods: 16-slice MSCT
was performed in 21 patients with previous infarction; from the
MSCT data, coronary artery stenoses, (regional and global) LV function and perfusion were assessed. Invasive coronary angiography
and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)served as the reference standards for coronary artery stenoses and LV
function/perfusion, respectively. Results: 236 of 241 (98%) coronary artery segments were interpretable on MSCT. The sensitivity
and specicity for detection of stenoses were 91% and 97%. Pearsons correlation showed excellent agreement for assessment of LV
ejection fraction between MSCT and SPECT (49 (13)% v 53 (12)%,
respectively, r = 0.85). Agreement for assessment of regional wall
motion was excellent (92%, = 0.77). In 68 of 73 (93%) segments,
MSCT correctly identied a perfusion defect as compared with
SPECT, whereas the absence of perfusion defects was correctly detected in 277 of 284 (98%) segments. Conclusions: MSCT permits
accurate, non-invasive assessment of coronary artery stenoses, LV
function and perfusion in patients with previous infarction. All
parameters can be assessed from a single dataset.
See also: 546, 606.
5.5. Hemopoietic and lymphoreticular systems
527. 18F-FDG PET in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
(MALT) lymphoma - Alinari L., Castellucci P., Elstrom R. et
al. [L. Alinari, Institute of Hematology and Oncology Seragnoli,
University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy] - LEUK. LYMPHOMA 2006
47/10 (2096-2101) - summ in ENGL
To evaluate the sensitivity of 18-uoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FFDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A total
of 32 patients with a histological diagnosis of extra-nodal MALT
lymphoma were referred to the PET Centers in the last 2 years
(2003-2004) and scanned with 18F-FDG-PET following standard
procedures. Overall, the results of 50 18F-FDG-PET scans performed in either active disease state or in complete remission were
reviewed. Sites of primary disease included stomach, lung, parotid, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus. This study
retrospectively enrolled 26 patients with known active disease. 18FFDG-PET was true positive (TP) in 21/26 patients and false negative
(FN) in 5/26. Sensitivity of 18F FDG-PET for extra-nodal MALT
was 81%. The data show that 18FDG-PET is a useful diagnostic
tool in order to stage, restage or monitor disease in patients with
extra-nodal MALT lymphoma.
528. Biologically effective dose in total-body irradiation and
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - Kal H.B., Van Kempen-Harteveld M.L., Heijenbrok-Kal M.H. and Struikmans H. [Dr.
H.B. Kal, Department of Radiotherapy, Q00.118, University Medical Center, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands]
- STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (672-679) - summ in
ENGL, GERM
Background and Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) is an important part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem
102

cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results after treatment with various TBI regimens were
compared, and dose-effect relationships for the endpoints relapse
incidence, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, and
overall survival were derived. The aim was to dene requirements
for an optimal treatment schedule with respect to leukemic cell
kill and late normal-tissue morbidity. Material and Methods: A
literature search was performed. Three randomized studies, four
studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens, and nine
reports with results of one specic TBI regimen were identied.
Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. The results
of the randomized studies and the studies comparing results of two
or three TBI regimens were pooled, and the pooled relative risk
(RR) was calculated for the treatments with high BED values versus
treatments with a low BED. BED-effect relationships were obtained.
Results: RRs for the high BED treatments were signicantly lower
for relapse incidence, not signicantly different for disease-free
survival and treatment-related mortality, and signicantly higher
for overall survival. BED-effect relationships indicate a decrease
in relapse incidence and treatment-related mortality and an increase
in disease-free and overall survival with higher BED values. Conclusion: "More dose is better", provided that a TBI setting is used
limiting the BEDs of lungs, kidneys, and eye lenses. Urban &
Vogel.
529. Induction of G2 arrest and apoptosis of raji cells by continuous low-dose beta irradiation with 188 Re-perrhenate - Lim
S.J., Kim E.H., Woo K.S. et al. [S.M. Lim, Laboratory of Cyclotron
Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science
(KIRAMS), 215-4 Gongleung-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706,
South Korea] - CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/4
(314-320) - summ in ENGL
Continuous irradiation with exponentially reducing -rays induces cell death, known as apoptosis. The aim of this study was
to investigate the G 2 arrest and apoptosis caused by the -ray
emitted by the radioisotope 188 Re. Doses of 0.4 Gy (3.7 MBq),
4 Gy (37 MBq), and 40 Gy (370 MBq), were added to B-lymphoma Raji cells, and cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA cell-cycle
changes were assayed. 188 Re showed time- and dose-dependent
effects on cell viability and on cell apoptosis and necrosis. At a
188 Re dose of 0.4 Gy, G cell-cycle arrest was observed after 16
2
hours, and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining indicated
a slow, time-dependent increase in apoptotic bodies. At a 188 Re dose
of 40 Gy, DNA fragmentation was observed at 2 hours, indicative
of early damage in the nucleus. In summary, our results showed that
continuous irradiation with low-dose -rays induced G? arrest and
progressive apoptosis, which may be characteristic mechanisms of
radionuclide therapy. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
530. Characterization of a radiolabeled small molecule targeting leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 expression in
lymphoma and leukemia - Poria R.B., Norenberg J.P., Anderson
T.L. et al. [J.P. Norenberg, University of New Mexico, College
of Pharmacy, 1 University of New Mexico, 2502 Marble NE,
Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States] - CANCER BIOTHER.
RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/5 (418-426) - summ in ENGL
Objective: Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) is
constitutively expressed on leukocytes, including overexpression
on lymphomas and leukemias. We have developed a derivative of BIRT 377, an allosteric inhibitor of LFA-1, which may
be chemically tagged without affecting binding. In this study,
we modied this derivative, (R)-1-(4-aminobutyl)-5-(4-bromobenzyl) -3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione
(butylamino-NorBIRT), and demonstrated its potential as a
noninvasive imaging agent. Methods: Specic binding of uorescein-labeled butylamino-NorBIRT to both human and murine
cells was demonstrated using equilibrium binding and dissociation techniques. A radiometal, lutetium-177 (Lu-177), was
incorporated into the butylamino-NorBIRT through 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N ,N ,N -tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a
chelator. Results: Equilibrium-binding experiments demonstrated
that uorescein-labeled butylamino-NorBIRT specically binds human and murine LFA-1 with afnity constants of 135 and 186
nM, respectively. Dissociation kinetic experiments demonstrated
an off-rate of 0.168/second -1 on murine cells, consistent with the
Section 23 vol 70.2

observed afnity constant. Lutetium-177 was used for labeling,


with 99.99% radiochemical purity and incorporation yield. This
radiolabeled derivative exhibited high stability in fetal bovine serum
(FBS) at 37C over 72 hours. 177 Lu-DOTA- butylamino-NorBIRT
showed a binding afnity of 235 nM to human LFA-1 for equilibrium binding and competitive binding experiments. Conclusions:
The radiolabeled DOTA-butylamino-NorBIRT may have potential
as a noninvasive imaging or therapeutic agent in both human and
mouse models. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
531. Radioactivity thresholds for sentinel node biopsy in breast
cancer - Morota S., Koizumi M., Koyama M. et al. [M. Koizumi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital,
Ariake 3-10-6, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8550, Japan] - EUR. J. SURG.
ONCOL. 2006 32/10 (1101-1104) - summ in ENGL
Aims: The aim of the present study is to clarify the level of radioactive lymph node should be biopsied after the most radioactive SN
is removed. Methods: SNB using radionuclide was performed in
our hospital for 1179 primary breast cancers between April 2000 and
October 2005; most (1177/1179) were performed successfully. Our
criterion for harvesting SNs is to remove tissue until no radioactive
site is present. The level of radioactivity and the order of removal of
each lymph node were compared with pathologic results. Results:
More than 2 (overall average 1.9) radioactive SNs were biopsied in
686 of 1177 breasts. Cancer positive results were recorded for 142
breasts with multiple SNs. In 142 breasts, 64 showed metastasis
to the most radioactive node only, 39 showed metastasis other than
the most radioactive node only, and 39 showed the most radioactive
node and other radioactive nodes. Moreover, if several other criteria were applied, false-positive cases were increased signicantly.
Conclusions: It is necessary to harvest radioactive lymph nodes
other than the most radioactive. Moreover, efforts to remove every
radioactive lymph node will minimize false-negative results.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
532. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node harvesting in patients with recurrent breast cancer - Roumen R.M.H., Kuijt G.P.
and Liem I.H. [R.M.H. Roumen, Department of Surgery, M xima
a
Medisch Centrum, P.O. Box 7777, 5500 MB Veldhoven, Netherlands] - EUR. J. SURG. ONCOL. 2006 32/10 (1076-1081) - summ
in ENGL
Aims: To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of lymphatic
mapping and a ("repeat") sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in
patients with breast cancer relapse after previous breast and axillary
surgery. Methods: Review and presentation of a patient cohort. All
SLN procedures included lymphoscintigraphy and blue dye injection technique. Results: Twelve cases are described: two patients
after a previous SLN procedure and ten after a previous complete
axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (83%) had a
successful repeat SLN biopsy. After previous ALND, lymphoscintigraphy revealed drainage towards the internal mammary chain in
three patients, and contralateral axillary drainage in four. Based
on the information from the "repeat" SLN biopsy further treatment
strategy was altered in seven of the 12 patients. Conclusion: Lymphatic mapping and (repeat) SLN biopsy is possible and can be
informative in patients who present with a relapse of breast cancer
after previous surgery for primary breast cancer. 2006 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
533. Routine use of PET scans after completion of therapy in
pediatric Hodgkin disease results in a high false positive rate
- Levine J.M., Weiner M. and Kelly K.M. [Dr. J.M. Levine, IP-7,
161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, United States]
- J. PEDIATR. HEMATOL. ONCOL. 2006 28/11 (711-714) - summ
in ENGL
PURPOSE: Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans are becoming standard of care in the evaluation of
Hodgkin disease (HD). The frequency of false positive (FP) PET
scans in pediatric HD after completion of therapy has not been
well studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All PET scan reports
on pediatric HD patients at our institution between February 2000
and February 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Scans were
considered positive if the interpretation was most consistent with
malignancy. FP results were determined by pathologic evaluation,
resolution on scan, or absence of disease progression over at least 1
Section 23 vol 70.2

year without intervention. RESULTS: We reviewed 255 PET scans


on 47 patients, including 156 posttherapy scans on 34 patients.
Positive predictive value for scans obtained during routine followup was 11%, with an FP rate of 16%. Identiable etiologies of
FP scans included: brosis, progressive transformation of germinal
centers, abdominal wall hernia, appendicitis, thymus and HIV associated lymphadenopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Routine PET scans
after completion of therapy in pediatric HD patients have a low
positive predictive value and a high FP rate. Prospective studies are
needed to reduce the ambiguity of positive results. In the interim,
positive PET scans after treatment should be interpreted cautiously
and therapeutic decisions should not be made without histologic
conrmation. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
534. Patterns of red marrow in the adult femur - Kim S.C., Krynyckyi B.R., Machac J. and Kim C.K. [Dr. C.K. Kim, Department of
Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland
Medical System, 22 S. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201, United
States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (739-741) - summ in
ENGL
PURPOSE: Conversion of red marrow (RM) to fatty marrow in
the skeleton of the lower extremities begins at the distal end, ie, feet,
and progresses proximally with distal bone marrow (ie, tibia) being
converted more rapidly than proximal bone marrow (ie, femur).
However, in an individual long bone, conversion begins in the diaphysis and progresses both distally and proximally (more rapidly
toward the distal side). In a normal adults femur, RM is present in
the proximal one third or less. Reconversion of fatty marrow to RM
is reported to occur in the reverse order of conversion. We assessed
the frequency of various patterns of RM in the adult femur on In111 leukocyte scans for a better understanding of the bone marrow
regeneration process in individual long bones. METHODS: The
patterns of marrow activity in the femur shown on In-111 leukocyte
scans performed in 354 adults were divided into a) RM limited to
the proximal one third or less, b) to the proximal two thirds, c) to
the proximal one third and distal one third with no activity in the
middle shaft, and d) in the entire femur. RESULTS: There were 207
patients with pattern A, 91 pattern B, 14 pattern C, and 42 pattern D.
CONCLUSIONS: A considerably higher number of adults showed
pattern B than pattern C. This suggests that regeneration of diaphyseal marrow precedes that of the distal marrow in an individual long
bone or possibly that conversion of the latter precedes the former,
which is different from that proposed in the literature. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
535. Low-dose P32 therapy in essential thrombocythemia Shetty-Alva N. and Cheng D.W. [Dr. N. Shetty-Alva, Yale New
Hospital, Department of Radiology, 20 York Street, New Haven,
CT 06510, United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (790791) - summ in ENGL
We present a case of an 85-year-old woman with medically refractory essential thrombocythemia and subsequent venous thrombosis.
She received conservative phosphorus-32 sodium phosphate therapy for 3 mCi, approximately half the usual dose. One month later,
she received a second intravenous phosphorus-32 treatment of 3.5
mCi. She responded successfully to both treatments with drops in
her platelet count and experienced no adverse effects. Our case
is noteworthy in the effectiveness from a conservative dose while
avoiding hematologic complications. 2006 Lippincott Williams
& Wilkins, Inc.
536. Correlations between 18 F-FDG uptake by bone marrow
and hematological parameters: measurements by PET/CT Murata Y., Kubota K., Yukihiro M. et al. [Y. Murata, Department
of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8
(999-1004) - summ in ENGL
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between
18 F-FDG uptake by bone marrow and various hematological parameters. Forty-eight patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT studies
and also received hematological examinations within 5 days before
or after the PET study were included in this study. All patients
had not received chemotherapy. FDG uptake by bone marrow was
measured as a standardized uptake value (SUV) on three-dimensional PET/CT fusion images, and the uptake ratio (UR) of the
103

SUV of bone marrow to the SUV of longitudinal dorsal muscle


was calculated. The correlations between the SUV and the UR of
bone marrow and various hematological parameters were evaluated.
Bone marrow FDG uptake was strongly correlated with the white
blood cell counts but was not signicantly correlated with the red
blood cell and platelet counts. The neutrophil count was signicantly correlated with bone marrow FDG uptake but the lymphocyte
count was not. FDG uptake by bone marrow was specically correlated with the neutrophil count, suggesting that the FDG uptake by
bone marrow reects marrow metabolism that is mainly regulated
by granulocyte progenitors and stimulated by endogenous hematopoietic growth factors. They may also be helpful in interpreting
PET images, especially for diagnosing bone marrow involvement
by malignancy. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

537. Splenic autotransplantation for a congested and enlarged


wandering spleen with torsion: Report of a case - Takayasu H.,
Ishimaru Y., Tahara K. et al. [H. Ikeda, Department of Pediatric
Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Koshigaya Hospital, 2-1-50
Minami-Koshigaya, Koshigaya, Saitama 343-8555, Japan] - SURG.
TODAY 2006 36/12 (1094-1097) - summ in ENGL
In children with diseases of the spleen, every effort should be
made to preserve the organ, to prevent severe infections postsplenectomy. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with torsion of a
wandering spleen who we treated by autotransplantation of splenic
tissues following splenectomy, when xation of the enlarged spleen
seemed impossible. Spleen scintigraphy showed uptake in the regenerating splenic tissues 9 months after surgery, and evidence
of an increase in the size of the tissues 23 months after surgery.
Howell-Jolly bodies had disappeared by 16 months after surgery.
These ndings suggested that the transplanted splenic tissues were
resuming splenic functions. Based on our experience with this
case, we conclude that autotransplantation after splenectomy is a
treatment option for wandering spleen with torsion when xation
seems difcult because of splenic congestion and enlargement.
2006 Springer-Verlag Tokyo.

538. FDG-PET after 1 cycle of therapy predicts outcome in


diffuse large cell lymphoma and classic Hodgkin disease - Kostakoglu L., Goldsmith S.J., Leonard J.P. et al. [Dr. L. Kostakoglu,
Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mount
Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY,
10029, United States] - CANCER 2006 107/11 (2678-2687) - summ
in ENGL
BACKGROUND. Early prediction of response to therapy may
offer the potential to identify patients who will benet from standard conventional therapy. The objective of this study was to
determine the predictive value of FDG-PET as an early response
indicator after 1 cycle of chemotherapy for progression-free survival
(PFS) in diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) and classic Hodgkin
disease (HD). METHODS. FDG-PET was performed before, after 1 cycle, and after completion of chemotherapy in 47 patients.
The patients were followed with a median follow-up of 21 months
(range, 3-47 months). PFS was compared between PET-positive
and PET-negative patients after 1 cycle and after completion of
therapy. RESULTS. All PET-negative patients after 1 cycle (n =
31) had sustained complete remission with a median follow-up of 28
months. Fourteen of 16 PET-positive patients after 1 cycle had refractory disease or relapsed (median PFS, 5.5 months). There were
2 false-positive results, 1 with an active infection at the biopsy site
and the other in a patient who had been in remission after radiation
therapy. There was good agreement between the results obtained
after 1 cycle and at completion of therapy (kappa, 0.80); however,
the negative predictive value was higher for FDG-PET after 1 cycle
than after completion of chemotherapy (100% vs 91.4%), although
not statistically different (P = .40). CONCLUSIONS. FDG-PET
had a high prognostic value after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, thus it
can be a valid alternative for posttreatment evaluation of DLCL and
HD and may offer the potential for change in treatment paradigms.
2006 American Cancer Society.
See also: 547, 601, 610.
104

5.6. Respiratory system


539. In vitro lung dissolutions rates for PuO2 - LaMont S.P.,
LaBone T.R., Cadieux J.R. et al. [S.P. LaMont, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS J514, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM
87545, United States] - J. RADIOANAL. NUCL. CHEM. 2006 269/2
(271-277) - summ in ENGL
The lung dissolution rates for PuO2 were determined using a
100 day in vitro experiment. A very small amount of the PuO2
rapidly dissolved with a half-time of approximately 10 days, while
the majority of the material (>99%) dissolved with a half-time of
approximately 5 10 5 days. This dissolution half time is signicantly
longer than what is recommended by the ICRP, and would result in
higher calculated doses for inhalation intakes of PuO2 than those
currently estimated by the ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model
for radiological protection. 2006 Akad miai Kiad .
e
o
540. Optimal CT breathing protocol for combined thoracic
PET/CT - Gilman M.D., Fischman A.J., Krishnasetty V. et al.
[S.L. Aquino, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General
Hospital, FND 202, 55 Fruit St., Boston, MA 02114, United States]
- AM. J. ROENTGENOL. 2006 187/5 (1357-1360) - summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal breathing protocol for combined PET/CT scans of the thorax.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Eighty combined PET/CT scans
were obtained in 64 patients (30 women, 34 men; mean age, 57
years; range, 19-86 years). The 80 PET/CT scans consisted of
ve group of patients (16 PET/CT scans per group) who underwent whole-body combined 18 F-FDG PET/CT with different CT
breathing protocols: expiration, mid suspended breath-hold, quiet
breathing, small breath in, and regular breath in. The quality of
alignment was analyzed at the diaphragm, aortic arch, heart, thoracic spine, and lung apices using a scale of ratings from 1 (very
poor) to 5 (excellent). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare
alignment between breathing protocols for each anatomic reference
point. RESULTS. Alignment of the PET and CT data sets was
excellent with three breathing protocols: expiration, mid suspended
breath-hold, and quiet breathing, with no statistical differences. Signicant misalignment occurred at the diaphragm (p < 0.0001) and
heart (p < 0.0001) with the small breath-in and regular breath-in
techniques. CONCLUSION. Excellent image fusion of combined
PET/CT data sets in the thorax, especially at the diaphragm and
heart, can be achieved with expiration, mid suspended breathhold,
or quiet breathing. Quiet breathing is recommended for optimal patient comfort during acquisition of attenuation-correction CT data
sets. American Roentgen Ray Society.
541. Characterization of the solitary pulmonary nodule: 18 FFDG PET versus nodule-enhancement CT - Christensen J.A.,
Nathan M.A., Mullan B.P. et al. [J.A. Christensen, Department of
Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905,
United States] - AM. J. ROENTGENOL. 2006 187/5 (1361-1367) summ in ENGL
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to directly compare
nodule-enhancement CT and 18 F-FDG PET in the characterization
of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) greater than 7
mm in size. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Examinations from
patients undergoing both nodule-enhancement CT and 18 F-FDG
PET to characterize the same indeterminate SPN were reviewed.
For nodule-enhancement CT, an SPN was considered malignant
when it showed an unenhanced to peak contrast-enhanced increase
in attenuation greater than 15 H. Fluourine-18-FDG PET studies
were blindly reinterpreted by two qualied nuclear radiologists.
SPNs qualitatively showing hypermetabolic activity greater than
the mediastinal blood pool were interpreted as malignant. These
interpretations were compared with the original prospective clinical readings and to semiquantitative standardized uptake value
(SUV) analysis. Results were compared with pathologic and clinical follow-up. RESULTS. Forty-two pulmonary nodules were
examined. Twenty-ve (60%) were malignant, and 17 (40%) were
benign. Nodule-enhancement CT was positive in all 25 malignant
nodules and in 12 benign nodules, with sensitivity and specicity of
100% and 29%, respectively, and with a positive predictive value
(PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 68% and 100%,
Section 23 vol 70.2

respectively. Qualitative 18 F-FDG PET interpretations were positive in 24 of the 25 malignant nodules and in four benign nodules.
Fluourine-18-FDG PET was considered negative in one malignant
nodule and in 13 of the 17 benign nodules. This correlates with a
sensitivity and specicity of 96% and 76%, respectively, and with a
PPV and NPV of 86% and 93%, respectively. Original prospective
18 F-FDG PET and semiquantitative SUV analysis showed sensitivity, specicity, PPV, and NPV of 88%, 76%, 85%, and 81% and
84%, 82%, 88%, and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSION. Due to its
much higher specicity and only slightly reduced sensitivity, 18 FFDG PET is preferable to nodule-enhancement CT in evaluating
indeterminate pulmonary nodules. However, nodule-enhancement
CT remains useful due to its high NPV, convenience, and lower
cost. Qualitative 18 F-FDG PET interpretation provided the best
balance of sensitivity and specicity when compared with original
prospective interpretation or SUV analysis. American Roentgen
Ray Society.
542. Improving the diagnostic performance of lung scintigraphy
in suspected pulmonary embolic disease - Gleeson F.V., Turner
S. and Scarsbrook A.F. [F.V. Gleeson, Department of Radiology,
Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford, United
Kingdom] - CLIN. RADIOL. 2006 61/12 (1010-1015) - summ in
ENGL
Aim: to determine the effectiveness of a new imaging algorithm
in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: A new imaging algorithm for suspected PE
was introduced following the installation of a multisection computed tomography (CT) machine at our institution. Before its
installation, patients with suspected PE were evaluated with ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy. Subsequently, patients were
triaged according to chest radiography (CR) and respiratory history
to either lung scintigraphy or CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA).
Patients with a normal CR and no history of lung disease were
evaluated using perfusion (Q) scintigraphy [ventilation (V) scintigraphy was no longer performed]. Patients with an abnormal CR,
asthma or chronic lung disease were evaluated using CTPA. All
V/Q images in a continuous 3-year period before the introduction
of the new imaging algorithm and all Q images performed in a
3-year period after its introduction were retrospectively reviewed.
Imaging reports were categorized into normal, non-diagnostic (low
or intermediate probability) or high probability for PE. Patients in
the later group who subsequently underwent CTPA, were also reviewed. Results: After the policy change the percentage of normal
scintigrams signicantly increased (39 to 60%; p < 0.001). There
was a non-signicant increase in the percentage of high probability
scintigrams (15 to 18%; p = 0.716). Overall the diagnostic yield of
lung scintigraphy improved signicantly (54 to 78%; p < 0.001).
Conclusion: the diagnostic performance of lung scintigraphy can
be improved by careful triage of patients to either Q scintigraphy
or CTPA based on clinical history and CR ndings. Q scintigraphy
remains a valuable diagnostic test in the investigation of suspected
PE in carefully selected patients. 2006 The Royal College of
Radiologists.
543. 18F-FDG PET imaging in assessing exudative pleural effusions - Duysinx B.C., Larock M.-P., Nguyen D. et al. [Dr. B.C.
Duysinx, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman B35,
B-4000 Li` ge, Belgium] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12
e
(971-976) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the accuracy of [F]uorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) imaging
with semi-quantitative analysis for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates and for guiding the search for the primary
tumour of pleural metastases. METHODS: Whole-body F-FDG
PET was performed in 79 patients with exudative pleurisy. Standard
uptake values were normalized for body weight, body surface area,
lean body mass (SUVbw, SUVbsa, SUVlbm) with and without
correction for blood glucose levels. Thoracoscopy was systematically performed to reveal pathological diagnosis. RESULTS:
All SUVs were signicantly higher in all malignant pleural diseases (n=51) than in benign (n=28) (P<0.001). Moreover SUVs
were greater in the pleural metastases from pulmonary primaries
(n=25) and in mesotheliomas (n=8) than in extrathoracic primaries
Section 23 vol 70.2

