Adenine

Alanine scanning mutagenesis
Alkaline lysis
Allele
α-complementation
Antibiotic
Antibody
Anticodon
Antigen
Bacteriophage
Base pair
Bermuda principle
Blastocyst
Catabolite repression
cDNA
cDNA library
Cell cycle
Cell-cycle checkpoints
Centromere
Chromatid
Chromatin
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
Chromosome
Chromosome walking
Clone
Cloning vector
Codon
Codon usage
Complementary
Conjugation
Conservative replication
Contig
Cosmid
Cytological map
Cytosine
Denatured
Differential display
Dinucleotide
Dispersive replication
DNA
DNA ligase
DNApolymerase
DNA topoisomerase
Electrophoresis
Electroporation
Epitope
Euchromatic DNA
Exon
Expressed sequence tag (EST)
Expression vector
F episome
FISH
Frame-shift mutation
Functional complementation
Gene
Gene knockout
Gene knock-down
Genetic engineering
Genetic marker
Genetic switch
Genome
Genomic library
Guanine
HAC
Helper phage
Hemimethylated DNA
Heterochromatic DNA
Heterozygous
Histone
Holliday junction
Homologous recombination
Homology
Homozygous
Hybridization
Hyperchromic effect
Insertional inactivation
Intron
Isopycnic centrifugation
Isoschizomer
Karyotype
Kozak sequence
lac operon
Lagging strand
Lariat
Leading strand
Melting temperature (Tm)
Methylated DNA
Microarray
Microsatellites
Mini-prep
Monocistronic
Monoclonal antibody
Morula
mRNA
Northern blot
Nucleoside
Nucleosome
Nucleotide
Oligonucleotide
Oocyte
Opine
Origin of replication
PAC
Palindromic
PCR
PFGE
Phage
Phage display
Phenotype
Pilus
Phosphodiester bond
Plasmid
Polycistronic
Polyclonal antibody
Polynucleotide
Polypeptide
Polysome
Primer
Promoter
Pronucleus
Propeller twist
Purine
Pyrimidine
Quiescence
Replicon
Restriction enzyme
Restriction map
Reverse transcriptase
Reverse transcription
RFLP
Ribosome
RNA
RNA interference (RNAi)
RNA polymerase
RT-PCR
Semi–conservative replication
Shine-Dalgarno sequence
Signal sequence
Silent mutation
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
siRNA
Site-specific recombination
Southern blot
Spliceosome
Splicing
Stem cell
Supercoiling
T-DNA
TA cloning
Telomere
Terminal transferase
Terminator
Terminator technology
Thymine
Transcription
Transfection
Transformation
Transforming principle
Transgenic animals
Transition mutation
Translation
Transversion mutation
Trinucleotide
Two-hybrid screen
Uracil
Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs)
Vector
Western blot
Xenobiotic
Xenotransplantation
YAC
Zygote
a purine base found in DNA and RNA. Adenine base pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA
the conversion of amino acids within a protein to alanine to determine the role of specific amino acid side chains
a method for breaking open bacterial cells for the isolation of extrachromosomal DNA
one of several alternative versions of a gene located at the same locus of a chromosome
in mutants of E. coli which express an inactive version of β-galactosidase, subunit assembly (and enzyme activity) may be restored by the presence of a small amino-terminal fragment of the lacZ product (the a-olypeptide) usually produced from a cloning vector
a substance able to inhibit or kill microorganisms
a protein produced by B lymphocytes that recognizes an antigen and triggers an immune response
a triplet of nucleotide bases in tRNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in mRNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome
a protein or substance capable of stimulating an immune response BAC – bacterial artificial chromosomes
a bacterial virus
bp – the pairing of A with T and G with C in duplex DNA
the rapid, public release of genome DNA sequence data, without restrictions on use
an early embryo typically having the form of a hollow fluid-filled cavity bounded by a single layer of cells
the decreased expression of genes when organisms are grown in glucose
a single strand of DNA that is synthesized from, and is therefore complementary to, an RNA molecule
a collection of double-stranded cDNA molecules contained within a vector
the period from one cell division to the next
systems for interrupting the cell cycle if something has gone wrong
the point or region on a chromosome to which the spindle attaches during mitosis and meiosis
one of the usually paired and parallel strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere
a complex of DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
a method for identifying proteins bound to particular sequences of DNA
a discrete unit of the genome that is visible as a morphological entity during cell division. Each chromosome is a single DNA molecule
the sequential isolation of clones carrying overlapping DNA sequences that allows the sequencing of large regions of the chromosome from a single starting point
an organism, cell or molecule produced from a single ancestor
a plasmid or phage that is used to carry inserted foreign DNA
the triplet of nucleotides that result in the insertion of an amino acid or a termination signal into a polypeptide
the frequency at which amino acid codons are used for the production of proteins
