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A Tamil hand-book : or, full introduction to the common dialect of
that language, on the plan of Ollendorf and Arnold : for the use
of foreigners learning Tamil, and of Tamulians learning English :
with copious vocabularies (Tamil-English, and English-Tamil), appendices
containing reading lessons, analyses of letters, deeds, complaints,
official documents, and a key to the exercises / by G.U. Pope.
Pope, G. U. (George Uglow), 1820-1908.
Madras : P.R. Hunt, 1859.
http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t75t3sk19
Public Domain
http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd
This work is in the Public Domain, meaning that it is
not subject to copyright. Users are free to copy, use,
and redistribute the work in part or in whole. It is possible
that current copyright holders, heirs or the estate of
the authors of individual portions of the work, such
as illustrations or photographs, assert copyrights over
these portions. Depending on the nature of subsequent
use that is made, additional rights may need to be obtained
independently of anything we can address.
yC-NRLF
B 4 051 fO?
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mM BI M I
FIR T C T C I -I OF T MIL C R IMM for choos. Offce of the
Drector of Pubc L 'ftu un ' . . outh In| - 'hr.'-.. choo Book ocety.
COND C T C I M C T . 'IL GR MM R. . th dton. Offce of
the Drector f Pubc Tnstnct _
T MIL PO TIC L NT OLOG . Ths work contans 612 seect erses wth
summares o \ .'""ng n Taa and ngsh references throughout to the Thrd
Grammar an '" o:abuary. Offce of the Drector o'' Pubc Instructon
and ner-" Ik
TR TI ON \
Press Madras.
--a -- '? ustos
9<c
r.::r -| - : .\ e T. Chrstan rwedge ocety's
' I' LD.
COMP . . ..1 .)F R 4yO-_|-- C ING for choos and Chrstan
Fames. 2d dton. T - \ 'story.
T FOLL OF D MON
T MIL '
\O\. I a oe Msson Depostory.
- COL N O' RIT M TIC*
/<?
T F "
LD.
''N C /LG BR .*
T MIL TR : OR TION O' L ND' G OM TR CI NC .*
T MIL TR N L TION OF L ND' G OM TR N RT.*
* These works were transated by T. encata Gharry and were re sed and
edted by the Re . G. . Pope. Offce of the Drector of Pubc Instructon.'
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T MIL ND-BOO :
F LL INTROD CTION TO T COMMON DI L CT
OF T T L NG G
ON T PL N OF
OLL NDORF ND RNOLD.
FOR T OF FOR IGN R L RNING T MIL ND OF
T M LI N L RNING NGLI .
/th copous ocabuares Tam- ngsh and ngsh-Tam)
ppendces contanng Readng Lessons nayses of Letters
Deeds Compants Offca Documents and a
ey to the ercses.
T . G. . POP
ead Master of the Ootacammd Grammar choo.
Dffcdtks w ansh as you earn on. Pro .
T COND DITION.
a
t rt s
PRINT D ND P BLI D B P. R. NT.
nd sod at the mercan Msson Press.
1 59.
Prce e en Rupees.
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\r
\ *\
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IfB
PR F C TO T FIR T DITION.
No apoogy s necessary for offerng to the Tam student a book
whch has ong been wanted. In regard to the mperfectons whch
detract from ts aue the wrter can ony say he has done what he
coud. e has tred to state the facts of ths nobe anguage succncty
and ceary. The e ampes wth few e ceptons ha e been seected
from books n un ersa use n the Tam country. houd a second
edton be pubshed these e ampes w be consderaby ncreased n
number.
No /ork can remo e from the eements of a anguage ke Tam a
that may embarass the earner. There are dffcutes n t whch must
be met bra ey but there are certany none whch a ery moderate
degree of attenton w not enabe any one howe er unpractsed n such
studes to o ercome.
The foowng hnts may be of use to those who use ths book :
1. Do not proceed too ucky. n entrey new anguage re ures
great accuracy n the maste'ng of ts eements.
2. rte down e ery thng from the ery begnnng. Read aways
wth pen or penc n hand.
3. Read aoud a the e ercses wth a Tam teacher and be ery
carefu n ascertanng the correctness of what you ha e wrtten.
4. t frst whene er you meet wth a new word ook for t n the
ocabuary and decne or con ugate t n fu.
5. Begn to tak though wth stammerng ps as soon as pos.sbe
the ery frst day. Ne er speak ngsh to a nat e f you can hep t.
hy say "sat " when you kno the word "s-u/?" Do not be afrad
of makns: mstakes.
e\k |t /r . brr t 4r
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I PR F C .
6. Be ery carefu n notng down dfferences n dom between
Tam and your own anguage. If you hear much Cu-stan or Cutcherry
Tam beware of thnkng a you hear to be reay Tam. Try to
cut ate a Tam ear so as to detect an undomatc e presson as you
woud a fase note n musc. ou shoud understand a you hear:
you need not use any e presson that s not good Tam.
Ths tte work has been wrtten wth a deep feeng of the ast
mportance of the ac uston by a who so ourn n the and of the
anguage of the peope among whom they dwe. Two hours a day for
a year w enabe most peope to con erse freey on ordnary topcs
wth those around them.
It s proposed n due tme to pubsh a 2d part* n whch the poetry
of the anguage w be ustrated.
The author woud scarcey ha e entured to pubsh n ths country
a book re urng such pecuar attenton to accuracy n type and
arrangement had he not been eaousy seconded by Mr. P. R. unt
the abe superntendent of the mercan Msson Press to whose efforts
to mpro e Tam Typography a who use the anguage are ndebted.
The earnest wsh and prayer of the wrter s that hs efforts may
tend n howe er sma a degree to factate free ntercourse between
ndus and ther brethren from the est and so ad n the mpartaton
to the former of a that God has bestowed upon the atter.
Tan ore
|
October 5th 1 55
PR F C TO T COND DITION.
The work has been entrey re-wrtten and greaty enarged. key
has been added. Ths w be of great use f consuted prudenty.
The author has to ofer hs sncere acknowedgments to many knd
frends for ery auabe suggestons.
Ootacamund
March 1 59. <
* ec Tam Poetca nthoogy.
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T MIL ND-BOO .
INTROD CTION.
I. Of the Tam Language n Genera.
1. The Tam Cp perhaps from ans. Dra da) s the ernacuar
speech of about ten mons of peope nhabtng the great pan of
the Carnatc. Te mts wthn whch t pre as are thus defned
n the Nannu a standard nat e grammar): "The eastern boundary
s the eastern sea the Bay of Benga) the southern boundary s Cape
Comorn the western boundary s the west sea the northern boundary
s engadara or Trpety a town about 0 mes N. . of Madras
neary on the same parae wth Pucat)." ere the western boundary
from Comorn Lo/f to Tr andrum _ <s:BsL\nLD\ s correcty stated
but from Tr andrum northward the Tam country s confned to the
eastern sde of the Ghats. The Tam regon thus ncudes a porton
of south Tra ancore the entre ahs of Tne ey Madura ncud-
ng the domnons of the Tondman Ra a) Trchnopoy Combatoor
a great part of aem and of North rcot wth the whoe of outh
rcot and Chngeput. North Ceyon aso s a Tam Coony. Tam
communtes are to be found n most of the Brtsh cantonments n
the Dekkan.
2. The prncpa anguages cognate to Tam are the Teugu the
Canarese and the Maayaam.
The Teugu s bounded north by the rya begnnng wth the
dstrct of Gan am) on the north-west by Marath on the south-west
by Canarese and on the outh by Tam. It dffers from the Tam
more wdey than do the other cognate daects.
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INTROD CTION I.
The Canarese s the anguage of the tabe-and of Mysore of part
of the N am's terrtory and of a part of Canara.
The Maayaam s spoken on the western sde of the Maaya moun-
tans from Mangaore to Tr andrum. It seems to be but a corrupt
Tam.
Mnor cognate daects are I.) the Tuu a whch s a daect spoken
n the neghbourhood of Mangaore and s neary aed to the Canarese.
2.) The arous daects spoken by the rude nhabtants of the
Nagrs of whch the Tuda s more aed to Tam and the ota
gohata to the Canarese. The Burgher badaga s smpy od
Canarese much corrupted.
3.) The Gond and u n Gondwana and the ad onng hs.. The
rude anguages of some other mountan trbes n Centra and North-
western Inda possess more or ess resembance to Tam n dom and
structure.
To ths famy of anguages the epthet " Dra dan" has been apped.
Ths s hardy correct as that term must ncude Marath. They ha e
aso been styed " Taman " from Tam ther chef member.
3. The orgn and affntes of the outh Indan group of anguages
ha e been much dscussed.
On the one hand the more deepy they a-e studed the more cose
w ther affnty to anscrt be seen to be and the more e dent w
t appear that they possess a prmt e and ery near reatonshp to
the anguages of the Indo- uropean group.
et they are certany not mere Pracrts or corruptons of anscrt.
I ha e aways supposed that ther pace was among the members of
the ast mentoned famy and that they were probaby " ds ecta mem-
bra" of a anguage coe a wth anscrt and ha ng the same orgn
wth t.
They certany contan many traces of a cose connecton wth the
Greek the Gothc the Persan and other anguages of the same famy
n ponts e en where anscrt presents no parae.
On the other hand. Professor Rask Mr. Norrs and more recenty
Dr. Cadwe ha e shewn that the orgna anguage of the nomadc
trbes from whom the races of outh Inda ha e sprung was probaby
what they term " cythan " that s a member of that group of tongues
n whch are ncuded the "Fnnsh Turksh Mongoan and Tungusan
fames."
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INTROD CTION. I.
4. Grammars of the Tam may be d ded nto two casses: those
composed by Nat e schoars and those wrtten by uropeans to fac-
tate the ac uston of the anguages by foregners.
1.) In the frst cass t s ony necessary to menton the foowng:
a.) gastycs utrams. It seems ery doubtfu whether the book
whch now goes under the name of ur sud s reay an ancent
composton. s a whoe ths wo-k s not e tant but fragments of
t ha e been pubshed.
b.) The Tocappam wrtten by nsmsrLDr stB of the town of
reosruLuaL south of Madura. part of ths s n prnt.
c.) The TGsrnTeo fT<so ancent m' scentfc treatse com-
ped by the earned |esut R. |. C. Beschus. Ths s a ery compre-
hens e work but ts author mtates the Nat e wrters not n ther
e ceences ony. It can hardy be consdered an orgna work
though the chapters on Composton and Prosody are more so than the
former part.
d.) The fB<Br_r o m o good ro) composed by Pa anant of the
town of F' srems. Of ths ery abe work many edtons ha e been pub-
shed and a copous commentary has been added by smn fBLo| eurru T
of Tne ey. The whoe of the Nan-u wth a pan prose Commentary
ocabuary and ummares n ngsh has been pubshed as the
econd part of my Thrd Grammar. I woud recommend the earner
who may wsh to carry hs studes beyond the present wo'k to read
o er ths Thrd Grammar as ntroductory to the Nann. I enture
to hope that he w fnd that after masterng that work the wrtngs
of the Tam Grammarans w present scarcey any dfcutes.
2.) Ccf-| The earest Grammars pubshed by uropeans were those
of the Re . Father Beschus of whch there are two one of the com-
mon daect sr L ) and the other of the poetca sBp).
They were wrtten n Latn.
transaton of the common Tam Grammar was pubshed by
Mr. orst and subse uenty wth correctons by the Re . Mr. Maon.
It has been superseded n a great measure by ater pubcatons yet
s deser ng of an attent e perusa by e ery Tam student.
The hen Tam Grammar was transated and pubshed by Mr.
Babngton. Ths s an e ceedngy correct and schoarke edton
of a most mastery work.
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d
INTROD CTION. I.
b.) The eary Mssonares of Tran uebar are sad to ha e pubshed
a Tam Grammar but 1 ha e not been abe to meet wth any account
of t.
c.) Grammar was pubshed n urope by Mr. nderson of the
Madras C er ce. Ths s an abe work but ts usefuness s
essened by ts strct mtaton of the nat e grammars.
d.) The ne t work was by the ate Re . C. T. . Rhenus of
Paamcottah. Ths s a ery cear and usefu work and was founded
upon that of Beschus. It has gone through three edtons and
though not a phosophca grammar s a pan usefu manua.
The ynta s defcent and the e ampes were mosty made for
the grammar and not taken from standard Tam authors.
e.) Dr. Grau a drector of the Lepsc Lutheran Msson has ery
recenty pubshed a sma manua whch whe t contans nothng
new s an eegant and schoarke compendum.
It s to be regretted that the author shoud ha e aowed hmsef
to speak as though he had been the frst to " ntroduce Tam nto the
sphere of uropean studes."
f.) nce the pubcaton of the 1st edton of ths work a Compar-
at e Grammar of the Dra dan Languages has been pubshed by the
Re . Dr. Cadwe whch th-ows great ght upon e ery part of the
sub ect. No rea student of the anguage shoud be wthout t.
5. The nat e Tam Lterature though greaty nferor n e tent and
ntrnsc aue to the anscrt contans many works whch w ampy
repay the carefu student. The names of a few of these n the order
of ther dffcuty I sub on.
1.) The wrtngs of u e Lesson 97).
hen the student s abe to read wth ease pan prose Tam he w
fnd the tte works of ths far-famed poetess the best ntroducton to
the study of the poetca Tam. They consst of
a. The tt-sud )
b. The ondre- eynthan .sT sr<s<np Ceu/dr) and
c. The Mudure pemr).
The two former of these consst of thca and Msceaneous ma ms
arranged n aphabetca order. The ast work s not atogether a
genune producton of the authoress but the greater number of the
erses are of consderabe ant uty and of undenabe mert.
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INTROD CTION. I.
2.) The uRa of Tru au ar.
Ths work was ntended by ts author to be a compendum of a
wsdom and to stand n the pace of the edas to the Tam peope.
It s d ded nto three parts :
a. p guu IT eo the d son ufT ) ) whch treats of T /dd 131. d_).
Ths contans 3 chapters of 10 stan as each whch are d ded nto
a.) Introducton 1-4.
b.) Domestc rtue 5-24.
c.) scetc rtue 25-37.
d.) Destny 3 .
b. uT LLur o the d son whch treats of LT un- msr 131
pp. . .)
In ths are ncuded 70 chapters whch are thus cassfed:
a.) The functons of Royaty 39 63.
b.) The necessary ad uncts of Royaty 64-95.
c.) Msceaneous 96-10 .
The thrd part treats of se7sua peasure and much of t s not ft to be read.
3.) The Rayma anam of amban.
Nothng can e ceed the sweetness and harmony of the ersfcaton
of ths rea poet.
The frst porton or ursomskr ) the canto whch reates to the youth
of Rama the hero ans baa a youth kandam a chapter) s deser -
ng of carefu study.
4.) The Naad-nanntR t treo four ne rBrrss four hundred
172) the four hundred uatrans).
Ths work conssts of 40 chapters on the same sub ects as the uRa.
It seems to be a coecton of erses by arous |an authors and s of
undoubted ant uty. The Tam s pure and many of the erses are
of snguar beauty.
5.) The Na-shad'ham a poetca erson by kng t rarama-
pandyan of the story of Naa. Of ths work t s pro erbay
sad "the Nashad'ham s the nectar of poets."
6.) The aga Chntaman an pc grounded on the hstory of
kng agan. Ths s a dffcut work but wthout doubt the fnest
Tam composton e tant.
7.) The Temba an dut unfadng .gysssf a garand) of Besch
must not be omtted n ths enumeraton.
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INTROD CTION. I.
Ths wo'k contans a knd of" summary of the Bbe mnged wth
e-ends. It s a cose mtaton of the Chntaman from whch much
of ts poetca dcton and most of ts fgures are bor'owed. ome
erses are branty poetca.
There are many prose works n Tam whch are transatons or
ada )tatons from the anscrt. of these are more or ess unsafe
modes of stye beng fu of foregn doms and pedantc e pressons.
The foowng are much read and w be usefu to the dscrmnatng
student.
1.) The sm sff srr fahc LD rff custer |.
2.) The f rr BrLoe f . Chntaman a gem supposed to yed wat-
e er ts possessors wsh for ).
3.) The us' hns.sen f e ns) cthod of actng)
grounded upon the anscrt topadesa.
6. There s a arge and rapdy ncreasng transated terature n
Tam. These works had better be studed sparngy by the earner
unt hs progress n the anguage sha enabe hm to detect undomatc
forms and e pressons.
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INTROD CTION.
II
The foowng pages are ntended to assst the student who reads wth a nat e teacher.
Throughout te work a matter ncuded n brackets or prnted n sma type shoud be eft
by the earner to the second or thrd perusa.
I The Tam etters sr--g) are 30 n number. Of these 12 are
owes and 1 consonants.
The characters by whch these are represented are e denty
der ed from the Grantham whch s tsef der ed from the earer forms
of the De anagar.
The owes are:
1. hort - eo.)
2.
Long rh-L ). )
3. Dpthongs.
1.
y a.
6.
k added.)
2.
. -
7.
or FP .
3.
a_ u.
.
petT u.
4.
<oT e.
9.
<o7 e.
11.
Cu e.
5.
6.
10.
- 6.
12.
' IT O .
owe s caed --u3t er-aps fe-etter.'
To pronounce
dy merey open the mouth. ampe: merca Chna.
<|M s the same sound engthened. . Father.
s as n pn. The German honess pty gft.
/ P s the same engthened as n p ue machne ntrgue.
2_ s to be pronounced neary ke oo n cook. The Itaan u fu bu.
M ke u n rue or oo n schoo.
<oT and <m ke the e and a n enabe.
and ke o n opnon and n opum.
c as a genera rue ke eye. 6 err ke ow n fow.
The sound of the Orenta owes s remarkaby pure and
smpe. The most carefu attenton s necessary n order to catch the
sounds.
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INTROD CTION. II.
m. The consonants as arranged by the Tamans are
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
1
Cass g)
- BTIO.)
1
t
3
2
3
sa T
4
5

|
IT
6
O

< |
y

1
IP
<5rr

\
u aent.
Pronuncaton.
ff k gh kh
19
s c/ h
gn n ....
d
Organ.
s g a7d k n gone kng. Guttura . .
s ng n ong
Pronounced as neary \
as possbe as a denta. \
Ony to be earned \
from e ampes. |
hen doubed LL tt.
# // ths rf d n anscrt der - \
at es ony.) |
p ph b bh
Guttura ...
Paata ....
Paata ....
Lngua. \
Cerebra) )
Lngua. 1
Cerebra) \
Denta
Denta
Trans-
terated
by.
F'ery soft
dent
oft as neary I
a as possbe. |
rrr omethng ke the
esh II.
I

Laba. . . .
Laba . . . .
Paata . .
Lngua . .
Denta. .. .
Laba. . . .
Lngua . . . .
Lngua . . . .
rr hen doubed pp tt. \Paata ....
n ' The ngsh sound. .... \Paata ....
ng
s ch.
n ny
'
n
t d
n
p b
I
R tt
\_ consonant s caed uu'L-sr-ag- body-etter.
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INTROD CTION. II.
p The more ad anced student w fnd t usefu to study the
foowng arrangement of the consonants. Comp. Pope's III Grammar
6 70.)
In Tam the consonants are d ded nto
- f 6 \)s rLC '\ . . . .
< ) \s 3 strons wssTLD cass wntcn ncudes
\ trong cass | '" ' -
3 L- P < /_-//D .
1* One of these cannot end a word.
< . . IOdso soft whch ncudes
\ oft cass | '- -'
fB| <o r f5 LB <o T ms ur/ D |r .
ere each etter s the correspondng nasa to the one abo e.
Of these ony are nta. e cept e may be fna.
3.
/ <5. . / r )e- mdde whch ncudes
\ Mdde cass | ' -
IT 5\). / Lp T L/ ff|tpsfr .
3: 0/ these and w ony are nta: a are fna.'\
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d
INTROD CTION. 11.
The foo ng w be found usefu by the more ad anced student.
The consonants of the anscrt aphabet are arranged as under. The
correspondng Tam etters are sub oned.
Comp. Bopp. 12-25.
00
<
u

D
o
dkd.
onant.
Thn or Tenues.
sprates. oft or Medae.
sp-
rates.
Nasas.
em-
ow and
aspr.