(n=18) (P<0.01) with no signicant difference between lung cancers and mesotheliomas. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis
between benign and malignant lesions showed areas under the curves that ranged from 0.803 (SUVbsa g) to 0.863 (SUVbw). The
cut-off value for SUVbw which gave the best accuracy (82.3%)was 2.2. When comparing thoracic with extrathoracic primaries
the highest accuracy (80.4%) was found for a cut-off value of 2.6.
CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative analysis of F-FDG PET imaging
helps to differentiate malignant from benign pleural exudates and
to distinguish between thoracic or extrathoracic primaries. 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
544. Relationship between cancer cell proliferation, tumour angiogenesis and 201Tl uptake in non-small cell lung cancer Fujita S., Nagamachi S., Nishii R. et al. [Dr. S. Fujita, Department
of Radiology, Miyazaki Medical College, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake,
Miyazaki Pref. 889-1692, Japan] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006
27/12 (989-997) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE: To investigate whether Tl uptake is associated with
cell proliferation and angiogenesis in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). METHODS: Eighty-four patients with scheduled
NSCLC underwent Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging: 15 min (early scan) and 240 min (delayed
scan) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of Tl chloride. Tl
indices were calculated on early images (early ratio: ER) and delayed images (delayed ratio: DR). The retention index (RI) was
also calculated from these two parameters. Using surgically resected cancer specimens (54 adenocarcinoma, 24 squamous cell
carcinoma (SCC), six large-cell carcinoma), immunohistochemical
stains for both Ki-67 (MIB-1 index) and CD34 were performed
to examine the proliferative activity and the micro-vessel density
(MVD), respectively. RESULTS: The mean value of Tl index
was 1.69 0.77 (ER) and 2.31 1.08 (DR). The average RI was
42.6 42.9%, respectively. Both DR and RI positively correlated
with MIB-1 index (r=0.68, P<0.05 and r=0.52, P<0.05). When we
analyse adenocarcinoma and SCC separately, there was a signicant
positive correlation (r=0.62, P<0.05) between RI and MIB-1 index
in adenocarcinoma but not in SCC (r=0.20, P=NS). The value of ER
positively correlated with MVD (r=0.75, P<0.05). It demonstrated
strong positive correlation with both histological types (adenocarcinoma: r=0.80, P<0.05, SCC: r=0.66, P<0.05). CONCLUSION:
Tl SPECT imaging is effective non-invasive method for assessing
both the proliferation and the angiogenesis in NSCLC. Both DR
and RI are useful indicators for assessing cancer cell proliferation
in lung adenocarcinoma. ER is a useful marker for assessing the
tumour angiogenesis in NSCLC. 2006 Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Inc.
545. Radiology-Pathology Conference: sclerosing hemangioma
of the lung - Neuman J., Rosioreanu A., Schuss A. et al. [D.S.
Katz, Department of Radiology, Winthrop-University Hospital, 259
First Street, Mineola, NY 11501, United States] - CLIN. IMAGING
2006 30/6 (409-412) - summ in ENGL
Sclerosing hemangioma (SH) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm
of the lung. Although there are relatively characteristic imaging
ndings, biopsy remains the denitive diagnostic test. We report
the radiology and pathology of a patient with a SH, with emphasis
on the computed tomographic and 18 F-uorodeoxyglucose positron
emission tomography ndings, and review the literature on this
unusual tumor. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
546. Incidental detection of malignant pleural effusion on
sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan - Eftekhari M. and Gholamrezanezhad A. [A. Gholamrezanezhad, Research institute for
Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati
Hospital, Northern Kargar St., Tehran 14114, Iran] - INT. J. CARD.
IMAGING 2006 22/6 (775-777) - summ in ENGL
Incidentally the diagnosis of pleural effusions can be made with
scintigraphic studies. We report a case of incidental detection of
pleural effusion in sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan. A 64year-old man with a history of chest pain was referred for Sestamibi
myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The review of cine data revealed
an area of radiotracer accumulation in the left hemithorax. Subsequent chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed a relatively
massive pleural effusion. Microscopic evaluation conrmed the
105

malignant nature of pleural effusion, the origin of which was an


ipsilateral pulmonary adenocarcinoma. As to our knowledge, it
is the rst report of sestamibi uptake in pleural effusion uid. In
our opinion, this nding could be explained by radiotracer uptake
in the malignant component of the effusion. Reporting of these
incidental ndings could be important and sometimes can be resulted in determining previously unknown pathologies. Springer
Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.
547. Optimization of whole-body positron emission tomography
imaging by using delayed 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]uoro-d-glucose injection following I.V. insulin in diabetic patients - Turcotte E.,
Leblanc M., Carpentier A. and B nard F. [Dr. F. B nard, Sherbrooke
e
e
Molecular Imaging Center (CIMS), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12th Ave N., Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4,
Canada] - MOL. IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (348-354) - summ in
ENGL
Purpose: High blood glucose levels may decrease the sensitivity of 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]uoro-d-glucose (FDG)-positron emission
tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to assess whether intravenous (i.v.) insulin followed by FDG injection 60 minutes later
could decrease the blood glucose level of hyperglycemic patients
without altering muscular, liver, or lung FDG uptake. Methods:
We evaluated 53 diabetic patients with a fasting glycemia higher
than 7.0 mmol/l. The control group consisted of 53 nondiabetic
patients with a normal fasting glycemia. Sixty minutes before FDG
injection, all diabetic patients received up to two intravenous bolus
of insulin. Regions of interest were drawn over the lungs, heart,
liver, skeletal muscles, and over the most active lung nodule, if
present, to calculate a standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized
to the lean body weight. Results: After one or two boluses of insulin
(mean 3.4 units), 39 diabetic patients decreased their blood glucose
level from 9.4 1.8 to 6.1 1.3 mmol/l. In 14 patients, two doses
of insulin (mean 4.5 2.3 units) were not sufcient, but managed to
decrease the blood glucose level from 10.6 2.1 to 9.1 2.1 mmol/l.
There was no signicant difference for the SUV calculated on the
lung, liver, heart, and skeletal muscles. No differences were noted
in lung tumor uptake in patients who received insulin compared to
the control group. Conclusions: With a sufcient waiting period
between the insulin and FDG injections, an i.v. bolus of insulin
makes it possible to effectively decrease glycemia of diabetic patients without increasing muscular FDG uptake. Academy of
Molecular Imaging 2006.
548. Prognostic signicance of [18 F]uorodeoxyglucose uptake
on positron emission tomography in patients with pathologic
stage I lung adenocarcinoma - Ohtsuka T., Nomori H., Watanabe
K.-I. et al. [Dr. H. Nomori, Department of Thoracic Surgery,
Graduate School of Medicine, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo,
Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan] - CANCER 2006 107/10 (2468-2473) summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND. [18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been frequently used for
diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. The prognostic signicance of
FDG uptake on PET was evaluated in patients with pathologic Stage
I lung adenocarcinoma (tumor stages were based on the TNM classication of the International Union Against Cancer). METHODS.
Disease-free survival of 98 patients with pathologic Stage I lung adenocarcinoma who were treated by curative resection was examined
in relation to sex, age, histologic grade of differentiation, surgical
procedure, tumor stage, and FDG uptake measured as the maximum
standardized uptake value (SUV). RESULTS. Sixty-three patients
were had Stage IA disease and 35 patients had Stage IB disease. Six
patients each with Stage IA and Stage IB disease developed disease
recurrence after a mean postsurgical follow-up period of 31 months.
Ten (23%) of the 43 patients with SUV 3.3 developed a recurrence
compared with 2 (4%) of the 55 patients with SUV < 3.3 (P = .020).
Ten (20%) of the 51 patients with moderately or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma developed disease recurrence, compared with
2 (4%) of the 47 patients with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma
(P = .056). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that histologic grade
of differentiation was not correlated with the frequency of tumor
recurrence (P = .286), whereas SUV was found to be marginally
correlated (P = .079). CONCLUSIONS. FDG uptake appears to
be predictive of disease-free survival in patients with Stage I lung
106

adenocarcinoma. FDG uptake could yield important information


for determining the likely value of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients. 2006 American Cancer Society.
549. A methodology for using SPECT to reduce intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose to functioning lung McGuire S.M., Zhou S., Marks L.B. et al. [Dr. S.M. McGuire,
Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States] - INT. J. RADIAT. ONCOL. BIOL.
PHYS. 2006 66/5 (1543-1552) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography
(SPECT) provides a map of the spatial distribution of lung perfusion. Thus, SPECT guidance can be used to divert dose away from
higher-functioning lung, potentially reducing lung toxicity. We
present a methodology for achieving this aim and test it in intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment-planning. Methods and
Materials: IMRT treatment plans were generated with and without SPECT guidance and compared for 5 patients. Healthy lung
was segmented into four regions on the basis of SPECT intensity
in the SPECT plan. Dose was sequentially allowed to the target
via regions of increasing SPECT intensity. This process results
in reduction of dose to functional lung, reected in the dose-function histogram (DFH). The plans were compared using DFHs and
F20 /F30 values (Fx is the functional lung receiving dose above x
Gy). Results: In all cases, the SPECT-guided plan produced a
more favorable DFH compared with the non-SPECT-guided plan.
Additionally, the F20 and F30 values were reduced for all patients
by an average of 13.6% 5.2% and 10.5% 5.8%, respectively.
In all patients, DFHs of the two highest-functioning SPECT regions
were reduced, whereas DFHs of the two lower-functioning regions
were increased, illustrating the dose "give-take" between SPECT
regions during redistribution. Conclusions: SPECT-guided IMRT
shows potential for reducing the dose delivered to highly functional
lung regions. This dose reduction could reduce the number of highgrade pneumonitis cases that develop after radiation treatment and
improve patient quality of life. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved.
550. Practical integration of [18 F]-FDG-PET and PET-CT in
the planning of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer
(NSCLC): The technical basis, ICRU-target volumes, problems,
perspectives - Nestle U., Kremp S. and Grosu A.-L. [U. Nestle,
Department of Nuclear Medicine, ] - RADIOTHER. ONCOL. 2006
81/2 (209-225) - summ in ENGL
The value of positron emission tomography using [18 F]-uorodeoxy-glucose (FDG-PET) for pretherapeutic evaluation of patients
with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is beyond doubt. Due to
the increasing availability of PET and PET-CT scanners the method
is now widely available, and its technical integration has become
possible for radiotherapy planning systems. Due to the depiction of
malignant tissue with high diagnostic accuracy, the use of FDG-PET
in radiotherapy planning of NSCLC is very promising. However,
by uncritical application, PET could impair rather than improve the
prognosis of patients. Therefore, in the present paper we give an
overview of technical factors inuencing PET and PET-CT data, and
their consequences for radiotherapy planning. We further review
the relevant literature concerning the diagnostic value of FDGPET and on the integration of FDG-PET data in RT planning for
NSCLC. We point out the possible impact in gross tumor volume
(GTV) denition and describe methods of target volume contouring
of the primary tumor, as well as concepts for the integration of
diagnostic information on lymph node involvement into the clinical
target volume (CTV), and the possible implications of PET data on
the denition of the planning target volume (PTV). Finally, we give
an idea of the possible future use of tracers other than [18 F]-FDG in
lung cancer. 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
551. [99m Tc]HYNIC-RGD for imaging integrin v 3 expression - Decristoforo C., Faintuch-Linkowski B., Rey A. et al. [C.
Decristoforo, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University
of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria] - NUCL. MED. BIOL.
2006 33/8 (945-952) - summ in ENGL
There has been increasing interest in peptides containing the
Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence for targeting of v 3 integrins to
image angiogenesis. [18 F]Galacto-RGD has been successfully
Section 23 vol 70.2

used for positron emission tomography applications in patients.


Here we report on the preclinical characterization of a 99m Tc-labeled derivative for single-photon emission computed tomography.
c(RGDyK) was derivatized with HYNIC at the amino group of
the lysine [c(RGDyK(HYNIC)) or HYNIC-RGD]. 99m Tc labeling
was performed using coligands (tricine and EDDA), as well as
99m Tc(CO) (H O) . Radiolabeled peptides were characterized with
3 2 3
regard to lipophilicity, protein binding and stability in buffer, serum
and tissue homogenates. Integrin receptor activity was determined
in internalization assays using v 3 -receptor-positive M21 and
v 3 -receptor-negative M21L melanoma cells. Biodistribution
was evaluated in normal and nude mice bearing M21, M21L and
small cell lung tumors. HYNIC-RGD could be labeled at high specic activities using tricine, tricine-trisodium triphenylphosphine
3,3 ,3 -trisulfonate (TPPTS), tricine-nicotinic acid (NA) or
EDDA as coligands.
[99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-RGD, [99m Tc]tricine-TPPTS/HYNIC-RGD and [99m Tc]tricine-NA/HYNIC-RGD
showed protein binding (<5%) considerably lower than
[99m Tc](CO)3 /HYNIC-RGD and [99m Tc]tricine/HYNIC-RGD.
[99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-RGD revealed high in vitro stability accompanied by low lipophilicity with a log P value of -3.56, comparable
to that of [18 F]Galacto-RGD. In M21 cells for this compound, the
highest level of specic and rapid cell uptake (1.25% mg protein-1 )was determined. In vivo, rapid renal excretion, low blood retention,
low liver and muscle uptakes and low intestinal excretion 4 h postinjection were observed. Tumor uptake values were 2.73% ID/g in
M21 v 3 -receptor-positive tumors versus 0.85% ID/g in receptornegative tumors 1 h postinjection. Small cell lung tumors could be
visualized using camera imaging. [99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-RGD
shows encouraging properties to target v 3 receptors in vivo with
high stability and favorable pharmacokinetics. Tumor uptake studies showed specic targeting of v 3 -receptor-positive tumors with
tumor-to-organ ratios comparable to those of [18 F]Galacto-RGD.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5.7. Digestive system
552. PET/CT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma using
[ 18 F]uorocholine: Preliminary comparison with [18 F]FDG
PET/CT - Talbot J.-N., Gutman F., Fartoux L. et al. [F. Gutman,
Department of Nuclear Medicine, H pital Tenon, Universit Pierre
o
e
et Marie Curie, Paris, France] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1285-1289) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: The diagnostic accuracy of [18 F]uorodeoxyglucose
(FDG) PET is insufcient to characterise hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC) in liver masses and to diagnose all cases of recurrent HCC.
HCC has been reported to take up [11 C]acetate, but routine use of
this tracer is difcult. Choline is another tracer of lipid metabolism,
present in large amounts in HCC. In a proof-of-concept study, we
evaluated [18 F]uorocholine (FCH) uptake by HCC and compared
FCH PET/CT with FDG PET/CT. Methods: Twelve patients with
newly diagnosed (n=8) or recurrent HCC (n=4) were prospectively
enrolled. HCC was assessed by histology in eight cases and by
American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)criteria in four cases. All patients underwent whole-body PET/CT
10 min after injection of 4 MBq/kg FCH. Within 1 week, 9 of the 12
patients also underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT 1 h after injection of 5 MBq/kg FDG. Results: The per-patient analysis showed a
detection rate of 12/12 using FCH PET/CT for both newly diagnosed
and recurrent HCC. The median signal to noise ratio was 1.5 0.38.
There was a trend towards a higher FCH SUVmax in well-differentiated HCC (15.6 7.9 vs 11.9 0.9, NS). Of the nine patients
who underwent FCH and FDG PET/CT, all nine were positive with
FCH whereas only ve were positive with FDG. Conclusion: FCH
provides a high detection rate for HCC, making it potentially useful
in the initial evaluation of HCC or in the detection of recurrent
disease. The favourable result of this proof-of-concept study opens
the way to a phase III prospective study. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
553. The importance of PET in the diagnosis and response evaluation of esophageal cancer - Ott K., Weber W. and Siewert J.-R.
[Prof. J.-R. Siewert, Department of Surgery, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675 M nchen, Germany] u
DIS. ESOPHAGUS 2006 19/6 (433-442) - summ in ENGL
Section 23 vol 70.2

The major aims of imaging in esophageal cancer are to distinguish between locoregional and systemic disease (M-stage), to
determine local tumor extension (T- and N-stage), to assess response to chemo- or chemoradiotherapy and to identify recurrence
of cancer. The sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for detection of distant metastases ranges between <50% and >90%. In
esophageal cancer, F-18-uorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to detect metastatic disease
in approximately 20% of patients who are considered as having
only locoregional disease on CT. In locoregional pretherapeutic
tumor staging, FDG-PET specicity of 80% is sufcient, but FDGPET sensitivity of 50% is rather low. However, the initial staging
of regional lymph nodes is less important because at the moment
there is no pretherapeutic therapy stratication based on lymph node
category. The accuracy for correct identication of recurrence in
esophageal cancer is higher for FDG-PET than for CT scan. Unfortunately until today no reliable essays for prediction of response or
prognosis exist for esophageal cancer in clinical practice for patients
with neoadjuvant treatment. Thus the identication of parameters
predicting response and/or prognosis is crucial for the future. Posttherapeutic assessment of tumor response by FDG-PET has been
shown to correlate with histopathologic tumor regression and patient survival. Furthermore, quantitative measurements of tumor
FDG-uptake may allow an early metabolic response evaluation after only 2 weeks of therapy. An association of metabolic response
with histopathologic tumor regression and patient outcome 2 weeks
after initiation of preoperative chemotherapy may be shown for
esophageal cancer. 2006 The Authors Journal compilation
2006 The International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
554. FDG-PET for prediction of survival of patients with
metastatic colorectal carcinoma - de Geus-Oei L.F., Wiering
B., Krabbe P.F.M. et al. [Dr. L.F. de Geus-Oei, Department of
Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre,
P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands] - ANN. ONCOL.
2006 17/11 (1650-1655) - summ in ENGL
Background: The current study focuses on the prognostic
value of pretreatment metabolic activity in metastases as measured with [18 F]uorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET), as an indicator of survival in colorectal cancer. Patients a nd methods: In a prospective series of 152 patients with
metastatic colorectal cancer, of whom 67 were treated with resection
of metastases and 85 with chemotherapy, standardized uptake values
(SUV) as measured with FDG-PET, were calculated prior to treatment. Survival probabilities were estimated by Cox proportional
regression analysis. For Kaplan-Meier analysis SUV was stratied
by the median value. Survival differences were assessed using
the log-rank test. Results: SUV in metastases was a signicant
predictor for overall survival (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% condence
interval 1.06-1.30, P = 0.002), independent of the subsequent treatment. According to the median value of the patient population a
low (SUV <4.26) and high uptake group (SUV >4.26) was dened.
The median survival and the 2- and 3-year survival rates were 32
months, 59% and 45%, respectively, in the low-uptake group and
19 months, 37% and 28%, respectively, in the high-uptake group (P
= 0.017). Conclusion: A signicant survival benet was observed
in patients with low FDG uptake in metastases of colorectal cancer.
2006 Oxford University Press.
555. Regional Yttrium-90 microsphere treatment of surgically
unresectable and chemotherapy-refractory metastatic liver carcinoma - Wong C.-Y.O., Savin M., Sherpa K.M. et al. [C.-Y.O.
Wong, Positron Diagnostic Center and Medical Cyclotron, Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West
Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073-6769, United States] CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/4 (305-313) - summ
in ENGL
Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the safety
and tumor response of intra-arterial Y-90 microspheres for the treatment of surgically unresectable and chemotherapy-refractory liver
metastases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six (46) patients with
metastatic cancer to the liver from various solid tumors, with tumor
progression despite poly chemotherapy, were included. All patients
had baseline computed tomography (CT), 18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-Dglucose-positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG-PET), hepatic
107

angiography, and intra-arterial Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin


(MAA) scan for the assessment of extrahepatic aberrant perfusion
and lung shunting fraction. Twenty-seven (27) and 19 patients
were treated with Y-90 glass- or resin-based microspheres (but not
both), respectively, on a lobar basis and were monitored over 3
months after last treatment using dedicated attenuation corrected
PET. For each patient, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn along
the liver edge to measure total liver standard uptake value (SUV) on
axial images covering the entire liver for comparing pre- and posttreatment total liver SUV change. Results: There was a signicant
decrement in total liver SUV after treatment by either glass- or resinbased microspheres (p = 0.0013 and 0.028, respectively). There was
no signicant difference in the amplitudes of the mean percentage
reduction of tumor metabolism between these two agents (20%
25% vs. 10% 30% for glass- vs. resin-based microspheres; p
= 0.38). None of the patients in the glass-based group developed
complications, whereas 3 patients had complications related to hyperbilirubinemia (1 transient and 2 permanent) in the resinbased
group. Conclusions: Results suggest that there is signicant mean
reduction of hepatic metastatic tu-mor load (metabolism), as evaluated objectively by PET after Y-90 microsphere, for the treatment
of unresectable metastatic disease to the liver. The Y-90 therapy
provides encouraging and safe results by arresting the progression
of metastatic cancer to the liver with decreasing tumor metabolism.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
556. Hepatic UDP-glucose 13 C isotopomers from [U-13 C] glucose: A simple analysis by 13 C NMR of urinary menthol
glucuronide - Mendes A.C., Caldeira M.M., Silva C. et al. [Dr.
J.G. Jones, NMR Research Unit, Center for Neurosciences and Cell
Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-401 Coimbra, Portugal] MAGN. RESON. MED. 2006 56/5 (1121-1125) - summ in ENGL
Menthol glucuronide was isolated from the urine of a healthy
70-kg female subject following ingestion of 400 mg of peppermint
oil and 6 g of 99% [U- 13 C]glucose. Glucuronide 13 C-excess enrichment levels were 4-6% and thus provided high signal-to-noise
ratios (SNRs) for condent assignment of 13 C-13 C spin-coupled
multiplet components within each 13 C resonance by 13 C NMR. The
[U- 13 C]glucuronide isotopomer derived via direct pathway conversion of [U-13 C]glucose to [U-13 C]UDP-glucose was resolved from
[1,2,3-13 C3 ]- and [1,2-13 C2 ] glucuronide isotopomers derived via
Cori cycle or indirect pathway metabolism of [U-13 C]glucose. In
a second study, a group of four overnight-fasted patients (63 10
kg) with severe heart failure were given peppermint oil and infused
with [U-13 C]glucose for 4 hr (14 mg/kg prime, 0.12 mg/kg/min constant infusion) resulting in a steady-state plasma [U- 13 C]glucose
enrichment of 4.6% 0.6%. Menthol glucuronide was harvested
and glucuronide 13 C-isotopomers were analyzed by 13 C NMR. [U13 C]glucuronide enrichment was 0.6%
0.1%, and the sum of
[1,2,3-13 C3 ] and [1,2- 13 C2 ]glucuronide enrichments was 0.9%
0.2%. From these data, ux of plasma glucose to hepatic UDPG was
estimated to be 15% 4% that of endogenous glucose production
(EGP), and the Cori cycle accounted for at least 32% 10% of GP.
2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
557. Selective targeting of E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin analogs
to human colon cancer cells - Giblin M.F., Sieckman G.L.,
Watkinson L.D. et al. [Dr. M.F. Giblin, Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, A004 Research Service, 800
Hospital Dr., Columbia, MO 65201, United States] - ANTICANCER
RES. 2006 26/5 A (3243-3251) - summ in ENGL
Background: Radiolabeled analogs of the E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STh ) are currently under study as imaging and therapeutic
agents for colorectal cancer. The aim of these studies is to compare in vitro and in vivo characteristics of two novel STh analogs
with appended DOTA chelating moieties. Materials and Methods: STh analogs were synthesized with pendant N-terminal DOTA
moieties and radiolabeled with indium-111. In vitro cell binding
was studied using cultured T-84 human colorectal cancer cells, and
in vivo biodistribution studies were carried out using T-84 human
colorectal tumor xenografts in SCID mice. Results: Competitive
radioligand binding assays employing T-84 human colon cancer
cells demonstrated similar IC50 values for the F19 -STh (2-19) and
F9 -ST h (6-19) analogs. Addition of DOTA to the N-terminus of
108

these peptides elicited distinctly different effects on binding afnities in vitro, effects that were largely unchanged by metallation
with nonradioactive nat In. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in SCID
mice bearing T-84 human colon cancer-derived tumor xenografts
demonstrated tumor uptake of 0.74 0.1 %ID/g at 4 h post-injection
(p.i.) for the 111 In-DOTA-F 19 -STh (2-19) analog, and signicantly
reduced tumor localization (0.27+0.08 %ID/g) for the 111 In-DOTAF 9 -STh (6-19) analog. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that
placement of a DOTA moiety immediately adjacent to Cys 6 in
STh signicantly inhibits receptor binding in vitro and in vivo,
highlighting the need for intervening spacer residues between the
pharmacophore and the DOTA chelating moiety in effective STh based radiopharmaceutical constructs.
558. A comparison of cholecystectomy and observation in children with biliary dyskinesia - Scott Nelson R., Kolts R., Park R.
and Heikenen J. [R. Scott Nelson, Department of General Surgery,
Marsheld Clinic, Marsheld, WI 54449, United States] - J. PEDIATR. SURG. 2006 41/11 (1894-1898) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: The success rate of ameliorating the preoperative symptoms of biliary dyskinesia in a pediatric population has been reported
to be approximately 80%. The purpose of this study was to identify
patient characteristics that may help to predict successful clinical
outcomes in pediatric patients with biliary dyskinesia by comparing
2 groups of pediatric patients: those who underwent cholecystectomy and those who received no surgical intervention (control
group). Methods: The medical charts of pediatric patients who
had an ejection fraction of less than 35% and no other identiable
abnormalities revealed on diagnostic testing were retrospectively reviewed. Information regarding psychological diagnoses/treatment,
diagnostic examination ndings, histologic ndings, and outcomes
were collected. Patients were evaluated at 1 month and 2 years postoperatively. Results: From 1995 through 2003, 55 pediatric patients
were identied. All patients had an abnormal ejection fraction on
hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan. The patients were divided
into 2 groups: those who underwent cholecystectomy (n = 35) and
a control group who did not receive surgical intervention (n = 20).
Of those who underwent cholecystectomy, 74% improved, whereas
75% of the control group showed improvement after 2 years. Of all
patient characteristics evaluated, only weight loss was found to be
signicant for determining patient outcomes. Conclusion: When
followed for a long enough period of time, outcomes were similar
between the 2 groups. Of the patients whose symptoms improved,
those who underwent cholecystectomy had a quicker resolution of
abdominal pain than those who did not undergo surgery. With the
exception of weight loss, none of the patient characteristics evaluated in this study proved to be statistically signicant for predicting
a positive outcome. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
559. The use of a micro-bubble contrast agent to allow visualization of the biliary tree - Roberts J.P., Neill A. and Goldstein
R. [Dr. J.P. Roberts, University of California San Francisco, 505
Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143-0780, United States] CLIN. TRANSPLANT. 2006 20/6 (740-742) - summ in ENGL
Micro-bubble contrast agents have been used as contrast agents
in the vascular system to allow visualization of blood ow by ultrasound. We examined the use of this type of contrast agent for
visualization of bile duct by ultrasound. A laparotomy was performed on a domestic farm pig and the common bile duct was
cannulated with a 20 gauge catheter. The contrast agent, perutren
lipid microspheres (Denity), was injected in different dilutions.
Sonographic images were obtained by scanning directly on the pig
liver. The use of the micro-bubble contrast in the biliary system
provided excellent visualization of the bile duct down to ducts as
small as fth-order branches and demonstrated bile ducts <2 mm.
The use of micro-bubble contrast agents in the biliary tree may
allow for real-time imaging of the bile duct and could be helpful in
living donor liver transplantation. 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.
560. Coexistence of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastasis: Advantages of positron emission tomography for liver

tumors (Fren) - COEXISTENCE DUN CARCINOME HEPATO-CELLULAIRE

ET DUNE METASTASE HEPATIQUE: INTERET DE LA TOMODENSITOMETRIE

PAR EMISSION DE POSITRONS DANS LES TUMEURS DU FOIE - Boursier J.,

Section 23 vol 70.2

Aub C., Pilette C. et al. [J. Boursier, Service de R animation M die


e
e
cale, Centre Hospitalier du Mans, 72000 Le Mans] - J. RADIOL.
2006 87/11 C1 (1708-1710) - summ in ENGL, FREN
We report the case of a cirrhotic patient with a hepatocellular
carcinoma and a synchronous hepatic metastasis of a colorectal
cancer, both visualized on a positron emission tomography (PET)and a CT scanner. We repeat the need for the arterial phase on CT
scanner when a possibility of cirrhosis exists, even in the follow-up
of a colorectal cancer. We detail the usual pattern of HCC and the
present efcacy of the PET in the diagnosis of HCC. Editions
e
Francaises de Radiologie, 2006. Edit par Elsevier Masson SAS.