the sequences on one strand of a nucleic acid molecule can bind to their complementary partners on another strand. A = T, G = C
the transfer of all or part of a chromosome that occurs during bacterial mating
a disproved model for DNA synthesis in which the newly synthesized DNA strands bind to each other
a continuous sequence of DNA produced from a number of smaller, overlapping fragments
a plasmid onto which phage lambda cos sites have been inserted. Consequently, the plasmid DNA can be packaged in vitro into the lambda phage coat
a type of chromosome map where genes are located on the basis of the effect that chromosome mutations have on staining patterns
a pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA. Cytosine bases pairs with guanine
in DNA, the conversion of the double-stranded form to a single-stranded form. In proteins, the conversion from an active to an inactive form
a technique to visualize difference in the expression of genes from different sources
the joining of two nucleotides through the formation of a phosphodiester linkage
a disproved model of DNA synthesis in which a random interspersion of parental and new segments are found in daughter DNA molecules
deoxyribonucleic acid
the enzyme that catalyses the formation of a phosphodiester bond between two DNA chains
the enzyme that synthesizes newDNAstrands from aDNA template
an enzyme that changes the linking number of DNA molecules
the application of an electric current to separate molecules (as proteins and nucleic acids) through a gel
a physical way to introducing DNA into cells using an electric current
the molecular region on the surface of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response
the gene-rich areas (including both exons and introns) of a genome
a segment of a gene that is represented in the mature mRNA
small pieces of cDNA sequence generated by sequencing either one or both ends of an expressed gene
a cloning vector designed so that the genes cloned into it may be transcribed and translated
a large extrachromosomal circular double-stranded DNA molecule that carries bacterial fertility genes
fluorescent in situ hybridization
occurs when the coding sequence of a gene contains a deletion or insertion of bases that are not in multiples of three. This changes the reading frame in which translation occurs
the identification of genes from one organism by their ability to counteract the defect caused by the lack of a gene in another organism
a discrete unit of genetic information that is required for the production of a polypeptide. It includes the coding sequence, the promoter and terminator, and introns
the removal of a gene from the genome
the use of silencing techniques to reduce or eliminate the expression of a particular gene
the deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of DNA and the transformation of certain genes
any DNA sequence that can be used to identify a gene or phenotypic trait associated with it
the control of transcription in response to particular signals
the genetic make-up of an organism
a collection of DNA fragments, derived from the genome of an organism, cloned into a vector
a purine base found in DNA and RNA. Guanine base pairs with cytosine
human artificial chromosome
provides certain functions, that are absent from a defective phage, to allow complete phage replication during a mixed infection
DNA that contains methylated bases on one strand only
regions of the chromosome that are highly condensed and not transcribed
an individual with different alleles at a particular genomic locus
a DNA binding protein that forms part of the nucleosome
a central intermediate formed during recombination
DNA crossovers that occur between two homologous DNA molecules
a similarity often attributable to common origin
an individual with the same allele at a particular genomic locus
the pairing of complementary nucleic acids (DNA–DNA or DNA–RNA)
the increase in optical density that occurs when DNA become single stranded
the destruction of the function of a gene by cloning a DNA sequence into it
a segment of DNA that is transcribed, but is removed from the transcript during splicing
the separation of the components of a mixture on the basis of differences in density
different restriction enzymes that recognize the same target DNA sequence
the chromosome content of an organism
the consensus sequence for the initiation of translation. A binding site for the small subunit of the ribosome
the genes required in bacteria for the metabolism of lactose
short DNA fragments are replicated discontinuously in a 5'–3' direction and later covalently joined
an intermediate of RNA splicing
the strand of DNA that is synthesized continuously during replication in a 5'–3' direction
the temperature at the mid-point of DNA denaturation
the modification of DNA bases by the addition of methyl (CH3) groups
sets of miniaturized reaction areas that may also be used to test the binding of DNA fragments
highly polymorphic DNA markers comprised of a variable number of tandem repeats