\_Not n
Tam. a
or

/ C hen ether
65 Inta Mute
or Doubed.
'
Not n Tarn.
< s used.
C
r hen
<: nge
n Md.
C
55 used.
NO
/ 7
m
<
<
<
C
hen doub-
3 | ed or after
C '
'3F s used.
|
<y fter
some-
tmes .
|'
3 or
used.
N

t
CO
T
f hen Inta
L Mute or
Doubed.
T'
I s used.
D
hen
I < nge
n Md.
D'
I used.
N
ossr
R
T
hen Mute
< or Doubed.
T'
s used.
D
hen
| nge
\ n Md.
D'
used.
N
f or <osr
L
ff) srr
-91

<

P
s. Mute or
Doubed.
P'
s used.
B
hen
nge
n Md.
6
used.
M

<

drd.
oh)
Paata.
drd.
s
Lngua.
n D
3 or
Denta.
1
t mute
ndcate
r t: but
or other
I be ad
r
Ren
that
ths
r
fore
dow
a.) The crce or dc
ao e the dot and t
a etter s not mu
s unnecessary and
b.) ome of these
gn word ary n sot
T.
)t L ere or ") abo e a c
3 sounded wth short a: s
te a hor onta ne s son
s sedom used
etters when used to e p
nd. For such cases no g
)nsonan1
ka <3 s
aetmes
ress a
enera
makes
a. To
put o e
anscrt
ues car
10
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d
INTROD CTION. II.
c.| <5 u are pronounced hard n the begnnng of a word when
they are mute and when they are doubed but soft n a other cases.
These etters are surd at the begnnng of a word and when doubed but
sonant when they occur sngy n the mdde of a word.
sesr kan) an eye.
<s-) pak-kam) asde. LDsdr ma-ghan) a mm as n German Tag).
-euh ta- am) penance. dd ma-tham) a sect th n ths).
a- sat-tam) a sound. ud ta-bham) penance another form of
sum). g: most ke h a sght aspraton
u-emsr pa-nam) money.
u- Lh ap-pam) bread rce-cake.
\_Compwre the ebrew use of the Dagesh. Nordhemer 26..
d.) <3'3' ch n church
3 -'3 LD a-cham ) y ar.
<? a ter L or ck).
L.- M-ch) possesson.
p-u p- mu-yaR-ch) effort.
t -3 a T- u) fear thou f e.
e.) The frst f e casses .) consst of a guttura ) a paata a-
most a denta) ') a cerebra -) a denta ) and a aba u ) ach
of these has ts nasa a ekr d) by whch t s accompaned: e -
?< there ue-s cotton aeh- rrdr he saw. -f ths d- an
arrow.
f.) There are three r sounds.
IT as neary as denta as may be): Brng the tp of the tongue to the nser-
ton of the upper teeth and pronounce a gente r \_Mn|:) tos /f .
p paata): . ppy the tp of the tongue to the rdge of the paate and pro-
nounce a rough r dd u/rg'\.
Lp cerebra): ppy the tp of the tongue as far back as you can to the
paate and pronounce a rough r n whch a sound w mnge. In the
outh unabe to artcuate ths etter they use a strong 1 ' t ) nstead. In
the North n the same toay they use u for up. Cora. 123.)
3 These are ne er nta. The n and p are ne er doubed.
g.) There are three n sounds h gar sm.
fB denta): Brng the tp of the tongue to the ower edge of the upper teeth
and pronounce a soft n /F<s) <ss tTm'\.
63r paata): ppy the tp of the tonge to the rdge of the paate and
pronounce a dstnct n \_LD3sru: usodr .
<o 3T cerebra): Turn the tp of the tongue as far back as you can and
pronounce a strong n \_LDem'Lh nssr'\.
I sedom or ne er) fa m and em ne er nta.
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. 11.
h.) There are three t sounds.
denta): Tongue to the ower edge of the upper teeth \_Tm pLo' .
P P paata): Tongue to the rdge of the paate . PPp' -
I I cerebra): Tongue cured round as far back as possbe \_L-L |a \.
3 s ne er fna.
snge n the mdde of a word s sounded ke th n ths not ke th n
thn and not ke d whch s a ery common mstake.'
.) There are two / sounds.
so paata): Tongue to the rdge of the paate and pronounce a soft 1 a) .
r cerebra): Tongue cured round as far back as possbe sr.
g These are ne er propery nta.
C O / s pronounced tdr . e. a d sound s ntroduced for the sake
of euphony. er- rresr en-dran) he sad.
If the consonants be arranged accordng to the pace where they
are pronounced we sha ha e
' guttura.
m ff' denta.
L essr p en cerebra. Cacumnas nguas.'
u LD eu aba.
eo p dr paata.
<F I shoud ca paata-denta.
I hen a owe foows a consonant t s attached to that conso-
nant and forms wth t what n Tam s caed a owe-consonant
u r LDu a ng body .
a.) Remo e the sgn " or ) and s nherent n the consonant ka
<F sa ta c. s n ebrew anscrt c.)
b.) when t foows a consonant s changed nto /r or
c? - )
These two forms are the same reay. The ntermedate form s found n
Maay41am c.) <s/r k </r s tr t c. The atter form s ony used n
these three cases:
cs r . COT).
-t- "|
P - cr-
c.) hen s added to a consonant ony the s oned to the upper
part of the consonant.
s .
)
L Lf.. ere there s a sght araton.)
* But compare Ma Mer's note to "Proposa for a Mss. ph." p. s .
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. II.
d.) e_ s changed n oned to the under part of the consonant
or sngy added or wth a oop .
' f The changes n the consonants are ony
1 such as are necessary.
em 2- \.
u) - p c. ee the tabe.
e.) s s the precedng wth an addtona stroke or oop.
s est < . rreguar).
est g.
eat : .
ear ear a c.
f.) <oT and <5| are changed nto o and <? respect ey and pref ed to
the consonant.
\_They were formery oned thus: <s er "<b and there was no dfference n
form between the ong and the short. The same may be sad of e and .
d er 0 <s er <s.
g.) becomes <o and precedes the consonant.
\_Ths aso was formery oned thus: tp enLp."
s ems a hand. To a those etters whch begn wth a oop t s st
oned thus: bsr c.
h.) g become 0-t and <?-/r respect ey. The consonant standng
between.
ff eg 0/r n od aphabets sr s ' ' and st s . Compare
sp srr | the ngsh k).
.) srr become o- rr.-
d etr 0<5 f". These combnatons are rarey used.)
.) The number of these owe-consonants s 1 X 12 216.
These are shewn n the foowng tabe:
13
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. 11.'
Tabe of
k
a a
I
u
oet

<s sr
ka ka

h
k
5
ku
3k.
ku
IB
ng
IB
nga
r
nga
/b9
ng

ng
f
ngu
ngu
<3

F
sa
<Fr
sa
9
s
9
s
-
su
su
43
ny
nya
nya
ny
ny
M
nyu
MIT
nyu
L.
4
1 r
da da
d
I 2.
d

du
B
du
sssr essr
n na
' na
n
ssst
n
f
n
smr
n
t ta
r
ta
t
t
tu
tu
IB
n
I
na
Br
na
s
n
n
nu
.Mr
nu
u
P
u ur
pa pa
9
p
3
p

pu
pu
m
ma
LCr
ma
m
m
OP
mu
mu

y
tu ur
ya ya
u9
y
'
y
1|
u
yu
IT
r
ra
-r B
ra r
F
r
5
T
ru
60
I
<so
a
oOr 1 e
a 1

u
r
u
61/

6
a
IT
a


u
u
r
ra
Lpr
ra
r
r
ru
ru
err
I
en-
a
errr
a

25
u
u
R
na
a? I
Ra.
r
R
R'
RM
R
637" 637"
n na
na
6377
n
n
1
nu
nu
r In e pressng these etters n ngsh a "cerebra"
14
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. II.
owe-consonants.
e

e
m
e
9
a
6
O
ke
Gd5
ke
ke
ko ko kou
G |
nge
f
nge
nge
O |tr
ngo
T
ngo
O sr
ngou
0.9
se
se
set
O'fr
so
so
Os'str
sou
0
nye

nye
nye
0 /r rr
nyo nyo
Ostr
nyou
de de
L_
de
O tr
do
-IT
do
O etr
dou
sssr
ne
5saT
ne
doosr
net
0 e3ar)
no
633)
no
0<o 3rer
nou
te

te
te
OfT
to
tr OsfT
to tou
ne
u
ne
)f
ne
OBfT
no
fBfT OfB'ofT
no nou
Ou
pe
u
pe
<3 )
pe
Our
po
ut
po
OuefT
pou
OM
me
o
me
me
Oubtr
mo
nfT
tno
OL fr
mou
Ou
ye

ye
yet
Ourr ur
yo 1 yo
Otusrr
you
re re
re
O fT
ro
-rr
ro
Orer
rou
0 <3
e e
e
O sr sOr
o 16
OsOfffT
ou
s su
e e
e
OeuT sr
o o
0<o ' 1T
ou
Op tn
re re
re
ro TO
OLp<srr
rou
G fT
e
G T
u
srr
e
OsTfT
o
srrtr
16
Osfretr
ou
Op
Re
p
Re
emp
ne
O r
RO
y
r6
Opetr
RO
Oosr
ne
esr
ne
Bssr
ne
no no
0<o T<sn'
nou
s dstngushed by a dot paced under the rough r s wrtten r
15
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. II.
k.) In pronouncng the etters n Tam schoos they engthen a short
owe and added na thus:
<s s pronounced ka-na.
s-na.
To a ong owe they add ena or yena or y beng nserted
for euphony.
IT s pronounced kd- ena.
eas ke-yena c.
The sooner ths s got rd of the better. Chdren shoud be taught to
pronounce ka kd c.
I.) But n anscrt sud s added to a short etter and srato to a ong
one and ths s sometmes used n Tam.
s then a-garam.
d-garam.
s ka-garam.
IT kd-gdram c.
. a.) If the consonants be propery pronounced the owes precedng
some of them w be necessary modfed n a manner anaogous to the
German " umaut."
ampes.
to be read wth a nat e.)
sum he a en not a an).
-su/f he potey) pronounced a er not a ar).
c '-O du).
O_OT pon)-
ff._ ) a pace. 3-pm a neghbour. su- an opportunty.
T a scorpon. 3 - | ) a dong. ea- another.
under. u- p an ac uston. aO- ea e.
The earner must take care ony to ary the sound of the owe
ust so much as s necessary to the proper pronuncaton of the foowng
consonant.
r| before the fna m essr fr p eo or r of a but monosyabes takes the
sound of er. Camp. Bopp''s Co p. Gram. 6. In the words ffsm two and ff
srh a damond the of the owe consonants n s pronounced ery short and
ugary as er. o aso n other . words as ss) suphur .
b.) Inta chefy when foowed by a cerebra or paata)
OT er are often pronounced as f preceded by as n ngsh nta m
s often sounded yu as n non.
er<sc- )TLD a. -sstu kndred.
- B an e u aent. -eart a esse dsh
er- whch. er-e csT whch man?
Ths sound s sometmes wrtten both n Tam and n ts kndred daects.
__
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. 11.
c.) sedom has ts fu sound e cept n the frst syabe of a word.
In other cases t s often sounded e/ ony dferng from er n the sght
?/ sound n whch t ends.
ems a hand and u- Fd-ests a pebbe.
ea u a bag -eu-kr hm. f .tt -. \
. . ere t s eT .)
etoLD nk <3-esu a congregaton. I
Compare from your teacher's ps the dfferent sounds of
ere t s
gaton.
cssn put LD-em<3 a tabe.
In the mdde of a word t s often sounded amost ke .- --su- f
a. The rue g en n the Nannu s that s has ts fu uantty ony
when t s used to e press tsoon name. Comp. I Grammar 15. I.)
In Teugu and Maayaam u s used often where Tam uses s and or
answers to t often n Canarese. Thus:
Te. L sf prce.
Ma. s those thngs.
Can. L G L ss<s a board.'
d.) 2- fna s aways pronounced ery sghty and by the common
peope s often turned nto |). It s amost aways added to factate
the enuncaton of the fna consonant.
The Teugu and Canarese aso use s- n a smar manner.
LDT an anma of the genus Bos amost to dtL. u-tf- n order to
s pronounced u-Lp.d- . ugary nta _ s sometmes pronounced as ep:
thus -s|r thy becomes epsk. s ssr saL esr mmedatey.
e.) Gsrr s often wrtten or <s. Thus Derm sence s
wrtten tDa -snnb. Ths etter does not reay beong to the anguage
and was ntroduced apparenty under anscrt nfuences.
egar-ee a certan poetess eu-eae.
f.) Commony and before are sometmes pronounced as
f foowed by .-
ha ng made becomes Ls .
Gf fTs ha ng ocked at s pronounced as f wrtten t frLd .
urd uh bss becomes utLs ud.
I. etter caed ytham and wrtten thus: oo or <ff the Greek )
s used n poetry ony.
- _ _
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. II.
r. From the od Grantham aphabet are borrowed the foowng
etters.
a
Cerebra generay L)
generay - or L)
eru s
the ngsh s
<s ksh
th these the owes may be oned.
f- sR-6y a teacher. eh-ff a woman.
. . ' oss. " . ' y an eephant.
-D : ffT s. |t race.
Gn)
generay )
m
sometmes n the end of
a word n M ).
Dr-esf oss.
DmL-s ) \
. ' hea en.
III. The foowng abbre atons and ssns are n use:
mm' s'u
mOsu
eue
sn r
wet cut aton
dry cut aton
a and measure
current

LDfT h

e| <a )
seO)
month
day
year
ground
L
6|_
\) or
-

up
a/ /
ff )
baance
rece ed
recepts
charge

P
mpuL
uemth
sa<9f-
o nT esr
aforesad
money
cash
a pagoda
Of.
4-
< -
em
urnu
urT<5sr
sa)
6y o Dn's h
rupee
10 fanams
a yard
unt
g'

. k.
fsy or )

4|
33)
emusn
a s . yard
tota
an anna
a pe
_
' f L.m
1
-5r
<s <5 )susrrT
) uT osr )
m dgs
.seou
beongng to
more or ess
paddy
a measure

g

nr
r 9 cR ong
ed) |/7-<? urrffewf
/)
a/ _
a pote tte for a
unor most honor c
be a tte a
d
en or L )