561. Assessment of 18 F-FDG-Leukocyte Imaging to Monitor Rejection After Pancreatic Islet Transplantation - Toso C., Zaidi
H., Morel P. et al. [C. Toso, Cell Isolation and Transplantation Center, Clinic for Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital,
Geneva, Switzerland] - TRANSPLANT. PROC. 2006 38/9 (30333034) - summ in ENGL
Aim: We sought to investigate the feasibility of 18 F-FDGleukocyte imaging to detect islet rejection. Methods: Two
thousand Sprague-Dawley (SD, syngeneic group) or Lewis (allogeneic group) islet equivalents were intraportally injected into SD
rat recipients. Four and 7 days after transplantation, 10818 F-FDGlabeled splenocytes were injected into the jugular vein. Splenocytes
were harvested from nave or sensitized (12 days after intraportal

transplantation of 2000 Lewis IEQ) SD rats. Positron emission


tomography (PET) imaging was started 5 minutes after splenocyte
infusion and performed hourly for 4 hours. Results: One hour
after splenocyte injection, FDG was mainly detected in the heart
and lungs. It was then further distributed to other organs, and from
the second hour, the highest tracer concentration was located in
the abdomen. Liver FDG uptake was similar between syngeneic,
allogeneic, and sensitized allogeneic groups at 4 and 7 days after
islet transplantation. Discussion: No islet rejection was detected
by 18 F-FDG-leukocyte imaging. The amount of transplanted tissue
was only few millilitres and the additional related inammation in
case of rejection is small and difcult to detect. The liver showed
a relatively high spontaneous tracer uptake; the related background
prevented detection of a potential increase in tracer uptake in cases
of islet rejection. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
562. Efcacy of PET/CT in the accurate evaluation of primary
colorectal carcinoma - Park I.J., Kim H.C., Yu C.S. et al. [J.C.
Kim, Colorectal Team, Asan Cancer Center, University of Ulsan
College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap-2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul
138-736, South Korea] - EUR. J. SURG. ONCOL. 2006 32/9 (941947) - summ in ENGL
Aim: This study was performed to assess in the accurate evaluation of primary colorectal carcinoma using PET/CT. Methods: One
hundred patients with primary colorectal carcinoma were evaluated
during 2004. All patients underwent PET/CT when their preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 10 ng/mL or when
CT showed equivocal ndings. The appropriateness of PET/CTinduced changes was noted by subsequent operative ndings and
follow-up. Results: PET/CT more detected 15 intra-abdominal
metastatic lesions than abdomino-pelvic CT scan. PET/CT showed
true negative ndings in 13 patients and false positive or negative
ndings in 10. Due to PET/CT results, management plans were altered in 27 patients; 9 had inter-modality changes, 10 received more
extensive surgery, and 8 avoided unnecessary procedures. Conclusions: PET/CT altered management plan in 24% of patients with
primary colorectal carcinoma in correct direction. These ndings
suggest that PET/CT should be considered a part of standard work
up for preoperative evaluation in a subset of patients with colorectal
carcinoma. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
563. Molecular determinants in the transport of a bile acidderived diagnostic agent in tumoral and nontumoral cell lines
of human liver - Libra A., Fernetti C., Lorusso V. et al. [Dr. L.
Pascolo, Centro Studi Fegato, Bldg. Q, AREA Science Park Basovizza, SS 14 Km 163.5, 34012 Trieste, Italy] - J. PHARMACOL.
EXP. THER. 2006 319/2 (809-817) - summ in ENGL
Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is a
valuable technique for the diagnosis of liver diseases. As gadocoletic acid trisodium salt (B22956/1), a new contrast agent showing
Section 23 vol 70.2

high biliary excretion, may be potentially advantageous in hepatobiliary imaging, the aim of the study was to investigate the molecular
mechanisms of hepatic transport of the B22956 ion in a cellular
model of hepatic tumor. B22956 ion uptake was measured in tumoral (HepG2) and nontumoral (Chang liver) hepatic cell lines.
Absolute quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, using cloned PCR products
as standards, were performed on total RNA of both cell lines and
normal liver to evaluate the transcription of 12 transport genes:
SLCO1A2, SLCO2B1, SLCO1B1, SLCO3A1, SLCO4A1, SLCO1B3, SLC22A7, SLC22A8, SLC22A1, SLC10A1, SLC15A1,
and SLC15A2. B22956 transport was more efcient in Chang liver
than in HepG2 cells and was inhibited by cholecystokinin-8, a specic substrate of OATP1B3. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed
different transcription proles in the tumoral and nontumoral cell
lines. Compared with normal liver, the expression of SLCO1B1,
SLCO3A1, and SLCO1B3 was greatly repressed in HepG2 cells,
whereas SLCO2B1, SLC22A7, and SLC22A8 expression was either maintained or increased. On the contrary, in Chang liver cells,
SLC22A7 and SLC22A8 genes were undetectable, whereas the
expression of SLCO3A1, SLCO4A1, and SLCO1B3 was similar
to normal liver. Transport studies and gene expression analyses
indicated that B22956 ion is a good substrate to the liver-specic
OATP1B3, reported to be poorly expressed or absent in human liver
tumors. Therefore, B22956 may be helpful in detecting hepatic
neoplastic lesions by CE-MRI. Copyright 2006 by The American
Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
564. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in
hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia - Yen Y.-H., Wang J.-H., Lu
S.-N. et al. [J.-H. Wang, Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial
Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan] - EUR. J.
RADIOL. 2006 60/3 (439-444) - summ in ENGL
Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central
feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy
(CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a
central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed
with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection
of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular
hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery
with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2
hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated
to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected
by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar
for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50%
(8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed
tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic
angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically.
Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic
CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection
of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis
for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS. 2006
Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
565. Positive correlation between standardized uptake values
of FDG uptake in the stomach and the value of the C-13 urea
breath test - Lin C.-Y., Liu C.-S., Ding H.-J. et al. [Dr. C.-H.
Kao, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, China Medical
University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan] - CLIN. NUCL. MED.
2006 31/12 (792-794) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE: The distribution of FDG uptake in the stomach is
variable. Gastritis is one of the causes of elevated FDG uptake. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection was found in approximately 80% of
patients with peptic ulcer and 30% to 60% of symptomatic gastritis.
The C-13 urea breath test (UBT) is one of the gold standard tools
in diagnosis of HP infection. The aim of this study was to assess
the correlation between standardized uptake values (SUVs) of FDG
uptake in the stomach and the value of the C-13 urea breath test
(UBT). METHODS: Sixteen patients, referred from the department
109

of community medicine, for FDG PET for health examination were


chronologically enrolled for detection of HP infection by using the
C-13 UBT within 1 week. The maximal SUVs of FDG uptake in the
gastric wall as well as the value of the C-13 UBT were measured.
The correlation between maximal SUVs of FDG uptake in the stomach and the value of the C-13 UBT was observed. RESULTS: We
took the results of C-13 UBT as the nal diagnosis of HP infection. Of 16 patients, 5 were HP-infected and 11 were uninfected.
Standardized uptake values of FDG uptake in the gastric wall were
strong positively correlated with the value of the C-13 UBT in this
retrospective study (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Except for gastric
cancer, HP infection has to be concerned when high SUVs of FDG
uptake in the stomach are noted. 2006 Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Inc.
566. Focal F-18 FDG uptake mimicking malignant gastric localizations disappearing after water ingestion on PET/CT images
- Imperiale A., Cimarelli S., Sellem D.B. et al. [Dr. A. Imperiale,
Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Biophysique et de Medecine
Nucleaire, 1 Avenue Moliere, Strasbourg Cedex, 67098, France] CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (835-837) - summ in ENGL
Diffuse, increased gastric wall F-18 FDG uptake is widely
observed during PET/CT examinations, frequently unrelated to
malignant ndings, but simply caused by inammatory disease,
physiological emptying, or visceral thickening. Hence, elevated
F-18 FDG gastric uptake can lead to equivocal misinterpretation,
especially in patients with known gastric malignant disease, at posttherapy reevaluation. Gastric wall contraction can increase F-18
FDG uptake, especially for a remnant stomach, increasing the percentage of false-positive results with a direct impact on therapeutic
management. One eld PET/CT acquisition centered on the hypochondrial regions a few minutes after water ingestion should
be performed routinely if standard images are doubtful (increased
tracer uptake and visceral thickening) to differentiate benign from
malignant uptake. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
567. In vitro and in vivo characterization of 177 Lu-huA33. A
radioimmunoconjugate against colorectal cancer - Almqvist
Y., Steffen A.-C., Tolmachev V. et al. [Y. Almqvist, Division of
Radiology, Department of Oncology, Radiology, and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden] - NUCL. MED.
BIOL. 2006 33/8 (991-998) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: The humanized monoclonal antibody A33
(huA33) is a potential targeting agent against colorectal carcinoma
since the A33 antigen is highly and homogenously expressed in
>95% of all colorectal cancers, both primary tumors and metastases. The aim of this study was to determine the biodistribution and
tumor-targeting ability of 177 Lu-labeled huA33. Methods: huA33
was labeled with the -emitting therapeutic nuclide 177 Lu using the
chelator CHX-A -DTPA, and the properties of the 177 Lu-CHXA -huA33 (177 Lu-huA33) conjugate was determined both in vitro
and in vivo in a biodistribution study in nude mice xenografted
with colorectal SW1222 tumor cells. Results: The 177 Lu-huA33
conjugate bound specically to colorectal cancer cells in vitro (with
a KD value of 2.3 0.3 nM, determined by a saturation assay) and
in vivo. The tumor uptake of 177 Lu-huA33 was very high, peaking
at 134 21%ID/g 72 h postinjection (pi). Normal tissue uptake was
low; radioactivity concentration in blood (which had the second
highest radioactivity concentration) was lower than in tumor at all
time points studied (8 h to 10 days). The tumor-to-blood ratio
increased with time, reaching 70 30, 10 days pi. Throughout the
study, the uptake of 177 Lu in bone (known to accumulate free 177 Lu)was low, and the fraction of protein-bound 177 Lu in plasma samples
was high (95% to 99%). This indicates high stability of the 177 LuhuA33 conjugate in vivo. Conclusion: The 177 Lu-huA33 conjugate
shows a very favorable biodistribution, with an impressively high
tumor uptake and high tumor-to-organ ratios, indicating that the
conjugate may be suitable for radioimmunotherapy of colorectal
cancer. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
568. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035: implication of
labeling position on radiometabolites formed in vitro - Sam n
e
E., Thorell J.-O., Fredriksson A. and Stone-Elander S. [S. StoneElander, Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska University Hospital
110

Solna, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006


33/8 (1005-1011) - summ in ENGL
Introduction: The epidermal growth factor receptor is highly
expressed in several types of cancers. Molecules with high afnity to its intracellular tyrosine kinase domain are being developed
as in vivo imaging probes. The 4-anilinoquinazoline PD153035
has promising in vitro and in vivo properties for development as
a reversible radioligand. Labeling it with carbon-11 in either of
its two methoxy positions can potentially give rise to different radiometabolites and, consequently, different imaging capabilities.
An evaluation of the radiotracers metabolism was needed to determine the potential signicance of the labeling position. Methods:
PD153035 was labeled in the 6- and 7-O-methoxy positions by reacting the corresponding O-desmethyl precursors with [11 C]methyl
iodide. The two radiolabeled compounds were each incubated for
1 h with human and rat liver microsomes. At ve time points, the
radiolabeled metabolites were examined using radio-liquid chromatography. One metabolite was isolated and subjected to mass
spectroscopic analysis. Results: A major polar metabolite was
obtained in all incubations. Its molecular weight was consistent
with an addition of oxygen, and its fragmentation was consistent
with an N-oxidation rather than an aromatic hydroxylation. Regioselective 7-O-dealkylation was also observed, albeit in substantial
amounts only in the assay using human microsomes. Conclusions:
Radiolabeling in the 7-O-methoxy position is advocated, since the
labeled metabolites produced in the 7-O-demethylation are polar
and probably rapidly cleared. The differences observed in the
incubations with rat and human microsomes suggest that in vivo
positron emission tomography studies with 11 C-labeled PD153035
in rodents may not be directly predictive for studies in humans.
2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
569. Sequential evaluation of hepatic functional reserve by
99m Technetium-galactosyl human serum albumin scinitigraphy
after proton beam therapy: A report of three cases and a review
of the literatures - Igaki H., Tokuuye K., Takeda T. et al. [H. Igaki, Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1,
Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan] - ACTA ONCOL. 2006
45/8 (1102-1107) - summ in ENGL
The treatment strategy for malignant liver tumors should be appropriately determined because post-treatment quality of life greatly
depends on the patients residual hepatic function. In this report,
we present three patients with malignant liver tumors treated by
proton beam therapy in whom pre- and post-therapeutic hepatic
functional reserves were evaluated sequentially for more than a
year by 99m Technetium-galactosyl human serum albumin (99m TcGSA) scintigraphy. All three patients exhibited the distinctive time
course of 99m Tc-GSA uptake efciency, which suggested a transient decline in the ratio of liver activity to heart and liver activity
at 15 minutes (LHL15) 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. This
change was not in parallel with that expected from a functioning
normal liver tissue volume. In a year after proton beam therapy,
LHL15 recovered nearly to the pre-treatment level in all three patients. Our observations may be related to the up-regulation of
receptor-mediated 99m Tc-GSA uptake during hepatic regeneration
after proton beam therapy. 2006 Taylor & Francis.
5.8. Urogenital system
570. Role of glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, in the renal
ischemia-reperfusion injury of rats - Kucuk H.F., Kaptanoglu L.,
Ozalp F. et al. [Dr. H.F. Kucuk, Petrol-is mh. Sh. Dursun Bakan
Sk., TR-34862 Kartal Istanbul, Turkey] - EUR. SURG. RES. 2006
38/5 (431-437) - summ in ENGL
Background/Aims: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious clinical situation which can cause serious morbidity and mortality. An
experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model was designed
to evaluate the role of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on renal function
and histology. Methods: 50 Wistar albino rats were used in our
study. Five groups were formed: (1) sham-control group; (2) acute
renal ischemia (ARI) group with placebo (0.9% NaCl) infusion;
(3) GTN infusion with a 75 g/kg/min dose prior to ARI was
administered; (4) GTN infusion with a 150 g/kg/min dose prior
to ARI was given, and nally (5) 150 g/kg/min GTN infusion
Section 23 vol 70.2

after the ARI period was applied. Serum BUN and creatinine
levels were measured for evaluation of renal function. T max-sec ,
glomerular ltration rate (GFR), and Tmax-min results following a
99m Tc-DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy were used. Histological
examination was performed on nephrectomy specimens. Results:
Groups 2 and 5 showed higher BUN, creatinine, and lower GFR
values than the other groups (p = 0.0001). There was no difference
in BUN, creatinine, and GFR levels between groups 2 and 5 (p =
0.971, p = 0.739, p = 0.393). Also the T max-sec values were higher
in groups 2 and 5 compared with the other groups (p = 0.0001). The
presence of tubular necrosis was different between groups and was
higher in groups 2 and 5 (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The application
of GTN, a nitric oxide donor, has caused signicant improvement
in renal function when applied prior to an experimentally designed
renal ischemia-reperfusion model. But administration of GTN had
no effect after occurrence of ischemia. Copyright 2006 S. Karger
AG.
571. The impact of IMRT and proton radiotherapy on secondary
cancer incidence - Schneider U., Lomax A., Pemler P. et al. [Dr. U.
Schneider, Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation
Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Triemli Hospital Z rich, 8063
u
Z rich, Switzerland] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11
u
(647-652) - summ in ENGL, GERM
Background and Purpose: There is concern about the increase
of radiation-induced malignancies with the application of modern
radiation treatment techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton radiotherapy. Therefore, X-ray scatter
and neutron radiation as well as the impact of the primary dose
distribution on secondary cancer incidence are analyzed. Material
and Methods: The organ equivalent dose (OED) concept with a
linear-exponential and a plateau dose-response curve was applied
to dose distributions of 30 patients who received radiation therapy
of prostate cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was
used in eleven patients, another eleven patients received IMRT with
6-MV photons, and eight patients were treated with spot-scanned
protons. The treatment plans were recalculated with 15-MV and
18-MV photons. Secondary cancer risk was estimated based on
the OED for the different treatment techniques. Results: A modest
increase of 15% radiation-induced cancer results from IMRT using
low energies (6 MV), compared to conventional four-eld planning
with 15-MV photons (plateau dose-response: 1%). The probability
to develop a secondary cancer increases with IMRT of higher energies by 20% and 60% for 15 MV and 18 MV, respectively (plateau
dose-response: 2% and 30%). The use of spot-scanned protons can
reduce secondary cancer incidence as much as 50% (independent
of dose-response). Conclusion: By including the primary dose
distribution into the analysis of radiation-induced cancer incidence,
the resulting increase in risk for secondary cancer using modern
treatment techniques such as IMRT is not as dramatic as expected
from earlier studies. By using 6-MV photons, only a moderate risk
increase is expected. Spot-scanned protons are the treatment of
choice in regard to secondary cancer incidence. Urban & Vogel.
572. Health-related quality of life after permanent interstitial
brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Correlation with postimplant CT scan parameters - Pinkawa M., Fischedick K., Piroth
M.D. et al. [Dr. M. Pinkawa, Klinik f r Strahlentherapie,
u
Universit tsklinikum Aachen, Pauwelsstrae 30, 52057 Aachen,
a
Germany] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (660-665) summ in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: To determine dosimetric risk factors for increased toxicity after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Patients and Methods: Quality of life questionnaires (Expanded
Prostate Cancer Index Composite) of 60 and 56 patients were analyzed after a median posttreatment time of 6 weeks (A - acute) and
16 months (L - late). The corresponding CT scans were performed
30 days after the implant. The prostate, rectal wall, and base of
seminal vesicles were contoured. Prostate volume, number of seeds
and needles as well as dosimetric parameters were correlated with
the morbidity scores. Results: For a prostate volume of 38
12 cm3 (mean standard deviation), 54 7 125 I sources (Rapid
Strands, activity of 22.6 3.0 MBq [0.61 0.08 mCi]) were
implanted using 20 6 needles. Improved late urinary function
scores resulted from a higher number of sources per cm3 ( 1.35).
Section 23 vol 70.2

A prostate D90 < 170 Gy (A)/< 185 Gy (L) and base of seminal
vesicle D10 < 190 Gy (A and L) were associated with higher urinary function scores. Late rectal function scores were signicantly
higher for patients with a prostate V200 < 50% and V150 < 75%.
Patients with a prostate volume < 40 cm3 reached better sexual
function scores (A and L). A higher number of needles per cm3 (
0.5) resulted in improved late urinary, bowel and sexual function
scores. Conclusion: Quality of life after a permanent implant can
be improved by using an adequate amount of sources and needles.
With an increasing number of seeds per cm3 , dose homogeneity is
improving. A prostate D90 < 170 Gy and a base of seminal vesicle
D10 < 190 Gy (as an indicator of the dose to the bladder neck and
urethral sphincter) can be recommended to maintain a satisfactory
urinary function. Urban & Vogel.
573. Transperineal permanent seed implantation of "low-risk"
prostate cancer: 5-Year-experiences in 118 patients - Block
T., Czempiel H. and Zimmermann F. [Dr. T. Block, Urologische
Praxis Vaterstetten, Bahnhofstrae 36, 85591 Vaterstetten, Germany] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (666-671) - summ
in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: To evaluate 5-year prostate-specic antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival of transperineal permanent seed implantation
(TPSI) in 118 patients with "low-risk" prostate cancer, that means
stage cT1c-T2a, Gleason Score < 7, and initial PSA value < 10
ng/ml. Patients and Methods: From 04/1999 to 06/2002, a total
of 118 patients underwent a mono-TPSI, using ultrasound-based
preplanning and intraoperative verication by both ultrasound and
conventional uoroscopy as well as postoperative CT planning. Patients were monitored during the 1st year in 3-month intervals, and
in 6-monthly intervals from then onward. Biochemical failure was
dened according to ASTRO criteria with three consecutive PSA
rises observed from a posttreatment nadir PSA value. The median
follow-up was 48.9 months (range: 37.0-80.2 months). 114 patients
were eligible, four patients were lost to follow-up. Results: For the
entire group, PSA relapse-free survival at 5 years was 94.7%, with
six patients (5.3%) having a PSA relapse between 8 and 20 months
after implantation. In the bNED patients (no biochemical evidence
of disease), PSA values were < 0.2 ng/ml in 82.5% (94/114 patients), < 0.5 ng/ml in 13.2% (15/114 patients), < 1.0 ng/ml in
2.6% (3/114 patients), and < 1.5 ng/ml in 1.7% (2/114 patients).
In summary, PSA values < 0.2 ng/ml, < 0.5 ng/ml and < 1.0
ng/ml occurred in 82.5%, 95.7% and 98.3%, respectively. Out of
the six patients with recurrent disease, three had a local tumor recurrence only, and three developed distant metastases. Conclusion:
In low-risk prostate cancer patients, TPSI with intraoperative ultrasound-based treatment planning and uoroscopy leads to excellent
local tumor control and PSA relapse-free survival. Urban &
Vogel.
574. 51Cr-EDTA measurements of the glomerular ltration rate
in patients with sickle cell anaemia and minor renal damage Barros F.B., Lima C.S.P., Santos A.O. et al. [Dr. C.D. Ramos, Rua
Murici 207, Bairro Alphaville, Campinas SP, 13098-315, Brazil] NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (959-962) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND: Creatinine clearance has been reported to be
inaccurate for the estimation of glomerular ltration rate (GFR) in
patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Inulin clearance, the reference method for GFR estimation, is impractical for routine use
in these patients, and Cr-EDTA measurements of the GFR have
been rarely reported in this disease. METHODS: In order to obtain
reference Cr-EDTA values in this disease, we studied 70 patients
(40 females; 13-59 years of age, mean: 31.6 years) with homozygous SCA, normal serum creatinine and urinary albumin excretion
<or=200 g min. All patients were submitted to single-injection
Cr-EDTA GFR, urinary albumin and haematocrit measurements.
Cr-EDTA clearances were calculated in different age groups (<20,
20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and>50 years). RESULTS: The mean GFR
( standard deviation) obtained for the 70 patients was 111.5 23.1
ml min. Analysis of variance for evaluation of the possible interaction effect between Cr-EDTA clearance and sex, age, urinary
albumin and haematocrit demonstrated patient age as the only factor
inuencing Cr-EDTA clearance (P<0.001). The Spearman correlation coefcient showed a signicant relationship between Cr-EDTA
clearance and patient age (r=-0.44, P=0.0001), but not between
111

Cr-EDTA and urinary albumin (r=-0.17, P=0.1546) or haematocrit


(r=0.079, P=0.5121). The group aged 20-29 years presented the
highest Cr-EDTA clearance mean value (126.7 20.4 ml min), with
a progressive reduction in the older groups. CONCLUSION: Young
adults with homozygous SCA, normal serum creatinine and microalbuminuria or normo-albuminuria present supranormal Cr-EDTA
GFR values. These values rapidly decrease after 30 years of age.
We did not nd association between urinary albumin and GFR in
these patients. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
575. An improved method for determining renal sufciency using volume of distribution and weight from bolus 99mTc-DTPA,
two blood sample, paediatric data - Wesolowski C.A., Babyn P.S.
and Puetter R.C. [Dr. C.A. Wesolowski, Nuclear Medicine, General
Hospital, HSC, 300 Prince Philip Drive, St. Johns, Nd. A1B 3V6,
Canada] - NUCL. MED. COMMUN. 2006 27/12 (963-970) - summ
in ENGL
OBJECTIVES: To nd an improved method of determining
renal sufciency by exploring power functions for estimating normal value, E(arg), single compartment glomerular ltration rate
(G1), rate constant ( ) and renal sufciency index, RSI= /E( )=G1/E(G1), using compartment volume (V), patient mass (W),
patient age (A), patient height (H), and sex (S). To present the best
estimator of normal, E(G1)=f(V, W). METHODS: One hundred and
thirty Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) combined
imaging and G1 studies in 97 children were screened by ndings
and history to obtain 44 normal studies of patients 1.46-18.5 years
of age with blood samples at 109 (90-214) and 152 (120-246)min. Normal studies were used to generate predictive formulae.
RESULTS: For power functions,(Equation is included in full-text
article.)the statistically acceptable formulae in descending order of
adjusted R were f(V, W), f(V,A), f(V,H), f(V), f(W,A,H), f( W),
f(H) and f(A). Relationships of the body surface area type, f(W,
H, S) and f(W, H), were statistically unwarranted. Kleibers law,
E(G1)/W, with E(G1)=6.9190W found here, allowed conrmation
of GFRinulin 0.87G1. The best estimator is f(V, W)=10.998V
W, and may relate to a volumetric measure of body habitus. To
verify methods, Monte Carlo simulation of the glomerular ltration
rate (GFR) and f(V, W) was performed and yielded less than 5%
precision error, 98% of the time. Normal RSI from f(V, W) had the
smallest standard deviation, 11.3%, no regression bias over a sixfold range on a Bland-Altman ratio plot, p=0.4, and good agreement
with clinical classication at 95% specicity (RSI>0.8589, Cohens
Kappa 0.70 0.062 (mean bootstrap standard error). CONCLUSIONS: The best RSI from f(V, W) is RSI=90.927 VW and should
detect mildly (14.1%) reduced renal sufciency. 2006 Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
576. Power Doppler sonographic evaluation of acute childhood
pyelonephritis - Basiratnia M., Noohi A.H., Lot M. and Alavi
M.S. [M. Basiratnia, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran]
- PEDIATR. NEPHROL. 2006 21/12 (1854-1857) - summ in ENGL
Urinary tract infection is common in children. The available gold
standard methods for diagnosis, Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid
(DMSA) scan and computed tomography (CT) are invasive and
expensive. This study was performed to assess the role of power
Doppler ultrasound (PDU) for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis
(APN) compared with Tc-99m DMSA scan. A prospective study
was conducted in 34 children with the mean age of 2.8 2.7 years
who were hospitalized with the rst episode of febrile urinary tract
infection. All children were examined in the rst 3 days of admission by PDU and Tc-99m DMSA scan. Patients with congenital
structural anomaly were excluded. Each kidney was divided into
three zones. The comparison between PDU and DMSA scan was
performed on the basis of patients and renal units. According to
the patients number, sensitivity, specicity, positive and negative
predictive values, and accuracy of PDU were 89%, 53%, 70%,
80%, and 74%, respectively, but based on the renal units, changed
to 66%, 81%, 46%, 91%, and 79%, respectively. Although PDU
has the potential for identifying APN in children, it is still soon to
replace DMSA scan. IPNA 2006.
577. Functional imaging in CT - Dawson P. [P. Dawson, Department of Imaging, UCL Hospitals, Euston Road, London, NW1
112

2BU, United Kingdom] - EUR. J. RADIOL. 2006 60/3 (331-340) summ in ENGL
Fast data acquisition imaging technologies such as modern computed tomography (CT) allow contrast agents to be used as tracers
and nuclear medicine methodology may be used to derive a variety
of functional/physiological information from dynamic CT. This article describes the theoretical basis and some practical applications
of this idea including the measurement of perfusion, capillary permeability, vascular volumes, renal function and tumour responses
to therapy. 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
578. Contrast agents for functional and cellular MRI of the
kidney - Grenier N., Pedersen M. and Hauger O. [N. Grenier, ERT
CNRS Imagerie Mol culaire et Fonctionnelle, Universit Victor
e
e
Segalen-Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France] - EUR. J. RADIOL. 2006
60/3 (341-352) - summ in ENGL
Low-molecular-weight gadolinium (Gd) chelates are glomerular
tracers but their role in evaluation of renal function with magnetic
resonance (MR) imaging is still marginal. Because of their small
size, they diffuse freely into the interstitium and the relationship
between measured signal intensity and concentration is complex.
New categories of contrast agents, such as large Gd-chelates or
iron oxide particules, with different pharmacokinetic and magnetic
properties have been developed. These large molecules could be
useful for both functional (quantication of perfusion, quantication of glomerular ltration rate, estimation of tubular function) and
cellular imaging (intrarenal phagocytosis in inammatory renal diseases). Continuous development of new contrast agents remains
worthwhile to get the best adequacy between the physiological phenomenon of interest and the pharmacokinetic of the agent. 2006
Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
See also: 615.

