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Prof.

Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
1
CHE 425
CHE 425
Engineering Economics and
Engineering Economics and
Design Principles
Design Principles
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
2
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 4
Understanding Process
Understanding Process
Conditions
Conditions
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
3
The ability to make an economic
The ability to make an economic
analysis of a chemical process
analysis of a chemical process
based on a PFD is not proof
based on a PFD is not proof
that the process will
that the process will
actually work.
actually work.
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
4
PURPOSE OF CHAPTER 4
PURPOSE OF CHAPTER 4
O O Analyze reasons for selecting specific conditions: Analyze reasons for selecting specific conditions:
Temperatures Temperatures
Pressures Pressures
Compositions Compositions
O O Analyze process conditions that require special consideration Analyze process conditions that require special consideration
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
5
CONDITIONS OF SPECIAL CONCERN
CONDITIONS OF SPECIAL CONCERN
O O It is easier to adjust T and/or P of a stream than to change It is easier to adjust T and/or P of a stream than to change
composition. composition.
O O The following conditions do not cause severe difficulties The following conditions do not cause severe difficulties
Temperatures between 40 Temperatures between 40 - - 260 C 260 C
Pressures between 1 Pressures between 1 - - 10 bar 10 bar
O O Conditions outside the above favored temperature and pressure Conditions outside the above favored temperature and pressure
ranges are identified as ranges are identified as conditions of special concern conditions of special concern
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
6
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
Above 10 bar
Below 1 bar
Large equipment
Special construction material
Increase in cost
Favorable condition
Thicker walled expensive equipment
Safety issue
1- 10 bar
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
7
A decision to operate outside
A decision to operate outside
the pressure range of 1
the pressure range of 1
-
-
10
10
bar must be justified
bar must be justified
PRESSURE (cont.)
PRESSURE (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
8
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
9
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
10
A decision to operate above
A decision to operate above
400 C must be justified
400 C must be justified
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
11
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
Require
refrigeration
Okay
Require
special
heaters
40
40
-
-
260 C
260 C
Above 260 C
Above 260 C
Below 40 C
Below 40 C
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
12
TEMPERATURE (cont.)
TEMPERATURE (cont.)

T < 40
T < 40

C
C

Refrigeration
Refrigeration
4 4
Use as much Cooling Water as Possible
Use as much Cooling Water as Possible
4 4
Operating
Operating
Costs(Table
Costs(Table
3.4)
3.4)
4 4
Cooling Water
Cooling Water
$0.16/ GJ
$0.16/ GJ
4 4
Refrigerated Water
Refrigerated Water
$20.60/ GJ
$20.60/ GJ
CW RW
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
13
Do we ever operate outside these limits?

Tables 4.1
Tables 4.1

4.3
4.3
4 4
Reactors and Separators
Reactors and Separators

Table 4.4
Table 4.4
4 4
Other Equipment
Other Equipment

DME Process
DME Process

pretty much inside limits


pretty much inside limits
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
14
REASONS FOR OPERATING AT CONDITIONS OF SPECIAL REASONS FOR OPERATING AT CONDITIONS OF SPECIAL
CONCERN CONCERN
O
O
Favorable equilibrium conversion
Favorable equilibrium conversion
O
O
Increase in reaction rates
Increase in reaction rates
O
O
Maintain a gas phase
Maintain a gas phase
O
O
Improve selectivity
Improve selectivity
0
act
E
R T
reaction
k k e

=
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
15
Table 4.1
Table 4.1
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
16
Table 4.1 (cont.)
Table 4.1 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
17
Table 4.2
Table 4.2
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
18
Table 4.2 (cont.)
Table 4.2 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
19
Table 4.3
Table 4.3
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
20
Table 4.3 (cont.)
Table 4.3 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
21
Table 4.4
Table 4.4
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
22
Table 4.4 (cont.)
Table 4.4 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
23
Table 4.4 (cont.)
Table 4.4 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
24
Example 4.2
Example 4.2
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
25
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
26
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
27
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Example 4.2 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
28
Process Conditions Matrix (PCM)
Process Conditions Matrix (PCM)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
29
Process Conditions Matrix (PCM) (cont.)
Process Conditions Matrix (PCM) (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
30
Evaluation of Reactor R-101

Three conditions of concern


Three conditions of concern
4 4
High Temperature
High Temperature
4 4
High Pressure
High Pressure
4 4
Non
Non
-
-
stoichiometric
stoichiometric
Feed Conditions
Feed Conditions
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
31
Additional Information about toluene HDA reaction
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
32
Reactor Analysis
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
33
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
34
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
35
Thermodynamic Consideration

High temperature concern


High temperature concern
4 4
Fig 4.1 implies the
Fig 4.1 implies the
rxn
rxn
is exothermic
is exothermic
4 4
For exothermic
For exothermic
rxn
rxn
, as T ,
, as T ,
Xeq
Xeq
4 4
Decrease in
Decrease in
Xeq
Xeq
is undesirable
is undesirable
4 4
Use of high T cannot be justified from
Use of high T cannot be justified from
thermodynamic point of view
thermodynamic point of view
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
36
Thermodynamic Consideration (cont.)

High pressure concern


High pressure concern
4 4
Rxn
Rxn
stoichiometry
stoichiometry
shows that there are
shows that there are
equal number of reactant and product
equal number of reactant and product
moles in the HDA
moles in the HDA
rxn
rxn
.
.
4 4
Thus, no effect of pressure on
Thus, no effect of pressure on
Xeq
Xeq
4 4
No reason to use high P from
No reason to use high P from
thermodynamic point of view
thermodynamic point of view
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
37
Example 4.3
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
38
Example 4.3 (cont.)
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
39
Example 4.4
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
40
Conclusions

T < 40
T < 40

C
C

Refrigeration
Refrigeration

T > 250
T > 250

C
C

Fired Heater or Furnace


Fired Heater or Furnace

T > 400
T > 400

C
C

M.O.C. Issues
M.O.C. Issues

P < 1
P < 1
atm
atm

Vacuum and Large Equipment


Vacuum and Large Equipment

P > 10
P > 10
atm
atm

Cost
Cost
Prof. Adnan Alamer
Chemical Engineering Dept., KFUPM.
41
1 atm
10 atm
Requires
Fired
Heater
Requires
Special
M.O.C.
Requires
Refriger-
ation
Wall Thickness Increases
Vacuum Large Equipment
40C 250C 400C
SUMMARY
SUMMARY