1
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
o
n
y
m
o
u
s

o
n

2
0
1
4
-
0
6
-
0
6

2
3
:
0
1

G
M
T


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
h
d

.
h
a
n
d

e
.
n
e
t
/
2
0
2
7
/
u
c
2
.
a
r
k
:
/
1
3
9
6
0
/
t
7
5
t
3
s
k
1
9
P
u
b

c

D
o
m
a

n


/


h
t
t
p
:
/
/
w
w
w
.
h
a
t
h

t
r
u
s
t
.
o
r
g
/
a
c
c
e
s
s
_
u
s
e
#
p
d
INTROD CTION. II.
m- LD 1 . r T T
. a meta s. Lonam.|
IX. The foowng sts g en for the sake of practce contan none
but usefu ordnary words. It w be we to commt them to memory.
The pronuncaton must be practsed wth a competent teacher. The
notes may be usefu to the student hereafter.
I.) ords contanng .
s. m-sua a fnger na -sd a yoke. - g an cntange e7t.
s. r rr-su3 a arge snake. - cm- a we. m-ff Chrst.
srdso murder. s. er-sh the word s. Loka.
sreo a stck s. ?ew/r-<
s. ar- 0Lh pomp. earr-p n
-erh a tank. s-efru) chaff staks c.
a. s represents the anscrt k k'ha g g'ha and h and s conse uenty surd
or sonant accordng to ts poston. The Greek y X-
b. d s often doubed when t foows a owe. It s ne er transmuted or
eded.
c. The use of s for the anscrt h arses from the fact that the Tam
possesses no asprate whatsoe er.
d. The sound of d n the mdde of words s ery soft ke the fna g n
some German words.
II.) ords wth e .
m-s pure god. er- a where? se/-<s the Ganges.
3 f -su an assemby. m-ah a on. afn -etas heat.
a. I | ne er occurs n the begnnng or end of a word.
b. LD foowed by a becomes m com. . e.)
III.) ords contanng saor ssr or s.
-em a mae. .| - an atom. . essr-t LD a word
.-esm an ornament -eto an ow - an end.
.-es a na. GT-<se a adder. ek-ssrh food boed rce
. -asssr a dam. eT-snr why. . t-s. that.
.M-sssr an oath. 6 -g ft n the arms essr-ent near.
-ts-LD \ . er- to day.
bs
a. 3sr and es r are ne er found n the begnnng of a word.
b. not found at the end of a word or of a syabe uness foowed by.
c. / and ear are nterchanged occasonay. In poetry m after dr often ds-
appears.
d. LD before becomes com. . e).
e. car s sometmes changed nto p before a hard etter so suffers the same
change.)
/. OT sometmes becomes L before a hard etter.
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INTROD CTION. II.
I .) ords wth .
c-s \u\g.) f e. u-s cotton.
rce water. LD -s efr saffron.
t rr-u-su) memory memora.
fT-asTLD wsdom.
r-u -g) the sun unday.
a. s ne er found at the end of a word.
b. It s n hgh Tam used for m and ce ers .
c. hen d comes before t may be changed nto com. . e).
d. In common Tam h are often changed nto 0. For srd / ss t has
grown hot s used TL s-g .
.) ords wth
pp tt).
BtL -L .LD
death personfed).
an assemby .
a dance.
mt.
hook t
other.
change t
ony.
a faut ob . case).
an assemby ob . case)
wthout.
p-p )-p-p fautess.
' " . a book.
L e - LD |
wp-g
LDITp-
LDtr--r LD
p-p-<5I
< _ 1 - - 6ro
a. -L s often wrtten for e L n anscrt words.
b. s often wrtten for w n anscrt words.
< p)- )
Tp- )
aL-
arrtL-
'- IT )
- sr 5
he preser ed.
ha ng earned.
wnd.
te
show
a creator.
I.) ords wth L t and d) \_th as n the ngsh there.
Not d uness n anscrt words \.
C-a/csr a god anscrt d).
<ssr honey.
ur-LD afoot.
uT-L LD a esson.
LDfT- an anma of the genus Bos.
Lorr- a wo7nan.
/hn-L- m eager pursut.
a. becomes L occasonay when t foows a cerebra.
b. It becomes p sometmes after a paata.
c. represents anscrt t t'h d d'h.
d. L represents anscrt t t'h d d'h.
srr-g
an car.
str- .
a unge.
arp-
wnd.
m T-L
sound hgh)
fBr-L T sr
a and-owner
fBrp-pLD
a stench.
II.) ords wth '9 <y<9.
s.) sT- speces so ). as-sth shame.
s.) .aF-uM prayer sor . p- p- effort.
s.) 3 -esrh peope sor ). amL- sght son
s.) dr- ght sor ). sstL wtness.
to - r-*
:.)
the mnd.
o|T-ff'-
uT-- ssr
LDfT-LX
r T-' Fm. ")
. a k
month.
-fffr-L BT
'|
ng.
20
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INTROD CTION.
11.
a. <F represents the anscrt ch ch'h h s sh.
b. The anscrt s s sometmes represented by and u
c. The Tam possesses no sbants purey such but n common use
<F s. The ugar constanty pronounce Ou| chcy.
III.) ords wth u d d abas).
) sr- LD peasure.
er-uu) affcton.
urr-euLD
ur-uh
|- - r
- -3h
::
I
sn.
penance.
urr- ssr
a pot.
f emr-esTLD
hea en.
eo- ssBT
a ute.
\ LD T- n
ugary)
p-Lf-LD
a mrace.
en-
o way.
-
engeance.
LD-emtp
ram.
a. In anscrt words u and eu are often nterchanged.
. In ugar tak d s often used for < .
c. s s sometmes wrtten for en.
d. In Canarese s often used for u.
IX.) ords wth t p p r sounds).
LD-r LD a tree.
LD- D oence sn.
LD-Lp-dso ch dsh pratte.
u -<B afoa u-Lpm \ .
-B a stck. u-eOLD /
-f rght. rr- a fo .
a. tp s pronounced ke sr n Tne ey and ke L n Madras.
I) n- and b are often confounded by the common peope.
c. p at the end of the former word n a compound s aways a transmutaton
of sb or ear.
X.) ords wth ffO or <5r.
ueo-f ) grass.
- sr a chd.
t- r-eff a cpher or dot.
u- tamarnd.
L -e a tger.
a. m and s|r are changed nto er and saar sometmes before th.
b. and nto p and L before a hard etter.
s <k- ) a stone. :re\)- | say.
<55s|r-f eff | toddy. a-eo-e e pendture.
sr )- ) k ueo-f ) a tooth.
srr<sr- ) buy take uefr-etrLD a hoow.
XI.) ords wth u.
|fT-dosr y
o r- ssr |
an eephant. n' ha ng become.
LDT-um decet. f atu a dog.
a. hen a word begns wth u may be put before t.
b. hen a word ends n u3 may be omtted.
c. u s sometmes wrtten for s.
21
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INTROD CTION. II.
XII. anscrt words n Tam.
s. 3 -d1 "1 7 s. uL- - F- rr-eL) oy.
C kL-s-LDLD I u- m brd. e - srr-es- r k he
/ f- refnement. - I
L-.- -LDLD ua-w | re oced.
g- -tDf
.'|
- ). "| mm "| . |T6/r I a forms of
f n / CCrt t . t ._ .
-<9LD o 5c 7. m' FLD | . ff s stsT - b. a a a
60/ruLD . CeoTs "
en-u) | ' - eonsLD forms of . Loka
) I . _ c LD f
. sence.
TLD | e_a) |
TLD I . _sOc LD word.
s. DerssTLD
Cd 5
CT)<s .
eG*
c5 3)<5.
C
<:_
eRT .
s fT
__.
esar .
a. hen a word begns wth r I or y n anscrt t w generay n Tam
take a_ before the nta consonant snce those etters cannot genera-
y begn a word accordng to strct Tam rues.
b. on of the anscrt may be e pressed by < m or gya/ the atter beng the
rea Tam method.
X The foowng are a few of the doube etters used n M :
<5 5 " 1
XI. The foowng hnts regardng pronuncaton may be of use:
1. s a genera rue t may be stated that Tam admts of no ac-
cent upon nd dua syabes. ometmes partces added to a word are
emphas ed but t s safe to am at pronouncng a syabes a e
wth due regard to uantty. The root syabe w howe er be ds-
tngushed by somethng akn to accent.
2. In readng be ery carefu to a od the ngsh emphass and tone.
n e en dstnct artcuaton s a that s re ured.
3. Tam shoud be read rather faster than ngsh.
4. Be ery carefu n pronouncng a doube etters. L -eB s tamarnd
but L ere s a dot
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FIR T L ON IN T MIL.
1. In the frst few essons etters whch are nserted for the sake of euphony are put n brackets
2. None but common usefu words are used.
3. The e ercses shoud n a cases be wrtten and then commtted to memory after beng cor-
rected f possbe by a nat e teacher. Let the earner frame more e ercses for hmsef.
4. The fgures n brackets refer to precedng paragraphs.
5. ery word n each ocabuary shoud be ooked out n the genera ocabuary at the end
and the ynonymes carefuy earnt.
6. key to the e ercses s sub oned. Ths shoud be used wth udgment.
Lesson 1.
1. ocabuary. To be commtted to memory.)
BT a man. uoaffsk a son. ssr a god. asm <sm an account-
ant from s< 23r< an account eurdadsr a crchant. suear he. h one
a or an. -Ld and.
semr er I sa . eu/Frrdr he came. ufrek he dd. uessresfmm he
made. fnLL rsk he touched. These are rreguar past tenses. Comp.
5 -70.)
2. Nouns n e r are generay mascune. Names of rratona anmas
and thngs wthout fe are neuter.
3. The sgn of the accusat e or second case) s the owe s whch
s added to nouns n dr thus: Loesfer ds . Lcuraar s
Lon-rr'hsr. Ths case foows the erb n ngsh but cones mmedatey
before t n Tam thus: urrds ssr <s a<5m dr I sa the merchant.
pp. .
4. fter the sgn of the second case any one of the etters <s <5 or
u M T aways be doubed thus: gys nLrdr he touched hm.
5. The pronoun s often omtted n Tam where the ngsh re ures
t thus: ff/ /rsBT he came not eum su/e/tgw).
6. The erb "to be" s often omtted n Tam eum eudr he s
a God.
7. hen two words woud be oned n ngsh by puttng "and"
between them 2_/-o must n Tam be added to both thus: asmdsw
suTsLD an accomtant and a merchant.
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X RCI 1. L ON 2.
snge LD woud sgnfy "e en " "aso " "both" accordng to the
conte t thus: LDrru) eumtrm the son aso came or e en the son
came.
. The Tam has no artce but 9 5 172 whch means " one''' may
sometmes be used for "a" or "an." There s no Tam e u aent for
"the."
ercse 1.
To be rendered nto ngsh.)
9. a.)
To be rendered nto Tam.)
.) The accountant dd. Te merchant made. god and a man.
e touched the man. I saw the man. e s a merchant. The man
and the merchant. man and a merchant. The accountant aso came.
en the son touched hm. e dd. e made.
10. The PRONO N .
NoM. or
::
1st case
ng.
ce. or \
2d case |
ng.
NoM. Pu.
ce. Pu.
f rear I.
ers|rsr me.
Lesson 2
Comp. pp. .
thou. euesT he.
T you.
-d r sT fhee. sadssr hm.
-Lbss LD you. reguar com-
I pare 3.)
euetr she.
a/ str her.
reguar 3.)
es) t.
mTLD rr ser we.
fBLD6eLD Gr |<sds<T
r |
you.
s s sff you.
msuTs they.
m. or f.)
eT: them.
m. or f.)
oeenser they.
n.)'
msO a' oT them.
n.)
11. a.) s n most anguages so n Tam the pronouns are rregu-
ar those of the 3d person howe er present the fewest anomaes.
b.) T s what s caed an honorfc or pote form and s used as
the ngsh "you." The puras of a the pronouns maybe used n
ths way for the snguar.
c.) The dfference between /s/r/) and mtr asr s that hr) ncudes
those oho are spoken to mnk k e cudes them. The ony e cepton to
ths s when a superor speaks of hmsef honorfcay n the pura.
Thus kngs say " ?Fe." In ths case /B/r does not ncude those spoken to
24
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X RCI 2. L ON 3.
mn- may thus be consdered as a dua form. The anguage affords no
other traces of the dua n ths agreeng wth both the Pa and the
Pracrt.
12. d ect es or the words whch are so used) are undecned and
set B FOR the nouns they uafy as n ngsh. Comp. Less. 43.
13. oc B. TL a mother. tu do the root and aso the mperat e).
LDffLD a tree mru a dog. LDsm a son. ds t a daughter meceo good. s
I bad. uB'| great. ekesr tte. L g or t- | new. ueatp od. emu
turn a boy. au LL Tasr he caed essuum' a physcan.
e saw me ordrd aem rm me he saw).
ercse 2.
14- a.) uf| nssfm. s | r m ) ) nL. sL- hrL. mesr
LD r. fB ) ) 5tD '23sr seanr esT' ufu uns sr suknesr.
Lpu LD TLD' TO - F |. oTs 'srr nL- TGsr. asrssr u
smuudw. T u u euTsek ' Tesr'ssT LD. a-gsr tesrut) < '2esrL th
3? 9Ltost. L Inscrtcd to pre ent hatus. Comp. pp. .
b.) tte dog. new accountant. great God. good daughter.
he s a tte daughter. e s a bg boy. The tte boy touched
the mother. e caed the great merchant. The new physcan caed
them. e saw a boy and a tte dog. Do that. e touched us and
them. e caed me and thee.
Lesson 3.
T RB. af 6 o/rsb acton- ord.) n Gram. 75 1.
15. There are some thngs reatng to the con ugaton of the Tam
erbs that at frst sght appear dffcut but n reaty the whoe system
s ery easy and when once mastered w be seen to be e ceedngy
smpe.
a.) Tam erbs ha e ony three tenses . present past and future.
b.) These forms when anaysed are found to consst of the erba root
u ) the mdde partce denotng tme es- 3so) and the termna-
tons whch dstngush person and number f ff p thus:
uLs ptk s the 1st person snguar present tense I read.
u m s the 1st person snguar past tense / read.
uf-u um s the 1st person snguar future tense / w read.
These three forms ha e the same root utf. sgnfyng "read" or
"earn." They ha e aso the same termnaton e dr sgnfyng "/ " the
sgn of the 1st person snguar. They dffer ony n the mdde partce
whch beng added to the root dstngushes the tense or tme.
4 ' 25
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L ON 3.
c.) The mdde partce or sgn of the present s s or d u.
d.) The mdde partce or sgn of the past s or or or sar.
e.) The mdde partce or sgn of the future s uu or en.
In con ugatng any erb then the earner must ascertan frst the
ROOT and secondy the partcuar mdde partce whch t rece es.
f.) s a genera rue erbs whc are transt e n ther sgn|cato7
take d g n the present n the past and uu n the future t he
other erbs take gn n the present n the past and n the future
thus. uL earn '" beng t *anst e makes
Present.
Past.
Future.
uLa g .
uuf..
.
The fna - u s w be ost before a owe.
From these by addng the termnaton crsfffor the 1st person snguar
dr for the 3rd pers. sng mas. and s for the 3d pers. sng neuter
we sha obtan
Present.
Past.
Future
The 1st pers. sng.
f ud Desr
\ I earn or read.
I earned.
Lsu uek
I w earn.
The 3d pers. sng. mas.
\ he earns.
he earned.
he w earn.
The 3d pers. sng. neut.
C L f-s pg
\ t earns.
t earned.
ere there s a
araton.
ee Lesson 24.
Ths anayss w enabe the earner to understand the formaton of
the tenses. The use of these tempora partces s the frst dffcuty to
be o ercome.
g.) ometmes the same root may be used both n a transt e and n
an ntranst e sgnfcaton thus:
Present. Past. Future.
From the root p<s r I persh. L <s<s r enm.
are formed \Ld pasr I destroy. . t Lf sr t u um.
In ths case the weaker form s naturay ntranst e and the stronger
transt e.
16. oc B. uf read. gy persh destroy. GdL. feed gra e trans
and ntrans.). dt an o . us- a cow. eh str a chd. DLtuusr a shep-
herd 0/r pres. sr B<s nfm: past srr rm- fut. sfr uuresr) g e.
3:3' e ga e t suot . eta <s sn- rek.
e t ga e.
26
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X RCI 3. L ON 4.
ercse 3.
17. a-) uud Cc/Dek- M |s pm'. DL pm' L pear.
<o sr'235T L Lnresr. eO O es tuesr L|L L rT sr- oLuksst fsnoatud
- ea7" 537" LD srLh n .
b.) e pershes. I destroy. I feed. The cow gra es. The shep-
erd gra es. The accountant destroyed t. The tte chd reads. The
cow pershes. The tte dog destroys t. The bad boy w destroy
them neut.). e ga e t. I w g e.
Lesson 4.
Comp. pp. . and III Gram. 5 70.
1 . The 2d case 3 of us a cow) s ua-ssw of duI a tree) dos
<cB) of ur a7 o ) LDrL-es) of er sr a chd) tn'bstrs | of
a r er) pes p of seo a stone) seo so ' and of <s/r an ear) sTes .
a.) us-ms s nom. ua- eu s comp 3). hy s the eu nser-
ted? hen the owes 2_ eat sr gb gp. <er are foo ed hy a
owe eu s nserted for the sake of euphony e may take ether or <a/).
Comp. pp. . II. II.)
b.) 3er3sTes)u s nom. er sn u 3. hy s t nserted? hen
the o es or s are foowed by a oce u s nserted for the sake
of euphony. pp. . II. II.)
c.) nrrL-m s nom. o/r s the fna s- of the noun beng eded
and the 1 doubed thus: dhC- dtLL LDmLea The rue s. when any
noun ends n not preceded by one short syabe 1) the L s doubed
2) the 2- s eded and 3) the termnaton of the case s added.
d.) From s" s formed psm/o n precsey the same way substtut-
ng f) for L-.
e.) LDrtss) s LD LD 3 the m beng changed nto or whch s the
same thng : cast away d nsert s and add the termtaton of the
case.
f) s d s) s nom. a ) <s)) s. The fna cotrsonant of a short
tnonosyabe s doubed before a owe. pp. . II. I.)
g.) sfTemf s nom. st - 2_ s. The fna e_ of a t ords not
consstng of two short syabes and not ncuded n the abo e rues
s eded before a owe. pp. . I . I.)
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X RCI 4. L ON 5.
19. oc B. a ' a house mrr a country arr a unge. . a
r er. agu ud. o sd or L su a book auuasr t tr a father
suuek s Tam and rr anscrt the former s more famar eufresnh
the hea en. )t the earth. <5ss a hand.
e read a book 3). sb L ooca t uLsrrm-.
book he read.
Obser e the order.
ercse 4.
20. a.) I saw a house. e destroyed the country. I fed the cow.
I w g e a book. I saw the mud. e caed the good father. The
tte boy earns the new book. e touched the dog. I dd t. I saw
the hea en. It destroyed the unge. The bg boy saw the father and
mother. The physcan ga e a book.
rr sr. us- m<a h eaua ' osr ao sr <ssr. 3ass<su <s su L
Lesson 5.
D CL N ION. _ e mLn a changng.
21. The Tam noun s sad to ha e eght cases. These are
a.) The frst or nomnat e whch n the snguar) s the noun
tsef. Less. 74.
b.) The second accusat e or ob ect e whch adds s to the nom-
nat e. But compare 1 . Less. 75.
The added partces sgns of case are caed 0t-/ form.'
c.) The thrd or nstrumenta whch adds sg or < of whch the
former means "together wth " and the atter "by." Ths s n reaty
two cases. Less. 76.
d.) The fourth or dat e whch adds to or <s or 2_ to the
nom. s- s nserted euphoncay and d s doubed accordng to rue.
Comp. pp. . If < be aso added t g es the meanng of "for."
Less. 77.
e.) The ffth or abat e of moton whch adds e T) or
Issr to the noun. Less. 7 .
f.) The s th gent e or possess e case whch adds -m-u or
)sBr to the nom. Less. 79.
___ __ _
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L ON 5.
g.) The se enth or oca abat e whch adds or c-s: f<so to the
noun. Less. 0.
h.) The eghth or ocat e whch 1) adds er to the noun or 2)
engthens ts ast syabe or 3) omts the fna consonant and engthens
the remanng owe.
Paradgm.
Comp. ppend .
ING L R.
Case 1.) Loe dr man.
2.) LDs ssr a man .
3.) LDs \< by a man . -
eofC together wth a man ep B ).
4.) LoeMX ' " *"" *" |-
LDe|-ssfT for a man -<s s )
5.) LD ofsssfa) Ln<o<s <5M< h)s LDs s g from a man eo
or ) r).) t. beng from or ct eser a)
/5 ear. t. standng from. )
6.) LDo sea | or LDs e er of a man beongng to a man
-<oe u or dr).
7.) <s f<s ) ) w// a waw _g)_a) or 'so). at a man
Dsafssfa) n a man.
.) LLesr csr O man esr.
Notes 1. The Tam noun has reay but one decenson.
2. The sgns of the cases are the same for a nouns and n the pura 29)
they are the same as n the snguar.
3. The ony dffcuty n decnng nouns whch dffer from the abo e para-
dgm s n ascertanng the modfcatons chefy euphonc whch the nomna-
t e casus rectus) undergoes n order to prepare t for the recepton of the n-
fe ona partces.
The nfe ona base casus ob uus) beng ascertaned there s no dffcuty.
4. For ths nfe ona base n cases where t dffers from the Nom. see 1 .
5. It s often used tsef for the gent e or 6th case. Comp. 24 .
6. It s generay the nfe ona base that s used when a noun s made the
frst member of a compound. Comp. 131.
7. It s not the tymoogca root n a cases.
. It s not ute dentca wth the crude form n anscrt.
9. In nouns n the L s undoubtedy not radca m and a or a/ whch
are often nterchangeabe n Tam and ts kndred daects) are used euphon-
cay as termnatons of nouns.
10. Ths fna d g es way to the stronger before the owe of a suff
and n poetry sometmes before the consonant) before a consonant the nasa
s generay retaned but assumes the forms /s d before -3 and .
pp. .
29
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X CI 5. L ON 6.
22. Obser e tat s ery often nserted between the noun and the
termnaton of the case. Ths s e denty for the sake of euphony gydr
s sometmes used for ar n poetry.
23. 67 may be added to most of these termnatons. ometmes t s
emphatc but /or the most part merey euphonc.
ercse 5.
24. a.) LD ts . 1 . e.) nu ssns- semssspos u Lor h.
<sT 5uf . a2 Ts ) - fs fT L e I I . C-) r' err
u 1 . b-) B )60 G ) Lum- <s Ls6\) un<5sr. snL eo 23-|
saLLGO LD T oa | ''
b.) e came wth the chd Tarn "wth the chd he came."
ways n ert the order). e caed the dog from the unge.
The herdsman w feed the cow n the country. By the physcan's
son. From the accountant's tte chd. e caed me wth the mother.
I saw hm n the house. The physcan pershed n the country. Do
ths for the tte daughter. From the r er. In hea en and earth. By
the chd.
Lesson 6.
25. ords of the greatest mportance.
gt ' By combnng the foowng words attendng to para. 6 a ast number
of usefu sentences of two words may be formed thus: eudr 6ra ? where 25
he?
a.) usar he that man e.)
sner he ths man he.)
ersua r who what an ? ns.)
c.) s that thng
ths thng.
er whch thng.
e.|* uuL so n that way.
L thus M ths way.
T Lf. how n what way?
b.) Guar she that wo an a.)
<sn<sr she ths woman hcec.)
ereus r who whch wo an use.)
d.)k s < ere e.)
s s here ug. G-s-
oTm s where?
f.) / a demonstrat e ad-
ect e pronoun).
B ths.
er whch ?
' Often pronounced by the common peope su.
30
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X RCI 6. L ON 7.
g.)* u uT gs com. u urg or
u ur) then.
u utTODg com. u urr or
u urr) now.
srL u T L com. stu uts or
stu ut) when ?
h.) se that house.
sus ths house.
ereue whch house?
a b c.) ear s the mascune termnaton err the femnne and the
neuter. These are decned ke Loe dr. Those n ede the fna s-.
a-k.) Inta sy er are used respect ey to pont out thngs ds-
tant thngs near and to ask a ueston. Compare the ngsh th t ths
ohat. s used n poetry to pont out thngs n the mdde or behnd.
I Gram. 5.
h.) These three etters may be pref ed to any noun n whch case
the nta etter of the noun s generay doubed.
ercse 6.
26. a.) ersum ssssr nm? eu un semu-ns r sr a ssssr
T s <s o3ars seres) I cu n b? Lc ssfehr <5rk a? <oTL u 5m.
eta tnebr? e s ufu u du /d. ereufr frLLu.n sr?
sem u unm. u urr tL. e s? < y sr s 6.
er <ss ard ? Ths s an dom and s used for hat ha e you come
for ? hat do you want ?\
b.) ow dd he make t? here s the merchant's son? Come
now. e saw her then. That s hs house. e dd so. Thus he
pershed wth hs son. hen w he earn? e w earn now. The
good shepherd w feed the sheep now. hch s hs new house?
here s t? ho s he? ho s she? hch s that?
Lesson 7.
T IMP R TI MOOD.
ome usefu Imperat es.
27. r come. ut go. srrem r pronounced aways Oarem r).
rmr t. "takng come"). aTsm u r take away er ft up. <scs
stand stop neut.) ffg stop act e). Gerr hear. str say te.
sfT g e r g e.
* ur fg areoa
31
tme.
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X RCI 7. L ON .
a.) The root or crude theme of the erb s the smpe 2nd person
snguar mperat e.
b.) By addng s-m or th) ths becomes the honorfc or pote mper-
at e thus: er D umh eo s tLh 3 r<soLD Osn' BLD t gug h sut
ff ) come rreguar from root eur) t h rreguar from root r ) g e.
c.) By addng ssr to the abo e or -ks r or kssr) to the root t be-
comes the pura whch s used as a st hgher /<o7?or/"c thus: un-aser
go ye. er / aerr ft ye. n- fa<Bm come ye. sts s r hear ye.
smsdsnad or say ye. sr ts -ssr g e ye. T ff 6s<s r bestow ye.
ercse 7-
2 . a.) s urr. s s surr. en s LDLs r 'm' sar
sr'BofroaL 67 . e s o. e L ed ) tDrrLes)
. s|Tssa | )OT2/<5 5d5 LDfTrrs d sn s serr. The
Tam msm s more homey than the anscrt Lonnm.' shsst ste
b.) Come to the house come home). hen dd he do t ?
here s the great o ? Go to the r er. Lft t from the mud.
Brng the tte chd here. Take the physcan's cow there. hom dd
that man ca. Tarn "that man whom he caed"). e atosr) s the
shepherd's son. That suasr) s the great physcan's son.
Lesson .
T PL R L N MB R.
Com. I Gram. 69.
29. a.) The pura s formed by addng se- to the snguar. Thus:
sff a house. ser houses.
3 am s strcty the purasng partce of the neuter or rather of the
Low-castc. \
b.) Mascune nouns endng n c r mosty change ear nto /r. They
aso ery generay but no doubt mpropery add s.sr aso thus : LDs dr
a man pura LDs rsm or sometmes smpy and more correcty LDsa.
c.) The cases of the pura are formed by addng the same termna-
tons as n the snguar thus : Com. pp. .
g:' Obser e here the dfference between the Tam and the anscrt and
Cassca anguages.
32
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X RCI .
Pur.
Case 1.
e ' srr
houses.
2.
Bs r
houses after a transt e
erb).
3.
e Bs srfr B
by means of houses
together wth houses.
4.
Bs s )
to houses. aaTa
for houses.
5.
< m\ )
I
s
se< s
from houses.
e aes kkff
6.
e sefea |
\