5.9. Endocrine system


579. [111 In]DOTATOC as a dosimetric substitute for kidney
dosimetry during [90 Y]DOTATOC therapy: Results and evaluation of a combined gamma camera/probe approach - Stahl
A., Schachoff S., Beer A. et al. [A. Stahl, Department of Nuclear
Medicine, Technische Universit t M nchen, Klinikum Rechts der
a u
Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany] - EUR. J.
NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1328-1336) - summ in
ENGL
Purpose: During [90 Y]DOTATOC therapy, for determination of
kidney doses a conventional approach using co-injected [111 In]DOTATOC was evaluated for validity, reliability and reproducibility as
well as for the inuence of methodological variations and bremsstrahlung. Biologically effective doses were estimated by calculating
the relative effectiveness (RE) of kidney doses. Methods: Fractionated [90 Y]DOTATOC therapy (n=20 patients, 3.1 0.7 GBq/therapy
cycle, 45 therapy cycles) included co-injection of 157 37 MBq
[111 In]DOTATOC and a nephroprotective infusion regimen. From
serial gamma camera/probe measurements, individual region of interest (ROI) sets were established and kidney doses were determined
according to MIRDOSE3 (corrected for individual kidney mass) by
use of three methodological variants: (1) correction for interfering
organs (liver/spleen) and background activity, (2) correction for
interfering organs alone and (3) no corrections. A phantom study
was performed with 111 In alone and with 111 In +90 Y to estimate
the inuence of 90 Y bremsstrahlung. Results: Mean kidney dose
(method 1, n=20 patients, 20 therapy cycles) was 1.51 0.60 Gy/GBq [90 Y]DOTATOC (1.41 0.48 Gy/GBq for n=20 patients, 45
therapy cycles). With partial correction (method 2) or no correction
(method 3) for interfering activity, kidney doses increased signicantly, to 2.71 1.26 Gy/GBq and 3.15 1.22 Gy/GBq, respectively.
The span of REs ranged from 1.02 to 1.24. Inter-observer variability
was as high as 32% ( 2SD). 90 Y bremsstrahlung accounted for a
4-11% underestimation of obtained target activity. Conclusion: The
obtained kidney doses are highly inuenced by methodological variations. Full correction for interfering activity clearly underestimates
kidney doses. By comparison, 90 Y bremsstrahlung and variability
Section 23 vol 70.2

in the relative effectiveness of kidney doses cause minor bias. Interobserver variability must be considered when interpreting kidney
doses. 2006 Springer-Verlag.
580. Metastatic Struma Ovarii: Late Presentation, Unusual
Features and Multiple Radioactive Iodine Treatments - Zekri
J.M., Manifold I.H. and Wadsley J.C. [J.M. Zekri, Shefeld Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Weston Park Hospital, Whitham Road,
Shefeld, S10 2SJ, United Kingdom] - CLIN. ONCOL. 2006 18/10
(768-772) - summ in ENGL
Metastatic malignant struma ovarii is rare and there is a lack of
agreement on the criteria of diagnosis and the lines of management.
Here we describe a patient with struma ovarii that was initially
diagnosed as benign and presented 10 years later with distant metastases. At this time, a pathological review of the initial lesion
found that it contained invasive well-differentiated follicular carcinoma. The case was associated with a number of unusual features
and challenging management issues, such as a delayed diagnosis
of recurrence, functioning metastases with treatment consequences,
tumour lysis-induced thyrotoxicosis and cerebrospinal uid rhinorrhea. The diagnosis and management of struma ovarii should be led
by an expert multidisciplinary team. Radioactive iodine should be
considered in the management of metastatic disease. 2006 The
Royal College of Radiologists.
581. Evil radioactivity: Subjective perception of radioactivity
in patients with thyroid disease prior to treatment with ra

dioiodine (Germ) - RADIOAKTIVITAT IST BOSE: SUBJEKTIVE KONZEPTE

VON RADIOAKTIVITAT BEI SCHILDDRUSENPATIENTEN VOR EINER MOGLu


ICHEN RADIOIODTHERAPIE - Freudenberg L.S., Beyer T., M ller S.P.

et al. [Dr. L.S. Freudenberg, Klinik f r Nuklearmedizin, Univeru


sit rsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstrae 55, 45122 Essen, Germany]
a
- NUKLEARMEDIZIN 2006 45/5 (229-234) - summ in ENGL,
GERM
Aim: We assess the perspective of patients with thyroid disease
towards radiation and radioactivity by means of a cultural-anthropological approach based on qualitative measures and quantitative
scores. From the interviews with the patients we evaluate as to how
much radioactivity is accepted as an abstract term or as a benet
within the medical context. Patients, methods: 68 patients with
autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (35 women, 33 men, 3281 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed
in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were
asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and
towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to
use a scoring system (1 = positive, 5 = negative) to quantify their
attitudes. Results: The responses of all patients towards radioactivity in general were heterogeneous with most responses reecting a
negative perception. Many patients expressed their associated fears
about atomic energy, malignant diseases and radioactive contamination. The scoring system reected a mostly negative opinion
base. However, patients became more positive once they assumed
an immediate benet of radioactivity for the treatment of their own
disease (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Knowing about signicant differences in patients perception about radioactivity in general or
in the clinical context may help to optimise and tailor the initial,
pre-therapeutical interview towards the patient. 2006 Schattauer
GmbH.
582. What is the best pre-therapeutic dosimetry for successful
radioiodine therapy of multifocal autonomy? - Gorthordt M.,
Rubner C., Bauhofer A. et al. [M. Gorthordt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center,
PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmergen, Netherlands] - NUKLEARMEDIZIN 2006 45/5 (206-212) - summ in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: Dose calculation for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of multifocal autonomies (MFA) is a problem as therapeutic outcome may
be worse than in other kinds of autonomies. We compared different
dosimetric concepts in our patients. Patients, methods: Data from
187 patients who had undergone RIT for MFA (Marinelli algorithm,
volumetric compromise) were included in the study. For calculation, either a standard or a measured half-life had been used and the
dosimetric compromise (150 Gy, total thyroid volume). Therapeutic
activities were calculated by 2 alternative concepts and compared to
therapeutic success achieved (concept of TcTUs-based calculation
Section 23 vol 70.2

of autonomous volume with 300 Gy and TcTUs-based adaptation of


target dose on total thyroid volume). Results: If a standard half-life
is used, therapeutic success was achieved in 90.2%(hypothyroidism
23, 1%, n=143). If a measured half-life was used the success
rate was 93.1% (13,6% hypothyroidism, n=44). These differences
were statistically not signicant, neither for all patients together
nor for subgroups eu-, hypo-, or hyperthyroid after therapy (ANOVA, all p > 0.05). The alternative dosimetric concepts would
have resulted either in signicantly lower organ doses (TcTUsbased calculation of autonomous volume; 80.76 80.6 Gy versus
125.6 46.3 Gy; p<0.0001) or in systematic over-treatment with
signicantly higher doses (TcTUs-adapted concept; 164.2 101.7
Gy versus 125.6 46.3 Gy; p=0.0097). Conclusions: TcTUs-based
determination of the autonomous volume should not be performed,
the TcTUs-based adaptation of the target dose will only increase the
rate of hypothyroidism. A standard half-life may be used in pretherapeutic dosimetry for RIT of MFA. If so, individual therapeutic
activities may be calculated based on thyroid size corrected to the
24h ITUs without using Marinellis algorithm.
583. Evaluation of the cell death pathway and apoptosisstunning effect relationship after low- and high-dose I-131
administrations in rat thyroid tissue - Turgut B., Babul A.,
Ozdemir O. and Erselcan T. [B. Turgut, Department of Nuclear
Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, School of Medicine, 58140, Sivas, Turkey] - CANCER BIOTHER. RADIOPHARM. 2006 21/4
(342-351) - summ in ENGL
Objectives: This study had two aims; (1) to describe the cell death
pathway (apoptosis or necrosis) induced by a low and high dose of
radioiodine (I-131) in rat thyroid tissue in in vivo conditions and
(2) to determine the role of apoptosis in the development of "stunning effect" in the thyroid tissue with low and high doses of I-131
application. Design: The experimental group consisted of 18 rats;
low and high I-131 doses with a 1-week interval were administered
to this group. At rst, low doses were injected intraperitoneally
(i.p.) (net injected dose was 51.54 8.6 Ci). After 1 week of
the low-dose injection, high doses were also injected (net injected
dose was 934.9 211.8 Ci). Thyroidal I-131 uptakes for both
low- and high-dose applications were calculated by using a gamma
camera after 24 hours of injections. Immediately after the uptake
calculation, thyroid tissues were resected. A control group of 10
rats was also included in the study; in this group, I-131 was not
administered. Thyroid tissues of this group rats were also resected.
DNA was extracted from thyroid tissues, and damage was examined
with the "DNA ladder by agaroz gel electrophoresis." Results: Thyroidal I-131 uptakes were calculated as 11.3% 3.6% and 9.8%
5.3% at the 24th hour after low- and high-dose I-131 applications,
respectively. When the low- and high-dose uptake values were compared for each rat; a signicant relationship was not found between
thyroidal uptakes and injected low and high doses of I-131. When
the chromosome images were examined, there was healthy DNA
appearance in 1 rat; in 4 rats, only necrotic hyperfragmentations
were observed; in 9 rats, both apoptotic specic fragmentations and
necrotic hyperfragmentations were observed; and in 4 rats, apoptosis, necrosis, and healthy DNA appearances were seen together.
In none of the rats, specic fragmentations concordant only with
apoptosis was found. When the thyroidal uptake alterations were
taken into consideration, signicant difference was not found between rst and second uptake calculations (p = 0.28). No signicant
relationship was also observed between thyroidal uptake alterations
and apoptosis-necrosis-healthy DNA ndings. Additionally, when
we take into consideration the DNA results of only 13 of the rats that
had reduced thyroidal uptake, a signicant relationship could also
not be observed between reduced uptake and apoptotic, necrotic,
or healthy tissue ndings. Interestingly, apoptotic and necrotic
tissue or only necrotic, tissue ndings were observed in the other
5 rats which had increased thyroidal uptake. Conclusions: Following I-131 administration, two types of cell death-both apoptosis
and necrosis ndings-have been observed in most of the rats. We
think that the decreased uptake values are because of the probable
stunning effect in thyroid tissue. We also investigated whether the
stunning effect is related to apoptosis. According to our results,
it can be concluded that the stunning effect is not related to tissue
damage, cell decrease, or cell death. Alternatively, we think that this
113

can be related to a radiation-induced reduction of iodine uptake/metabolism or a modied iodine transport mechanism. For further
in vivo studies, this experimental model using normal rat thyroid
tissue may be useful in investigating the cell death pathways induced
by I-131 and its probable roles in the development of the stunning
phenomenon. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
584. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufciently increases uptake and does not exacerbate
hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in graves disease - Kubota S., Ohye H., Yano G. et al. [Dr. S. Kubota, Kuma
Hospital, 8-2-35 Shimoyamate-Dori, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0011,
Japan] - ENDOCR. J. 2006 53/5 (603-607) - summ in ENGL
The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation
before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves
disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the
optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy
or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at
radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day
withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively
recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following
the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no signicant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level
measured on the rst day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was
signicantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no
signicant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1
year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results
indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in
that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In
order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period
before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such
as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe
that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients
undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine
therapy.
585. Frequent, aggressive behaviors of thyroid microcarcinomas in Korean patients - Lee J., Rhee Y., Lee S. et al. [Dr. S.-K.
Lim, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College
of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752,
South Korea] - ENDOCR. J. 2006 53/5 (627-632) - summ in ENGL
The incidence of thyroid microcarcinoma is rising due to the
frequent use and improvement of ne-needle aspiration biopsy and
ultrasonography. Since the recent update of the TNM (Tumor, Node, Metastasis) staging system for thyroid cancer, the importance
of lymph node metastasis became more prominent. In the present
study, we evaluated the prognostic factors and extension of thyroid
microcarcinomas in Korean patients. The clinical and pathological ndings in patients with thyroid microcarcinomas in a Korean
hospital from January through December 2004 were evaluated. A
total of 302 (50.2%) out of 601 cases of thyroid cancers were microcarcinomas. Evaluation of the histology revealed that nearly all
of the cases (300 of 302) were of the papillary type. Analyzing patients of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, 273 (91.0%) out of 300
patients of papillary microcarcinomas were women. Seventy-eight
(26.0%) cases contained multiple tumor masses ( 2), including 49
(16.3%) cases that were bilateral. There were 84 (28.0%) cases of
extrathyroidal extensions and 89 cases (29.7%) of lymph node metastasis, but no cases of distant metastases. Application of the new
staging system revealed 7 (2.3%) cases that changed from stage
III to stage IVA. Thyroid microcarcinomas were also associated
with poor prognostic factors and appear to exist at relatively higher
cancer stages. Therefore, it is important to treat them as early and
as vigorously as possible with extensive surgery, radioactive iodine
therapy, and thyroxine suppression.
586. Graves disease in the cervical thyroid and thyroglossal
duct remnant: Case report and review of literature - Buckingham H., Sauerwein T.J. and Golding A.C. [Dr. H. Buckingham,
Division of Endocrinology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 4881
Sugar Maple Drive, Dayton, OH 45433-5529, United States] - ENDOCR. PRACT. 2006 12/4 (401-405) - summ in ENGL
114

Objective: To describe a patient with a rare presentation of


Graves disease in the cervical thyroid and thyroglossal duct remnant. Methods: We present a detailed case report, including initial
manifestations, laboratory ndings, and radiologic evaluation of a
patient with Graves disease. A review of the relevant medical
literature is included. A search for articles in the MEDLINE database from 1966 to November 2003 was performed with use of the
following key words: thyroglossal duct remnant, thyroglossal duct
cyst, thyrotoxicosis, Graves disease, hyperthyroidism, and ectopic
thyroid tissue. The reference lists from the articles obtained from
the MEDLINE database were then reviewed for other pertinent articles. English abstracts of non-English articles were also reviewed.
Results: A 63-year-old woman presented with thyrotoxicosis. Examination of her neck was notable for a 3.5-cm soft, mobile midline
mass overlying the thyroid cartilage. She had no extrathyroidal
manifestations of Graves disease. The rest of the physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory studies revealed a thyrotropin
(thyroid-stimulating hormone) level of 0.01 IU/mL (normal range,
0.3 to 6.6) and free thyroxine level of 4.7 ng/dL (normal range, 0.6
to 1.5). An ultrasound study showed a normal-appearing thyroid
and an infrahyoidal neck mass (3.0 by 1.7 cm). A radioiodine (123 I)thyroid scan demonstrated diffuse homogeneous uptake throughout
the gland in conjunction with 66.6% uptake at 24 hours. In addition,
a large rounded area of increased activity slightly left of the midline
was noted. The left anterior oblique image showed that this area was
not continuous with the left upper pole. We thought that this nding
represented a hyperfunctioning thyroglossal duct cyst or remnant
tissue. Our patient subsequently underwent radioiodine therapy
with 15.56 mCi of 131 I. A review of the English-language literature
revealed only rare case reports of thyrotoxicosis in ectopic thyroid
tissue. Conclusion: Although the occurrence of thyrotoxicosis is
common, to the best of our knowledge this is only the second case
of Graves disease involving the thyroglossal duct remnant reported
in the English literature. 2006 AACE.
587. Radiation safety implications of 131I treatment in a patient
with Graves disease undergoing home hemodialysis - Simpson
J.B. and Godwin G.A. [J.B. Simpson, PO Box 670, Townsville,
QLD 4810, Australia] - HEALTH PHYS. 2006 91/6 (570-573) summ in ENGL
The radiation safety implications following the administration
of I for the treatment of Graves disease to a patient undergoing
home-based renal dialysis was investigated. External dose-rate
measurements from the patient revealed a peak value at around day
2, post administration. The effective half-life was determined as
6.5 d. From day 3, the clearance of I was observed to be fairly
constant and equated to 2.7% per day or 5.4% per dialysis session.
From this the biological half-life was determined as 15 d. Radiation
monitoring of the dialysis unit, disposables, and bed linen found
no detectable contamination. For the purpose of useful protection,
at a distance of 1 m from the patient, the average dose rate over
the effective treatment duration was determined to be 8 Sv h and
at 2 m distance, 2.6 Sv h. Thus, in order to keep below a level
of dose constraint of 3 mSv the total allowable time spent at 1 m
would be 375 h or 15 h per day. To comply with a 1-mSv constraint,
the average daily exposure allowable at 1 m would be 5 h per
day. Neither of these time limits would be difcult to achieve for
the majority of situations with fairly modest behavioral constraints.
Initial discharge concentration rates into the waste water system are
estimated at 200 MBq m and therefore might need to be considered
depending upon the regulatory environment. 2006 Health Physics
Society.
588. A new proposal for monitoring patients in nuclear medicine
- Willegaignon J., Guimar es M.I.C., Sapienza M.T. et al. [J. Wila
legaignon, Radiological Protection Service, Instituto de Pesquisas
Energ ticas e Nucleares, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu
e
Prestes, 2242, CEP 05508-000, S o Paulo, Brazil] - HEALTH PHYS.
a
2006 91/6 (624-629) - summ in ENGL
The measurement of exposure rates is fundamentally important
in the release of patients given radioactive materials and for keeping
the exposures of others as low as reasonable achievable. Similar
measurement methodologies have generally been used for point and
extended sources, but this approach may lead to methodological errors in calculating radiation dose estimates. In this study, nuclear
Section 23 vol 70.2

medicine patients who received high activities of NaI for therapy


were monitored using different measurement methodologies, and
the results showed that the usual measurement performed at 1.0 m
in front of the body resulted in a mean error of 40% between experimental and theoretical exposure rates. The best measurements were
obtained when performed at 2.0 m in front of the patients. With
this approach, the error was about 2% between experimental and
theoretical values. These ndings suggest a new methodology for
patients measurement in nuclear medicine and could be useful for
personal monitoring in cases of radiological emergencies involving
I ingestion. 2006 Health Physics Society.
589. Insular Thyroid Carcinoma: Collective Analysis of Clinicohistologic Prognostic Factors and Treatment Effect with
Radioiodine or Radiation Therapy - Lai H.-W., Lee C.-H., Chen
J.-Y. et al. [Dr. C.-H. Lee, Division of General Surgery, Department
of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan] - J.
AM. COLL. SURG. 2006 203/5 (715-722) - summ in ENGL
Background: Insular thyroid carcinoma is a distinctive clinicopathologic entity with aggressive behavior and frequent lethal
disease. But because it is rare, no single institute has sufcient
experience with the clinicopathologic features and treatment effect
of radioiodine. A literature review and collective analysis might
facilitate patient management. Methods: From January 1991 to
December 2005, 9 patients with insular thyroid carcinoma were
diagnosed in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Clinicopathologic
data were collected for analysis. The English literature about insular
carcinoma was searched in Medline. Patients with detailed descriptions of treatment and followup were enrolled. Clinicopathologic
features, rate of lymph node and distant metastasis, and prognostic
factors were analyzed. Results: Seventy-three of 486 patients collected from 23 articles with detailed description of treatment and
followup were combined with our 9 patients for analysis, making
a total of 82 patients in this article. The mean period of patient
followup was 84.5 months. There were 26 (31.7%) men and 56
(68.3%) women. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 49%,
and distant metastasis was 57.5%. Disease-specic death rate was
37.8%. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of insular carcinoma were
72.2% and 52%, respectively. Patient age older than 45 years (p =
0.0004) and distant metastasis (p < 0.0001) were poor prognostic
factors. Use of radioiodine therapy (p = 0.9789) and radiation
therapy (p = 0.2172) were not associated with prolonged survival.
Conclusions: Patients with insular thyroid carcinoma have unfavorable outcomes. Postoperative radioiodine therapy or radiotherapy
seemed not to be strongly associated with prolonged survival.
2006 American College of Surgeons.
590. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma - Recent
advances and current concepts - Manger W.M. [W.M. Manger,
National Hypertension Association, Inc., New York University
Medical Center, New York, NY, United States] - KIDNEY INT.
2006 70/SUPPL. 104 (S30-S35) - summ in ENGL
Pheochromocytoma is a rare but extremely treacherous neuroendocrine tumor, usually occurring in the adrenals but sometimes
elsewhere in the abdomen, pelvis, chest, neck, and head. It causes
manifestations by secreting catecholamines into the circulation.
Tragically, up to 50% of pheochromocytomas are discovered at
autopsy, mainly because this tumor was not considered. Clinicians
must think of pheochromocytoma whenever any manifestations suggesting hypercatecholaminemia occur. Manifestations can mimic
many other diseases, but manifestations without sustained or paroxysmal hypertension are rarely due to pheochromocytoma. However,
familial pheochromocytoma, which comprises about 30% of tumors, may rarely be asymptomatic and cause no hypertension.
Biochemical testing can almost always establish the presence or absence of a pheochromocytoma. Tumor localization with magnetic
resonance imaging, computed tomography, or 131 I or 123 I-MIBG
is nearly always possible. Surgical removal is usually curative;
chemotherapy and radiotherapy are palliative for malignant pheochromocytoma. 2006 International Society of Nephrology.
591. Multimodality imaging of malignant pheochromocytoma
- Esfandiari N.H., Shulkin B.L., Bui C. and Jaffe C.A. [Dr. B.L.
Shulkin, Division of Nuclear Medicine, St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital, MS# 752, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN
Section 23 vol 70.2

38105, United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (822-825) summ in ENGL
Pheochromocytomas offer the opportunity to explore multiple pathophysiological mechanisms through functional imaging.
MIBG scintigraphy and PET scanning with tracers of the sympathetic nervous system are based on uptake of catecholamines and
catecholamine-like compounds by hNET, the human norepinephrine
transporter. In-111 pentetreotide scanning involves the imaging of
somatostatin receptors on the cellular surface of tissues. FDG PET
scanning examines the transport and incorporation of FDG into
cells. We present a patient with malignant pheochromocytoma who
underwent multitracer imaging to characterize the tumor and probe
its pathophysiology to direct a therapeutic approach. This case underscores the inherent difculties in the diagnosis and localization of
malignant pheochromocytomas. Multiple approaches to functional
and anatomic imaging may be required to fully delineate the extent
of disease and similarly to direct radionuclide-based therapy.
2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
592. Radioactive iodine in thyroid medicine - How it started in
Sweden and some of todays challenges - Mattsson S., Johansson
L., J nsson H. and Nosslin B. [S. Mattsson, Department of Radiation
o
Physics, Malm University Hospital, SE-20502, Malm , Sweden]
o
o
- ACTA ONCOL. 2006 45/8 (1031-1036) - summ in ENGL
In Sweden, radioactive iodine for thyroid diagnostics and therapy was introduced by Jan Waldenstr m (1906-1996) and Bengt
o
Skanse (1918-1963). The paper describes the start of the clinical
use of radioiodine, the various iodine isotopes available, measurement techniques and dosimetry. There are still problems to solve
in relation to an optimal clinical use of radioiodine. One of the
remaining challenges is to get consensus about the goal of the treatment of hyperthyreosis, as well as about a method for individual
absorbed dose calculations. Careful dose estimates will prevent
unnecessary radiation exposure and constitute a base for a future
optimised radioiodine therapy. For the dose calculation, it is important to understand if there is any clinically signicant temporary
reduction in the ability of thyroid tissue to trap or retain 131 I-iodide
following prior administration of a diagnostic activity of 131 I-iodide
(stunning of the thyroid). This may be of special concern in connection with treatment of thyroid cancer and its metastases. Finally,
the production capacity, availability and delivery of 123 I have to
be improved to increase clinical access to this radionuclide, which
is optimal for diagnostic imaging and which gives lower absorbed
dose and therefore also less risk for thyroid stunning than 131 I.
2006 Taylor & Francis.
593. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease Berg G. [G. Berg, Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-413 45 G teborg, Sweden] - ACTA ONCOL. 2006
o
45/8 (1041-1045) - summ in ENGL
Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half
a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is
hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which
radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable
and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment.
Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to
achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the
iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the
thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It
is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant
human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of
the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally,
stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive
iodine - should be avoided. 2006 Taylor & Francis.
594. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy Karlsson F.A. [F.A. Karlsson, Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital,
SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden] - ACTA ONCOL. 2006 45/8 (10461050) - summ in ENGL
Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most
patients with Graves disease. In few cases, a severe form of the
condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of
115

the eye problems has been inuenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly
recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the
development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of
a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in
our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration
following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy,
are also presented. 2006 Taylor & Francis.
595. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The
possibility of effect-amplication with recombinant human TSH
(rhTSH) - Bonnema S.J., Nielsen V.E. and Heged s L. [S.J.
u
Bonnema, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense
University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark] - ACTA ONCOL. 2006 45/8 (1051-1058) - summ in ENGL
There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign
non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used,
but there is poor evidence of its efcacy, and it may have serious
adverse effects on health. Surgery is rst choice in large goitres or
if malignancy is suspected. 131 I therapy results in a one-year goitre
reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a
high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size.
The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufcient
thyroid 131 I uptake is mandatory for 131 I therapy to be feasible and
pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases
this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose
by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid
131 I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to
allow a reduction of the 131 I activity while still achieving a mean
goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A signicantly
lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an
unchanged 131 I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre
reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher
rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis.
Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons,
that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of
35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible
patients during rhTSH-augmented 131 I therapy. Thus, this concept
still needs a closer evaluation before routine use. 2006 Taylor &
Francis.

R.M., Van Den Bosch M.A.A.J., El Ouamari M. et al. [Dr. M.A.A.J.


Van Den Bosch, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands] J. ULTRASOUND MED. 2006 25/10 (1347-1351) - summ in ENGL
Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), rst described
in 1986, is a benign breast lesion consisting of complex, anastomosing, slitlike pseudovascular spaces, which are either acellular
or lined by slender, spindle-shaped cells. The exact etiology of
PASH is unknown. It usually presents as a breast mass, affecting
women in their reproductive years. Pseudoangiomatous stromal
hyperplasia has been reported in at least 25% of cases of gynecomastia. Although PASH is a benign lesion, it has a propensity for
growth over time and local recurrence after excision. Several smallscale studies already described the mammographic and gray scale
ultrasonographic ndings of PASH. To our knowledge, the appearance of PASH on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of
the breast has never been described before. In past years, CEUS
has been used increasingly in clinical practice to characterize indeterminate breast lesions. In CEUS, a contrast agent consisting of
a suspension of microbubbles is used to increase the blood echogenicity and to improve detection of slow and low-volume blood
ow in microvessels (<5 m). Because malignant breast tumors
display neoangiogenesis that can be depicted by the contrast agent,
it is believed that CEUS can be used to characterize breast masses
and distinguish benign from malignant lesions. In this report, we
describe the case of an elderly male patient with gynecomastia in
whom conventional mammography and gray scale ultrasonography
revealed a solid tumor in the left breast that was suggestive of malignancy. Additional workup of the lesion included CEUS of the breast
with SonoVue (Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) microbubbles to analyze
tumor vascularization. On the basis of the CEUS ndings, the
lesion was down-staged to a benign breast lesion, probably a PASH.
After ultrasonographically guided biopsy of the lesion, histologic
examination of the tissue conrmed the diagnosis. We describe
the imaging characteristics of PASH on CEUS and provide an indepth review of the literature. 2006 by the American Institute of
Ultrasound in Medicine.

596. The inuence of wire localisation for non-palpable breast


lesions on visualisation of the sentinel node - Jansen J.E., Bekker
J., De Haas M.J. et al. [J.M.H. De Klerk, Department of Nuclear
Medicine and Radiology, Meander Medical Center, Utrechtseweg
160, 3818 ES, Amersfoort, Netherlands] - EUR. J. NUCL. MED.
MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1296-1300) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: In our clinic, patients with occult breast lesions are
treated with a sentinel node biopsy combined with wire-guided
tumour excision. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the inuence of the sequence of wire localisation and sentinel
node procedure on visualisation of the sentinel node. Methods: A
total of 136 patients had a wire-guided tumour excision combined
with a sentinel node procedure. Sixty-six patients had guide wire
localisation prior to the sentinel node procedure. Seventy patients
had sentinel node visualisation before insertion of the guide wire.
Results: The sentinel node was visualised in 41 (62%) of the patients
who rst underwent guide wire localisation. In the group of patients
who underwent visualisation of the sentinel node before placement
of the guide wire, the sentinel node was visualised in 62 (89%). This
is a signicant difference in visualisation (p<0.001). Conclusion:
This study shows that guide wire localisation prior to the sentinel
node procedure negatively inuences visualisation of the sentinel
node. 2006 Springer-Verlag.

598. Standardized uptake values of normal breast tissue with 2deoxy-2-[F-18]uoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography:
Variations with age, breast density, and menopausal status - Kumar R., Chauhan A., Zhuang H. et al. [Dr. R. Kumar, Department
of Nuclear Medicine, All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New
Delhi 110029, India] - MOL. IMAGING BIOL. 2006 8/6 (355-362) summ in ENGL
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effect of breast
density, age, and menopausal status on the 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]uoroD-glucose (FDG) uptake in normal breast tissue by quantitative
standardized uptake values (SUV). Methods: A total of 96 patients (premenopausal 54; postmenopausal 42) with histologically
proven unilateral breast cancer who underwent FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) scans for staging were included in this
study. The median age was 52 11 years (range 32-79 years). Fifty-nine patients had grade III or IV mammographic density
(dense breast), whereas 37 patients had grade I or II breast density
(nondense) according to the ACR Lexicon criteria. In the present
study, we analyzed maximum and average SUVs for contralateral
normal breast. Results: Maximum and average SUVs for normal
dense breasts were 1.02 0.30 and 0.84 0.27, respectively. Similar values for the nondense breasts were 0.66 0.24 and 0.53 0.23,
respectively. Both maximum and average SUVs of dense breasts
were signicantly higher than those of nondense breasts (p<0.001).
There was no signicant difference in SUVs of nipple in patients
with dense and nondense breasts. There was no signicant effect
of age and menopausal status on SUVs of normal breast. However, there were trends of negative relationship, i.e., decreasing
SUVs with increasing age. Conclusion: There was a signicant
difference in SUVs between the dense and nondense normal breast.
However, the maximum SUVs in the dense breasts were well below
the threshold of 2.5, a widely used cutoff value for malignancy.
Menopausal status and age do not signicantly affect the uptake of
FDG. Academy of Molecular Imaging 2006.

597. Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography reveals an unusual breast tumor in a male patient with gynecomastia - Kwee

599. Usefulness of scintimammography as an adjunct to mammography and ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast diseases -

See also: 605, 607.