the purification of extra-chromosomal DNA (usually a plasmid) from a small culture (e.g. 1.5 mL) of bacterial cells
an RNA molecule that codes for one protein
a highly specific protein that can bind to a single epitope within an antigen
a globular solid mass of cells formed by the cleavage of a zygote that precedes the blastula
messenger RNA
a technique for the separation of RNA molecules through agarose gels followed by detection of specific RNAs through hybridization with singlestranded DNA
a purine or pyrimidine base combined with either deoxyribose or ribose found in DNA or RNA
the basic structural unit of chromatin
a purine or pyrimidine base combined with either deoxyribose or ribose and a phosphate group found in DNA or RNA
a short molecule of single-stranded DNA, usually synthesized chemically
an egg before maturation
a product produced by the condensation product of an amino acid with either a keto-acid or a sugar
the nucleotide sequence at which DNA synthesis (replication) is initiated
P1 derived artificial chromosome. A vector, based on the bacteriophage P1 genome, used to clone large DNA fragments in E. coli
a sequence of DNA that read on one strand in a 5 –3 direction is the same as than on the other strand in a 5'–3' direction
polymerase chain reaction – cycles of DNA denaturation, primer annealing and extension with DNA polymerase lead to a amplification of the target DNA sequence
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
bacteriophage – a bacterial virus
a technique that fuses peptides to capsid proteins on the surface of phages. Libraries of phage displayed peptides may be screened for binding to specific ligands
the functional and structural characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of the genotype with the environment
a filament-like projection from the surface of a bacterial cell
a covalent bond between the 5  phosphate group on one nucleotide and the 3' hydroxyl group on an adjacent nucleotide
an autonomous self-replicating extra-chromosomal closed-circular DNA
an mRNA molecule that contains more than one coding region
a mixture of many antibodies, each raised against the same antigen
long chains of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds
a chain of amino acids connected by peptide linkages
multiple ribosomes actively translating a single mRNA molecule into polypeptides
a short DNA or RNA sequence that is paired with one strand of DNA and provides a free 3' hydroxyl group at which DNA replication can initiate
a DNA sequence which serves as the binding site for transcription factors and RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription
the haploid nucleus of an egg or sperm cell prior to fertilization, and immediately after fertilization before the sperm and egg nuclei have fused into a single diploid nucleus
the rotation of individual DNA base pairs within the double helix
a nitrogen containing, double-ring basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The purines in DNA and RNA are adenine and guanine
a nitrogen containing, single-ring basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine, and those in RNA are cytosine and uracil
a dormant phase of cell growth. All but the most basic functions of a cell or group of cells have stopped, usually in response to an unfavourable environment. The cell remains dormant until its surroundings are more favourable
part of the genome in which replication is initiated. Contains origins of replication
(or restriction endonuclease) recognizes short, often palindromic, DNA sequences (recognition sites) and cleaves the DNA
a linear map of the restriction enzyme recognition sites with a DNA molecule
the enzyme that synthesizes DNA from RNA templates
the synthesis of DNA from RNA
restriction fragment length polymorphism – changes in DNA sequence that result in altered lengths of DNA when cleaved with a restriction enzyme
RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis
ribonucleic acid
the process in which the introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell inhibits the expression of genes
the enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template
a method for the amplification of a specific mRNA. Reverse transcriptase is used to form a cDNA which is then amplified using PCR
the separation of the strands ofDNAduring replication with each acting as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary DNA strand
an mRNA sequence that precedes the translation initiation codon and is complementary to a ribosomal RNA
a short amino acid sequence that determines the localization of a protein within the cell
a mutation with DNA that does not cause an alternation to the encoded amino acid sequence
single-base-pair variations scattered within the genetic code of the individuals within a population
small interfering RNAs. Synthetic short double-stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression
occurs between two specific, but not necessarily homologous, DNA sequences