22) of houses.
7.
e <sBe )
\
/
wth at or n houses.
.
< s
houses
d.) ometmes the s s doubed thus: usdsm. pp. .
e.) Fna d s aways chau G ed nto m before thus : dhu sm
wnk sr. Intro. II. . II-)
ercse .
30. cf.) LDr sBcsr ct . dssP I a s<sfr. wcuf oar s rr.
o ) osrs s s sa . ere ebr remans. meua rseffesr
? sr. bnhs' f s. s <s ns s <3' srnso. suuscf
_eo eurrm: fr u I b u t er' emse 67 . eu.smLu
LDfT f d - )a//T5 G 3)_ | s <off . u ssr nn |aefT.
b.) Go wth the merchants to the house. The accountant's good
houses. The new physcan's od trees. e feeds the bg buocks n
the unges. e saw those cows wth the shepherd. e earnt thus n
the book. They are merchants. here are the merchants? 6.)
here are those persons) ?
Tam grammarans do not use the terms snguar and pura at a.
h- cs LD one-ness) and udremtD many-ncss u swd| are used to e -
press the deas. The Tam arrangement w appear at frst sght rather com-
pe . ee III Gram. 52 53.)
Nouns are d ded nto two castes "hus ):
I. - a'sssr -LT hgh 'har cass) persona nouns.
II. oo . ) no saar cass. For the transm. see pp. . III.)
IMP R ON L nO .
Persona nouns are the names of ratona bengs.
Impersona nouns are a others.
5 33
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L ON 9.
There s a further d son nto f e un s mrt).
These are " ) <sssrur ) mae-parf . Ths ncudes
I the snguar mascune of ratonas.
| II.) Ousmure\) fcmac-parf . nguar \
femnne of ratonas. f
I III.) uecT T many persons-part 1 4 . I
1 Pura epcene ratonas. |
r I .) sadrpDGsr urreo of one thng-part.' sggBr
I p3 \ spsm-ek a poetc form . nguar mas- I
I.
These beong
ony to 2_
cune femnne or neuter of rratonas.
These beong
. < 7 ' o"- ". "'""' ' "/. T ony to
.) usussr ureo o/ many t/nngs-part . o s'
Pura mascune femnne or neuter of rra-
tonas. |
Lesson 9.
31. The present tense of te smpe erb. Comp. pp. .
fa.) e ha e seen Lesson 3) that there are tree parts n any form
of the present tense . the root te mdde artcc denotng tme and
the persona termnaton. The foowng s a fu st of te ordnary
termnatons of te present tense.
Person.
nguar.
Pura.
1.
2.
3.
Mas. and fcn. erer.
Mas. and fcn. .
Mas. ''
. Fe7n. ''
Neuter. gy.
.ssr sedom
used).
These are fragmentary and modfed forms of the persona and de-
monstrat e pronouns.
h.) The 3d per. neut. pu. s sedom used. The sng s substtuted
for t. The same takes pace n Greek.
c.) The 3d mas. pu. n t s used as a pote form when speakng
of an e ua or superor n-seh s the hghest honorfc.
d.) The 2d pu. n /f s used when we shoud use "you" n ngsh
to a snge person rrm s the hghest honorfc.
e.) most e ery pura form both of erbs and pronouns may be
used honorfcay for the .snguar. Thus e|r mra r puras of . emssr
25 29) are used for e when speakng of a superor.
32. oc B. a.) erba roots whch nsert the mdde partce g sm-
py: sd do. h come. ut go. rreo say. ut put. or wrte.
b.) erba roots whch nsert the mdde partce sa wth a pref ed or
d g): s oak. es) scu. u rub. ao opc. ?-) drnk. or
read aoud. usa_ create form.
34
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X RCI 9.
33. nasa G|rmay be eupLoncay nserted between the and the
thus : drs and s mg but ths s ra.ther pedantc.
In hgh Tam ssrsa s aso but ery ra'ey) used as the tempora
partce of the present.
34. fu paradgm of the ordnary form of the present tense of a
and uL .:
Person.
3. m. I
/
nguar.
-s'u pm I do.
La n er I earn.
Pura.
'a u n/'LD toe do.
ustd r 'LD we earn.
<3 u yu thou docst.
L .d T)/' thou earncst.
L< rrm he earns.
uLf.d 0'r he earns pote- u Lf.d y t
3 u rT3 r I
y-)
uLf.ass rfT' er
they do.
they earn.
uLs er she earns.
L Ld /D ) .
. | . ) t earns.
L: <5m'pGsr they earn
sedom used).
uuLs pg <s<r ugar).
so us m pssT c. uLtur sk /Dsr c. For the remanng
poetca forms see pp. . .)
35. In ery common Tam us and e en uLg are used for
uL pg . It s necessary to understand these forms but not to use them.
ercse 9.
36. a.) he does t. They ea -n the book n the house. Tarn.
They n the house the book read.) e feed sheep n the unge.
e go to the house now. The mother brngs the chd to the good
merchant's house. The chd earns. he sews. The father waks.
e earn them. hen does he earn ths ? They are pershng.
here are they peshng ? e s gong home. The chd waks. ow
does the chd wak ? The boy reads the book aoud . They say so.
ou hon. are comng here. rte that n ths book. The cows
drnk n the r er.
b.) fB6\ ) esuuesrser L eh as<ss)u us 7)ns r. u urr sun .
L et ssssm g ea . <st:e s uf r ffsefr? Ccom. ufrrserr ?)
semrss )|D wtsud < Lg rr ns 3rr. LDfTrrs )< d srr . su
em | s B ste s ? eu r L9m'2e T<5 u s n em u fr rsfr . m|u
reff. eunss) sssstssssd L<s nfTssrr. Lcn ' 'hsrr Ld
35
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L OX 10.
Lesson 10.
37. The persona pronouns. ee 10.)
a.) The pronouns when decned take te same termnatons as nouns
but n the ob ue cases they change the root and are thus rreguar n
Tam as n a other anguages.
h.) / /rs|r I takes <oT3sr as ts root n a cases of the sng e cept the
1st. In the pura t takes /n/r for the 1st and bw or 67 o for the others.
) a. pp. . III. 1.)
Paradgm of the 1st persona pronoun. Comp. pp. .
Case.
nguar.
I Brssr
srerdssr.
1
by me.
together th
IC.
Pura.
dLD or mr/a er
I LD LCt sr/ sc
BLDLDreo sr s 3 <o r IT <k
by us.
rsLn LDT sr s efra
together
wth us.
I 6rs5r< g
to me.
for me.
er sr <sm I O
n n / rom me.
er'onrGm' r'h |
/:
smsT my.
eT'ooned n wth at
srare .so to me.
to us.
for us.
\f
/BLhnpest | sr ser
/bu) so er aeft n wth to
rBun o er 's eo at us.
of us
1 our.
c.) In OTc|r the err s doubed before man '' termnatons and n the
4th case t becomes or r. ermsm s ute reguary decned.
d.) For the 6th case the smpe root s often used n whch case t
makes a knd of compound wth the nouns to whch t s attached. sy
s sometmes used as a tcrmnaton of the same case.
Ths beng the neuter pronoun that 10) and beng n apposton wth the
noun foowng can ony strcty speakng be used when the foowng noun
aso s neuter. Thus: Tearg eroa otsst ess hs hand. But
oT:m_ Ist woud be ncorrect. In poetry s used for ' occasonay
and when the foowng noun s pura. Thus srs 0 - b my hand ercsr
emssBr my hands. Comp. I Gram. 62.
36
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X BCI 10. L ON 1
ercse 10.
3 . a.) GT ssrr t fr 1 a-) eear e . <o76srd d srr .
T srC IT. rsLh s eO. sresrssmLu mnss tk s. ) sreor
euB eO eurr. B DLoneO Lsner. sussr /s d uuu s su
frrek. oTsk ) t r'serr B s p. 31. 6. -eurspeat u L eh
s<3 ) <? <5sr osr u sau Gpdf d sn . sar suu osr s L
Lo ms rr 'a. r Ln pea | u<3? <srTLLn. sO mL p. du - 35.
Cb.) Come to rae Tt case). here s ter good buock? My buock
s here. e does ths I'or us. ho does ths for us? ow does he do ths
for us? good cow n our house. They are destroyng my new house.
ow does he do t? I am a physcan. Ths s my book. Read t
to me. Learn t wth hm. e s wpng my new book. They are
rubbng down your bg buocks. These are my tte books. hen
does our cow feed n te unge? here s my father? ch of us s
readng aoud)? hch of you s earnng? The tte chd s n the
house wth them.
Lesson 11.
39. oc B. p ure a munsh or nat e teacher Pe s.) um - a esson.
fffL t s understood. sreB7-<s rftuLD I understand t It s ntegbe
to me). Bu frff t s not ntegbe. ors ra ffu rr I don't understand
t To rae e . 2_#-<?//? pronounce pr. -'3 f< p sr past --s-arR m.
fut. -sBu um. Com. 15. rte out the whoe of the present tense as
n 34.) .ar unu _-3 f LI rghty. LoesLD |Ta p/enu) u
correcty. ta Tu OsrRa / y ceary.
e<sk LD t s necessary/ one must.
ug. < )d). I
euessr rTLD t s nnecessar/ one - Defect e erba forms.
must not need not. \
ug. ? ay etw)) or s ff" ro)L9.) |
40. noun may generay be con erted nto what may be caed
an D RB by addng | or e to t. In ngsh "y" s added n
the same way hut to an ad ect e. Com. 136.
41. To make a form answerng to our nfnt e mood n many re-
spects : when any erb has s g t the present te?.se change s gu nto -s
and ohen t has su add u or su to the roof. ampes w be found
n . 11.
Form for yoursef the so caed) nfnt e mood of a the erbs n the
precedng essons.
f e mtst read
f rr) f fr da eu<sm BLh.
e to read t s necessary.
37
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X CI 11. L ON 12.
Ths nfnt e s n fact a erba noun. The pronoun may be regarded as
formng wth t a compound. Thus /ed surr ds our readng a word may
nter ene thus: mrru L smLD'uTu e /r ds our rghty readng.'
ercse 1 1 .
sf- # L L suessT fTLD sLDG LD | fTL sssrfda suessr uD-
uun LD T oard ffL h. <sus fa fT. u urr
sufT- Lpesfe eu rrf fr . <sufTesr<5mLL m LL emu ) ustsL rrr.
comp. 15. f. LDfTLomL gu <s|6ssr m. asbr euu -4s ff)<ss
eyem|D? esm nLD urr auu ssr. ems suu s sst d.
f u uus <? s n )60 sy ssrLrrM. . ourd gtuu tfuLD?
The terms Father and Mother are constanty used by Tamans as sgns of re-
spect and affecton a mssonary s aways caed father and hs wfe and femae
chdren mothers.
b.) ou must read rghty. Read rghty. ou must pronounce
cea'y. peak ceary. Do t rghty. ou must do t rghty. The
tte boy earns the esson. e does not understand the esson. To
hm c.) Ths must be done. Ths must not be done fss <3 Lu
nf. mood. euem h.) ow must I do ths? hen must they do
ths ? e must rub down our buocks now. The new Munsh s com-
ng now nto the house. The physcan understands t we. ou must
go home. Don't read. Don't wak n the mud. The accountant does
not understand that account.
'
Lesson 12.
43. s-sBsr there s. ) . -
. 5 .7 . rreguar erba forms).
< o there s not. ) ' '
eoeo not no.
s LD rmsm 2_e33r there are trees here.
m s LDff sm )dso there are no trees here.
sasns r LD ssfr ) dO those are not trees.
44. The dfference between the two negat es g so o and o s that
the former denes the e stence of any thng whe eeo denes some-
thng that s sad concernng t. g ds) denes the sub ect : trees are not
here .eoed denes the predcate: those whch are there) are not trees
but somethng ese).
The same dstncton obtans between ILL and LL n Canarese
Mc erre p. 1 2) between D and L D n Teugu see Brown's
Gram. p. 193) and between IN and LO or L n ebrew. ee Nord-
hemer's Gram. 1062 1065.)
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X RCI 12. L ON 13.
ercse 12.
45. a-) shL g Lrurr sr ssot . pf eO sem . rnu
h.) Tere s a good physcan here. There s a cow n that unge.
e s not a tte chd. Put that here. ou must put um-.) that
there. e must take ths up <5r Bds). I must read wth the munsh.
e must pronounce ceary. The tte boy must come a sr) to my
house. The mother must not wak e ss) n the mud. he has
chdren ? There are cows there. ere are the cows ?
<||'
Lesson 13.
Iterrogat es.)
46. hen we wsh to ask a ueston we can generay do so by puttng
or at the end of an affrmat e sentence.
F r sst he comes. s f rt? does he come?
\ m r) r e ? but does he come ?
smpy asks the ueston gg often suggests that there s an aternat e.
and en are nserted when necessary as n 1 . b.
and are used n precsey the same way n Teug n Canarese
and are both used as the Tam and as the Tam gg aone s found
n Maayam.
47. In esson 6 we saw that er aso was an nterrogat e etter er and
fT when pref ed to words are sometmes used n the same way. fr
or ufrr) s commony used for "who?" erew-a r s used for "what?" and
dffers from er whch means rather "whether of the two?" or "whch
among many?" stsscutd s used for ersrGsr occasonay and s then decn-
ed ke a noun.
4. oc B. uarruffdr God. The chrstan word for God usoutey eum
s a God. s T e emurrer s used by Romansts. It s anscrt reu munm.
un ersa Lord. es-snr bee e pr. t. s-sua d er I bee e past. t.
rGurr er I bee ed fut. s sntr u uer I sha bee e. The Chrstan
usage of ths word s not ute nat e shgn a-gn u -f ndsrt . sgasgauuru
ndustrousy. 40.) sfTapsrrrm a watchman.
39
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X RCI 13. L ON 14.
ercse 13.
49. a-) unfTu 'G T e a-su n s fD6nr. em <9? n <s s <su6m
su |T s6 Tas ? - or ) e n? fra a LDr s r p sar
fT? s LD||I | fr 6\)'2o\) |fT ? LD TLD GdeO n? oI 5r< g
er<5sr<osr f L ? sns psrr s 3 sneo. sfreusnrT 21. h. 3.)
b.) hen w 3'ou read ? 15/. 31. a. Is that my esson ? here
s the munsh? hat does the physcan say? Is the watchman there?
The watchman s not there. e s not the watchman. ho s the
watchman? Is there a watchman ? Is tere mud n the r er? re
there trees n the unge? re there chdren n my house? re there
not tte chdren n the father's house. Do'st thou bee e n God ?
Lesson 14.
50. In common con e'saton the sgns of the cases are often nter-
changed and those of the 2nd and 6th cases sometmes omtted atogete'.
In the hgher stye of Tam ths s ery fre uent.
2_|L/<sO<s/r g e me the sat not -uss u -u- ).
sssr sssr IT d5/r 3r a//r brng mc some water not s sssr<sssr afT).
33' sm 5s fr s commony ronouuced sn-essr and r oB: r B rr becomes
0<s/r 533rL_/r.
urr s'Lassr he commtted sn not ufre es' sLrm). uch
forms may be consdered as compounds.
The earner shoud consder carefuy whether the omsson of the casa
sgn woud occason ambguty. If not he may omt t n most cases.
From ths must be e cepted nouns sgnfyng ratona bengs stun-'hs r)
both mas. and fern. whch ha e the case termnaton n fu n common
Tam. In Poetry epss s the rue.
It may be stated as a rue that the sgn of the Ind case stg. of mper-
sona nouns 'oo/ ' sssr) shoud nut be e pressed.
Compare ts wth the usag-e of Indo- uropean anguages n whch neuter nouns
ha e the nomnat e and accusat e ake.
fter nouns of number the pura sgn ssh- aso s n the same way
often omtted : thus
e but four houses. Com. 173.)
mrspt uu T eurrrasT.
Four persons came. Com. Camp. Te. Gram. 15 .)
g Remark that no ambguty can arse here.
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X RCI 14. L ON 15.
51. t before may become \ The nasa s changed nfo that of
s t |- the cass to ohch the foowng
f consonant beongs.
Lo may dsappear atogether.
|||' The whoe system of the transmutatons of etters ther nserton and
ther eson s ery compcated. It must howe er be thoroughy understood
by e ery student of the poetca daect. These changes are graduay gong
out of use. few ony whch affect the pronuncaton are retaned. They
w a be e paned as occason re ures. Compare aso pp. .
52. oc B. smmrT cod water sm coo. r uatcr). ug ten.
- L| sat. ureuLn sn. u 5m money. su scssrrrrsr a ser ant srrff r means
a doer an agent. eu work so afre ) a guard or atch. srre ensrrrer a
watchman.' ) sk.u ca. Dtses a tabe beat. pres. afcar.- past.
m. fut. u um). uhud a burden umsn a bandy.
53. ) before d may become b: thus areuso srrr m srreufstr m. pp.
.
ercse 14.
54. a.) un uD unssr. 15. /. esarossPn ote s? su)
u<< yr/'<osr. suesf eO usssrua o-saar . srrs/bsrr ' Gsrd su -
fT< sLu e smL nuD- d ) a s un . fBrrL ) LfT<or
for snes |.) LDrr-Lss) -. '' or dt-Iss eyem TLh. sksstg
O sy'2sodsfTrT era s? uuufT uD T L GT< d rT srr. uem
f. sr6ssT d ff'f s a6\). e dsnu-ssr ueoar L ' rsm su s so'hso
urr?
b.) e s earnng a esson n the house. e s readng a book n
the unge. Does he earn a esson? Is there water n the house? I
want some * sat. To me sat s necessary). e sns. Brng the
money to me. Read ths to me. Ca my ser ant. Brng ten oads of
sat. Dd he g e money to the ser ants? 15./.
Lesson 15.
Past tense. Future tense.
55. The persona termnatons of the present tense are used aso for
the past and future tenses wth a sght e cepton. The mdde partce
determnes the tense. Carefuy go o er agan Lessons 3 and 9.)
* The word some s sedom e pressed n Tam uness t means emphatcay
a tte.
6 41
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L ON 15.
rte out n fu the past and future tenses of a erbs you meet wth
e cept the 3d person future snguar and pura whch w be g en n 72.
56. The mdde partce of the present s or . For ths a few
genera rues w be g en but the dctonary must be consuted. The
mdde partces of the past and future are ascertaned by the root and
the present.
The foowng genera rues must be attended to :
I. g of the present shoud ha e /f n the past and <su n the future.
These are ntranst e forms. But there are some e ceptons.
.
Root.
Obtan.
Pres
I obtan.
Past.
Fut.
I obtaned.
Inf.
I sha obtan. \ To obtan.
Thus are con ugated the erbs / know. g e. s<snL churn. en D
smte w fa. sB pass off o' away and a arge number of others.
II. Roots n s- ha e n n the present ot n the past and <3 n the
future. These forms are common to both transt e and ntranst e erbs.
.
ubmt go
under.
Pres.
L
I submt.
Past.
I submtted.
Fut.
I L submt.
Inf.
To submt.
g* Fna - before the owe of a foowng word or of a termnaton s
often eded for the sake of euphony thus: e sr k. Ths
s not done when 2_ s preceded by one short syabe: thus u* e5r us-
efcsr not u sr. Comp. I Gram. 24. The s_ s e denty not radca. It
s added euphoncay to ad the enuncaton. s added n the same way
n Maaydam.
III. d p of the present re ures n Ihe past and uu n the future.
These harsher forms are mosty transt e com. 160 . There are a few
e ceptons to ths.
.
Pres
Bte.
I bte.
Past.
I bt.
2
Fut.
I bte.
Inf.
To bte.
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L ON o.
peca Rues.
I.) Roots endng n and the greater number of the few n take
ff n the present and fo uw gen. rue 1. n the past and 111. n the
future.
.
R.
Pres.
Past.
Fut.
Inf.
IBL
wak.
fB s pm
I wak.
m f esr
I waked.
fs uek
I sha wak.
fBLds.
To wak.
ut.
e LDrd p:
I e ut.
I e uted.
e LDrru uesr
I sha e ut.
To e ut.
II.) Roots endng n ga preceded by one short syabe and
whch take n the present are e ceptons to Rue I as far as concerns
the past tense to form whch tey smpy doube the consonant and drop
the -- ome of them admt of the reguar form aso.
.
R.
Pres.
Past.
Fut.
Inf.
nter.
I enter.
I entered.
but aso and
more commony
/ o enter.
Lf .
To enter.
u
uffer.
u /D sr
I suffer.
I suffered.
u e esr
I sha suffer.
.
To suffer.
Obtan brng
forth or beget.
ugt pdsT
I obtan.
g pm
I cease.
up pnsr
I obtaned.
I sha obtan.
Gup.
To obtan.
Cease end.
p posr )
I ceased.
p wm.
I sha
cease.
III.) Roots n m <k M sear ha e mosty n the present
n the past and n the future eu after a owe and u after a consonant.
There are certan changes whch take pace for the sake of euphony.
g a. comng after dr becomes.
b. hen a) and come together they become mp.
c. comng after essr becomes L.
d. hen en- and come together they become ssstL.' pp. .)
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L ON 16. X RCI 15.
R.
Pres.
Past.
nt.