5.10. Breast

116

Section 23 vol 70.2

Gupta R., Collier D., Abdeen S. et al. [Dr. R. Gupta, Department


of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box
24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait] - AUSTRALAS. RADIOL. 2006 50/6
(539-542) - summ in ENGL
This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic efcacy
of 99m technetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography
(SM) and combined use of mammography and ultrasound in the
detection of the breast lesions in the symptomatic breast. Histopathological ndings were the gold standard. Eighty patients with
symptomatic breasts underwent mammography and/or ultrasound
breast followed by SM. In 25 patients there were 27 lesions that
were malignant and 55 patients had 65 lesions that were benign.
Sensitivity, specicity, positive predictive value, negative predictive
value and accuracy of SM were found to be 92, 72, 58, 96 and 78%,
respectively, as compared with the combined use of mammography
and ultrasound, which showed these parameters to be 89, 94, 86,
95 and 92%, respectively. In this study, SM showed slightly better
sensitivity than combined mammography and ultrasound, whereas
the specicity was clearly shown as higher in the latter. 2006
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
600. Usefulness of scintimammography with Tc-99m MIBI in
clinical practice - Filippi L., Pulcini A., Remediani S. et al. [Dr.
G. De Vincentis, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Viale Regina
Elena, 324, 00161 Rome, Italy] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12
(761-763) - summ in ENGL
Radiographic mammography (MM) is routinely used to diagnose
breast cancer. MM has a number of well-known limitations, especially in cases of a dense or dysplastic breast. Scintimammography
(SM) with Tc-99m MIBI has been successfully used as a useful
complement to MM. The authors report a case of a 57-year-old
woman with MM with tiny calcications in the left breast, which
were classied by the radiologist as probably benign lesions. SM
with Tc-99m MIBI showed a focal area of increased uptake in the
upper outer quadrant of the left breast. On the basis of SM results,
an excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination
revealed inltrating ductal carcinoma. 2006 Lippincott Williams
& Wilkins, Inc.
601. The use of periareolar intradermal Tc-99m tin colloid and
peritumoral intraparenchymal isosulfan blue dye injections for
determination of the sentinel lymph node - Argon A.M., Duygun
U., Acar E. et al. [Dr. A.M. Argon, Ege University Medical Faculty,
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey] - CLIN.
NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (795-800) - summ in ENGL
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the
use of lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye, and gamma probe detection
methods for determination of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) using both periareolar intradermal injection of Tc-99m tin colloid
and peritumoral intraparenchymal injection of isosulfan blue dye.
METHODS: One hundred patients with T1-2 breast cancer and clinically negative nodes were enrolled in the present study. The study
was composed of 2 groups. Backup axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was mandatory in group 1 (20 patients) regardless of
their lymph node status. In group 2 (80 patients), complete ALND
was performed when intraoperative frozen section analysis of SLN
revealed metastases. Otherwise, only SLN biopsy was performed
without ALND. One day before surgery, Tc-99m tin colloid was injected at 4 periareolar sites intradermally. Lymphoscintigraphy was
performed 1 to 2 hours after injection of the radiocolloid. Twenty
minutes before surgery, isosulfan blue dye was injected into parenchyma surrounding the tumor or the biopsy cavity. RESULTS: The
detection rates of SLN and false-negative rate of lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye, and gamma probe detection were 85%, 95% 100%,
and 0% in group 1, 91%, 87%, and 95% in group 2, respectively.
Detection rate by the combination of blue dye and radio tracer was
98%. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of our study, we
conclude that perioareolar intradermal injection of Tc-99m tin colloid combined with peritumoral intraparenchymal injection of blue
dye is an accurate and easy method of locating the sentinel node with
very high detection rates. It is recommended that the combination
of all methods such as lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye, and gamma
probe application will increase the success rate of SLN detection in
Section 23 vol 70.2

patients with breast cancer. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,


Inc.
602. Incidental detection of previously undiagnosed primary
breast carcinoma with a gallium-67 scan performed for evaluation of occult infection - Punch G.E., Burtis M.T. and Brown
J.M. [Dr. J.M. Brown, Department of Radiology, Tripler Army
Medical Center, 1 Jarrett White Road, Honolulu, HI 96859-5000,
United States] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (817-819) - summ
in ENGL
A 63-year-old female patient with a recent left posterior cerebral artery infarction and pyelonephritis presented with persistent
fevers despite adequate intravenous antibiotic therapy. Whole-body
gallium-67 scintigraphy was performed to evaluate for occult infection. Tracer accumulated bilaterally in the kidneys consistent with
the previously diagnosed pyelonephritis. Relatively intense uptake
was also noted in the area of a known occipitoparietal infarct. Incidentally noted was an abnormal focus of increased tracer uptake in
the retroareolar region of the right breast. Subsequent guided core
biopsy of the right breast mass demonstrated a previously undiagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma. 2006 Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Inc.
603. F-18 FDG PET scan ndings in a case of carcinoma of the
breast with a rare site of metastases to the gingival region Malhotra G., Nair N. and Awasare S. [Dr. G. Malhotra, Radiation
Medicine Centre (BARC), Tata Memorial Hospital, TMC Annexe
Bldg., Jerbaiwadia Road, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400012, India] - CLIN. NUCL. MED. 2006 31/12 (820-821) - summ in ENGL
Malignant tumors of the breast have an inherent potential to metastasize more often to the regional lymph nodes. It is rare to nd
a metastasis to the oral region from a primary in the breast, but
when this does occur, it usually involves the jawbones rather than
the soft tissues. A 33-year-old premenopausal woman, a diagnosed
case of locally advanced right breast carcinoma, underwent right
modied radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy as per the
institutional protocol. She presented after 2 years with an exophytic
growth in the upper alveolar region of the oral cavity. Biopsy
indicated gingival metastasis from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the breast. She was referred for F-18 FDG PET scan
to evaluate the disease status before planning radiotherapy to the
gingival metastasis. F-18 FDG PET scan was done after intravenous
injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of tracer. Whole-body PET images
were reconstructed in iterative algorithm (OSEM). Whole-body F18 FDG PET scan showed hypermetabolic foci in the midmaxillary
region (SUV max: 6.5), upper end of the right humerus, a large hypermetabolic area in the upper zone of the right lung with contiguous
hilar node involvement on the right side of the lung, and an area
of intense hypermetabolic activity in the left acetabular and ischial
region. The present case demonstrates a rare site of metastasis in
the oral region from carcinoma of the breast. 2006 Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
604. The role of FDG-PET/CT in suspected recurrence of breast
cancer - Radan L., Ben-Haim S., Bar-Shalom R. et al. [Dr. S. BenHaim, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London
Hospitals NHS Trust, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, United
Kingdom] - CANCER 2006 107/11 (2545-2551) - summ in ENGL
BACKGROUND. Early diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer is
crucial to selection of the most appropriate therapy. The current
study evaluated the role of FDG-PET/CT in the assessment of
suspected recurrent breast cancer in patients who presented with
elevated serum tumor markers. METHODS. Forty-seven consecutive FDG-PET/CT studies of 46 women (aged 32-79 years; mean,
59.9 years) with a history of breast cancer presented with elevated
serum tumor markers 1-21 years (mean = 6.2 years) after their initial
diagnosis and were retrospectively evaluated. PET/CT results were
conrmed by pathology (n = 11), further imaging, and follow-up
(mean = 17.2 months; n = 36). Changes in further management
based on PET/CT were recorded. RESULTS. Thirty (65%) patients
had tumor recurrence, and 16 (35%) patients showed no further
evidence of disease. Thirty-one patients had 32 abnormal PET/CT
studies, and 15 patients had normal studies with an overall sensitivity, specicity, and accuracy of 90%, 71%, and 83%, respectively.
In 37 patients, PET/CT was compared with contrast-enhanced CT
117

and had a higher sensitivity (85% vs 70%), specicity (76% vs


47%), and accuracy (81% vs 59%). PET/CT had an impact on
the management of 24 (51%) patients. Of these, chemotherapy
or radiotherapy was started in 16 patients, treatment was modied
in 2 patients, and 6 patients were referred to biopsy, followed by
referral to surgery for 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS. In patients
with breast cancer and rising tumor markers, FDG-PET/ CT had
high performance indices and was superior to CT for diagnosis of
tumor recurrence, which led to changes in the subsequent clinical
management of 51% of these patients. 2006 American Cancer
Society.

respectively. There was no vessel thrombosis during antiplatelet therapy. Angiographic/clinical follow-up rate was 84%/100%.
MACE rate was 17.6% in the native coronary artery group and
38.1% in the CABG group (p<0.03). Binary restenosis rate was
22.5% and 55.6% (p<0.01), and late loss was 0.38 0.72 mm and
1.33 1.11 mm (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions: We conclude that intracoronary -brachytherapy with a liquid 188 Re-lled
balloon using 22.5 Gy at a tissue depth of 0.5 mm in restenotic
lesions is safe. It is associated with a low binary restenosis rate,
resulting in a low occurrence rate of MACE within 12 months in
restenotic lesions in native coronary arteries but not in vein grafts.
2006 Springer-Verlag.

6. ADVERSE REACTIONS

607. Comparison of [177 Lu-DOTA0 ,Tyr3 ]octreotate and [177 LuDOTA0 ,Tyr3 ]octreotide: Which peptide is preferable for
PRRT? - Esser J.P., Krenning E.P., Teunissen J.J.M. et al. [J.P.
Esser, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente,
Haaksbergerstraat 55, 7513 ER Enschede, Netherlands] - EUR. J.
NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1346-1351) - summ in
ENGL
Purpose: Patients with somatostatin receptor subtype 2-positive
metastasised neuroendocrine tumours can be treated with [177 LuDOTA0 ,Tyr3 ]octreotate. Some use octreotide as the peptide for
peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). We compared in
seven patients [177 Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3 ]octreotide ( 177 Lu-DOTATOC)and [177 Lu-DOTA0,Tyr 3 ]octreotate (177 Lu-DOTATATE), to see
which peptide should be preferred for PRRT with 177 Lu. Methods: In the same patients, 3,700 MBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC and 3,700
MBq 177 Lu-DOTATATE was administered in separate therapy sessions. Amino acids were co-administered. Whole-body scanning
was performed on days 1, 4 and 7 post therapy. Blood and urine
samples were collected. We calculated residence times for tumours,
spleen and kidneys. Results: All patients had longer residence
times in spleen, kidneys and tumours after use of 177 Lu-DOTATATE
(p=0.016 in each case). Comparing 177 Lu-DOTATATE with 177 LuDOTATOC, the mean residence time ratio was 2.1 for tumour, 1.5
for spleen and 1.4 for kidneys. Dose-limiting factors for PRRT
are bone marrow and/or kidney dose. Although the residence time
for kidneys was longer when using 177 Lu-DOTATATE, the mean
administered dose to tumours would still be advantageous by a
factor of 1.5, assuming a xed maximum kidney dose is reached.
Plasma radioactivity after 177 Lu-DOTATATE was comparable to
that after 177 Lu- DOTATOC. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was
comparable during the rst 6 h; thereafter there was a signicant
advantage for 177 Lu-DOTATOC. Conclusion: 177 Lu-DOTATATE
had a longer tumour residence time than 177 Lu-DOTATOC. Despite
a longer residence time in kidneys after 177 Lu-DOTATATE, tumour
dose will always be higher. Therefore, we conclude that the better
peptide for PRRT is octreotate. 2006 Springer-Verlag.

605. Improved tumour detection by gastrin receptor scintigraphy in patients with metastasised medullary thyroid carcinoma
- Gotthardt M., B h M.P., Beuter D. et al. [M. Gotthardt, Departe e
ment of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical
Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands] - EUR. J.
NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1273-1279) - summ in
ENGL
Purpose: Radiopeptide imaging is a valuable imaging method in
the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET). To
determine the clinical performance of gastrin receptor scintigraphy
(GRS), it was compared with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
(SRS), computed tomography (CT) and 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with metastasised/recurrent
medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Methods: Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent imaging with GRS, SRS (19 patients),
CT and PET (26 patients). GRS and SRS were compared with
respect to tumour detection and uptake. CT, PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US) and follow-up were used for
verication of ndings. In addition, GRS, CT and PET were directly
compared with each other to determine which method performs best.
Results: Nineteen patients underwent both GRS and SRS. Among
these, GRS showed a tumour detection rate of 94.2% as compared
to 40.7% for SRS [mean number of tumour sites ( SD) and 95%
condence intervals (CI): GRS 4.3 3.1/2.8-5.7, SRS 1.8 1.6/1.12.6]. In 26 patients, GRS, CT and PET were compared. Here, GRS
showed a tumour detection rate of 87.3% (CT 76.1%, PET 67.2%;
mean number of tumour sites and 95% CI: GRS 4.5 4.0/2.9-6.1,
CT 3.9 3.5/2.5-5.3, PET 3.5 3.3/2.1-4.8). If GRS and CT were
combined, they were able to detect 96.7% of areas of tumour involvement. Conclusion: GRS had a higher tumour detection rate
than SRS and PET in our study. GRS in combination with CT
was most effective in the detection of metastatic MTC. 2006
Springer-Verlag.
606. Intracoronary -brachytherapy using a rhenium-188 lled
balloon catheter in restenotic lesions of native coronary arteries
and venous bypass grafts - W hrle J., Krause B.J., Nusser T. et al.
o
[J. W hrle, Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm,
o
Robert-Koch-Strasse-8, 89081 Ulm, Germany] - EUR. J. NUCL.
MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 33/11 (1314-1320) - summ in ENGL
Purpose: We have previously demonstrated the efcacy of intracoronary -brachytherapy using a liquid 188 Re-lled balloon in a
randomised trial including de novo lesions. Percutaneous coronary
interventions in restenotic lesions and in stenoses of venous bypass
grafts are characterised by a high recurrence rate for restenosis and
re-interventions. Against this background, we wanted to assess
the impact of intracoronary -brachytherapy using a liquid 188 Relled balloon in restenotic lesions in native coronary arteries and
venous bypass grafts. Methods: In 243 patients, -brachytherapy
with 22.5 Gy was applied at a tissue depth of 0.5 mm. Patients
were followed up angiographically after 6 months and clinically
for 12 months. The primary clinical endpoint was the incidence of
MACE (death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularisation). Secondary angiographic endpoints were late loss and binary
restenosis rate in the total segment. Results: All irradiation procedures were successfully performed. A total of 222 lesions were in
native coronary arteries; 21 were bypass lesions. Mean irradiation
length was 41.6 17.3 mm (range 20-150 mm) in native coronary
arteries and 48.1 33.9 mm (range 30-180 mm) in bypass lesions;
the reference diameter was 2.57 0.52 mm and 2.83 0.76 mm,
118

608. New radiopharmaceuticals for imaging rheumatoid arthritis - Chianelli M., DAlessandria C., Conti F. et al. [Prof. A.
Signore, Departement de Medicina Nucleare, University of La Sapienza, Ospedale S. Andrea, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Roma,
Italy] - Q. J. NUCL. MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (217-225) summ in ENGL
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an incapacitating chronic inammatory disease of the joints that, because of frequent relapses, requires
life-long treatment. In patients affected with RA an important treatment objective is to achieve specic immune suppression in order
to extinguish the immune process and arrest the disease, thus preventing or delaying complications and avoiding disease recurrence.
The side effects of anti-inammatory drugs given to improve the
quality of life of these patients can be reduced with the use of
specic immune therapies that block, as selectively as possible, the
pathologic mechanism responsible for the disease. New therapeutic
options for specic, targeted therapies for treating RA are being
developed, and trials to assess the efcacy and safety of these approaches are underway. However, these therapies rely primarily
on clinical assessment to evaluate treatment efcacy. It would be
useful, therefore, to have an objective and reliable method that
directly highlights the immune processes underlying the disease.
Currently available radiopharmaceuticals for imaging RA, with a
special emphasis on recently developed agents and their use in therapy decision-making and follow-up are the focus of this articles.
Section 23 vol 70.2

609. Receptor targeting agents for imaging infammatin/infection: Where are we now?
- Signore A., Chianelli M.,
DAlessandria C. and Annovazzi A. [Prof. A. Signore, Departemente de Medicina Nucleare, University La Sapienza, Ospedale S.
Andrea, Via Di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Roma, Italy] - Q. J. NUCL.
MED. MOL. IMAGING 2006 50/3 (236-242) - summ in ENGL
Over the past 20 years, radiopharmaceutical research has brought
to market a wide variety of drugs that aid in the management of
infection and inammation. Finding the best clinical application
for existing radiopharmaceuticals can be a challenging task, as
clinicians now have to choose from an array of many different
radiopharmaceuticals, each suited to identify a specic type of
inammation. With this review, we describe the features of receptor-targeting agents and present the main advantages and limitations
to their application in the diagnosis of inammations and infection.
The receptor-specic agents described here include peptides and
antibodies as well as radiolabeled antibodies employed for the specic targeting of neutrophils, bacteria, lymphocytes, and molecules
involved in inammatory processes. Because these agents bind to
specic receptors, they allow the mapping of receptor expression
in vivo. Such mapping represents the future of nuclear medicine
imaging, as it aids in diagnosing the type of inammation, in therapy
decision-making, in selecting suitable candidates for therapy, and
in evaluating treatment efcacy.
610. Radiotherapy of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Results and implications of a national patterns-of-care study Olschewski T. and Seegenschmiedt M.H. [Dr. T. Olschewski, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Alfried Krupp
Krankenhaus, Alfried-Krupp-Strae 21, 45117 Essen, Germany]
- STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006 182/11 (629-634) - summ in
ENGL, GERM
Purpose: This patterns-of-care study was performed to dene the
current clinical experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans cell
histiocytosis in adults in Germany and to dene open questions
resulting from this study. Material and Methods: A standardized
questionnaire was sent to 198 German radiotherapy institutions.
Data about patient characteristics, stage of disease, practice and
fractionation of radiotherapy, outcome of therapy, etc. were systematically evaluated. 123 of 198 institutions answered the complete
questionnaire (62.1%). Results: Only 23 of the 123 institutions
(18.7%) reported experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans cell
histiocytosis of adults. 18 institutions with 98 patients were evaluable. The majority of patients (72 of 98) was treated on a linear
accelerator. The median single dose of radiotherapy was 2 Gy,
while the median total dose was 24 Gy. 81 of 89 evaluable patients
(91%) reached a local control of the treated lesion(s), 69 of those had
a complete remission. Eight of 89 patients (9%) developed an ineld recurrence. 87.8% of patients experienced no acute and 97% of
patients no late side effects of radiotherapy. Conclusion: Clinical
experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in
adults in Germany is still very limited. Nevertheless, the clinical
results - with high remission and local control rates - conrm the
effectiveness of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of
this disease. Due to the small number of patients in this study
despite higher incidence rates, the knowledge of this disease has to
be multiplied in Germany. Future patients should be systematically
included into a prospective radiotherapy registry. Urban & Vogel.
611. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in the management of benign cavernous sinus meningiomas: Long-term
experience and review of the literature - Milker-Zabel S., ZabelDu Bois A., Huber P. et al. [Dr. S. Milker-Zabel, Department
of Radiation Oncology, Radiotherapy, University of Heidelberg,
69120 Heidelberg, Germany] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006
182/11 (635-640) - summ in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: To analyze own long-term results with fractionated
stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign meningiomas of the cavernous sinus and to review the literature on these rare
lesions. Patients and Methods: 57 patients were treated with FSRT
for benign meningiomas of the cavernous sinus between 01/1990
and 12/2003 at the authors institution. Histology was WHO grade
I in 28/57 lesions, and undetermined in 29/57 lesions. 29 patients
received radiotherapy as primary treatment, ten following surgery,
and 18 patients were irradiated for recurrent disease. Median target
Section 23 vol 70.2

volume was 35.2 cm3 . Median total dose was 57.6 Gy with 1.8
Gy per fraction. 51/57 patients showed clinical symptoms before
radiotherapy like reduced vision (n = 19), diplopia (n = 25), or
trigeminal hyp-/dysesthesia (n = 17). Results: Median follow-up
period was 6.5 years. 50/57 patients were followed for > 36 months.
Overall local tumor control was 100%. 39/57 patients had stable
disease based on CT/MRI, while 18/57 had a partial remission of
tumor volume. Overall survival for patients with WHO grade I
meningiomas was 95.5% after 5 and 10 years. Two patients died
2.8 and 4.1 years after radiotherapy due to cardiac failure. In 11/57
patients, preexisting neurologic decits improved. There was one
patient with recurrent hyperlacrimation of one eye on the side of the
irradiated meningioma. Three patients complained about subjective
visual deterioration after FSRT without any objective ndings in an
ophthalmologic examination. No late toxicity RTOG III was
seen. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that FSRT is an effective
and safe treatment modality for local control of benign cavernous
sinus meningiomas with a minimal risk of signicant late toxicity.
Urban & Vogel.
612. "Spot-scanning" proton therapy for rhabdomyosarcomas
of early childhood. First experiences at PSI (Germ) - PROTONENTHERAPIE MIT "SPOT-SCANNING" BEI RHABDOMYOSARKOMEN IM

FRUHEN KINDESALTER. ERSTE ERFAHRUNGEN AM PSI - Timmermann B.,

Schuck A., Niggli F. et al. [Dr. B. Timmermann, Abteilung Strahlenmedizin, Programm Protonen-Therapie, Paul Scherrer Institut,
5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland] - STRAHLENTHER. ONKOL. 2006
182/11 (653-659) - summ in ENGL, GERM
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and acute toxicity of spotscanning proton therapy under deep sedation in young children with
rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). Patients and Methods: Since 2004,
children requiring sedation can be admitted for proton therapy at
Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. Children under
5 years of age with RMS of the head and the trunk were analyzed. All children were enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment
protocol and prospective, standardized evaluation of side effects
was performed. Results: Nine children were included aged 0.93.8 years (embryonal RMS in six, and alveolar, undifferentiated or
nonclassied in one each). The tumor site was parameningeal (n =
4), orbital (n = 3), head and neck (n = 1), and prostate (n = 1). All
children were in IRS group III. Total proton dose was 46-54 CGE
(cobalt-gray equivalent). Only the myelotoxicity exceeded grade 3
or 4 (RTOG/EORTC). Conclusion: Proton therapy for RMS in early
children is feasible and well tolerated. The prospective standardized
evaluation of toxicity and quality of life needs to be continued.
Urban & Vogel.
613. European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines on the safe use of iodinated contrast media - Thomsen H.S.
[H.S. Thomsen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730
Herlev, Denmark] - EUR. J. RADIOL. 2006 60/3 (307-313) - summ
in ENGL
Since 1996 the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has released 19
guidelines regarding safety in relation to the use of radiographic,
ultrasonographic as well as magnetic resonance contrast media. The
committee has covered both renal and non-renal adverse events as
well as other aspects of contrast media. The present paper is an
overview of the work accomplished over the last 10 years regarding
radiographic iodinated contrast media. 2006 Elsevier Ireland
Ltd. All rights reserved.
614. MR contrast agents, the old and the new - Bellin M.-F.
[M.-F. Bellin, University Paris-Sud XI, Department of Radiology,
University Hospital Paul-Brousse, 12, Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex, France] - EUR. J. RADIOL. 2006 60/3
(314-323) - summ in ENGL
Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents are increasingly being
used to help detect and characterize various neoplastic, inammatory and functional abnormalities. The extracellular, non-specic
contrast agents gadolinium chelates are by far the most widely used.
Over the past few years a number of MR organ specic contrast
agents have been introduced. MRI contrast agents are generally
119

safe and well tolerated. The present review summarizes the properties, main characteristics and imaging applications of commercially
available compounds as well as safety of these agents in normal and
high-risk patients. 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
615. Fractionated radioimmunotherapy of intraperitoneally
growing ovarian cancer in nude mice with 211 At-MX35 F(ab )2 :
therapeutic efcacy and myelotoxicity - Elgqvist J., Andersson
H., B ck T. et al. [J. Elgqvist, Department of Radiation Physics, The
a
Sahlgrenska Academy, G teborg University, SE-413 45 G teborg,
o
o
Sweden] - NUCL. MED. BIOL. 2006 33/8 (1065-1072) - summ in
ENGL
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic
efcacy and myelotoxicity during fractionated radioimmunotherapy
of ovarian cancer in mice. The study was performed using the monoclonal antibody MX35 F(ab )2 labeled with the -particle emitter
211 At. Methods: Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with
1 107 cells of the cell line NIH:OVCAR-3. Four weeks later,
the mice were given the rst treatment. Six groups of animals were
intraperitoneally injected with 800, 3
267, 400, 3
133,
50 or 3
17 kBq 211 At-MX35 F(ab )2 (n=18 in each group).
The second and third injections for Groups 2, 4 and 6 were given 4
and 8 days after the rst injection, respectively. As controls, animals
were treated with unlabeled MX35 F(ab )2 (n=12). Eight weeks after the last injection, the animals were sacriced and the presence of
macro- and microscopic tumors and ascites was determined. Blood
counts were determined for each mouse in Groups 1 and 2 before
the rst injection and 3, 7, 11, 15 and 23 days after the rst injection.
The calculation of the mean absorbed dose to the bone marrow was

120

based on the ratio between the 211 At-activity concentration in bone


and blood [i.e., the bone-to-blood ratio (BBLR)] as well as that
between the 211 At-activity concentration in bone marrow and blood
[i.e., the bone-marrow-to-blood ratio (BMBLR)] and the cumulated
activity and absorbed fraction of the -particles emitted by 211 At
in the bone marrow. Results: The tumor-free fractions of animals
were 56% and 41% when treated with 800 kBq and 3
267 kBq
211 At-MX35 F(ab ) , respectively; 39% and 28% when treated with
2
400 kBq and 3
133 kBq 211 At-MX35 F(ab )2 , respectively;
and 17% and 22% when treated with 50 kBq or 3
17 kBq
211 At-MX35 F(ab ) , respectively. The nadir of the white blood
2
cell (WBC) counts was decreased (from 46% to 19%, compared
with the baseline WBC counts) and delayed (from Day 4 to Day
11 after the rst injection) during the fractionated treatment compared with the single-dose treatment. The percentage of injected
activity per gram (%IA/g) for blood, bone and bone marrow all
peaked 6 h after injection at 13.80 1.34%IA/g, 4.00 0.69%IA/g
and 8.28 1.38%IA/g, respectively. The BBLR and BMBLR were
0.20 0.04 and 0.58 0.01, respectively. The mean absorbed dose
to bone marrow was 0.4 Gy after intraperitoneally injecting 800
kBq 211 At-MX35 F(ab )2 . Conclusion: No advantage was observed
in the therapeutic efcacy of using a fractionated regimen compared
with a single administration, with the same total amount of administered activity. Alleviation of the myelotoxicity was observed
during the fractionated regimen in terms of decreased suppression
and delayed nadir of the WBC counts. No thrombocytopenia was
observed during either regimen. 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved.