a technique for the separation of DNA molecules through agarose gels followed by detection of specific DNAs after denaturation through hybridization with single-stranded DNA
a complex consisting of RNA and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The spliceosome splices RNA transcripts by excising introns and ligating the ends of exons
the removal of introns and joining of exons to form a mature mRNA
a cell from the embryo, foetus or adult that has capability to reproduce itself. It can give rise to specialized cells that make up the tissues and organs of the body
the way in which closed-circular DNA crosses over its own axis in three-dimensional space
the portion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid that is inserted into the genome of the host plant cell
a method for cloning PCR products that relies on the addition of template independent A residues to PCR products by Taq DNA polymerase
the repetitive DNA sequences at the end of a chromosome
an enzyme that catalyses the addition of nucleotides to the 3'-terminus of DNA
the sequence of DNA that causes RNA polymerase to stop transcription
plants are engineered so when crops are harvested, all new seeds produced are sterile
a pyrimidine base found in DNA. Thymine base pairs with adenine
the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
the addition of DNA to eukaryotic cells
the addition of DNA to bacteria. In eukaryotes, this term also refers to the state of cells that undergo tumour-like growth
the factor identified by Griffith as being able to convert one bacterial type to another
created by inserting DNA sequences into the germ line through addition to the egg
a mutation in DNA in which one purine–pyrimidine base pair is changed to a different purine–pyrimidine base pair
the synthesis of protein using an mRNA template
a mutation in DNA in which a purine–pyrimidine base pair is changed to a pyrimidine–purine base pair
the joining of three nucleotides through phosphodiester linkages
a technique to identify proteins that are able to interact with each other
a pyrimidine base usually only found in RNA. Uracil bases pairs with adenine
different numbers of tandemly repeated DNA sequences at a given locus.
a DNA molecule that possesses the ability to self-replicate. Used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where it is replicated autonomously in large quantities
the detection of specific proteins following electrophoresis using antibodies
a compound with a chemical structure that is foreign to an organism
the surgical transplantation of tissue or organs from an individual of one species into an individual of another species
yeast artificial chromosome
a cell formed by the union of two gametes (egg and sperm)
the conversion of amino acids within a protein to alanine to determine the role of specific amino acid side chains
in mutants of E. coli which express an inactive version of β-galactosidase, subunit assembly (and enzyme activity) may be restored by the presence of a small amino-terminal fragment of the lacZ product (the a-olypeptide) usually produced from a cloning vector
a triplet of nucleotide bases in tRNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in mRNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome
a protein or substance capable of stimulating an immune response BAC – bacterial artificial chromosomes
one of the usually paired and parallel strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere
a discrete unit of the genome that is visible as a morphological entity during cell division. Each chromosome is a single DNA molecule
the sequential isolation of clones carrying overlapping DNA sequences that allows the sequencing of large regions of the chromosome from a single starting point
the triplet of nucleotides that result in the insertion of an amino acid or a termination signal into a polypeptide
the sequences on one strand of a nucleic acid molecule can bind to their complementary partners on another strand. A = T, G = C
a plasmid onto which phage lambda cos sites have been inserted. Consequently, the plasmid DNA can be packaged in vitro into the lambda phage coat
a type of chromosome map where genes are located on the basis of the effect that chromosome mutations have on staining patterns
in DNA, the conversion of the double-stranded form to a single-stranded form. In proteins, the conversion from an active to an inactive form
a disproved model of DNA synthesis in which a random interspersion of parental and new segments are found in daughter DNA molecules
occurs when the coding sequence of a gene contains a deletion or insertion of bases that are not in multiples of three. This changes the reading frame in which translation occurs
the identification of genes from one organism by their ability to counteract the defect caused by the lack of a gene in another organism
a discrete unit of genetic information that is required for the production of a polypeptide. It includes the coding sequence, the promoter and terminator, and introns
the deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of DNA and the transformation of certain genes