2.
Brny forth
of catte.)
OcF60
ro pass.
4.
5.
srreo
.
at.
6.
Rue.
sretr
\ )srer< .'\
a e contan
hod buy.
'/Dm- asr /Dssr. a.)
<3 pm a.)
a. of the root
dropped )
' Fssr pm b.)
sr
- orn /Dssr
) 35 IT r ny sr b.)
s. of te root
dropped.)
Put.
Inf.
esr ussr.
u<ssr
seo essr ssoeo.
reo em
streoe).
-. m c.) -<5ssr ucsr
<o T L m d.)
sL of the root
dropped.)
rern
3 3r Gatressr L er
5
euer
or ccoya.
a/rerr/sffG'au M arer r
3- ery e cepton and rreguarty w be ustrated n the foowng
e ercses whch cannot be too fre uenty gone o er.
57.
Lesson 16.
ercse 15.
Reguar forms. Comp. 56. I.
Pres.
Past.
Put.
gu.
rs.
eu.
These weak forms are mosty ntranst e: many e ceptons.
sfr* sLp fB. Lp eumrasr. /seoeo emeuo ssr B sm gs r-surr
* nrn the 24 houT . ue ) : the day tme 12 hours.

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L ON 17.
not ery common. semrdsesr s dcF sfund f wr ssr. sn<sun:)srr
<c a'bs nLt|a uesBreaut s| eu) eO sm eua ). t n f uu
sLekr ). LL a s sneOeo suessrL nu:).
b.) The day has passed away. e must churn n the house. They
pershed n the unge. God knows our sns. The accountant and the
watchman w obtan those cows from hm. The watchman pershed
wth the son. The good boy knows the esson correcty. I know t by
the esson. ou must not smte the chd. The buock fe down. e
fe n the mud.
Lesson 17.
5 . OC B.
ceptons to the Frst Genera Rue. 56. I.
R.
Pres
r uu
Ran.
L
Do.
su
ea e.
I. buse.
II.
III.
I .
become -
be fnshed
competed.
ut Go
De.
Burn.
uuw'|'D<s r
L Deur
BLw r ssr
eosu ffsar
ossr
Ob. 26 .
ur pm
Co. 25 .
Past.
)uu |set r
)<s o 3r
Bu sesr
es n sesr
Fut.
) u tu eu ssr
<s u eu sr
Inf.
<3 I||I .
O/ tu e dr
muu.
B au oa e5r \ eta su uu .
srm pssr
eu pdr
IT
che suffer pan.
rsTw Dd
esrer eusr or
occasonay Ca/OT *
aso Got-ot
for e esT
?_//r ?<o3r |r poet. ur sum or
uT5 asrecr.\
)3 asr
G'TB sssr
<9r m or
?/r 5 ?us r. *
eu s sr or
uts.
sus.
I IT en m .
-
IT .
LDss ran. eu essr em u butter Oeuer whte. su ghee). uL saeu
a woman's coth garment. so a head areo eg and foot.
* In a these forms whch are rather pedantc s nserted for the sake of
euphony.
45
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X RCI 16. L ON 1 .
ercse 16.
59. a-) LD )Lp uu p uLuL. 35. / ro- srfumuf
<fd o uo3r. L|_ 3)a/ 35a or uLss u. 14. fBturresr- <ou<sn eu'eos
srrrr'2t5sr ss nt? r . eresr' esr ss) su a t ' tr. su <o ) u <nsr s smr d <s dr
\ 'T n aways n common tak I suffer pan n my head.) s
o<5 urT eu)? L LDfr sfn \ < ' e\) <s 5sr s a)' s )?
b.| It rans. s eg pans. he s churnng for butter. e w de
n the unge. Dd the house burn? ho ded? hen dd he de?
hen w they go home to the house)? Is ths your eg? hy
do they re e the watchman ? They wea e coths n the house. ho
are you? ou who?) ho s there? Go to the atchman's house.
<
Lesson 1 .
60. OC B.
The econd Genera Rue ceptons to 56. II. Roots n -.
R.
I. 1
2
u B
Le d-Mn.
Pres.
Past.
' m
Cothe.
Gsar
Fut.
Inf.
u Bu uasr
- buuesr
\
nd so a n _ ha ng d3 n the present.
II. 3.
III. 4
5.
6
7
)C5
Be.
r or 0
Remo e he ceared
off.
euetrT or aue n'
Grow.
ss Desr
ony rreguar
n ths tense
u uesr
I reguar from
Iroot /r. 56. I.
s euasr
IT.
eu r F pasr
emo e. put a ay.
B|rp or GuT '
Prosper.
pTLp or/r 7
Be humbe.
eum or eunp
Craw.
frr pdr
s pm
eu rTtB ear
56. I.
) er m en ek
56. I.
a /r.
eurpm esr eutrap snssr
56. I.
TLpB ear
56. I.
56. I.
rp e k
senrLo suesr
rrp.
ITf.
B p.
nd so a roots n r or Cp whch may optonay add 2-.
46
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X RCI 17.
I . 10.
11.
12.
13.
C fT f)
Fght.
ufr ) Dsar
Com. 5 . 1.
urr ff m
G ITff.
eep.
pssr
Lg m
LD enasr
Lp.
Pough.
- LD fssr
- st
L-w s dr
Lp.
orshp.
)p r /Dm
rr m
T M eusk
ITLp.
Roots n Lg or 75 e cept 0 5 or h and the root
preceded by one short syabe and ha ng the present n gn take snge
d n the past and eu n the future.
euaorru) a garment. sst a age. srrTrrdr a man of the age. OMffrr
peope of the age np Lp e <s t ) the knee from the knee to the ance. ptpLD
a cubt sneo eg.
ercse 17.
61. a) 6um T s'2err - d nTs<3rr. s L go srssrssr _
sk? T s u tresT? sntLuf-eo eu' frT- stL ) Gssresr
/r sO'2e |T? snunn enrrnn' en'. t er' en- pf<: srT )fT eo e
. ffu sesresrffpsn h* or as Lprrer? f u tp snemLTLD.
L0.
b.) The chd grew. The trees grow n the unge. hy do you
craw? The agers w pough the unge. The agers must wor-
shp God. ou must not craw: you must wak. I was n the house
wth the accountant. ha 1 foursh? Must I become humbe? They
must be ndustrous. a e you a pan n your head or n your foot?
Is the cow dead or the bandy buock? The agers ay down to
seep n the unge.
*Frora OTOTOTo 4th case sng. Corap. 47. an nserted. 1 . e. 22. or
for what wherefore.
47
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L ON 19. X RCI 1 .
Lesson 19.
62. OC B.
ampes of the econd Genera Rue. 56. II. Roots n
g Both transt e and ntranst e erbs are found n ts cass.
2-.
R. Pres. Past.
Fut.
Inf.
1.
2.
fruu be-
come '\ Make cause
to become con ert
nto.
eep.
dc Ddr
s e T ssr
d <a|sr
< .
rB f pasr
esrosr
m e er
ks.
3.
ua-
peak con erse
tDth.
u.s- pm
u ssrm
u eum
u.
4.
rte.
er Lgg Dssr
sr ssrssr
eT g sm
T .
5.
Make out of).
u<s3 r) /odr
L suresf ssraa'
uskr efk
uessrem.
6.
et:k.
B pdsr
L ssrm
<asr
ft .
7.
7
from ast 160.
d. Comfort.
p esT sr
p p snm
pp.
Te bud te on.
sL- pm
XL- esrssr
. <s'3sr
L-L
ITL-L .
9.
from aTt see
160. f. . hew.
<smL p 3 r
srrL-Lp. e reBr
/r C /<5Br
10.
160. c e pend \
cause to go. \
O f/ffssran"
Gff/ BT
<9 / .
aTff boed rce. fff raw r
'ce.
t eo sfr' efr s
CT) 37"? fT L9m'2ers
)LotufTu e smm.
5) )srr she made rce:
c. ted togeter.
63. a ) 9 5 sue)
p. snLs - ed
'bstr fp rrf r
she con erted B
ercse 1 .
nto ffng) ). 9 5 a? or a
*Fc
)r Tam houses o
rgnay conssted smpy of ea es
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L ON 20. X RCI 19.
b.) e must bud a new house. Te the cow there. ho ted the
buoc? here dd he wrte the book? The munsh wrote t. e
seeks a pyscan. ho made ths? ho dd ths? how the house
to the watchman. ou must comfort your good mother. Dd she seek
the tte boy? hat do they seek here? e w wrte ceary to the
munsh. as the mother bo'd the rce? Dd he seek the cow or dd he
go to seep n the house?
Lesson 20.
64. oC B.
Reguar Forms. ampes of the Thrd Genera Rue.
Pres.
Past.
Put.
Inf.
s g

as
These are mosty transt e: strengthened forms of those n 57: some
e ceptons.
R.
Pres.
Past.
Put.
Inf.
1.
urrT
Behod.
fTTs /Desr
unrf m
utrTu uer
ufrTd<s.
2.
Preser e.
aTs Dssr
s p<3sr
atru uesT
sr s.
3.
Forg e.
LD r a \s pm
LDGBT on s r
Loesro| tu uer
LDerestass .
4.
a e de er.
ffL d fer
rnL esT
ffL u u sr
ffL da.
5.
Bathe.
f d G/Desr
ef ek
ettu uek
efds.
6.
Pass away
purge out.
sd pm
sL dr
sLuduek
s uu .
areos) tme esnto e .
ercse 19.
65. Ca.) I saw ooked at) hm n the house. I sha see hm then.
Dd you see t? e must preser e the chdren. God forg es our sns.
Forg e us our sns. De er us from e . Ths s e . e must
not do e . e w bathe n the house. e took care of the house.
Pay the money now to the accountant. e has done e for money.
* In common tak w s used often for ths root tn s mp. hon. a/rc M preser e ye.
t The root nebrssh re ures a dat e of the person as n Latn.
7 49
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L ON 21. X RCI 20.
b-) fTL en-' e-freDu .s snd n 'sT. bnb s LLes d srrd p.
u GD tL or - u ufT smu ufTTasbr. sessrdsesr LD<okenf|uurT G )?
err' efrs' fr <L ) Gffd rfasefrn? n s oT<o rd Lo srGsfss
nm t- sneosss sL nesr. arreoth <s p . <ossrs '
f f G uaanL- . gy ssmuuf d so sun- <fneo . ssurrrrr s srsaf
Lesson 1.
66. oC .
The Frst peca Rue. 56. I.) Roots n and .
Pres.
Past.
Put.
Inf.
s g