Section 23 vol 70.2

SUBJECT INDEX
(gures refer to item numbers)

abdomen, heart muscle perfusion, metoclopramide, single photon


emission computer tomography, 402
accessory spleen, autotransplantation, spleen transplantation,
torsion, 537
accreditation, radiochemistry, 309
acetylcholine, carbon 14, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, prostate
carcinoma, 414
acute pyelonephritis, Doppler echography, 576
aerobic exercise, 502
aerosol, human serum albumin tc 99m, lung disease, single photon
emission computer tomography, 405
alpha integrin, arginylglycylaspartic acid, drug synthesis, indium
111, 417
alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, plutonium 240, silicon,
spectrometry, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
- uranium, 311
Alzheimer disease, amyloid beta protein, 447
- anxiety, brain cortex, glucose metabolism, 459
- benzothiazole derivative, carbon 11, computer assisted
emission tomography, 465
- brain perfusion, single photon emission computer tomography,
477
- radioligand, 440
americium 241, 330
- plutonium 238, 332
amine oxidase (avin containing) isoenzyme A, major
depression, 457
4 aminobutyric acid A receptor, cerebral palsy, umazenil,
uorine 18, positron emission tomography, 472
amnesia, brain blood ow, positron emission tomography, 462
amyloid beta protein, Alzheimer disease, 447
analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, manganese, phosphorus,
potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
analytic method, neutron activation analysis, plant extract, 373
angiogenesis, iodine 125, radioiodination, vasculotropin,
xenograft, 415
anilide, uorine 18, histone deacetylase, 424
antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent, paroxetine,
pindolol, positron emission tomography,
psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer
tomography, tracer, 392
antigen expression, isotope labeling, leukemia, lymphocyte
function associated antigen 1, lymphoma, 530
antimony, chromium, gold, neutron activation analysis, rubidium,
317
antineoplastic agent, bone marrow toxicity, ovary cancer,
radioimmunotherapy, 615
- classical Hodgkin lymphoma, large cell lymphoma, 538
antisense oligonucleotide, glycoprotein P, methoxy isobutyl
isonitrile technetium tc 99m, multidrug resistance protein
1, 381
anxiety, Alzheimer disease, brain cortex, glucose metabolism, 459
aorta atherosclerosis, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission tomography,
quantitative analysis, 519
aorta stenosis, heart left ventricle failure, heart muscle ischemia,
514
apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, cell cycle G2 phase, DNA fragment,
rhenium 188, 529
- cell death, iodine 131, radiation dose, 583
- radiation exposure, tumor cell, X irradiation, 430
arginylglycylaspartic acid, alpha integrin, drug synthesis, indium
111, 417
- breast cancer, cyclopeptide, technetium 99m, 425
- integrin, lung small cell cancer, single photon emission
computer tomography, technetium 99m, 551
arsenic, biological monitoring, neutron activation analysis, 314
articial neural network, essential tremor, parkinsonism, 454
aspergillosis, candidiasis, scintigraphy, tracer, 432
astatine, polonium, radiotherapy, spectrometry, 336
Section 23 vol 70.2

atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, iodine 125, isotope labeling,


low density lipoprotein, microvasculature, technetium
99m, 525
- scintiangiography, 511
atherosclerotic plaque, carotid artery obstruction,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission tomography,
510
auditory cortex, positron emission tomography, tinnitus, 475
Auger electron spectroscopy, 428
- iodine 125, iron 55, radioisotope, 343
autoradiography, brain ischemia, tracer, 480
autotransplantation, accessory spleen, spleen transplantation,
torsion, 537
auxin, carbon 14, picloram, 421
ayurvedic drug, calcium, drug screening, iron, neutron activation
analysis, trace metal, zinc, 372
- X ray uorescence, 358
bacterial infection, mycosis, radioimmunotherapy, virus
infection, 433
barium, bromide, chemical analysis, chlorine, element, mineral
balance, potassium, sodium, 316
basal ganglion, cerebellum, 485
beer, analysis, calcium, chlorine, manganese, phosphorus,
potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
behavior disorder, brain perfusion, REM sleep, 467
benzodiazepine receptor, bioaccumulation, blood ow, carbon
11, brosarcoma, receptor binding, 416
benzothiazole derivative, Alzheimer disease, carbon 11,
computer assisted emission tomography, 465
beta radiation, liquid scintillation counting, strontium 89, yttrium
90, 342
- neutron activation analysis, radiation exposure, 315
bile duct dyskinesia, cholecystectomy, observation, 558
bioaccumulation, benzodiazepine receptor, blood ow, carbon 11,
brosarcoma, receptor binding, 416
- diatom, gold 198, 356
biological monitoring, arsenic, neutron activation analysis, 314
- drug determination, nail, toe, 489
blood cell, cell transplantation, middle cerebral artery occlusion,
umbilical cord blood, 476
blood ow, benzodiazepine receptor, bioaccumulation, carbon 11,
brosarcoma, receptor binding, 416
bone, manganese, neutron activation analysis, 491
bone cancer, radiopharmaceutical agent, 427
bone defect, 496
bone infection, myositis, 500
bone marrow, computer assisted emission tomography,
erythrocyte count, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, leukocyte
count, thrombocyte count, 536
- femur, 534
bone marrow toxicity, antineoplastic agent, ovary cancer,
radioimmunotherapy, 615
bone metastasis, cancer pain, lexidronam samarium sm 153, 499
bone necrosis, bone scintiscanning, nuclear magnetic resonance
imaging, 504
bone scintiscanning, bone necrosis, nuclear magnetic resonance
imaging, 504
- compression fracture, percutaneous vertebroplasty, 497
- stress fracture, 503
brachytherapy, guide wire, iridium 192, radioisotope, 318
brain blood ow, amnesia, positron emission tomography, 462
- cognitive defect, dementia, Parkinson disease, 455
brain cortex, Alzheimer disease, anxiety, glucose metabolism, 459
brain dysfunction, prefrontal cortex, schizophreniform disorder,
468
brain infarction, brain ischemia, brain metabolism, oxygen 15,
486
brain ischemia, autoradiography, tracer, 480

SUBJECT INDEX

- brain infarction, brain metabolism, oxygen 15, 486


brain malformation, gamma knife radiosurgery, linear
accelerator, 458
brain metabolism, brain infarction, brain ischemia, oxygen 15,
486
- carbon 14, glia, 483
- frontal lobe, sleep deprivation, 471
brain perfusion, Alzheimer disease, single photon emission
computer tomography, 477
- behavior disorder, REM sleep, 467
- carbon dioxide, internal carotid artery occlusion, 450
brain tumor, positron emission tomography, tracer, 478
breast cancer, arginylglycylaspartic acid, cyclopeptide,
technetium 99m, 425
- cancer recurrence, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose, positron emission tomography, 604
- uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission tomography,
scintimammography, 598
- isosulfan blue, lymph node metastasis, sentinel lymph node,
technetium tin colloid tc 99m, 601
- lymph node metastasis, sentinel lymph node biopsy, 531
- lymphoscintigraphy, recurrent cancer, sentinel lymph node
biopsy, 532
- mammography, scintimammography, ultrasound, 599
- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc 99m,
scintimammography, 600
breast carcinoma, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gingiva, metastasis,
603
- gallium citrate ga 67, incidental nding, pyelonephritis, 602
breast lesion, 596
breast tumor, gynecomastia, 597
breathing, computer assisted tomography, positron emission
tomography, 540
bromide, barium, chemical analysis, chlorine, element, mineral
balance, potassium, sodium, 316
bromine, cesium, chemical composition, cobalt, food
composition, lanthanum, organic compound, rubidium,
376

calcium, analysis, beer, chlorine, manganese, phosphorus,


potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
- ayurvedic drug, drug screening, iron, neutron activation
analysis, trace metal, zinc, 372
- chlorine, irradiation, neutron activation analysis, plant extract,
trace element, trace metal, 374
- dietary intake, iodine, iron, organization, trace element, zinc,
371
cancer, diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic
resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, treatment
outcome, 378
cancer diagnosis, positron emission tomography, 431
cancer pain, bone metastasis, lexidronam samarium sm 153, 499
cancer radiotherapy, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung non small cell cancer,
positron emission tomography, 550
- iodine 131, radioisotope therapy, thyroid carcinoma, 589
cancer recurrence, breast cancer, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose, positron emission tomography, 604
cancer relapse, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine
i 131, neuroblastoma, 442
candidiasis, aspergillosis, scintigraphy, tracer, 432
carbohydrate derivative, chemical analysis, fungal plant disease,
molybdenum, X ray uorescence, 375
carbon, hydrogen, iron 55, liquid scintillation counting, low
energy radiation, toluene, 366
carbon 11, Alzheimer disease, benzothiazole derivative, computer
assisted emission tomography, 465
- benzodiazepine receptor, bioaccumulation, blood ow,
brosarcoma, receptor binding, 416
- computer assisted emission tomography, n [2 [4 (2
methoxyphenyl) 1 piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2
2

pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide, receptor binding,


schizoaffective psychosis, schizophrenia, 449
- nortropane derivative, positron emission tomography,
radioligand, serotoninergic system, serotonin transporter,
409
- thionisoxetine, 488
carbon 13, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, glucose
metabolism, glucuronide, liver metabolism, uridine
diphosphate glucose, 556
- uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gastritis, Helicobacter infection,
positron emission tomography, urea, urea breath test, 565
- 6 hydroxychlorzoxazone, 422
carbon 14, acetylcholine, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, prostate
carcinoma, 414
- auxin, picloram, 421
- brain metabolism, glia, 483
- rivaroxaban, thromboembolism, 524
carbon dioxide, brain perfusion, internal carotid artery occlusion,
450
carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide intoxication, neurologic
disease, 451
carbon monoxide intoxication, carbon monoxide, neurologic
disease, 451
carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon 13, glucose
metabolism, glucuronide, liver metabolism, uridine
diphosphate glucose, 556
carbon tetrachloride, liquid scintillation counting, tritium, water,
365
carotid artery obstruction, 474
- atherosclerotic plaque, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron
emission tomography, 510
cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell cycle G2 phase, DNA fragment,
rhenium 188, 529
cell cycle G2 phase, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragment,
rhenium 188, 529
cell death, apoptosis, iodine 131, radiation dose, 583
cell transplantation, blood cell, middle cerebral artery occlusion,
umbilical cord blood, 476
cerebellum, basal ganglion, 485
cerebral palsy, 4 aminobutyric acid A receptor, umazenil,
uorine 18, positron emission tomography, 472
cesium, bromine, chemical composition, cobalt, food composition,
lanthanum, organic compound, rubidium, 376
cesium 137, gamma spectrometry, natural radioactivity, potassium
40, radium 226, spectrometer, thorium 232, 390
chelating agent, radiochemistry, radioisotope, separation
technique, strontium chloride, 355
chemical analysis, barium, bromide, chlorine, element, mineral
balance, potassium, sodium, 316
- carbohydrate derivative, fungal plant disease, molybdenum, X
ray uorescence, 375
chemical composition, bromine, cesium, cobalt, food
composition, lanthanum, organic compound, rubidium,
376
chemical pest control, insect control, isotope labeling, isotope
tracing, samarium, weevil, 313
child nutrition, dietary intake, mercury, 377
chlorine, analysis, beer, calcium, manganese, phosphorus,
potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
- barium, bromide, chemical analysis, element, mineral balance,
potassium, sodium, 316
- calcium, irradiation, neutron activation analysis, plant extract,
trace element, trace metal, 374
cholecystectomy, bile duct dyskinesia, observation, 558
choline derivative, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, radiopharmaceutical
agent, 552
chromium, antimony, gold, neutron activation analysis, rubidium,
317
classical Hodgkin lymphoma, antineoplastic agent, large cell
lymphoma, 538
clinical practice, computer assisted emission tomography, 353
clozapine, antidepressant agent, neuroleptic agent, paroxetine,
pindolol, positron emission tomography,

SUBJECT INDEX

Section 23 vol 70.2

psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer


tomography, tracer, 392
cobalt, bromine, cesium, chemical composition, food composition,
lanthanum, organic compound, rubidium, 376
cobalt 57, iodine 125, liquid scintillation counting, manganese 54,
strontium 85, tritium, zinc 65, 340
cobalt 60, face pain, gamma knife radiosurgery, trigeminus
neuralgia, 452
cocaine, corpus striatum, dopamine receptor, withdrawal
syndrome, 470
cognitive defect, brain blood ow, dementia, Parkinson disease,
455
colchicine, 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane 1,4,7,10 tetraacetic
acid, yttrium 90, 490
colon cancer, enterotoxin, 557
colorectal cancer, radioimmunotherapy, radiopharmaceutical
agent, 567
colorectal carcinoma, computer assisted tomography, positron
emission tomography, 562
- positron emission tomography, 554
complex formation, uranium derivative, vanillic acid, 359
compression fracture, bone scintiscanning, percutaneous
vertebroplasty, 497
computer assisted emission tomography, Alzheimer disease,
benzothiazole derivative, carbon 11, 465
- bone marrow, erythrocyte count, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
leukocyte count, thrombocyte count, 536
- carbon 11, n [2 [4 (2 methoxyphenyl) 1 piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2
pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide, receptor binding,
schizoaffective psychosis, schizophrenia, 449
- clinical practice, 353
- computer assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, 505
- dopamine release, levodopa, Parkinson disease, raclopride c
11, 466
computer assisted tomography, aorta atherosclerosis,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission tomography,
quantitative analysis, 519
- breast cancer, cancer recurrence, uorodeoxyglucose, positron
emission tomography, 604
- breathing, positron emission tomography, 540
- cancer radiotherapy, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung non small
cell cancer, positron emission tomography, 550
- colorectal carcinoma, positron emission tomography, 562
- computer assisted emission tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f
18, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, 505
- drug uptake, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission
tomography, stomach adenocarcinoma, 566
- uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung nodule, positron emission
tomography, 541
- heart infarction, single photon emission computer tomography,
526
- iodinated contrast medium, 577
- iodine 123, single photon emission computer tomography, 380
- medical education, positron emission tomography, 404
- pathological anatomy, single photon emission computer
tomography, 435
- positron emission tomography, 438 516
contrast echocardiography, heart perfusion, single photon
emission computer tomography, 518
contrast enhancement, contrast medium, nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging, 614
- diagnostic imaging, iodinated contrast medium, 613
- nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging agent, 401
contrast medium, contrast enhancement, nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging, 614
- diagnostic agent, liver tumor, 563
- gadolinium chelate, kidney disease, kidney tomography,
nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 578
- radiation scattering, 370
copper, proton radiation, radiopharmaceutical agent, 379
coronary artery bypass graft, heart muscle ischemia, heart
muscle perfusion, heart scintiscanning, 520
Section 23 vol 70.2

coronary artery disease, methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium


tc 99m, 523
corpus striatum, cocaine, dopamine receptor, withdrawal
syndrome, 470
corticobasal degeneration, dopamine 2 receptor, dopamine
transporter, glucose metabolism, 464
cyclopeptide, arginylglycylaspartic acid, breast cancer, technetium
99m, 425
cyclotron, medical research, positron emission tomography,
radioisotope, 413
daytime somnolence, Parkinson disease, single photon emission
computer tomography, 439
deep vein thrombosis, tracer, venous thromboembolism, 508
dementia, brain blood ow, cognitive defect, Parkinson disease,
455
- diffuse Lewy body disease, radiopharmaceutical agent, 460
deoxyuridine derivative, radiopharmaceutical agent, thymidine
derivative, 387
depression, 448
deuterium, furan derivative, nitrogen 15, 423
diagnostic agent, contrast medium, liver tumor, 563
diagnostic imaging, contrast enhancement, iodinated contrast
medium, 613
diatom, bioaccumulation, gold 198, 356
dietary intake, calcium, iodine, iron, organization, trace element,
zinc, 371
- child nutrition, mercury, 377
diffuse Lewy body disease, dementia, radiopharmaceutical agent,
460
diffusion weighted imaging, cancer, functional magnetic
resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, treatment
outcome, 378
1 (3,4 dimethoxyphenethyl) 4 (3 phenylpropyl)piperazine,
haloperidol, raclopride c 11, 487
dissolution, lung function test, plutonium, plutonium dioxide pu
239, radiodiagnosis, 539
DNA fragment, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, cell cycle G2 phase,
rhenium 188, 529
dopamine 2 receptor, corticobasal degeneration, dopamine
transporter, glucose metabolism, 464
- positron emission tomography, raclopride c 11, restless legs
syndrome, spinocerebellar degeneration, 463
dopamine receptor, cocaine, corpus striatum, withdrawal
syndrome, 470
dopamine release, computer assisted emission tomography,
levodopa, Parkinson disease, raclopride c 11, 466
dopamine transporter, corticobasal degeneration, dopamine 2
receptor, glucose metabolism, 464
- Parkinson disease, 453
Doppler echography, acute pyelonephritis, 576
dosimetry, iodine 131, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 407
drug determination, biological monitoring, nail, toe, 489
drug metabolism, drug metabolite, positron emission
tomography, serotonin antagonist, species difference, 418
drug metabolite, drug metabolism, positron emission
tomography, serotonin antagonist, species difference, 418
- isotope labeling, liver microsome, radioligand, 568
drug screening, ayurvedic drug, calcium, iron, neutron activation
analysis, trace metal, zinc, 372
drug synthesis, alpha integrin, arginylglycylaspartic acid, indium
111, 417
- isotope labeling, molecular model, radioisotope, rhenium 188,
succimer, sulfur derivative, 426
- positron emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical agent, 399
drug uptake, computer assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose
f 18, positron emission tomography, stomach
adenocarcinoma, 566
echography, liver hyperplasia, 564
edetate chromium cr 51, glomerulus ltration rate, kidney injury,
sickle cell anemia, 574

SUBJECT INDEX

electron capture detection, iodine 125, iridium 192, liquid


scintillation counting, radioisotope, zinc 65, 339
electron transport, proportional counter, 325
element, barium, bromide, chemical analysis, chlorine, mineral
balance, potassium, sodium, 316
endocrine ophthalmopathy, radioactive iodine, radioisotope
therapy, 594
endothelium cell, atherosclerosis, iodine 125, isotope labeling,
low density lipoprotein, microvasculature, technetium
99m, 525
enterotoxin, colon cancer, 557
epidemic encephalitis, perseveration, 482
epilepsy, gamma knife radiosurgery, teratoma, 469
epileptic focus, epileptic state, nuclear magnetic resonance
imaging, parietal lobe, single photon emission computer
tomography, 479
epileptic state, epileptic focus, nuclear magnetic resonance
imaging, parietal lobe, single photon emission computer
tomography, 479
erythrocyte count, bone marrow, computer assisted emission
tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, leukocyte count,
thrombocyte count, 536
esophagus cancer, positron emission tomography, 553
essential tremor, articial neural network, parkinsonism, 454
europium, europium 152, 349
europium 152, europium, 349
Ewing sarcoma, musculoskeletal disease, osteosarcoma, soft
tissue sarcoma, 495
exercise, glomerulus ltration rate, kidney failure, liver
transplantation, mertiatide tc 99m, 386

face pain, cobalt 60, gamma knife radiosurgery, trigeminus


neuralgia, 452
femur, bone marrow, 534
femur head, uorine 18, hip arthroplasty, positron emission
tomography, 498
brosarcoma, benzodiazepine receptor, bioaccumulation, blood
ow, carbon 11, receptor binding, 416
- radiopharmaceutical agent, 389
lter, gamma spectrometry, isotope, 383
umazenil, 4 aminobutyric acid A receptor, cerebral palsy,
uorine 18, positron emission tomography, 472
uorine 18, 4 aminobutyric acid A receptor, cerebral palsy,
umazenil, positron emission tomography, 472
- anilide, histone deacetylase, 424
- femur head, hip arthroplasty, positron emission tomography,
498
- liquid scintillation counting, 326
- tyrosine derivative, 393
uorodeoxyglucose, breast cancer, cancer recurrence, computer
assisted tomography, positron emission tomography, 604
- positron emission tomography, 484
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 492
- acetylcholine, carbon 14, prostate carcinoma, 414
- aorta atherosclerosis, computer assisted tomography, positron
emission tomography, quantitative analysis, 519
- atherosclerotic plaque, carotid artery obstruction, positron
emission tomography, 510
- bone marrow, computer assisted emission tomography,
erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, thrombocyte count,
536
- breast cancer, positron emission tomography,
scintimammography, 598
- breast carcinoma, gingiva, metastasis, 603
- cancer radiotherapy, computer assisted tomography, lung non
small cell cancer, positron emission tomography, 550
- carbon 13, gastritis, Helicobacter infection, positron emission
tomography, urea, urea breath test, 565
- choline derivative, radiopharmaceutical agent, 552
- computer assisted emission tomography, computer assisted
tomography, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, 505
- computer assisted tomography, drug uptake, positron emission
tomography, stomach adenocarcinoma, 566
4

- computer assisted tomography, lung nodule, positron emission


tomography, 541
- graft rejection, pancreas islet transplantation, 561
- head and neck cancer, 445
- isophane insulin, non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,
positron emission tomography, 547
- liposarcoma, 395
- lung adenocarcinoma, positron emission tomography, 548
- pleura effusion, 543
food composition, bromine, cesium, chemical composition,
cobalt, lanthanum, organic compound, rubidium, 376
frontal lobe, brain metabolism, sleep deprivation, 471
functional magnetic resonance imaging, cancer, diffusion
weighted imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, treatment
outcome, 378
- motor dysfunction, sleep disorder, 441
fungal plant disease, carbohydrate derivative, chemical analysis,
molybdenum, X ray uorescence, 375
furan derivative, deuterium, nitrogen 15, 423
gadolinium chelate, contrast medium, kidney disease, kidney
tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 578
gadolinium pentetate meglumine, glioblastoma, nuclear
magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission
tomography, radiopharmaceutical agent, 461
gallium, 350
gallium citrate ga 67, breast carcinoma, incidental nding,
pyelonephritis, 602
gamma knife radiosurgery, brain malformation, linear
accelerator, 458
- cobalt 60, face pain, trigeminus neuralgia, 452
- epilepsy, teratoma, 469
gamma radiation, 334
gamma spectrometry, cesium 137, natural radioactivity,
potassium 40, radium 226, spectrometer, thorium 232, 390
- lter, isotope, 383
- ionization chamber, krypton 81m, 335
- liquid scintillation counting, radium 226, radon 222, radon 222
daughter, 341
- radioisotope, 384
gastritis, carbon 13, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, Helicobacter
infection, positron emission tomography, urea, urea breath
test, 565
germanium, rubidium, strontium, tracer, yttrium, 398
gingiva, breast carcinoma, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, metastasis,
603
glia, brain metabolism, carbon 14, 483
glioblastoma, gadolinium pentetate meglumine, nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging, positron emission tomography,
radiopharmaceutical agent, 461
glomerulus ltration rate, edetate chromium cr 51, kidney injury,
sickle cell anemia, 574
- exercise, kidney failure, liver transplantation, mertiatide tc
99m, 386
- kidney function test, 575
glucose metabolism, Alzheimer disease, anxiety, brain cortex, 459
- carbon 13, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, glucuronide,
liver metabolism, uridine diphosphate glucose, 556
- corticobasal degeneration, dopamine 2 receptor, dopamine
transporter, 464
glucuronide, carbon 13, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance,
glucose metabolism, liver metabolism, uridine
diphosphate glucose, 556
glyceryl trinitrate, kidney ischemia, nitric oxide donor,
reperfusion injury, 570
glycoprotein P, antisense oligonucleotide, methoxy isobutyl
isonitrile technetium tc 99m, multidrug resistance protein
1, 381
- monoclonal antibody, radiopharmaceutical agent, 394
gold, antimony, chromium, neutron activation analysis, rubidium,
317
- tungsten, 308
gold 198, bioaccumulation, diatom, 356

SUBJECT INDEX

Section 23 vol 70.2

graft rejection, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, pancreas islet


transplantation, 561
Graves disease, 586
- hemodialysis, iodine 131, radiation safety, 587
- hyperthyroidism, iodine 131, thionamide, 584
guide wire, brachytherapy, iridium 192, radioisotope, 318
gynecomastia, breast tumor, 597

haloperidol, 1 (3,4 dimethoxyphenethyl) 4 (3


phenylpropyl)piperazine, raclopride c 11, 487
head and neck cancer, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 445
heart failure, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine i 123, ischemic heart
disease, 509
heart infarction, computer assisted tomography, single photon
emission computer tomography, 526
- stem cell transplantation, 517
heart left ventricle failure, aorta stenosis, heart muscle ischemia,
514
heart muscle injury, magnetocardiography, 507
- systemic sclerosis, 512
heart muscle ischemia, aorta stenosis, heart left ventricle failure,
514
- coronary artery bypass graft, heart muscle perfusion, heart
scintiscanning, 520
heart muscle perfusion, abdomen, metoclopramide, single
photon emission computer tomography, 402
- coronary artery bypass graft, heart muscle ischemia, heart
scintiscanning, 520
- heart scintiscanning, lung adenocarcinoma, methoxy isobutyl
isonitrile technetium tc 99m, pleura effusion, 546
- imaging, tracer, 521
heart perfusion, contrast echocardiography, single photon
emission computer tomography, 518
heart scintiscanning, coronary artery bypass graft, heart muscle
ischemia, heart muscle perfusion, 520
- heart muscle perfusion, lung adenocarcinoma, methoxy
isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc 99m, pleura effusion, 546
Helicobacter infection, carbon 13, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
gastritis, positron emission tomography, urea, urea breath
test, 565
hemodialysis, Graves disease, iodine 131, radiation safety, 587
hip arthroplasty, femur head, uorine 18, positron emission
tomography, 498
histiocytosis X, 610
histone deacetylase, anilide, uorine 18, 424
Hodgkin disease, laboratory diagnosis, positron emission
tomography, 533
human serum albumin tc 99m, aerosol, lung disease, single
photon emission computer tomography, 405
- liver cancer, liver function, liver scintiscanning, proton
therapy, 569
hyaluronic acid, paclitaxel, technetium 99m, 420
hydrogen, carbon, iron 55, liquid scintillation counting, low
energy radiation, toluene, 366
6 hydroxychlorzoxazone, carbon 13, 422
hyperthyroidism, Graves disease, iodine 131, thionamide, 584

ibritumomab tiuxetan, radiopharmaceutical agent, 397


imaging, heart muscle perfusion, tracer, 521
- pheochromocytoma, tracer, 591
imaging system, Kaposi sarcoma, matrix metalloproteinase,
pentetate indium in 111, protein targeting,
radiopharmaceutical agent, tissue inhibitor of
metalloproteinase 2, 406
- mammography, positron emission tomography, 351
- positron emission tomography, 352
incidental nding, breast carcinoma, gallium citrate ga 67,
pyelonephritis, 602
indium 111, alpha integrin, arginylglycylaspartic acid, drug
synthesis, 417
infection, inammatory disease, radiopharmaceutical agent,
scintiscanning, 609
Section 23 vol 70.2

inammatory disease, infection, radiopharmaceutical agent,


scintiscanning, 609
insect control, chemical pest control, isotope labeling, isotope
tracing, samarium, weevil, 313
integrin, arginylglycylaspartic acid, lung small cell cancer, single
photon emission computer tomography, technetium 99m,
551
intensity modulated radiation therapy, lung cancer, radiation
dose, single photon emission computer tomography, 549
internal carotid artery occlusion, brain perfusion, carbon
dioxide, 450
internal medicine, positron emission tomography, 436
iodinated contrast medium, computer assisted tomography, 577
- contrast enhancement, diagnostic imaging, 613
iodine, calcium, dietary intake, iron, organization, trace element,
zinc, 371
iodine 123, 582
- computer assisted tomography, single photon emission
computer tomography, 380
iodine 125, 328
- angiogenesis, radioiodination, vasculotropin, xenograft, 415
- atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, isotope labeling, low density
lipoprotein, microvasculature, technetium 99m, 525
- Auger electron spectroscopy, iron 55, radioisotope, 343
- cobalt 57, liquid scintillation counting, manganese 54,
strontium 85, tritium, zinc 65, 340
- electron capture detection, iridium 192, liquid scintillation
counting, radioisotope, zinc 65, 339
- radioactivity, radioisotope, 323
iodine 131, apoptosis, cell death, radiation dose, 583
- cancer radiotherapy, radioisotope therapy, thyroid carcinoma,
589
- dosimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 407
- Graves disease, hemodialysis, radiation safety, 587
- Graves disease, hyperthyroidism, thionamide, 584
- malignant teratoma, 580
- nodular goiter, radioisotope therapy, recombinant thyrotropin,
595
(3 iodobenzyl)guanidine, cancer relapse, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine
i 131, neuroblastoma, 442
(3 iodobenzyl)guanidine i 123, heart failure, ischemic heart
disease, 509
(3 iodobenzyl)guanidine i 131, cancer relapse, (3
iodobenzyl)guanidine, neuroblastoma, 442
ionization chamber, gamma spectrometry, krypton 81m, 335
- Monte Carlo method, 348
- photon, radiation measurement, thallium 201, zinc 65, 419
iridium 192, brachytherapy, guide wire, radioisotope, 318
- electron capture detection, iodine 125, liquid scintillation
counting, radioisotope, zinc 65, 339
iron, ayurvedic drug, calcium, drug screening, neutron activation
analysis, trace metal, zinc, 372
- calcium, dietary intake, iodine, organization, trace element,
zinc, 371
iron 55, Auger electron spectroscopy, iodine 125, radioisotope,
343
- carbon, hydrogen, liquid scintillation counting, low energy
radiation, toluene, 366
irradiation, calcium, chlorine, neutron activation analysis, plant
extract, trace element, trace metal, 374
ischemic heart disease, heart failure, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine i
123, 509
isophane insulin, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, non insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus, positron emission tomography, 547
isosulfan blue, breast cancer, lymph node metastasis, sentinel
lymph node, technetium tin colloid tc 99m, 601
isotope, alpha radiation, plutonium 239, plutonium 240, silicon,
spectrometry, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
- lter, gamma spectrometry, 383
- isotope analysis, kinetics, 306
- isotope labeling, linear regression analysis, mass spectrometry,
oxygen 18, protein analysis, 321
isotope analysis, isotope, kinetics, 306
isotope labeling, antigen expression, leukemia, lymphocyte
function associated antigen 1, lymphoma, 530