provides certain functions, that are absent from a defective phage, to allow complete phage replication during a mixed infection
the consensus sequence for the initiation of translation. A binding site for the small subunit of the ribosome
the purification of extra-chromosomal DNA (usually a plasmid) from a small culture (e.g. 1.5 mL) of bacterial cells
a technique for the separation of RNA molecules through agarose gels followed by detection of specific RNAs through hybridization with singlestranded DNA
a purine or pyrimidine base combined with either deoxyribose or ribose and a phosphate group found in DNA or RNA
P1 derived artificial chromosome. A vector, based on the bacteriophage P1 genome, used to clone large DNA fragments in E. coli
a sequence of DNA that read on one strand in a 5 –3 direction is the same as than on the other strand in a 5'–3' direction
polymerase chain reaction – cycles of DNA denaturation, primer annealing and extension with DNA polymerase lead to a amplification of the target DNA sequence
a technique that fuses peptides to capsid proteins on the surface of phages. Libraries of phage displayed peptides may be screened for binding to specific ligands
the functional and structural characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of the genotype with the environment
a covalent bond between the 5  phosphate group on one nucleotide and the 3' hydroxyl group on an adjacent nucleotide
a short DNA or RNA sequence that is paired with one strand of DNA and provides a free 3' hydroxyl group at which DNA replication can initiate
a DNA sequence which serves as the binding site for transcription factors and RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription
the haploid nucleus of an egg or sperm cell prior to fertilization, and immediately after fertilization before the sperm and egg nuclei have fused into a single diploid nucleus
a nitrogen containing, double-ring basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The purines in DNA and RNA are adenine and guanine
a nitrogen containing, single-ring basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine, and those in RNA are cytosine and uracil
a dormant phase of cell growth. All but the most basic functions of a cell or group of cells have stopped, usually in response to an unfavourable environment. The cell remains dormant until its surroundings are more favourable
(or restriction endonuclease) recognizes short, often palindromic, DNA sequences (recognition sites) and cleaves the DNA
restriction fragment length polymorphism – changes in DNA sequence that result in altered lengths of DNA when cleaved with a restriction enzyme
the process in which the introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell inhibits the expression of genes
a method for the amplification of a specific mRNA. Reverse transcriptase is used to form a cDNA which is then amplified using PCR
the separation of the strands ofDNAduring replication with each acting as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary DNA strand
an mRNA sequence that precedes the translation initiation codon and is complementary to a ribosomal RNA
a technique for the separation of DNA molecules through agarose gels followed by detection of specific DNAs after denaturation through hybridization with single-stranded DNA
a complex consisting of RNA and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The spliceosome splices RNA transcripts by excising introns and ligating the ends of exons
a cell from the embryo, foetus or adult that has capability to reproduce itself. It can give rise to specialized cells that make up the tissues and organs of the body
the portion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid that is inserted into the genome of the host plant cell
a method for cloning PCR products that relies on the addition of template independent A residues to PCR products by Taq DNA polymerase
the addition of DNA to bacteria. In eukaryotes, this term also refers to the state of cells that undergo tumour-like growth
a mutation in DNA in which one purine–pyrimidine base pair is changed to a different purine–pyrimidine base pair
a DNA molecule that possesses the ability to self-replicate. Used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where it is replicated autonomously in large quantities
the surgical transplantation of tissue or organs from an individual of one species into an individual of another species
in mutants of E. coli which express an inactive version of β-galactosidase, subunit assembly (and enzyme activity) may be restored by the presence of a small amino-terminal fragment of the lacZ product (the a-olypeptide) usually produced from a cloning vector
a dormant phase of cell growth. All but the most basic functions of a cell or group of cells have stopped, usually in response to an unfavourable environment. The cell remains dormant until its surroundings are more favourable

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