uu
ds.
1 erbs of ths cass are mosty transt e: many e ceptons but an acton
s mosty mped.'
4.
7.
R.
Forget.
up
Fy.
0
Both trans and
ntranst e. \
Mnge coaesce.
Open trans.
be open
sometmes .
Pass o er
transgress.
p
Be horn go forth.
mp
Pass away de.
Pres.
Lupa
ups
Comp B<s \ 0 _
and ssus )
n Inde I.
ps pm
s a pm
pd per
CO. 257.
Past.
Put.
LDps esr Lopu uesr
uprs ssr
pL
ser sssTt s u u sr
5pB f<cM
u um
st u um
p/s esr pu u<k
u um'
Inf.
LDpas.
ups
pd
ff) F) a tte brd se a door urnso mk.
ercse 20.
67. a.) Open the door. They crossed o er the r er. he mnged
water wth the mk. The tte boy forgot the od esson I forgot
the book. ou must not wak so. In that water and mk are mnged.
The accountant waked wth the watchman. The brd fes there. he
ooked at the tte brd. chd s born. The ser ant ded then.
50
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L ON 22. X RCI 21.
GT -I f5L IT
- 0-
Lesson 22.
6 . OC B.
The econd peca Rue. 56. II.)
Roots n su- Pres. n g . Past L d. b doubed. Fut. en. Inf. gy.
Chefy transt e.
1.
R.
Pres.
Past.
Fut.
Inf.
sf
Lea e.
fm
CO. 254.
u- u-dr
e er
fff/ .
2.
T
Put.
uT fdr
CO. 256.
uTL- u- sr
u T em
uT.
3.
G e appy to.
co. 263.
k
)-
4.
IB
Pant.
pm
m esr
mc
5.
Cease.
g p k
ff eudr
/D.
3:5' To ths rue there are some e ceptons : urg bear a burden bear
wth endure makes a Opasr sek u ucm: so sagu mortfy affct punsh.
These foow 64.
aLL. s r a command srpff young pants ft for transpantng m three.
aL dsa p to ouchsafe grant gracousy. e_err wthn.
ercse 21.
69. a-) sk'hssT ) u urr p sfTL.L ) e LLL-nssr- <o|m'2esT ff/f
ts L- euem nth. s '?eodsrT T rd 'f s fT unLL rTT< frrr ? t|u
sd s|-L' efr L tt. e thus commanded \\< ouchsafed t thus.
Obser e the dom.) T' urd emd sL- st a 5m LD. mmnn
Brr b h nTser- 59.) s | r <s5r4 <f sngt L nm? Idom.
snwpsns<ssr eresr a? <s e_syr <s LL d 6T'\ L FrT sr. t err'bsfru
up fr fr. she bare a chd. Idom.) m 'm'efrabswu up r 'm
PfB eo umLu.rrm'. LDnLL B' su uf LL fr r5mLd u umL
I m.
* Ths s often used: thus g urssfg: 12.3. a the rope has hrohen.
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L ON 23.
b.) hat sha I g e you ? y do they pant that tree there ?
hy dd the agers ea e the age? ho suffered? hat dd you
obtan by ths sn? e went nto the unge fourth case wth r).
here dd he pant? er e out the rce. Dd he put t on hs head or
on hs foot? Don't medde n that busness.
Lesson 3.
70. oc B. I.) The Thrd peca Rue 56. I) and rreguar
forms n genera. of constant use.
Pres. - g. In the past the fna consonant of the root often changed
and p OT L nserted. The fut. takes u or eu. Inf. n sy.
These erbs are somewhat rreguar but they are few and easy
ac ured.
R.
Pres.
Past.
Fut.
Inf.
1.
OT BT
ay.
erer per
6rssr p<ssr
eT' u uesr
ere sra|rs.
2.
eueo )
Con uer.
eueo p sr
euek pesr.
su o e sr
eueoeo.
3.
X
.
areo pm
sresr p
an enssr
sreoec.
tand stop.
p pm- 1.
dr pesr
p um 4.
r ps.
5.
seo
Learn.
ap pesr
ap p sr
spGudr
apa .
6.
77
sT
ff r 0 .gs)
peak say.
O <F /r OT 2/ C OT
rer ssrdsr
for 0/r|o ?OTOT.
rreg.
<3 r ) s<s r
s" IT eo <s .
.s/re OT sessr )
ee.
srekr pm-
CO. 260.
s<o sr L esr
rreg.
s IT asstsr u 6sr
s T om.
ear obey or ask.
sL Gpm 2.'\
sL- t esr 3.)
reg.
sL ut
L- .
9.
5
G e.
f pm-
rreg.
F m'
n.
10.
Come.
a pesr
rreg.
<s 7 mdr
ens.
1.) <s ps. 2.) r a Ld. 3.) sff L 4.) do u pu.
" In regard to the ast two erbs t may be doubted whether the themes
are sgr and a or n and aur. They are both con ugated reguary as from roots
and ffor e cept n the past tense and the mperat e. Com. 27.) a 3 has a poet
mp. aso ab ek for wm csr). It s dffcut to a od the con cton that/sr ans-
crt D and d'ha t has a the meanngs of both n some or other of the . Ind.
anguages) n whch case anaogy woud pont out r as the root of ts companon.
In Teugu the root s ra and "sem- owes are easy nterchangeabe." Bopp. 20.)
52
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X RCI 22.
The rreguarty n te past s anaogous to that n the erbs a and sr. 5 .)
Compare aso er- s /sar.
The reguar past tenses of a these erbs 56. I.) woud be accordng to anaogy
a r er rs sr sts er sr asT. In eac case the root owe s shortened.
In the pura mperat e we ha e 'cs' eur b for r n amo b). I apprehend f s
used to pre ent hatus nstead of / n order to dstngush these forms trom te de-
r at es of the roots /ra and ura . Compare srcy from sr. Ths use of r nstead
of d s not unknown n te cognate daects. I must dffer then from Dr. Cadwe
and regard au/r and t as the roots whch are shortened nto o/ and - or f beng n-
serted euphoneay.
It may be remarked aso n confrmaton of the abo e that coo uay n pOr and
B|r psar for sr- Gpa|r eur par are ed for - GpOT and euc GDOT.
70. 2.) Paradgm of the past tense. Comp. pp. .
R. uu earn read.
R. y/r/ / bu . obtan.
ng.
1. Pers.
2.
I earned.
3. m.
for L) ss
found n com-
mon Tam.)
e earnt.
f.
he earnt.
It earnt.
Pura.
ng.
Pura.
e earned .
you hon. earnt.
e ea-nt.
r uurrT
I The / or he
I hon. earnt.
enrrn esnasr
I bought.
en Tt mu
Thou boughtest.
e bought.
Lp.rrrraefr
I They m. and f.)
L earnt.
e bought.
he bought.
They n.) earnt.
eur k er
Contracted
It bought.
ars p .
a fr 'ostT.
ou bought hon.
e bought.
eur eT .
They or he hon.
I bought.
u rr s m n' s er .
They m.aMf.)
bought.
eufrra sar. f
They n.) bought.
ercse 22.
71. a-) Brrsr eard s<ssards o3T <s 5sr n "osr. bt s sar O<s /ff 60
-o| T sT BTnrpesr.X To us a s sfTLLL ) a em . u a ? unrrun
<suTs6af ) sasrssr <sn G ) ? - sn <s<s 6\)'2eouT?
* u s substtuted eeganty for'r n ths form ony.
f Ths form s sedom used the snguar takng ts pace.
| hen OTOT 70) s used the whoe of that to whch t refers may be consdered to
be wthn uotaton marks. The uotaton s drect. " e sad 'I u- come.'" Ths
w be more fuy ustrated hereafter 2).
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L ON 24.
b.) ho comes there? ho ga e you ths? Don't say that esson
enmsrt T ). The ser ants must stop here. e w go nto the house
wth the watchman. The son con uered the agers. e sad he must
stop here trans. "I must stop here"). ho made ths? ho dd ths?
ho created ths? here dd he buy the rce? hat dd you hear n
the age? Dd you see the good doctor n the house? hat esson
has the tte boy earnt wth the munsh?
-<-
Lesson 24.
72. In the 3d person neuter of the future tense the snguar and pu-
ra of whch are ake) there s an anomay. It s formed by addng s-
to the root of erbs whose present has and <a beng nserted when
necessary 1 ) and <s d to those whose present has .
But ec makes b g <5b ) Ctferr ?<5L ). Compare ther
present tenses.
Paradgm of the future tense.
Pers.
2.
3. ?.
R. sL . Pr. Fu Ddr.)
ng.
7 3 | O
I w do.
suerru
Thou wt do.
e w do. I
s u m T eT
he w do.
It w do.
Pura.
L en rr LD
e w do.
you w do. h.
e to do.
Gueufrrr
Te or he hon.
do.
s | en IT a s etr
They m. f.) do.
They n. ) w do.
R. uL. Pr. Ls pasr.)
ng.
Lp-u ueur
I w earn.
uLuumu
Thou wt earn.
Lp-uutresr -
e w earn.
L IT IT
he w earn.
It w earn.
Pura.
ITLD.
e w earn.
ou w earn h.
e w earn.
L fTIT.
'Iey or he hon.
w earn.
LuuTrsen'.
They m. and f.)
o earn.
They n.) w earn.
72. * oc B. r water. tutTssms the body ony used n Poet. ut un-
derstood). srapM' a etter a wrtng. .mw d t w become ser e for c.
contracted nto |a. For u T d t w go utw s used. g| gamng
surg dsputaton. su ssr torment.
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X RCI 23. L ON 25.
ercse 23.
73. a. | hat sha I do? hat w the chd earn? The cow
w come now. Do you know that etter? It w happen so Tam.
t w wak so s-). The command w come to the agers. ho
must go to the munsh? hen w the tree grow? here can the
book be Tam. where w t be)? the house fa? No t w
stand. the age persh? that house sut you. the
chd weep for ts mother?
b-) 5/7 ermssT sd uh? eruusf. d? d td saf
eO T d LDrT? a)'2sy snLs- eO 7s o. un<suuD wfT? ton
T h unssss-''' Ths s poetca. It s a usefu uotaton and s
g en for arety. psBs h. e un utss
s'rT sk )e) ufTLOfT? '"' h urro su '2esr s L d.'' u
uu f s d u u uTLDfr? usLDfT sLL LLr? orr s used for any
anma of the genus Bos. ere us? ndcates the speces.
Lesson 25.
74. e ha e now gone through the present past or mperfect) and
future tenses of the Tam erb. e ha e aso seen how a form answer-
ng n many respects to the ngsh nfnt e mood s obtaned. The
mperat e mood has been g en aso. e come now to a form probaby
dfferng much from any wth whch the earner s ac uanted n any
anguage but whch obtans n a the outh-Indan daects.
It s a reat e partcpa form.
The Tam has no reat e pronoun. ow then can we e press n
Tam "the shepherd who feeds the sheep " and "the sheep whch
gra e n the unge?" Thus Bsdsn- dLs p LoLuum and stL
LDL p Bs r. ere dLs p and du d mean "who-feeds " and
"whch-gra e." Ths form whch ncudes the erb and the reat e
pronoun s obtaned by throwng away the persona termnatons of the
present and past tenses and addng . tDL s Dm take away e m and
add : you w ha e u u s d the reat e partcpe of the p -esent tense.
o tD'L m take away em add 5y and dL whch s the reat e
partcpe of the past tense s the resut. The 3d person neuter of the
future tense s aso used as the reat e partcpe of the future: du sd.
There s a correspondng negat e form. 121. 4.)
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X RCI 24.
The whch s added seems to be the remnant of a reat e pronoun ke
the Greek o 6 ony paced after the erb nstead of before t: oy h o
r hor tBT sr s<o r . LDssnasr.' ampe:
du s /dcst I feed. mu p who whch or that feeds.
\ LDu pes I gra e. Gdu t) who whch or that gra es.
f
uD | dr I fed. du who whch or that fed.
| LDu cr I gra ed. Dtu who whch or that gra ed.
s u ear r I sent. .u sr u u who whch or that
I sent. Comp. 70. 2)
_ C LD:ud mu It t feed. mudLn who whch or tha o feed.
\ D |h It w gra e. d d who whch or that w gra e.
The constructons resutng from ths w appear strange t the earner
has accustomed hmsef to them.
Ths partcpa form s used n a respects as an ad ect e. et t
has of course the same go ernng power as any other part of the erb
as w be seen n some of the foowng sentences.
It uafes nouns of any genders case or number but tsef suffers
no change.
ercse 24.
75. a-) Bndn- usf fTL LD. s 'L ) 0d p L err'Bsrr ) Lp /D.
sn- srr s do s fO' <L6\) p p Lferr syr. smufeo 0<
LD T |s r. 6 sk L LL.t .'2 r. surser T osrdsfT<s / s -
s u| urrey s' f LD smsfIss su<ssar . BtTsbr un p <. s
rr 6 Br Tu - mrresr T Lp sr 62) fT-.es) peaffe unfTs-s euessr
). wrrek streOua urr Lg -<osr rftu <su Tud.
b.) The books whch the boy sought 62). The daughter whom the
mother comforted 62). The daughter who comforted the mother. The
trees whch grew n that unge. The garments whch the son put on
60). The son who put on garments. The ran whch w fa here 5 ).
It w ran here. The eg wdch paned me. The boy who went to the
age ded there 5 ). The coth whch he wo e 5 ). The tabe
whch they made. Beat the dog whch btes the tte chdren. here
s the rce I saw n the house?
76. Ths reat e partcpe s caed n Tam uufr stsd or noun-
defect uuT. name or notn erh defect) because t re ures a noun
to f up the meanng. e ca t reat e because t reates to the noun
that foows. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 7. Cadwe's Comp. Gram
p. 412.
56
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L ON 26.
Lesson 26.
The erba partcpe.
77. There s another form whch s caed e ssT-er-F L| or erb-defect
bocu:e t re ures a foow erb to t up the meung. It s a knd
of gerund s ndecnabe and though beongng to te past tense takes
ts tme t'rou the fnte erb whch coses te sentence.
Its fonnaton s easy. It s formed from the 1st person snguar of the
past tense.
Ths s the most con enent way of consderng te sub ect It s probabe
tat the tense s formed from te prtcpe n whch case naogy woud suggest a
pres. part n and a future n or 04 tu whch the persona termnatons were
added the a. beng eded.
Ca.| In a the erbs ncuded n 56. II. thro away sar-dr: t-k
ssrssr makes s ha ng submtted.
From ths cept
3 aeog) 70) whc makes srsu ha ng sad as though from a re-
guar past tense O/rs Gesrsar.
b.) In a other cases throw away erer and add s..- uuf. fssr makes
uLs ha ng earnt.
The Teugu and Canarese ha e a present erb. part. aso. Corap. Camp.
Te. Gram. 313. Mc erre's Can. Gram. p. 6.)
Its use w be best earnt from a few e ampes:
.) su sr s'oesr u msr e saw and spoke. ere <s< Bar takes the
pace of the fnte erb "saw." The Tam admts of ony one |n t e erb n a
sentence smpe or compound.
2.) Bmm fsu utrL<cns sL sun g er s srssr
I heard read and wrote that esson.
sskr sL orOpg may be transated "ha ng seen " "ha ng heard "
and "ha ng read."
3.) m<ssru esuu esr rs e T r.
The tte boy ha ng waked came.)
The tte boy came wakng or on foot.
g " The erba partcpe often has the force of an ad erb. pon the proper
apprecaton of ths w depend much of the earner's progress.
s a genera rue chene er a sub ect has two or more |nte erbs n
ngsh render a but the ast by the af sru).
57
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X RCI 25.
Tam deghts n the accumuaton of erba forms. By means of
these a sentence may be ndetutey engthened out whe the meanng s
preser ed from a ambguty.
By ther proper use the prncpa erb may be modfed wth a precson
scarcey attanabe by any other means. *
4.) / /rs|r s uat eu rF) s asr .
I ILL go there and come back).
em Gurr gs u/r eat 64. La ek .
e I eatng and drnkng.
The tense of the subordnate erba forms un ur9 s determned
by the fnte erb.
ercse 25.
7 . a-) 3 )u <o )u s <sr s s'2er rn u h. u ut-ss)
u r a Co' |soar h. sn par sr Bua p<o ) uu '2eodsfrr'2 sr s oa/
L f. c w0r ? serrTfTf L-ta u submss ey ) u ns r.
<ss)f GffnL - 'ff' <frT 6\) p es r 9u. sm0d u urrLu*
fTTss s|o sr LD. <s5) 6sr Lesr L er sas' Gr s d'd snem <sut-
d ff- -) L| aways doubed after d or of ths form. <sTe LL
6\) usuknL ear s L eu'dsfffr ph unnsk
su un G )T r .
* Cu/ro 5 . II. for urc ) the erb. part of ur "ha ng gone" ery common.
o u 5 II. for a or ).
b.) They came and spoke wth hm. The dog bt and ked the brd.
he entered the house and saw the mother. e obtaned money and
ga e to the agers. e must pough and pant trees. The tte boy
ay down and sept n the unge. The mother sought the chd weepng.
hch ser ants ded n the unge? hch are the books that the boy
was seekng n the house ?
*I cannot refran from uotng the foowng passage from an essay by Professor
chof " on the Tartarc anguages " uoted n Prof. Ma Mer's " sur ey of ang-
uages." It s perfecty appcabe to the constructon of Tam mutats mutands. " ow
pecuar and truy Tartarc ths wonderfu concatenaton of sentences and nter en-
ng of words sentence runs on n ong perods ke a ma estc stream
The termnatons and suff es are ke the sma assas dependng on the power-
fu and hgh soundng gerunds and these agan go ern and hod together the arger
members of a perod ke so many Pashas." In the profoundy earned but unhapp-
y unfnshed researches nto the Tartar daects of M. be emusat a smar
descrpton s g en.
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L ON 27. X RCI 26.
Lesson 27.
The perfect and puperfect tenses.
79. These are not g en n nat e Tam grammars but forms e u-
aent to them are n constant use.
1.) The perfect s formed by addng fa /oesr I am 60. II.) to
the erba partcpe ast treated of.
. uufg Fd /Dsr more generay wrtten
L h psr ) I ha e earnt t. / am ha ng earnt).
Td3 Tdr he has submtted he s ha ng submtted).
2.) The puperfect s formed by addng r dr I as 60. II.) to
the same.
-rr f y . . / had earned t. I was ha ng earned).
/eCs t / had spoken t. I was ha ng spoken).
0. Thus aso may be formed the future perfect uL ) L m I sha
ha e earned the perfect nfnt e uLd tds to ha e earned and the
perfect puperfect future perfect of the reat e and erba partcpes
L f d /D L F)/ L I LD L f) who tcMch O thut
has had or sha ha e earned or s ha ng earned.
3: 'The perfect s used for the present sometmes as n Greek. Thus f
m rT he dwes rff dwe stop: tarry. 64.) / fB d psr I knoo.
ercse 26.
1. a.) n sL< 7d nT r? pesfe L uuf..g:
sfTGOo tnn. hu es Lusk uu umas' en u un p
L/DB0s n esT. 66. sesardtsasT uessr s 7sar<5 <5 rr / tB
trm. BT sr ffh suD * unas' LDenssf u' s) '2s\) stut
stLu s s p. B6\)6\) y eu) | T. tr dsT. u for u
from u |5r osr .5 . II. 77. a. t. he s ha ng become good he s
a good man). ct/e/G umu Td rrfm? <smu unrn s r
u T? se Trn p.<cs <3 s'fTs\)<s61 0d yTs<sn-n? d eueor unnss
*The future s used ndefntey for any tme: "whch at any tme I may ha e
commtted."
b.) I ha e wrtten the esson. ou had sought the chd n the
unge. The door whch he had opened for the tte boy. The ager
who had panted the tree came. The tree whch the ager had panted
grew. I ha e forgotten and forg en the e s he has done to me. The
mk was mnged wth water. The brd drank the mk mnged wth water.
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L ON 2 .
Lesson 23.
The use of erdr.
2. In 70 we had the root otot speak of whch the past s erdr pm
and conse uenty the erba partcpe 77.) erdsp -a u sad.
Ths form s used when n ngsh a drect uotaton s made nstead
of uotaton marks and when the uotaton s ndrect as e u nent to
"that." It s the Greek on. Transate t when necessary by "that."
The nfn. erssr occurs n poetry and sometmes n coo ua use. o Tsk
u .) and rasr p- To these .y 40. 1.) and s 136 are added when
the e act words used are not uoted. Compare 16 . 136. a?.
Te sad he woud come. "-
" \ "I w come. he sad. |
. em ermm -sm C L drm ) e susurra Dsk.
I bee e there s. "
2_ OT
Compare
I bee e that whch w say "God s."
en rr s_ arar O c|r /D o e s- su ff d < p ek .
I bee e that whch says " God s."
-/ erssrusm|: \ . .
e sad what amounted to "I bee e.''
3. hen erskg s used more than once n a sentence s- s added to
each er srg s_Lo - ermu)).
I bee e that God s and that he created me.
"God s" and "he me created" I bee e.)
4. oc B. Before osr prn sruD apmrn D prssr. fter t3m t srLf
t5/D 3purr B. Both p3r and t5ar must be regarded as nouns sgnfyng
"the before tme " and "the after tme." 251. They go ern the 4th case
generay and may themse es be partay decned. sm f we. rsdrg
that whch s good -- 40. u frut .sekgn a caf. pt 57 be
fnshed come to an end 64 fnsh compete. |/ 'r. see behod ths rr
see behod that. . s g - 2m thnk. 64.
03" The desre to obtan more.
t to ac ure one must whch says the desre.
Ths dom s fre uenty used.
Beware of transatng t <s3rsar turda .eaff.
60 "
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X RCI 27. L ON 29.
5. pssT c. are used wth the future reht e partcpe c. are
used wth the past reat e partcpe. 74.
B|or sm< FLL LD \_ .3:u p3n <3 L/s/a- g. 7 . pdr _ Lf <dr
st d' eu.Gdr. I came before he dd t t. the before tme tat e w
do It).
eu<asr 'stnff' )'3 ' 3ek <sB s<rsr. I came after he had dune t t. the
after tme that he dd t).
Comp. Lesson 71.
ercse 27.
6. b) uns r eLLeB) saLL u: 62.) sL ps m'\ pm<sm
\_sssr smp' fr-mp us- 56. II I. " ' P <55ur -fnmteo sr
susrr L off'Gmu u u/bp 56. II-| nuun em ?<5/_L_/T/f. y
esrosr su t? er sr sst o t suhn|u? auesr sesruo eue
h ) Before you seep. Before the agers pouged t raned.
LDmLp u 5 ). Thnk we before you do t.s. s head ached
5 .) after he ate 56. T.) that frut. ou read your esson we after
e went home. here s the boy who read hs esson we? fter ths
wat w you do? Before I came shoud you not ha e wped the tabe?
Rub down the bandy-buock after t has come from the unge.
Lesson 29.
7. Partrpn nn ns of ery cammon use and at the snme tme ery
eeLat are formed from the reat e partc )es or uu ers by add-
ng persona t Ma.tons.
<7 ) Thus from unL s p pre.* re. part of uem 74) create ae
formed
f sm s3/Dsuesr one mas.) oko creates. \_< added and eu nserted.
1 umt d /D |3rr one fem.) oho creates. syt added and su nserted.
' " us n < pg that tohch creates or the \_g for ) added.
creatng.
r um d /Dw IT one honorfc) ho creates 'r added and eu nserted.
I L B)_<s /D u/7"<5srr those who create m. \_f <sr added and en nsert-
Pur. and f. ed.
I uao s /Dsro / or ) those neut.) hch gwo for ms ) and cros/
uaat d Des' ssr | create. asrr added.
61 "
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L ON 29.
From estu cssr p. r. p. of syt|L/
end. 56. II.)
ssreussr or u ueuek. *
b.) From uen the past re.
part are formed
f uss) su sr one who created
I c. \_uss rrm.'
ng. - u<c<sssw emu esrsu r or u usuer.
I uaa | that whch created L ssr or uu gu.
_ or the ha ng created.
r uesLenT uea rT. ) u earer or BnuL ue rr.
Pur. ues s' rs r. epu ssr sun's sr or mu uarse .
* a substtuted for or. Ths s not so common as the reguar form.
g' en n the common daect u0a r<sr usDL mT spssr c/f for
sum su are used occasonay for uem Guek uem euT.
The neuter snguar besdes ts prmary use corresponds often n mean-
ng to the partcpe n "ng " used as a noun: the creatng c.
1 These forms are of perpetua occurrence accustom yoursef to form them wth
e ery erba root you meet.
. Partcpa nouns wth a future sgnfcaton are formed by addng
uu to the root of erbs whch take s y n the present and u to tose
whch ha e g . In ths atter case s" may be used for u n the neut
snguar.
eau) ca makes scaLpd pm I ca and
Thus:
Fut. ssLpu uek.
wLpuueu one mas.) who w ca c.
I
I
sLpuueurr
e LpL| 3T sr I
f nLpuu e<su- r |
\_L u s added to the root
to whch are oned the ter-
I ranatons
T . fs r eaeu sae sr as
before.
* u after ot.
Fut. su eum.
FLueu r.
3 Les erasrug * ).
GsLueur.
suueuTser.
ffLues -ssr.
The neut sng. .s u sg c. s constanty used but the remanng
forms of the future are not so common.
9. These nouns go ern the same cases as the erbs from whch they
are der ed.
Thus: ersk ssr . enLpeufr eur.
It s he that caed me.
eu ssr Lp-uu a tru ffo.
It s not rght to heat hm.
90. oc B. eufrasTLD hea en the sky. LD<sm.L LD hea en un other LD<c r
<cOLD sphere). y . the earth dsss <50 d the earthy sphere the word.
y earth n compounds. pp \pp3sr ppeusr .spps -C. from
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X RCI 2 L ON 30.
cease 56. I.) wthout he she or t that s wthout. s a uarter of the hea ens.
amp'susr m ppeudr) one who has no where to turn to a hepess
person. L'bI) d nty pro dence g 'hser hep . rerg 56. 11.) appear
tamp 56. I.) dsappear 64.) hde. p B 56. II.) co er shut p. su sr
tme opportunty sasu put pace keep. 64.) In 5 a totay dfferent word.
ercse 2 .
91. pssr 66.) pss 66.) pk ssT 9/ds w rmrBssr d
LD<sssn eO s<sfe\ a p srras r t n su Os srr Dtua psar
mLuussr. ssusarTs srrs p m' snwpsnrr<3sr. aurreweo upd p
s . <sma ffLueu sr oT uesr? asppeuf u. <su d
3s33r. tBrrssr LL d -6 ' us:r 50.) sf<ssy su pd
seuh LD hp su'bsfr 50-) PLp L<f-< ) | s s sd G)srT sr c<5sr<oar. \ a 0 6u -
b.) ho s t that g es the money to the tte boy? ho struck the
watchman? Ths man) protects me. Ths s what I sad? ho dd
ths? ow dd he do t? re you he that dd t? rt thou he that
shoud come eu ueur)? e who has caed us s God I sent 10
oads of" sat ha e you seen them? It a peared n the hea en and ds-
appeared. Ths s a unge wthout water. Ths s not hea y.
Lesson 30.
The Pass e oce
92. The Tam has propery no pass e oce but a compound erb
may be used whch n many respects suppes ts pace.
It s made by addng u suffer 56. II.)) n a ts nfectons to the
nfnt e mood of the erb. u B 56 II ) added n the same way
woud make a causa concernng whch more w be sad hereafter.
160 161.
Thus: 0<Ftua to do. u L| t to be done.
6nLpd<s to ca. enLpdsuu B psr I am caed I suffer cang).
Lds to beat. Lp-dauuLLresr he was beaten.
to seek. uu sut ts srr they w be sought.
In some few cases the smpe root of the erb used as a noun) s pref ed
to u .
93. oc B. sL bad. past re. part of s be spoed. 6 . 74. <d3 ek
a carpenter. CsuL-Lf-urrek the man who burns the dead and performs mena
offces n a age. . ) ca \_3h- L a ca g e 6 . . an s
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X RCI 29. L ON 31.
a paper etter. a B.T a etter. <. esst ewr u u d a petton rep a petton.
TI a report or p.tton. g snr a genteman "Mr. " a go ernor a-eufru/s
effsm a cerk nterpreter one who reads pettons and drafts answers. uar u
and 07./ |t for dry cut aton /s t nferor su fed' . mm L/ paddy
and wet-cutoaton. /esbt. good. G) ff h u u g 56. II. 161.) cause to un-
derstand make known.
ercse 29.
94. a-) .3 LL omuu ssr LdsL|u T st r "or tueunesr.
ere 5/9- a beatng. - GLoero-f sff eo so u uuL-'.
f " s u mssf. gy cLos Dy '3 s\b. suL LLn' ssT
esT' sr. u)g y g sn n u '5 < su ) eO snn asuutLL . sussr s
fT 5au suum 50-) sasu sd st 'o T /fsstO.G'u /t cssr
ff u fT? b<osr d G7 3r 2/LO Lesr ffh tsBrgua. ds Iso stw ks )
0-sbr. ) I L 6\) s em sssr u u L ek. o g pp <* <sn
t <5T our sf 3-eo a)"3so. e_Lo 5 r 'f s emem-uu Grmrsnrf
fB LDfT?
*re 4th case of te partcpa noun neuter struar). tr fg rD 7) that whch
wrtes. 4- r .r ) 4- 5 f the wrtn fur thu wrtng. Ths I'on corres-
ponds often to our nfnt e used us a noun.
b.) Te the genteman that Mr. mth has 6ome. Ths C<sut) s
te genteman's nterpreter. The petton wc he wrote s n my ham.
a e yuu dry and or rrgated? I a e both dry and and rrgated
and. Te te genteman that the person who ga e the pettcm s here.
Te hm ts s not wet and but dry and. sk hm who wrote the
petton for hm. here was ths wrtten? By whom was that e
done? y won s ths age go erned? hat s the cow eatng?
ou must snbmt. Don't bte. as ths coth she wore wo en. as
he pad tor the garment.