SUBJECT INDEX

- atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, iodine 125, low density


lipoprotein, microvasculature, technetium 99m, 525
- chemical pest control, insect control, isotope tracing,
samarium, weevil, 313
- drug metabolite, liver microsome, radioligand, 568
- drug synthesis, molecular model, radioisotope, rhenium 188,
succimer, sulfur derivative, 426
- isotope, linear regression analysis, mass spectrometry, oxygen
18, protein analysis, 321
isotope tracing, chemical pest control, insect control, isotope
labeling, samarium, weevil, 313
Kaposi sarcoma, imaging system, matrix metalloproteinase,
pentetate indium in 111, protein targeting,
radiopharmaceutical agent, tissue inhibitor of
metalloproteinase 2, 406
kidney disease, contrast medium, gadolinium chelate, kidney
tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 578
kidney failure, exercise, glomerulus ltration rate, liver
transplantation, mertiatide tc 99m, 386
kidney function test, glomerulus ltration rate, 575
kidney injury, edetate chromium cr 51, glomerulus ltration rate,
sickle cell anemia, 574
kidney ischemia, glyceryl trinitrate, nitric oxide donor,
reperfusion injury, 570
kidney tomography, contrast medium, gadolinium chelate,
kidney disease, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 578
kinetics, isotope, isotope analysis, 306
krypton 81m, gamma spectrometry, ionization chamber, 335
laboratory diagnosis, Hodgkin disease, positron emission
tomography, 533
lanthanide, liposome, multimodality cancer therapy, 429
lanthanum, bromine, cesium, chemical composition, cobalt, food
composition, organic compound, rubidium, 376
large cell lymphoma, antineoplastic agent, classical Hodgkin
lymphoma, 538
leukemia, antigen expression, isotope labeling, lymphocyte
function associated antigen 1, lymphoma, 530
leukocyte count, bone marrow, computer assisted emission
tomography, erythrocyte count, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
thrombocyte count, 536
levodopa, computer assisted emission tomography, dopamine
release, Parkinson disease, raclopride c 11, 466
lexidronam samarium sm 153, bone metastasis, cancer pain, 499
linear accelerator, brain malformation, gamma knife
radiosurgery, 458
linear regression analysis, isotope, isotope labeling, mass
spectrometry, oxygen 18, protein analysis, 321
liposarcoma, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 395
liposome, lanthanide, multimodality cancer therapy, 429
liquid scintillation counting, 345
- beta radiation, strontium 89, yttrium 90, 342
- carbon, hydrogen, iron 55, low energy radiation, toluene, 366
- carbon tetrachloride, tritium, water, 365
- cobalt 57, iodine 125, manganese 54, strontium 85, tritium,
zinc 65, 340
- electron capture detection, iodine 125, iridium 192,
radioisotope, zinc 65, 339
- uorine 18, 326
- gamma spectrometry, radium 226, radon 222, radon 222
daughter, 341
- manganese 54, photon, radioisotope, 364
- Monte Carlo method, photon, radioisotope, 344
- nickel 63, 346
- radioisotope, 410
liver cancer, human serum albumin tc 99m, liver function, liver
scintiscanning, proton therapy, 569
liver cell carcinoma, liver metastasis, positron emission
tomography, 560
liver function, human serum albumin tc 99m, liver cancer, liver
scintiscanning, proton therapy, 569
liver hyperplasia, echography, 564
6

liver metabolism, carbon 13, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance,


glucose metabolism, glucuronide, uridine diphosphate
glucose, 556
liver metastasis, liver cell carcinoma, positron emission
tomography, 560
- macrosalb tc 99m, microsphere, yttrium 90, 555
liver microsome, drug metabolite, isotope labeling, radioligand,
568
liver scintiscanning, human serum albumin tc 99m, liver cancer,
liver function, proton therapy, 569
liver transplantation, exercise, glomerulus ltration rate, kidney
failure, mertiatide tc 99m, 386
- perutren, 559
liver tumor, contrast medium, diagnostic agent, 563
low density lipoprotein, atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, iodine
125, isotope labeling, microvasculature, technetium 99m,
525
low energy radiation, carbon, hydrogen, iron 55, liquid
scintillation counting, toluene, 366
lung adenocarcinoma, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron
emission tomography, 548
- heart muscle perfusion, heart scintiscanning, methoxy isobutyl
isonitrile technetium tc 99m, pleura effusion, 546
lung cancer, intensity modulated radiation therapy, radiation dose,
single photon emission computer tomography, 549
lung disease, aerosol, human serum albumin tc 99m, single photon
emission computer tomography, 405
lung embolism, lung scintiscanning, 542
lung function test, dissolution, plutonium, plutonium dioxide pu
239, radiodiagnosis, 539
lung nodule, computer assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f
18, positron emission tomography, 541
lung non small cell cancer, cancer radiotherapy, computer
assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron
emission tomography, 550
- thallium 201, 544
lung scintiscanning, lung embolism, 542
lung small cell cancer, arginylglycylaspartic acid, integrin, single
photon emission computer tomography, technetium 99m,
551
lymph node metastasis, breast cancer, isosulfan blue, sentinel
lymph node, technetium tin colloid tc 99m, 601
- breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy, 531
lymphocyte function associated antigen 1, antigen expression,
isotope labeling, leukemia, lymphoma, 530
lymphoma, antigen expression, isotope labeling, leukemia,
lymphocyte function associated antigen 1, 530
lymphoscintigraphy, breast cancer, recurrent cancer, sentinel
lymph node biopsy, 532

macrosalb tc 99m, liver metastasis, microsphere, yttrium 90, 555


magnetism, plutonium, 360
magnetocardiography, heart muscle injury, 507
major depression, amine oxidase (avin containing) isoenzyme
A, 457
- mu opiate receptor, 456
- neuroimaging, prefrontal cortex, 446
malignant teratoma, iodine 131, 580
mammography, breast cancer, scintimammography, ultrasound,
599
- imaging system, positron emission tomography, 351
manganese, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, phosphorus,
potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
- bone, neutron activation analysis, 491
manganese 54, cobalt 57, iodine 125, liquid scintillation counting,
strontium 85, tritium, zinc 65, 340
- liquid scintillation counting, photon, radioisotope, 364
- radiation measurement, zinc 65, 361
mass spectrometry, isotope, isotope labeling, linear regression
analysis, oxygen 18, protein analysis, 321
matrix metalloproteinase, imaging system, Kaposi sarcoma,
pentetate indium in 111, protein targeting,

SUBJECT INDEX

Section 23 vol 70.2

radiopharmaceutical agent, tissue inhibitor of


metalloproteinase 2, 406
medical education, computer assisted tomography, positron
emission tomography, 404
medical research, cyclotron, positron emission tomography,
radioisotope, 413
meningioma, 443 611
mercury, child nutrition, dietary intake, 377
mertiatide tc 99m, exercise, glomerulus ltration rate, kidney
failure, liver transplantation, 386
metabotropic receptor 5, neurobiology, positron emission
tomography, tracer, 481
metastasis, breast carcinoma, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gingiva,
603
methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc 99m, antisense
oligonucleotide, glycoprotein P, multidrug resistance
protein 1, 381
- breast cancer, scintimammography, 600
- coronary artery disease, 523
- heart muscle perfusion, heart scintiscanning, lung
adenocarcinoma, pleura effusion, 546
n [2 [4 (2 methoxyphenyl) 1 piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2
pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide, carbon 11, computer
assisted emission tomography, receptor binding,
schizoaffective psychosis, schizophrenia, 449
metoclopramide, abdomen, heart muscle perfusion, single photon
emission computer tomography, 402
microsphere, liver metastasis, macrosalb tc 99m, yttrium 90, 555
microvasculature, atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, iodine 125,
isotope labeling, low density lipoprotein, technetium 99m,
525
middle cerebral artery occlusion, blood cell, cell transplantation,
umbilical cord blood, 476
mineral balance, barium, bromide, chemical analysis, chlorine,
element, potassium, sodium, 316
molecular imaging, transplantation, 437
molecular model, drug synthesis, isotope labeling, radioisotope,
rhenium 188, succimer, sulfur derivative, 426
molybdenum, carbohydrate derivative, chemical analysis, fungal
plant disease, X ray uorescence, 375
monoclonal antibody, glycoprotein P, radiopharmaceutical agent,
394
Monte Carlo method, ionization chamber, 348
- liquid scintillation counting, photon, radioisotope, 344
- radioactivity, 324
- radioisotope, 337
motor dysfunction, functional magnetic resonance imaging, sleep
disorder, 441
mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, 513
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, positron
emission tomography, 527
multidrug resistance protein 1, antisense oligonucleotide,
glycoprotein P, methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc
99m, 381
multimodality cancer therapy, lanthanide, liposome, 429
mu opiate receptor, major depression, 456
musculoskeletal disease, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, soft
tissue sarcoma, 495
mycosis, bacterial infection, radioimmunotherapy, virus infection,
433
myocarditis, 515
myositis, bone infection, 500
nail, biological monitoring, drug determination, toe, 489
nanocoll tc 99m, sentinel lymph node, 403
natural radioactivity, cesium 137, gamma spectrometry,
potassium 40, radium 226, spectrometer, thorium 232, 390
neurobiology, metabotropic receptor 5, positron emission
tomography, tracer, 481
neuroblastoma, cancer relapse, (3 iodobenzyl)guanidine, (3
iodobenzyl)guanidine i 131, 442
neuroimaging, major depression, prefrontal cortex, 446
neuroleptic agent, antidepressant agent, clozapine, paroxetine,
pindolol, positron emission tomography,
Section 23 vol 70.2

psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer


tomography, tracer, 392
neurologic disease, carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide
intoxication, 451
neutron activation analysis, analytic method, plant extract, 373
- antimony, chromium, gold, rubidium, 317
- arsenic, biological monitoring, 314
- ayurvedic drug, calcium, drug screening, iron, trace metal,
zinc, 372
- beta radiation, radiation exposure, 315
- bone, manganese, 491
- calcium, chlorine, irradiation, plant extract, trace element,
trace metal, 374
- radiochemistry, rhenium, 312
nickel 63, liquid scintillation counting, 346
nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, kidney ischemia,
reperfusion injury, 570
nitrogen 15, deuterium, furan derivative, 423
nodular goiter, iodine 131, radioisotope therapy, recombinant
thyrotropin, 595
non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, uorodeoxyglucose f
18, isophane insulin, positron emission tomography, 547
nortropane derivative, carbon 11, positron emission tomography,
radioligand, serotoninergic system, serotonin transporter,
409
nuclear energy, 347
nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone necrosis, bone
scintiscanning, 504
- contrast enhancement, contrast medium, 614
- contrast enhancement, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
agent, 401
- contrast medium, gadolinium chelate, kidney disease, kidney
tomography, 578
- dosimetry, iodine 131, 407
- epileptic focus, epileptic state, parietal lobe, single photon
emission computer tomography, 479
- gadolinium pentetate meglumine, glioblastoma, positron
emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical agent, 461
nuclear magnetic resonance imaging agent, contrast
enhancement, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 401
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cancer, diffusion
weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging,
positron emission tomography, treatment outcome, 378
nuclear medicine, radioactivity, 322
- radioisotope, 310 367
obesity, 411
observation, bile duct dyskinesia, cholecystectomy, 558
oncology, positron emission tomography, 400
organic compound, bromine, cesium, chemical composition,
cobalt, food composition, lanthanum, rubidium, 376
organization, calcium, dietary intake, iodine, iron, trace element,
zinc, 371
oropharynx cancer, radioactivity, sentinel lymph node biopsy, 408
osteoid osteoma, 494
osteomyelitis, 501
- radiodiagnosis, 493
osteosarcoma, computer assisted emission tomography, computer
assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, soft tissue
sarcoma, 505
- Ewing sarcoma, musculoskeletal disease, soft tissue sarcoma,
495
ovary cancer, antineoplastic agent, bone marrow toxicity,
radioimmunotherapy, 615
oxygen 15, brain infarction, brain ischemia, brain metabolism, 486
oxygen 18, isotope, isotope labeling, linear regression analysis,
mass spectrometry, protein analysis, 321
paclitaxel, hyaluronic acid, technetium 99m, 420
pain, 473
pancreas islet transplantation, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, graft
rejection, 561
papillary carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, 585

SUBJECT INDEX

parietal lobe, epileptic focus, epileptic state, nuclear magnetic


resonance imaging, single photon emission computer
tomography, 479
Parkinson disease, brain blood ow, cognitive defect, dementia,
455
- computer assisted emission tomography, dopamine release,
levodopa, raclopride c 11, 466
- daytime somnolence, single photon emission computer
tomography, 439
- dopamine transporter, 453
parkinsonism, articial neural network, essential tremor, 454
paroxetine, antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent,
pindolol, positron emission tomography,
psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer
tomography, tracer, 392
pathological anatomy, computer assisted tomography, single
photon emission computer tomography, 435
patient monitoring, 588
pentetate indium in 111, imaging system, Kaposi sarcoma, matrix
metalloproteinase, protein targeting, radiopharmaceutical
agent, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, 406
pentetreotide in 111, radiopharmaceutical agent, 605
peptide, radioiodination, 320
- radioisotope, 607
percutaneous vertebroplasty, bone scintiscanning, compression
fracture, 497
perutren, liver transplantation, 559
perseveration, epidemic encephalitis, 482
pheochromocytoma, 590
- imaging, tracer, 591
phosphorus, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, manganese,
potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
phosphorus 32, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, thrombocythemia,
535
photon, ionization chamber, radiation measurement, thallium 201,
zinc 65, 419
- liquid scintillation counting, manganese 54, radioisotope, 364
- liquid scintillation counting, Monte Carlo method,
radioisotope, 344
picloram, auxin, carbon 14, 421
pindolol, antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent,
paroxetine, positron emission tomography,
psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer
tomography, tracer, 392
plant extract, analytic method, neutron activation analysis, 373
- calcium, chlorine, irradiation, neutron activation analysis, trace
element, trace metal, 374
pleura effusion, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 543
- heart muscle perfusion, heart scintiscanning, lung
adenocarcinoma, methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc
99m, 546
plutonium, dissolution, lung function test, plutonium dioxide pu
239, radiodiagnosis, 539
- magnetism, 360
plutonium 238, americium 241, 332
plutonium 239, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 240, silicon,
spectrometry, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
plutonium 240, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, silicon,
spectrometry, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
plutonium dioxide pu 239, dissolution, lung function test,
plutonium, radiodiagnosis, 539
polonium, astatine, radiotherapy, spectrometry, 336
popliteal vein, vascular disease, 522
positron emission tomography, 385 412
- 4 aminobutyric acid A receptor, cerebral palsy, umazenil,
uorine 18, 472
- amnesia, brain blood ow, 462
- antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent, paroxetine,
pindolol, psychopharmacology, single photon emission
computer tomography, tracer, 392
- aorta atherosclerosis, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, quantitative analysis, 519
- atherosclerotic plaque, carotid artery obstruction,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 510
8

- auditory cortex, tinnitus, 475


- brain tumor, tracer, 478
- breast cancer, cancer recurrence, computer assisted
tomography, uorodeoxyglucose, 604
- breast cancer, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, scintimammography,
598
- breathing, computer assisted tomography, 540
- cancer, diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic
resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, treatment outcome, 378
- cancer diagnosis, 431
- cancer radiotherapy, computer assisted tomography,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung non small cell cancer, 550
- carbon 11, nortropane derivative, radioligand, serotoninergic
system, serotonin transporter, 409
- carbon 13, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gastritis, Helicobacter
infection, urea, urea breath test, 565
- colorectal carcinoma, 554
- colorectal carcinoma, computer assisted tomography, 562
- computer assisted tomography, 438 516
- computer assisted tomography, drug uptake,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, stomach adenocarcinoma, 566
- computer assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung
nodule, 541
- computer assisted tomography, medical education, 404
- cyclotron, medical research, radioisotope, 413
- dopamine 2 receptor, raclopride c 11, restless legs syndrome,
spinocerebellar degeneration, 463
- drug metabolism, drug metabolite, serotonin antagonist,
species difference, 418
- drug synthesis, radiopharmaceutical agent, 399
- esophagus cancer, 553
- femur head, uorine 18, hip arthroplasty, 498
- uorodeoxyglucose, 484
- uorodeoxyglucose f 18, isophane insulin, non insulin
dependent diabetes mellitus, 547
- uorodeoxyglucose f 18, lung adenocarcinoma, 548
- gadolinium pentetate meglumine, glioblastoma, nuclear
magnetic resonance imaging, radiopharmaceutical agent,
461
- Hodgkin disease, laboratory diagnosis, 533
- imaging system, 352
- imaging system, mammography, 351
- internal medicine, 436
- liver cell carcinoma, liver metastasis, 560
- metabotropic receptor 5, neurobiology, tracer, 481
- mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, 527
- oncology, 400
potassium, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, manganese,
phosphorus, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, X ray
uorescence, 391
- barium, bromide, chemical analysis, chlorine, element, mineral
balance, sodium, 316
potassium 40, cesium 137, gamma spectrometry, natural
radioactivity, radium 226, spectrometer, thorium 232, 390
prefrontal cortex, brain dysfunction, schizophreniform disorder,
468
- major depression, neuroimaging, 446
proportional counter, electron transport, 325
prostate cancer, 571 572 573
prostate carcinoma, acetylcholine, carbon 14,
uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 414
protein analysis, isotope, isotope labeling, linear regression
analysis, mass spectrometry, oxygen 18, 321
protein targeting, imaging system, Kaposi sarcoma, matrix
metalloproteinase, pentetate indium in 111,
radiopharmaceutical agent, tissue inhibitor of
metalloproteinase 2, 406
proton radiation, copper, radiopharmaceutical agent, 379
proton therapy, human serum albumin tc 99m, liver cancer, liver
function, liver scintiscanning, 569
psychopharmacology, antidepressant agent, clozapine,
neuroleptic agent, paroxetine, pindolol, positron emission
tomography, single photon emission computer
tomography, tracer, 392

SUBJECT INDEX

Section 23 vol 70.2

pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma, 545


pyelonephritis, breast carcinoma, gallium citrate ga 67, incidental
nding, 602
quantitative analysis, aorta atherosclerosis, computer assisted
tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission
tomography, 519
raclopride c 11, computer assisted emission tomography,
dopamine release, levodopa, Parkinson disease, 466
- 1 (3,4 dimethoxyphenethyl) 4 (3 phenylpropyl)piperazine,
haloperidol, 487
- dopamine 2 receptor, positron emission tomography, restless
legs syndrome, spinocerebellar degeneration, 463
radiation dose, apoptosis, cell death, iodine 131, 583
- intensity modulated radiation therapy, lung cancer, single
photon emission computer tomography, 549
radiation exposure, apoptosis, tumor cell, X irradiation, 430
- beta radiation, neutron activation analysis, 315
radiation measurement, ionization chamber, photon, thallium
201, zinc 65, 419
- manganese 54, zinc 65, 361
radiation safety, Graves disease, hemodialysis, iodine 131, 587
radiation scattering, contrast medium, 370
radioactive iodine, endocrine ophthalmopathy, radioisotope
therapy, 594
- radioisotope therapy, thyroid cancer, 593
- radioisotope therapy, thyroid disease, 592
- thyroid disease, 581
radioactivity, iodine 125, radioisotope, 323
- Monte Carlo method, 324
- nuclear medicine, 322
- oropharynx cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy, 408
- radioisotope, thermodynamics, 333
- standardization, tritium oxide, 327
radiochemistry, accreditation, 309
- chelating agent, radioisotope, separation technique, strontium
chloride, 355
- neutron activation analysis, rhenium, 312
radiodiagnosis, dissolution, lung function test, plutonium,
plutonium dioxide pu 239, 539
- osteomyelitis, 493
radioimmunotherapy, antineoplastic agent, bone marrow
toxicity, ovary cancer, 615
- bacterial infection, mycosis, virus infection, 433
- colorectal cancer, radiopharmaceutical agent, 567
radioiodination, angiogenesis, iodine 125, vasculotropin,
xenograft, 415
- peptide, 320
radioisotope, 319 363 579
- Auger electron spectroscopy, iodine 125, iron 55, 343
- brachytherapy, guide wire, iridium 192, 318
- chelating agent, radiochemistry, separation technique,
strontium chloride, 355
- cyclotron, medical research, positron emission tomography,
413
- drug synthesis, isotope labeling, molecular model, rhenium
188, succimer, sulfur derivative, 426
- electron capture detection, iodine 125, iridium 192, liquid
scintillation counting, zinc 65, 339
- gamma spectrometry, 384
- iodine 125, radioactivity, 323
- liquid scintillation counting, 410
- liquid scintillation counting, manganese 54, photon, 364
- liquid scintillation counting, Monte Carlo method, photon, 344
- Monte Carlo method, 337
- nuclear medicine, 310 367
- peptide, 607
- radioactivity, thermodynamics, 333
radioisotope decay, 338
radioisotope therapy, cancer radiotherapy, iodine 131, thyroid
carcinoma, 589
- endocrine ophthalmopathy, radioactive iodine, 594
Section 23 vol 70.2

- iodine 131, nodular goiter, recombinant thyrotropin, 595


- radioactive iodine, thyroid cancer, 593
- radioactive iodine, thyroid disease, 592
radioligand, Alzheimer disease, 440
- carbon 11, nortropane derivative, positron emission
tomography, serotoninergic system, serotonin transporter,
409
- drug metabolite, isotope labeling, liver microsome, 568
radiopharmaceutical agent, 388 396
- bone cancer, 427
- choline derivative, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, 552
- colorectal cancer, radioimmunotherapy, 567
- copper, proton radiation, 379
- dementia, diffuse Lewy body disease, 460
- deoxyuridine derivative, thymidine derivative, 387
- drug synthesis, positron emission tomography, 399
- brosarcoma, 389
- gadolinium pentetate meglumine, glioblastoma, nuclear
magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission
tomography, 461
- glycoprotein P, monoclonal antibody, 394
- ibritumomab tiuxetan, 397
- imaging system, Kaposi sarcoma, matrix metalloproteinase,
pentetate indium in 111, protein targeting, tissue inhibitor
of metalloproteinase 2, 406
- infection, inammatory disease, scintiscanning, 609
- pentetreotide in 111, 605
- rhenium 188, 368
- rheumatoid arthritis, 608
- yttrium 90, 369
radiotherapy, astatine, polonium, spectrometry, 336
radium 226, cesium 137, gamma spectrometry, natural
radioactivity, potassium 40, spectrometer, thorium 232,
390
- gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting, radon 222,
radon 222 daughter, 341
- radium 228, water sampling, 357
radium 228, radium 226, water sampling, 357
radon 222, 331
- gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting, radium 226,
radon 222 daughter, 341
radon 222 daughter, gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation
counting, radium 226, radon 222, 341
receptor binding, benzodiazepine receptor, bioaccumulation,
blood ow, carbon 11, brosarcoma, 416
- carbon 11, computer assisted emission tomography, n [2 [4 (2
methoxyphenyl) 1 piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2
pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide, schizoaffective
psychosis, schizophrenia, 449
recombinant thyrotropin, iodine 131, nodular goiter,
radioisotope therapy, 595
recurrent cancer, breast cancer, lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel
lymph node biopsy, 532
REM sleep, behavior disorder, brain perfusion, 467
reperfusion injury, glyceryl trinitrate, kidney ischemia, nitric
oxide donor, 570
restenosis, rhenium 188, 606
restless legs syndrome, dopamine 2 receptor, positron emission
tomography, raclopride c 11, spinocerebellar degeneration,
463
rhabdomyosarcoma, 612
rhenium, neutron activation analysis, radiochemistry, 312
rhenium 188, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, cell cycle G2 phase,
DNA fragment, 529
- drug synthesis, isotope labeling, molecular model,
radioisotope, succimer, sulfur derivative, 426
- radiopharmaceutical agent, 368
- restenosis, 606
rheumatoid arthritis, radiopharmaceutical agent, 608
rivaroxaban, carbon 14, thromboembolism, 524
rubidium, antimony, chromium, gold, neutron activation analysis,
317
- bromine, cesium, chemical composition, cobalt, food
composition, lanthanum, organic compound, 376

SUBJECT INDEX

- germanium, strontium, tracer, yttrium, 398


samarium, chemical pest control, insect control, isotope labeling,
isotope tracing, weevil, 313
schizoaffective psychosis, carbon 11, computer assisted emission
tomography, n [2 [4 (2 methoxyphenyl) 1
piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2 pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide,
receptor binding, schizophrenia, 449
schizophrenia, carbon 11, computer assisted emission
tomography, n [2 [4 (2 methoxyphenyl) 1
piperazinyl]ethyl] n (2 pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide,
receptor binding, schizoaffective psychosis, 449
schizophreniform disorder, brain dysfunction, prefrontal cortex,
468
scintiangiography, atherosclerosis, 511
scintigraphy, aspergillosis, candidiasis, tracer, 432
scintimammography, breast cancer, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
positron emission tomography, 598
- breast cancer, mammography, ultrasound, 599
- breast cancer, methoxy isobutyl isonitrile technetium tc 99m,
600
scintiscanning, infection, inammatory disease,
radiopharmaceutical agent, 609
seaweed, 362
sentinel lymph node, breast cancer, isosulfan blue, lymph node
metastasis, technetium tin colloid tc 99m, 601
- nanocoll tc 99m, 403
sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast cancer, lymph node
metastasis, 531
- breast cancer, lymphoscintigraphy, recurrent cancer, 532
- oropharynx cancer, radioactivity, 408
separation technique, chelating agent, radiochemistry,
radioisotope, strontium chloride, 355
serotonin antagonist, drug metabolism, drug metabolite, positron
emission tomography, species difference, 418
serotoninergic system, carbon 11, nortropane derivative, positron
emission tomography, radioligand, serotonin transporter,
409
serotonin transporter, carbon 11, nortropane derivative, positron
emission tomography, radioligand, serotoninergic system,
409
sickle cell anemia, edetate chromium cr 51, glomerulus ltration
rate, kidney injury, 574
silicon, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, plutonium 240,
spectrometry, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
single photon emission computer tomography, abdomen, heart
muscle perfusion, metoclopramide, 402
- aerosol, human serum albumin tc 99m, lung disease, 405
- Alzheimer disease, brain perfusion, 477
- antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent, paroxetine,
pindolol, positron emission tomography,
psychopharmacology, tracer, 392
- arginylglycylaspartic acid, integrin, lung small cell cancer,
technetium 99m, 551
- computer assisted tomography, heart infarction, 526
- computer assisted tomography, iodine 123, 380
- computer assisted tomography, pathological anatomy, 435
- contrast echocardiography, heart perfusion, 518
- daytime somnolence, Parkinson disease, 439
- epileptic focus, epileptic state, nuclear magnetic resonance
imaging, parietal lobe, 479
- intensity modulated radiation therapy, lung cancer, radiation
dose, 549
sleep deprivation, brain metabolism, frontal lobe, 471
sleep disorder, functional magnetic resonance imaging, motor
dysfunction, 441
sodium, barium, bromide, chemical analysis, chlorine, element,
mineral balance, potassium, 316
sodium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphorus 32,
thrombocythemia, 535
soft tissue sarcoma, computer assisted emission tomography,
computer assisted tomography, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
osteosarcoma, 505
- Ewing sarcoma, musculoskeletal disease, osteosarcoma, 495
10

species difference, drug metabolism, drug metabolite, positron


emission tomography, serotonin antagonist, 418
spectrometer, cesium 137, gamma spectrometry, natural
radioactivity, potassium 40, radium 226, thorium 232, 390
spectrometry, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, plutonium
240, silicon, uranium 234, uranium 238, 382
- astatine, polonium, radiotherapy, 336
spinal cord lesion, 444
spine instability, 506
spinocerebellar degeneration, dopamine 2 receptor, positron
emission tomography, raclopride c 11, restless legs
syndrome, 463
spleen transplantation, accessory spleen, autotransplantation,
torsion, 537
standardization, radioactivity, tritium oxide, 327
stem cell transplantation, 434
- heart infarction, 517
stomach adenocarcinoma, computer assisted tomography, drug
uptake, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, positron emission
tomography, 566
stress fracture, bone scintiscanning, 503
strontium, germanium, rubidium, tracer, yttrium, 398
strontium 85, cobalt 57, iodine 125, liquid scintillation counting,
manganese 54, tritium, zinc 65, 340
strontium 89, beta radiation, liquid scintillation counting, yttrium
90, 342
strontium chloride, chelating agent, radiochemistry, radioisotope,
separation technique, 355
succimer, drug synthesis, isotope labeling, molecular model,
radioisotope, rhenium 188, sulfur derivative, 426
sulfur, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, manganese, phosphorus,
potassium, synchrotron radiation, X ray uorescence, 391
sulfur derivative, drug synthesis, isotope labeling, molecular
model, radioisotope, rhenium 188, succimer, 426
synchrotron radiation, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine,
manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, X ray
uorescence, 391
systemic sclerosis, heart muscle injury, 512
technetium 99m, 329
- arginylglycylaspartic acid, breast cancer, cyclopeptide, 425
- arginylglycylaspartic acid, integrin, lung small cell cancer,
single photon emission computer tomography, 551
- atherosclerosis, endothelium cell, iodine 125, isotope labeling,
low density lipoprotein, microvasculature, 525
- hyaluronic acid, paclitaxel, 420
technetium tin colloid tc 99m, breast cancer, isosulfan blue,
lymph node metastasis, sentinel lymph node, 601
teratoma, epilepsy, gamma knife radiosurgery, 469
1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane 1,4,7,10 tetraacetic acid,
colchicine, yttrium 90, 490
thallium 201, ionization chamber, photon, radiation measurement,
zinc 65, 419
- lung non small cell cancer, 544
thermodynamics, radioactivity, radioisotope, 333
- thorium derivative, uranium derivative, zeolite, 354
thionamide, Graves disease, hyperthyroidism, iodine 131, 584
thionisoxetine, carbon 11, 488
thorium 232, cesium 137, gamma spectrometry, natural
radioactivity, potassium 40, radium 226, spectrometer, 390
thorium derivative, thermodynamics, uranium derivative, zeolite,
354
thrombocyte count, bone marrow, computer assisted emission
tomography, erythrocyte count, uorodeoxyglucose f 18,
leukocyte count, 536
thrombocythemia, phosphorus 32, sodium dihydrogen phosphate,
535
thromboembolism, carbon 14, rivaroxaban, 524
thymidine derivative, deoxyuridine derivative,
radiopharmaceutical agent, 387
thyroid cancer, radioactive iodine, radioisotope therapy, 593
thyroid carcinoma, cancer radiotherapy, iodine 131, radioisotope
therapy, 589
- papillary carcinoma, 585