Lesson 31.
Fo'ms correspondng to the sub unct e mood.
9.5. a.) One of these s obtaned from the past tense 70*) 1st person
snguar by changng ecrdr nto .
Thus: spu swsr. I sent. eL ea)0O. //" I. you c.) send.
sL s I dd. F rffO If I you c.) do.
. )ff < 5 sD_ _G' Br ufTLL_rrso f wdsff t LpuuTsr. \_<2urr B. 6 .
Perhaps he may e f you brand hm at once.
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X RCI 30.
b.) nother form whch s not much used s obtaned by addng
) or |)CTr to the root of erbs whose present takes .p and d or
s ek to those whch ha e a gs.
Thus: .g u u 3 or s ' u osr 5 . I.)
uuf-d o or uuf.a ss
so u sk 5 . II. Root or . -
96. oc B. n brand burnng /sm dss punshment essr punsh
-d pek. 55. III.) aw much more. LOfru much too much ad . 40.)
d sr sprng up be produced pm. 55. I.)- ' sruua affcton. t c\)LD \_ e\)
stand' and. uu f corn produce n genera u t s' u cut ate - pem.
55.1.). eLp dspute. t u decson. sp f e dsr perhaps. 5 one.
a--CsOT" at once t. together wth aed to eg eg sgns of the 3d case.
pp. . moeog ery we \_f so good . ff that s) .
ercse 30.
97. a.) uu' .d' no smu.'2esrs X). smsupsnn sr --
fBLfTeo sT ?fT ). BfT strT6\) es) ss s <o tn h.
sa rT ). s_ o T'2osrss<om'L-.n d d fk neLDnu d p.
CTransate: whene er he sees.) enr rr uu r stuneo. ksuLpd
TrT6\) er<osrd e\)LD ssm '
b.) If you ca he w come. If they pough the and corn w be
produced. If affctons come you must bear them. If t ran the
agers w pough. If the chd cres we must go. If he pronounces
ceary I sha understand. hat esson s he readng to the munsh?
If the genteman w decde ths dspute rghty. If you ea e me thus
what sha I do? If te agers stand there what w the genteman
say? If we bo rce tey w pay the money. If the boy forget hs
esson he must be beaten.
3 The / drg ff-eo ut. 343.) enumerates 12 forms to whch t assgns the
common name of <sf er<F'L 77).
Takng the root )3 u these are sad to be
I. For the past:
II.
For the present:
III.
For the future :
1. u-. 77.)
6.
-fn or Lf 41).
7.
O sBT 95.)
2. rT |-L .
.
'L u a .
3. u u rr.
9.
u u u T.
4. u .
10.
u B Tm.
5. 3 L a0 T. \_g o m.
11.
Ou| u/rsBT.
2.
12.
L urd g).
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L ON 32.
To these the commentator adds for the future
13. s u T30 _ 3'Lff 'so 95. a. B-t ha ng done 21 .
14. G)<s u s<srso \_ s u s sreo the t c of ha ng done' .
15. Ou LD. _ u ) -h. 14 together wth the dong .
Of these the ma orty are obsoete and poetca.
The dI ssr ercF s thus defned n ut. 342.
" That s a s0 er|) n whch the acton and the tme appear but the
fnte erb wth ts termnatons ndcatng gender and number s wantng to
compete the sense."
In ut 344 t s ad down as a rue that " the frst four of these forms and the
ast three must ha e the same nomnat e as the fnte erb the others may ha e
a dferent nomnat e."
The more ad anced student w fnd t of ad antage to study these trams
Compare III Grammar 6.
Lesson 32*
9 . ome of these sub unct e forms are n use as con unctons:
a. < - are the sub unct es of 'become ' 5 . II) / t become.
f ers|rr/ 'a) 1 . . _ s . .
" - are sub unct es of srer 'say 70.) t you say.
. f a. I are used for "f."
If t be so why does he speak thus?
sr a smssek sn mru L sssrems sfr Bds <a|<5 sr Bu).
If he be the accountant we must g e the money.
ernknfo "| .
* f used to e pre
\ -n ' a \ then foow an
_ roet. srmear )
ss a reason for because. They
nterrogat e.
Thus: eruuL ersafff) f you say "how .?"
ers|r gra|rysb f you say "why?"
These and smar forms are to be used sparngy. The sentences n
whch they occur may often be more eeganty e pressed other rse:
I must earn for ths esson s hard.
. ereardc r rn ru B ud eruutp. OT cfffD es)s ssssr cr.
I know that we for I saw t.
3 In common tak the future wth C ) d or eo s used for the sub-
unct e. Thus:
sr uunL es) o a/r frdc If thou wt g e.
er s sometmes added to the future.
srr Buurr a seo
eu ssT sLsmr asr e If he w do so.
66
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X RCI 31. L ON 33.
ercse 31.
99. a-) s | T sun|u C5)6 ) or eukn ) u uasmss)
ms) pTosr/D es) )) BTLo ufT <ss)u u rTTas I sy sm . CT)a)
uFL<ss sn suTLD. ppuD unnd eo m-pph eo'eo. Poet s-p
ff Lo attached reat es. ee Inde I.) )a) onssresr? sm Boss
u I sO LDe Br s 6\ '2G .
Te earner shoud now begn to use Inde es I. and II.
b.) hat dd you oat? If you sept n the house you must ha e
heard t. If he ha e sad ths I sha go. If he w pay 62) mo dat.)
the money I w wrte the petton. They came before I wrote the etter
because they had heard t from by) the agers. Ths s e for
many w be dest'oyed by t. ha we try t? hose faut s ths?
Dd your father te you to go f so go at once. If you cut ate w
t grow up at once. Is what he sad rght or s t not? If they bud
houses n the unge who w know t?

Lesson 33.
100. a.) though I sad trer <3 fr ) LLD t. and I ha ng sad).
h.) though I say sha say may say) mrasr srdnsm| t.
and f I say).
a.) ere -d and 7) s added to the erba partcpe 77).
h.) In ths e_ ) s added to the sub unct e form 95).
These two forms are of perpetua use and present no especa dtfcu-
tes. The foowng are a the aretes of formaton. Comp. I
Gram. 141. 142.
1.) erb. part. 77.) wth m athou h wth the past.
u L ) athough 1 sent and ha ng sent). 77. a.)
uuuD athough he has earnt and ha ng earnt). 77. -)
2.) ub unct e wth -m - athough he may sha c.
u g LD athough I send. 95. a.)
utp-fTm athough he read.
LD 1 - .95_ | Poet. / .)
33' Let the reader once for a mpress t upon hs mnd that t s ery
rarey the case that any Tam form of ths knd corresponds precsey to an
ngsh partce. Do not transate "but" by OT) 0 or . d as a matter
of course where er you meet wth t but wegh we the meanng and force
of the partce and transate accordngy.
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X CI 32. L ON 34.
101. oc B. 3LD ne ertheess yet. CT s/ ) but. rrms ta .
m m uu smLh an nstament of and ta . eufrL/rruessTLn the same.
LDr so the produce of a fed. cut reap s pg . 56. I.)
ta share of go ernment). eurf ta trbute sufrrru a share. f.<mrffh
the peope' s share Lp. peope an nhabtant). LoeoeufrTLD the propretor's
share we) abo e). .9 ts sr t the go ernment the crcar. rtrsg shut
- pg 62.) s <sn s'fT shut the door 50). utt b 56. II.) agree.
at . o the sea. smrr a wa e not ery common: s) s the ordnary word .
ts ud weath. mrsmLb fe. od destructon.
ercse 32.
102. a.) hen w you pay your ta ? a e you reaped the pro-
duce? Before I reaped the produce I pad my nstament of ta . I
ha e pad my dues u) to Go ernment. Is ths the cut ator's
share or the propretor's share ? though he reaped then he dd not
pay the ta . though he read wth the munsh he does not understand
the esson. My foot paned me yet I came wth hm. The agers
came wakng. hut the door. ow can you te what the peope's
share s and what the propretor's.
h-) s TdsfT rd 5sk 5sr ae d euesar m ? 56. III.) / yek
ewuuesanh '2eo u<sk 7rT r. cTasr'esr .ems- un? sesardsesr
enff TBL eo ff s ) u < s L s <s 6m IX) <s 5BT6sf 6\3 LD/r ' s apm'
ssnLs ed LDrrs s LLrrLo 6 . 79. 100.) ssnrnT - tp
60. I .) uu T stu s msr h. unu s T<nsr h urT r s
srreoeO sysm LD. L9rrrrem r 9 ) sun ) <3u rth. " ss) fr s t )
e Lp. I Tf e u IB G ." Poet. |a hs .'\ s'2csr
M sT<ssm urTM. yas r s hf r5ns) r <s |Ts r e\) ). 7.