SUBJECT INDEX

Section 23 vol 70.2

thyroid disease, radioactive iodine, 581


- radioactive iodine, radioisotope therapy, 592
tinnitus, auditory cortex, positron emission tomography, 475
tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, imaging system, Kaposi
sarcoma, matrix metalloproteinase, pentetate indium in
111, protein targeting, radiopharmaceutical agent, 406
toe, biological monitoring, drug determination, nail, 489
toluene, carbon, hydrogen, iron 55, liquid scintillation counting,
low energy radiation, 366
torsion, accessory spleen, autotransplantation, spleen
transplantation, 537
trace element, calcium, chlorine, irradiation, neutron activation
analysis, plant extract, trace metal, 374
- calcium, dietary intake, iodine, iron, organization, zinc, 371
trace metal, ayurvedic drug, calcium, drug screening, iron,
neutron activation analysis, zinc, 372
- calcium, chlorine, irradiation, neutron activation analysis, plant
extract, trace element, 374
tracer, antidepressant agent, clozapine, neuroleptic agent,
paroxetine, pindolol, positron emission tomography,
psychopharmacology, single photon emission computer
tomography, 392
- aspergillosis, candidiasis, scintigraphy, 432
- autoradiography, brain ischemia, 480
- brain tumor, positron emission tomography, 478
- deep vein thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, 508
- germanium, rubidium, strontium, yttrium, 398
- heart muscle perfusion, imaging, 521
- imaging, pheochromocytoma, 591
- metabotropic receptor 5, neurobiology, positron emission
tomography, 481
transplantation, molecular imaging, 437
treatment outcome, cancer, diffusion weighted imaging,
functional magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography,
378
trigeminus neuralgia, cobalt 60, face pain, gamma knife
radiosurgery, 452
tritium, carbon tetrachloride, liquid scintillation counting, water,
365
- cobalt 57, iodine 125, liquid scintillation counting, manganese
54, strontium 85, zinc 65, 340
tritium oxide, radioactivity, standardization, 327
tumor cell, apoptosis, radiation exposure, X irradiation, 430
tungsten, gold, 308
tyrosine derivative, uorine 18, 393
ultrasound, breast cancer, mammography, scintimammography,
599
umbilical cord blood, blood cell, cell transplantation, middle
cerebral artery occlusion, 476
uranium, alpha radiation, 311
uranium 234, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, plutonium
240, silicon, spectrometry, uranium 238, 382
uranium 238, alpha radiation, isotope, plutonium 239, plutonium
240, silicon, spectrometry, uranium 234, 382
uranium derivative, complex formation, vanillic acid, 359
- thermodynamics, thorium derivative, zeolite, 354
urea, carbon 13, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gastritis, Helicobacter
infection, positron emission tomography, urea breath test,
565

Section 23 vol 70.2

urea breath test, carbon 13, uorodeoxyglucose f 18, gastritis,


Helicobacter infection, positron emission tomography,
urea, 565
uridine diphosphate glucose, carbon 13, carbon nuclear magnetic
resonance, glucose metabolism, glucuronide, liver
metabolism, 556
vanillic acid, complex formation, uranium derivative, 359
vascular disease, popliteal vein, 522
vasculotropin, angiogenesis, iodine 125, radioiodination,
xenograft, 415
venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, tracer, 508
virus infection, bacterial infection, mycosis, radioimmunotherapy,
433
water, carbon tetrachloride, liquid scintillation counting, tritium,
365
water contamination, 307
water sampling, radium 226, radium 228, 357
weevil, chemical pest control, insect control, isotope labeling,
isotope tracing, samarium, 313
whole body radiation, 528
withdrawal syndrome, cocaine, corpus striatum, dopamine
receptor, 470
xenograft, angiogenesis, iodine 125, radioiodination,
vasculotropin, 415
X irradiation, apoptosis, radiation exposure, tumor cell, 430
X ray uorescence, analysis, beer, calcium, chlorine, manganese,
phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, synchrotron radiation, 391
- ayurvedic drug, 358
- carbohydrate derivative, chemical analysis, fungal plant
disease, molybdenum, 375
yttrium, germanium, rubidium, strontium, tracer, 398
yttrium 90, beta radiation, liquid scintillation counting, strontium
89, 342
- colchicine, 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane 1,4,7,10 tetraacetic
acid, 490
- liver metastasis, macrosalb tc 99m, microsphere, 555
- radiopharmaceutical agent, 369
zeolite, thermodynamics, thorium derivative, uranium derivative,
354
zinc, ayurvedic drug, calcium, drug screening, iron, neutron
activation analysis, trace metal, 372
- calcium, dietary intake, iodine, iron, organization, trace
element, 371
zinc 65, cobalt 57, iodine 125, liquid scintillation counting,
manganese 54, strontium 85, tritium, 340
- electron capture detection, iodine 125, iridium 192, liquid
scintillation counting, radioisotope, 339
- ionization chamber, photon, radiation measurement, thallium
201, 419
- manganese 54, radiation measurement, 361

SUBJECT INDEX

11

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AUTHOR INDEX
(gures refer to item numbers)

Aalto S. 465
Aardaneh K. 355
Abdeen S. 599
Abuelhia E. 352
Acar E. 601
Acton P.D. 517
Ahn G.H. 364
Alauddin M.M. 424
Alavi M.S. 576
Alessio A. 438
Alfassi Z.B. 311
Alinari L. 527
Almkvist O. 447
Almqvist Y. 567
Alves F. 413
Alzitzoglou T. 364
Amartey J.K. 320
Amitani M. 416
Ananthasubramaniam K. 514
Anderson T.L. 530
Andersson H. 615
Andratschke N. 444
Angelov C.A. 427
Annovazzi A. 609
Anton M. 516
Appel G. 386
Appoloni C.R. 375, 390
Araki N. 478
Aras N.K. 371
Arenillas P. 345
Argon A.M. 601
Armstrong J.S. 313
Aruva M.R. 434
Ashkenazi I. 503
Aub C. 560
e
Auerbach P. 361
Awasare S. 603
Ay M.R. 370
Babul A. 583
Babyn P.S. 575
Bacchi M.A. 376
B ck T. 615
a
Balamucki C.J. 452
Bansal A. 414
Bar-Shalom R. 604
Baraniak L. 359
Barros F.B. 574
Bashian G.G. 510
Basiratnia M. 576
Battle M. 508
Bauhofer A. 582
Beamish J. 513
Beer A. 579
B h M.P. 605
e e
Bekker J. 596
Belandi T.J. 315
Bellin M.-F. 614
Ben-Haim S. 604
B nard F. 547
e
Bentourkia M. 484
Berbari E.F. 501
Berg G. 593
Bessesen D.H. 411
Beuter D. 605
Beyer T. 581
Bhakoo K.K. 437
Bischof Delaloye A. 428
Block T. 573
Blonski M.S. 375
Bogdanov Jr. A. 401
Section 23 vol 70.2

Boles Ponto L.L. 462


Bolt L. 405
Bonardi M. 311
Bonheure G. 347
Bonnema S.J. 595
Boovariwala A. 457
Bourguet P. 400
Boursier J. 560
Boykin D.W. 423
Brenner W. 395
Broda R. 346
Brogsitter C. 402
Brown J.M. 602
Bu ar T. 317
c
Buchegger F. 428
Buchsbaum M.S. 471
Buckingham H. 586
Bui C. 591
Bural G.G. 519
Burghaus L. 441
Burtis M.T. 602
Butler T. 454
Byrne A.R. 312
Byun S.H. 491
Cadieux J.R. 539
Caldeira M.M. 556
Capogni M. 328
Caristo V. 504
Carles A.G. 343
Carlson S.K. 380
Carpentier A. 547
Casadevall A. 433
Cassette P. 327, 341, 345, 346,
364
Castellucci P. 527
Cavell R. 427
Ceccatelli A. 328
Cessna J.T. 336
Chahal M. 386
Chakraborty N. 356
Chamroonrat W. 519
Chang C.-N. 458
Chang Y.S. 440
Charlton A.J. 307
Chattopadhyay S. 398
Chauhan A. 598
Chen J.-Y. 589
Cheng D. 393
Cheng D.W. 535
Cheng S.-C. 442
Chettle D.R. 491
Chianelli M. 608, 609
Chittenden S. 407
Chmelov J. 506
a
Choudhury R.P. 374
Christensen J.A. 541
Chung B.W. 360
Cimarelli S. 566
Classic K.L. 380
Cl ment O. 378
e
Collier D. 599
Conti F. 608
Cooper L.T. 515
Costa D.C. 353
Courbon F. 407
Cox M.G. 419
Cremonesi M. 396
Cu nod C.-A. 378
e
Czempiel H. 573

Dadachova E. 433
DAlessandria C. 608, 609
Damasceno A.L.O. 318
Das M.K. 398
Dawson P. 577
De Boorder M.J. 450
De Felice P. 328
De Geer L.-E. 384
De Geus-Oei L.-F. 394
de Geus-Oei L.F. 554
De Haas M.J. 596
Dec G.W. 515
Decristoforo C. 551
DeGrado T.R. 414
Derejko M. 455
Dias M.S. 324, 330
Dijkgraaf I. 417
Ding H.-J. 565
Dirnberger G. 485
Dissanayaka K.R. 358
D bert N. 408
o
Dolley S. 355
Donarski J.A. 307
dos Santos J.A. 367
Drandarov K. 399
Drochioiu G. 354
Dryak P. 334
Dufn R. 403
Dupertuis Y.M. 428
Duygun U. 601
Duysinx B.C. 543
Dwivedi G. 518
Eary J.F. 395
Eckel-Passow J.E. 321
Edwards D. 508
Eftekhari M. 546
Eichhammer P. 475
Eijsink V.G.H. 432
El Khuffash A. 513
El Ouamari M. 597
El-Mabhouh A.A. 427
El-Maghraby T.A.F. 493
Elgqvist J. 615
Ellis B. 404
Ellis T.L. 452
Elstrom R. 527
Engenhart-Cabillic R. 443
Engler H. 447
Erselcan T. 583
Esfandiari N.H. 591
Esguerra C. 320
Esser J.P. 607
Estrada J.J.S. 318
Evans A.H. 466
Fagan R.L. 306
Faintuch-Linkowski B. 551
Farhoud A. 443
Farias L.A. 377
Fartoux L. 552
Favaro D.I.T. 377
Fazio A. 328
Fernandes E.A.N. 376
Fernetti C. 563
Ferrari M. 396
Ferrari V.A. 517
Filippi L. 600
Filliben J. 362
Fischedick K. 572
Fischman A.J. 540

AUTHOR INDEX

Fisher D.R. 388


Fitzgerald P.B. 446
Fleming J.S. 405
Fluss M.J. 360
Ford E.C. 445
Forrest N. 498
Forsberg A. 447
Fournier L.-S. 378
Franc B.L. 442
Franceschi D. 479
Franceschi F. 494
Frankle W.G. 449
Fredriksson A. 568
Freudenberg L.S. 581
Friedrich M.G. 515
Frielink C. 417
Frija G. 378
Frith C.D. 485
Fujita S. 544
Furnari J.C. 309
Gabrielle Iroulart M. 333
Gambhir S.S. 505
Garcia G. 343
Garca-Tora o E. 325, 326, 382

n
Garg A.N. 372, 374
Gasparro J. 347
Geipel G. 359
Gelovani J.G. 424
George A.J.T. 437
Gholamrezanezhad A. 546
Giblin M.F. 557
Gillin J.C. 471
Gilman M.D. 540
Ginovart N. 457
Gleeson F.V. 542
Gleichmann M. 463
Globas C. 463
Godwin G.A. 587
Gogami A. 387
Goldberg A. 492
Golding A.C. 586
Goldsmith S.J. 538
Goldstein R. 559
Gong L. 438
Gordon I. 404
Gorthordt M. 582
Gostely J.-J. 419
Gotthardt M. 605
Granegger S. 511
Grau Carles A. 365, 366
Grau Malonda A. 366
Gravel P. 467
Grenier N. 578
Grigorescu L. 341
Groppi F. 311
Grosser R. 524
Grosu A.-L. 550
Gr ning T. 402
u
Guimar es M.I.C. 588
a
Gupta R. 599
Gutman F. 552
Hadac E.M. 380
Hadley D.M. 453
Haffaf E.M. 499
Hamilton D. 454
Hammond M. 336
Hanlon L. 445
Hannukainen J.C. 502
Hanyu H. 460
1

Hara T. 414
Harkness B.A. 514
Harrison B.J. 468
Hartin N. 504
Hasegawa M. 512
Hashimoto H. 459
Haskard D.O. 437
Hauger O. 578
Havelka M. 337, 361
Hawkins D.S. 495
Hayashi A. 387
He Z. 425, 521
Heged s L. 595
u
Heijenbrok-Kal M.H. 528
Heikenen J. 558
Heinrich T. 426
Heitzeg M.M. 473
Henneman M.M. 526
Herbst C. 322
Herzog H. 319, 412
Hewamanna R. 358
Hickman M. 518
Higuchi T. 431
Hilker R. 441
Hino Y. 348
Hirao K. 460
Ho C.-H.A. 451
Ho Shon I.A. 435
Hod N. 503
Hon K.-L.E. 451
Hong S.-C. 469
Hosoi R. 389, 483
Hsieh W.-Y. 425, 521
Huang Y.-C. 458
Huber P. 611
Huglo D. 436
Hult M. 347
Humelnicu D. 354
Hwang H.-Y. 410
Hwang W. 395
Iagaru A. 505
Ibarra M.R. 325
Igaki H. 569
Iglicki A. 309
Imperiale A. 566
Inn K.G.W. 362
Inoue O. 483
Ishikita T. 431
Ishimaru Y. 537
Ishiwata K. 487
Ismail M.A. 423
Israel O. 492
Iwahara A. 318, 367
Iyengar G.V. 371
Izumoto H. 507
Jackman M.R. 411
Jaffe C.A. 591
Jahanshahi M. 485
Jain G. 374
James W.D. 313
Janardhanan R. 518
Jansen J.E. 596
Jarkas N. 409
Jekerle V. 381
Jensen M. 413
Jentschel C. 426
Jeong J.M. 440
Jian Z. 422
Jin W. 496
Johansson L. 335, 592
Johnston P.N. 347
Jones C.R.G. 485
Jones L. 422
2

Jones S.A. 307


J nsson H. 592
o
Jukema J.W. 526
Kacperski K. 352
Kafala S. 352
Kal H.B. 528
Kamalidehghan M. 379
Kaprio J. 502
Kaptanoglu L. 570
Karhu P. 384
Karlsson F.A. 594
Kawada Y. 349
Kawano M. 512
Kawashima A. 415
Kawashima H. 478
Kawazoe K. 507
Kegeles L.S. 449
Kekarainen T. 476
Kelly K.M. 533
Kemppainen N.M. 465
Kennedy S.E. 456
Khonsari M. 402
Kian-Ang K. 444
Kiesewetter D. 418
Kim C.K. 534
Kim E.H. 529
Kim H.C. 496, 562
Kim S.C. 534
Kim Y.-S. 521
Kinahan P. 438
Kinahan P.E. 445
Kinuya S. 415
Klaffke S. 464
Koeppe R.A. 456, 473
Koizumi M. 531
Kolts R. 558
Korde A. 490
Korun M. 383
Koskinas M.F. 324, 330, 350
Kossert K. 340
Kostakoglu L. 538
Kov cs A.F. 408
a
Kovar P. 334
Kowalski M. 514
Koyama M. 531
Krabbe P.F.M. 554
Kramer R.E. 411
Krause B.J. 606
Kremp S. 550
Krenning E.P. 607
Kreutzer A. 475
Krishnasetty V. 540
Kruijtzer J.A.W. 417
Krynyckyi B.R. 534
Kubota K. 536
Kubota S. 584
Ku era J. 312
c
Kucuk H.F. 570
Kuge Y. 486
Kuhn A.A. 464
Kuijt G.P. 532
Kumar A. 372
Kumar J.S.D. 481
Kumar R. 598
Kuwabara H. 470
Kwee R.M. 597
Kwon K.-H. 469
LaBone T.R. 539
Lai H.-W. 589
Laird A.R. 446
Lamaze G.P. 314
LaMont S.P. 539
Landsberger S. 315

Lang L. 418
Langguth B. 475
Lardie T.S. 421
Larock M.-P. 543
Larstorp A.C.K. 520
Lavely W.C. 497
Leblanc M. 547
Lee C.-H. 589
Lee J. 585
Lee J.-I. 469
Lee J.D. 472
Lee K.B. 332, 410
Lee S. 585
Lee Y.-S. 440
Leonard J.P. 538
Levi Y. 503
Levine J.M. 533
Lewis J. 508
Libra A. 563
Liem I.H. 532
Lim S.J. 529
Lima C.S.P. 574
Lima J.J.P. 413
Lin C.-Y. 565
List A. 454
Liu C.-S. 565
Liu S. 425, 521
Lomax A. 571
Lombardo I. 449
Lorusso V. 563
Lot M. 576
Love C. 500
Love P. 407
Lu S.-N. 564
Lund Sraas C. 520
M Spyrou N. 352
Ma Y. 418
Machac J. 534
Mackey E.A. 314
MacLean P.S. 411
Magata Y. 486
Magnotta V.A. 462
Mahawatte P. 358
Maihara V.A. 377
M kinen S. 476
a
Malhotra A.D. 497
Malhotra G. 603
Malizia A.L. 392
Malonda A.G. 343
Man Lee J. 332
Manabe Y. 482
Manger W.M. 590
Manifold I.H. 580
Marinozzi A. 494
Marks L.B. 549
Marshall V.L. 453
Mateus V.A.P. 429
Matsuda S. 522
Matsui H. 439
Matsumoto N. 523
Matthews R. 479
Mattsson S. 592
Maxwell III S.L. 357
Mazza S. 467
McCall S.K. 360
McDougall I.R. 505
McGuire S.M. 549
McWilliams E. 384
Mel ndez-Alafort L. 420
e
Menapace E. 311
Mendes A.C. 556
Menzel E.J. 525
Mercer J.R. 427
Messina J.A. 442

AUTHOR INDEX

Meyer J.H. 457


Miao Y. 388
Michotte C. 419
Migrino R.Q. 510
Mil M.I. 309
a
Milker-Zabel S. 611
Millar A.M. 403
Miller T.T. 500
Minoshima S. 477
Mizera J. 312
Momosaki S. 389, 483
Monserratt L. 459
Moreau I. 327
Moreira D.S. 350
Moreira S. 391
Morel P. 561
Morota S. 531
Morris J.S. 489
Moser D.J. 462
Moustafa H.M. 493
Mukhopadhyay U. 424
Mullan B.P. 541
M ller S.P. 581
u
Murata Y. 536
Murphy K.P.J. 497
Murray A.D. 498
Murthy R. 386
Myslive ek M. 506
c
Nachtigal A. 492
Nadali A. 420
Nagamachi S. 544
Nagasawa H. 430
Nair A.G.C. 372
Nair N. 603
Nakai K. 507
Nakajima K. 512
Nakamura Y. 349
Nathan M.A. 541
Neill A. 559
Nekolla S.G. 516
Nekula J. 506
Nestle U. 550
Neuman J. 545
Nguyen D. 543
Nguyen P. 459
Ngwenyama R.A. 489
Nichols A.L. 338
Nickles R.J. 413
Ncoli I.G. 367

Nieder C. 444
Nielsen V.E. 595
Niggli F. 612
Nishii R. 544
Nishinaka K. 439
Noguchi J. 416
Nomori H. 548
Noohi A.H. 576
Norenberg J.P. 322, 530
Nosslin B. 592
Nusser T. 606
Nuutila P. 502
Nystedt J. 476
Oberg A.L. 321
OBrien L.M. 403
OConnell M.J. 513
Oda K. 487
Oda M. 439
Oh P.-J. 332
Ohtsuka T. 548
Ohye H. 584
Okada S. 477
Olschewski T. 610
Olovcov V. 337
s
a
Section 23 vol 70.2

Oltenfreiter R. 406
Ono Y. 482
Oriuchi N. 431
Ott K. 553
Oufriha N. 499
Outola I. 362
Oxley T.J. 446
Oyen W.J.G. 394
Ozalp F. 570
Ozdemir O. 583

Riondato M. 420
Roach P.J. 435
Roberts J.P. 559
Rodrguez Barquero L. 326

Rosioreanu A. 545
Roteta M. 326
Roumen R.M.H. 532
Rowshanfarzad P. 379
Rubner C. 582
Ryu K.N. 496

Paganelli G. 396
Pal R. 356
Pal S. 398
Palestro C.J. 500
Palfey B.A. 306
Pandey U. 490
Pang H.-F. 368
Papalia R. 494
Park E.S. 472
Park H.-J. 472
Park I.J. 562
Park R. 558
Parr R.M. 371
Parreira P.S. 375
Parsey R.V. 481
Pathak S. 438
Patterson J. 453
Pauleit D. 480
Pauwels E.K.J. 493
Pavese N. 466
Pearce A.K. 419
Pearson N.R. 421
Pedersen M. 578
Pejovi -Mili A. 491
c
c
Pemler P. 571
Perillo-Adamer F. 428
Perk L.R. 397
Perkins A.C. 404
Perrang C. 355
Pham M.K. 363
Pike V.W. 488
Pilette C. 560
Pinkawa M. 572
Piroth M.D. 572
Pleiss U. 524
Plotkin M. 464
Poria R.B. 530
Povinec P.P. 363
Price R.E. 444
Puetter R.C. 575
Pulcini A. 600
Punch G.E. 602

Sawek J. 455
Sabet M. 379
Saga T. 478
Sahagia M. 329, 341
Saiki M. 373
Sakai K. 482
Sakamoto A. 522
Sakata M. 487
Salber D. 480
Sam n E. 568
e
Sanchez-Cabeza J.A. 363
Santos A.O. 574
Santry D.C. 308
Sapienza M.T. 588
Sato Y. 348, 523
Satpati D. 490
Sauerwein T.J. 586
Savin M. 555
Scarsbrook A.F. 542
Schachoff S. 579
Schechter H. 390
Scheibel V. 390
Schembri G.P. 435
Schimmel K.J.M. 369
Schneider U. 571
Schou M. 488
Schrader H. 323
Schretlen D.J. 470
Schubiger P.A. 399
Schuck A. 612
Schuijf J.D. 526
Schultz M.K. 336
Schuss A. 545
Scollard D.A. 381
Scott D.J. 473
Scott Nelson R. 558
Seegenschmiedt M.H. 610
Seidel D. 524
Seifert S. 426
Sellem D.B. 566
Seppenwoolde J.-H. 429
Serti J.A.A. 373
e
Severance A.J. 481
Shanthly N. 434
Shaw M. 468
Sherpa K.M. 555
Shetty-Alva N. 535
Shimizu S. 460
Showler A.T. 313
Shu H. 385
Shulkin B.L. 591
Sia I.G. 501
Siaens R. 432
Sieckman G.L. 557
Siewert J.-R. 553
Signore A. 609
Silva C. 556
Silva E.A. 330
Silva M.A.L. 318
Simpson B.R.S. 339, 342
Simpson J.B. 587
Sinzinger H. 511, 525
Skouri H.N. 515

Qaim S.M. 319


Querol M. 401
Quinn T.P. 388
Quint M. 405
Quon A. 505
Radan L. 604
Ramaswami A. 356
Ray T. 422
Raynaud F.-R. 436
Razai N. 441
Razdolescu A.C. 346
Read J. 404
Reddy A.V.R. 372
Reimold M. 463
Remediani S. 600
Rey A. 551
Reza Jalilian A. 379
Rhee Y. 585
Rijbroek A. 474
Section 23 vol 70.2

Sloof G.W. 369


Smodi B. 317
s
Sobal G. 525
Sochorov J. 361
a
Soon Park T. 332
Soucy J.P. 467
Spate V.L. 489
Stahl A. 579
Stanga D. 327
Steffen A.-C. 567
Stehouwer J.S. 409
Steinling M. 436
Stieber V.W. 452
Stigter-Van Walsum M. 397
Stoffels G. 480
Stone-Elander S. 568
Stroak A. 335
Struikmans H. 528
Sturza M.I. 354
Sudersanan M. 398
Sugiura M. 509
Sung K.S. 410
Sure U. 443
Suzuki Y. 523
Tahara K. 537
Tai Y.F. 466
Takai N. 389
Takayasu H. 537
Takeda M.N. 324, 350
Takeda T. 569
Takeda Y. 509
Talbot J.-N. 552
Tanaka K. 522
Tawakol A. 510
Taylor W.D. 448
Tellmann L. 319
Temma T. 486
Teunissen J.J.M. 607
Therneau T.M. 321
Thomsen H.S. 613
Thorell J.-O. 568
Timmermann B. 612
Tokuuye K. 569
Tolmachev V. 567
Tong W.P. 424
Tnnessen T. 520
Torigian D.A. 519
Toso C. 561
Toyohara J. 387
Tseng C.-K. 458
Turcotte E. 547
Turgut B. 583
Turkington T.G. 461
Turner S. 542
Turra C. 376
Uchida Y. 477
Urashima T. 430
Vaaje-Kolstad G. 432
Vaishnavi S. 448
Van De Wiele C. 406
Van Den Bosch M.A.A.J. 597
Van Der Grond J. 450
Van Dongen A.J. 450
Van Eerd J.E.M. 394
Van Hemert F.J. 369
Van Kempen-Harteveld M.L.
528
Van Wyngaardt W.M. 339, 342
Varela J. 351
Varrone A. 488
Visser O.J. 397

AUTHOR INDEX

Vives A.E.S. 391


Volkovitsky P. 331
Vriens E.M. 474
Vulpius D. 359
Wadsley J.C. 580
Wagner B. 516
Walendzik H. 408
Wang C.-F. 368
Wang J.-H. 381, 564
Wang K. 430
Wang M. 393
Warwick B.J.M. 504
Watanabe K.-I. 548
Watkinson L.D. 557
Weber W. 553
Weiner M. 533
Welch A. 498
Wesolowski C.A. 575
Westbrook J.K. 313
Westera G. 399
Wieczorek D. 455
Wiering B. 554
Willegaignon J. 588
Wilson I.A. 465
Wisselink W. 474
W hrle J. 606
o
Wong C.-Y.O. 555
Wong D.F. 470
Wong T.Z. 461
Woo K.S. 529
Woods M.J. 322
Wu A. 422
Wu J.C. 471
Xia W. 479
Yamada T. 348, 349
Yamamoto K. 509
Yamamoto Y. 461
Yamashita C.I. 373
Yamazaki I.M. 330
Yang D.M. 496
Yano G. 584
Yen Y.-H. 564
Yeung W.-L. 451
Yin D. 393
Yoshimoto M. 415
Young E.A. 456
Yu C.S. 562
Yuan M.-C. 368
Y cel M. 468
u
Yukihiro M. 536
Yunoki A. 348
Zabel-Du Bois A. 611
Zaichick V. 316
Zaidi H. 370, 561
Zeisler R. 314
Zekri J.M. 580
Zeng F. 409
Zhang K. 434
Zhang M.-R. 416
Zhou J. 385
Zhou R. 517
Zhou S. 549
Zhu H. 385
Zhuang H. 598
Zielhuis S.W. 429
Ziessman H.A. 497
Zimmerman B.E. 310, 322, 344
Zimmermann F. 573
Zubieta J.-K. 456
Zucchi O.L.A.D. 391
3