Lesson 34.
103. "May " "can."
"Mght " "coud."
a. fBrrmr uLd-secrLD. /may earn.
b. rsmsr uuf-sss <s BLh I can earn.
c. hu yuL k usssotd erdsT dr he sad that the boy mght earn.
d. Bu es) <sk usss 3 Bu srm fek he sad that the boy coud earn.
1.) hat s caed the potenta mood n ngsh s formed n Tam
by addng .d to sgnfy pemsson and s h abfy possbty.
2.) s probaby a corrupton of u the 3d pcrs. neut. fut. of
72*) become f so t s w become.
6
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X RCI 33.
3.) 3k. LD s the 3d pers. ncut. fut. of .s co/ne together |t and s
used mpersonay t can be.
4.) m s added to a erba noun hereafter to be consdered) formed
by onng < to the roots whch ha e s n the present and o to
those whch ha e a a. The anaogy of these strong and weak fo'ms
s mantaned throughout. Comp. 72. and the nf. mood. 41.)
Thus: 3 u 60 LD OsuL oOrTLD u doubed for euphony) I c.) may do.
L aseo X) uu L sorLD I c.) may Icurn.
5.) rf _ ) s added to the nfnt e mood.
FuL s<- Bu3 d 3 u are aways douhed after the nf. mood) O-su|
md 3r B I .C.) can do.
L-'ds <g ) Lf-dsdh- h c. I c.) can earn.
1 ) For such sentences as may you be happy ee 140.
2) Can s sometmes domatcay rendered n other ways
Can you wrte? -a rd sr sffL LDrr ? Is the manner of)
wrtng ntegbe to you ?
Can you read? eurr uuT fT? w you read?
"Can" may often be rendered eeyanty by the smpe future.
. ?) o cnnnot must not c. ee 117.
ercse 35.
104. a.) '2e)d6snT su 70) ses ud /DdseOfTLorr? 66) G )fT
3t3 r's' uuLs smLu eO sB L B s )ms) T? 6 . hen e
s thus doubed t g es emphass to forsake atogether. uttery. 254.)
nn? <3s fr usd sf Mr? uuuf. ffsfsss s?. dt' smn
smdseOfTLDfT? d sssTLDrTesr ufT .0DL udsd sk- fT?
u T Ta ) Lo n ? < d rfu uu d6\)rTLDrT? surresrss)
L h LL san' ) 5 ) suT )u ffd u sak- |D.
N. B. a . ) sgnfes 1.) Possbty. 2.) Ftness rght.
b.) May the tte boy shut the door of the house? hut the door.
e may shut the door. e can s abe to shut the door. May they
open the door? es pds n:LD). May I ca the ser ants? es. Can
the boy ft ths weght? es.
N. B. es s often rendered by . or ugary dt for c") ) but
the erb shoud be repeated: urraeoTLDrr? ns. ufrs fr|D not smpy |d.'\
though the peope were come he sept n the house. Is t rgt to
beat the tte boy so ? 3r LDT? ) though the mother comforted the
tte chd t wept. Can you speak wth the genteman at ths tme?
Ought the tte boy to come on foot wakng)? May the munsh see the
esson you ha e wrtten? Must the chd weep for ts mother? There
are ten oads of ron I thnk.
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L ON 3o. X RCI 34.
Lesson 35.
ercse 34.
tory.
Oo. ery word n ths tae s n use and e ery form deser es atten-
ton. Let the earner go o er t often and carefuy consut a the refer-
ences.
The honey drop tumut
Muhammedan a great n town to the ba aar ha ng gone
1 13. 21. 21. 7 .
asT <s T s 3) urs| ' 3 3) 5f _ ak c tp ug:
honey whch w buy the tme a drop-honey beow was spt
50. 74. .50. 70. 2.)
of t upon a y ha ng come t aghted. That |y
25.21. 77.70. 70. 2) 1 .
o 3) P) ) u e 4) ug <s s TsmL g
there- hch-was a) ard ha ng se ed took
74. 77. 70. 2.)
m u te ctn| s cn srrrf c ) u y' ssr ss a sfresn '
That ard the ba aar-man's cat ha ng se ed took
25. 1 . .52. 21. 77. 70. 2.)
t y sre )'L g asen u mrt'u -5) / .' unL ff
That cat the Muhammedan's dog ha ng bt t put
25. 1 . 21. 77. 56. III. 70. 2.)
/ rremu .s <s<c ds r Ter Lp- srdr y uaL Tdsr.
That dog the ba aar-man ha ng beaten ha ng ked e put
25. 77. 7 .56. 111.) 70. 2.)
o y/F aem ssT ssr g am s|Lup. u uTL-L T<3sr
That ba aar-man the Muhammeda ha rg cut down he put
25. 1 . 77. 70. 2.)
c y a ' ssr Lcptsa/D <s sem d sr /tts m' eu u
That Muhammedan the other ba aar-men ha ng cut down
25. 1 . 29. 77.
urLLt rrTsm ssm ssruemr dsr eu/
they put Those ba aar-men the) Muhammedans ha ng come
70. 2.) 25. 29. 29. 77.
s- b/ I d OsfTussar trn'sar ssr h srrem ems:
ha ng surrounded took The Muhammedans ha ng surrounded the takng
11. 70. 2.) 29. 77. 7.
unkg sea ssan hsars e uur sL mTs . enratLD
ha ng seen for the ba aar-men many persons cane together. nd those
11. 64. 29. 70. 2.) 10. .
70
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L ON 35. X RCI 34.
and these hand ha ng -mnged a row ha ng made n that ade
.10.25. 50.77.66. 50.77.5 . I. 25. 21.
gu uuT C' usa eo sr " Ouu t '' .rs e
a hundred perons n ths sde a hundred persons to de ndeed
21. 172. 5 . 111.)
L-sasTLD 6T' <oOn'u uug )60 s rrffou uL B eusosB
the town a ha ng feared utter confuson ha ng suffered a hurred remo a
127. 77.66. 77. 161. 50.
atTI u .
t took.
70. 2)
106. Notes on the story.
1.) LD 3 sffosLD. Compounds are often formed n Tam as n
other anguages by merey puttng the crude forms together.
Ths s smpe anscrt.
2.) csar sur fLD urrg here urr or ufr meanng ewe s used
for "when " e n- s the future reat e partcpe 74) but s used n-
defntey for any tme. Transate: "when he was buyng honey."
Thus: ser urm' u sr d u n g c.
e went and whe he was gong.
3.) g eBp <ssr drop of honey. The words are put n apposton.
uch constructons are fre uent. o sb 5 w tmresT a pot of water.
4.) saem from the root srrer et) 56. III) . It s used
se era tmes here s-ps amosw rrsm c. Ths erb s fre uenty
added to the erb. part of another
a.) To g e a mdde or refe e sgnfcaton: <surm sn<smt rm
he bought for hmsef). It may be thus added to ery many erbs.
b.) To g e the dea of habtua repeated acton: er d aressr n
he contnued wrtng. It s not used when the acton s done once for a.
c.) Merey as an e pet e addng perhaps an dea of competeness to the
prmary erb as here ns sfrsssrs s. Comp. 259.
5.) us u) uTL- g. ere un- B s added to the erb. part.
3ss - Ths erb s added to another to make ts transt e character
more apparent. It adds force n some cases. Comp. 256.
6.) 3 Ta s : e emphatc added to the nfnt e mood makes t
e u aent to the case absoute they ha ng ded.
107. oc B. to the story. gsam a Muhammedan. sent a ba aar.
sem dsmer a ba aar-man. ssr honey sf a drop. eums bug obtan
rece e. - pm. 56. II.) ur Lp urg tmc f'\\ re. part. when whe.
LDpse p other. * under e s often added). sp - p 62). * d6\)
*Both meo and y are nouns go ernng the 6th case wth the termnaton g *:
L-uf-Bn |rnsu m'sss r f. They may go ern aso the 4th case.
7 1 ' ' '
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L ON 36.
o er abo e e s often added.) a fy. unnu swarm aght upon as
a wnged nsect a p<ssr. 56. III.). e there k s. u oe a ard.
se e 3 p<ck. 56. III.). L sr a cat. euL cut cut duon Ddsr.
56. II.). <s ) many much. uurr a name a person peope ssmem a row
"shndy." ud u a sde T Xt hundred u LL fsm d a town ersoeom a
the whoe. u:u * fear ony the past uu c. are n use. s fm.
66.) . ) o s so eorr<sOLD utter confuson an mtat e word ke hubbub :c.)
soes a hurred remo a through fear cc. used wth the erb er .
Lesson 36.
The refe e pronoun rtssr.
ppend .
10 . o.) /ra r s thus decned:
Case.
nguar.
Pura.
1.
frer hmsef
hersef
ts
df
ITLD
or rt |ssr themse es.
2.
ssrassr
LD LD
| hfT.
3.
serrsd .
4.
and so on ke the 1st person 37). Compare the forms carefuy.
6.) The puras td and raser are used perpetuay as pote forms
of address.
" as fd <2 <ckr LD T? Do you want ths? Is ths wantng to
themse es?)
5<s s a tte ess respectfu
-o woud be used to an e ua and
2_sr<a g to a unor or nferor ony.
c.) rm s sometmes used as e u aent to ndeed and at the end
of a sentence occasonay takes the pace of the erb
<sssr srr rrek ths s ndeed water water tsef and nothng ese).
/f urmsrssr ? muu L3 ds/ru h rr<3sr. ho went? The another and
the chd went).
Ths atter constructon s not to be mtated. Repeat the erb or
g e the whoe sentence another turn.)
uts ) srssr enessr LD ou must ndeed go.
gr' The emphatc partce er s more eeganty used n ths case :
urs et eussrth.
* Nouns n t form erbs wth root u suffer. They then ose m and u s doubed
161.)
72
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X RCI 35. L ON 37.
That boy hs esson earnt.
106. 4.)
Not e|ea |.
3 here er the meanng s hs her or ts own suus-a-um) use fRm-ena
eo u ek or ssr and rarey eaL-u <sa ef o ) u eta u c.
10 . * oc B. nmsask each one he he). O soeoum abty. srsssr
56. III.) cause to see.
ercse 35.
109. a.) The ba aar-man beat hs cat. The Muharamedan ked hs
dog. The peope eft ther houses and emgrated. There s honey n
the unge. Is there honey n the unge? There s no honey n the
unge. G e me a drop of water. Is t rght to catch fes? Dd the
agers k the ba aar-man's dog ? No the Muharamedan ked t.
Come when I wrte the etter. Come when I ha e wrtten the etter.
Go after you ha e seen the petton. e came before the cerk had read
the report to the genteman.
srrrf ? t resr s<omss<ssr 60s\) sfreupsnrm'nsbr rr|u asr t
arr rasr eussgr t ) srsr a s esr. fnks r eresr'esru unrrds suesar w.
'- sr' sr <o )<su0rTLD 5 . I. ss' du s" seasr
)t su ueOfTLDfT? <osrs a5r asr ssr eu6\)6\ L| o )s snsm rrasr.
ks r h oT sr uns uuh o ssT Tf' sr. ' sw 50.) s<o s snem
106. 4. <?/ dFLo um<osr. T <s r r eor nm'
- -
Lesson 37.
The negat e erb.
110. The Tam has a pecuarty neary confned* to the famy
of outh Indan daects t has a negat e form of the erb. nd ths
s formed by addng to the root the persona termnaton ohout any
'partce ndcat e of tme. Compare
usf. 4- a grs r uuf. pm I read
usf. O CTssr uL uer I do not read.
* Compare Rask's ngo- a on Grammar preface . Od candna an
poetry afTords traces of a negat e not ony n erbs but aso n pronouns. ome of
the Caucasan daects aso e hbt the same pecuarty.
10 73
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X RCI 36.
The earner may magne f he peases that the absence of any mdde partce
denotng tme sgnfes that the acton of the erb takes pace n no tme whate er
and so an absoute negat e for a tmes s formed.
Paradgm.
Roots L IB L .
nguar.
3.m.
uLp- Ler m eaf sr u um.
Lp-umu mt enT uuru.
Lo.urm' m efresr uuresr.
uLutr r f eutretr uufrer.
n. L rg mL-emrg M"'-'"''
Pura.
L fTLD
fB
|IT
u umh.
uLp- r fB
af/f
u
t s<sr).
uLL rrrser
fB eurrraeT uuT|T r
Lnrr m eur uurr not com.).
Obs. 1.) "| and a are nserted and 2_ eded n these three forms
respect ey.
2.) Ths whoe form s concse and eegant but rather pedantc.
ome persons of t ony are n common use.
111. oc B. a "godown " store-room. t L-.1) a garden sb/t
a horse uema. a buggy cart ehce. arff LD thng matter. <fe s affar.
.s u news. ta r n ure. s posr. 56. III). t wak 56. I.) go on
happen take pace. rFI be pan understood used mpersonay) 56. I.).
c Lr.' sr oc. o um an honorabe person) eg run 56. II.).
ercse 36.
112. a-) errrrnT fs snFa sm s f unu "56. I.) ssT r 'n
se'r. Ld smsm neo 106- 4-) r I nth. ' ras
ssuu e s aFs LD urr p I uesr srm r 'asT. < snfmuD rsL-
ufT. L| uem) sff eO 36\)eorr 56. III. m snsbr
f )m 70). hL| usssTh seo DfT seOsorr a stsst ssrs
tfufT G7 3r 27' 5r. -esrd rfL LDn cts|t sL esr ff
u rT.f un T sr r '6ar. " tssrsms ) t LDa? n
urr mu ufu sst u ssar u <sO ur Xn? unsr em
b.) Is t n the store-room ? I don't know. That horse does not
run. hy does not the buock run ? The genteman must n ure nto
my affar. a e you heard the news? Do you not hear the command
of the genteman aeff ar? ) e says I don't know. e sad that
he dd not know. hen I n ured about those matters the agers
dd not understand what I sad.
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L ON 3 . X RCI 37.
Lesson 3 .
The negat e erb contnued) .
1 13. The negat e most fre uenty used and on the whoe the best s
obtaned by addng )<k ds not 43) to the nfnt e of the erb. Ths
form s ndefnte as to tme and s the same for a numbers and persons.
rm p I thou he do "
\ a sodso c. dd
. < - r- ot wak.
euesr sha or w
c. L |
114. _g)s o s aso added to other parts of the erb especay to the
neuter partcpa noun 7. .).
trsk r u ) a u /D )3so I thou c. do not do am not
dong.
| <u ) s <3 ufs\)3so I thou c. dd not do ha e
1 7of done.
c. c. sLusg 6\) o <3'L up )3s I thou c. not at any
1 tme) do.
Ths s more common but ess eegant than the former.
115. oc B. o'tL testmony aso a wtness). sn-L sBmrer a wtness.
seusek a peon. a /r<a ggeo) a deposton. s fff rght ffrffa fru rghty mp
pta a faut afreueo * urrrr) guard toard prson. L a note. <sa es
attend to 56. III.). ndcate regard 56. III.). . d rr ) st-down
60. III.). Lrru reason rght ustce. unumeo a court a
pace of ustce emeoLo a pace). stt- court) s often used enr the
companant. L rrs rr t opposton) the defendant. d e\ a peader.
syrff/ a measure. tmsere ths measure) thus much. eueusre that
measure) so uch. ereueuere what measure) hou much? 56. III.) tear.
* word wrtten thus s to be consdered as a synonym of the one after whch t s
put but s ether a foregn word or a ugar and ob ectonabe though common one.
ercse 37.
116. a.) smrr fffumd sLse ed'hso. B rfus ssuesf
B < o re u s- r Lu? <suas sr efrG s )eo e osar u?
- sr fpppsns 22) f tumuLDrr smrudsL|u eyaL. r urruuew
)/ go sm-L ssrT sar srftumLs' OsneO) euesar ). e s
/5 _<5 5LD. srrs e so urrsTTe eo) urTLuuLLu-rrfr. . srd cf snt.
)'u n? Bn 5sr |)/e s urrsueo'bso. asm ssuesfd meo'.
d eo r<osr'2esrd 3u L <s sLse eo'eo. srT r osr e|rdrsyPpeOLD
* Lt. " ha ng ndcated what do you speak so much ?" sg: s e u aent to
regardng concernng about. Comp. 230.
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L ON 39.
b.) hy has he not wrtten the deposton ? hy do the peons beat
the wtness? The genteman w do you ustce. hat faut has the
physcan commtted ? hy do these agers not pay the nstament
due) ? The chd does not seep. though I ha e caed the defend-
ant's wtnesses they come not. though the munsh read the esson to
hm he does not pronounce t rghty. though hs father beat hm the
tte boy does not attend to hs essons.
Lesson 39.
ome defect e and rreguar erbs.
117. ccordng to 110 from the roots DrL hook on 3
on
ut go <<sm be possbe 6t<so agree be |t tMf) urg suf-
fce e agree tsuam need are made the ery common forms:
ng.
Pur.
LDITL
. ek I w not cannot.
- ru uLT thou t not canst not.
\
|t must not
be.
urrg
It s not
suffcent.
LDr Tsar T
LDmL fren
LD rL- ITt
LDrLLtTser
LDmL rrTasr
"It s no go."
ug.)
he w not cannot.
she not cannot.
It w not cannot.
e w not cannot.
ye or you w nut cannot.
they w not cannot.
"It uon
ft:' ug.)
It does not
agree.
eT orrg
It s not
proper.
euem fTh
It s not necessar .
Ts s ute rreguar.
For eusssr TeTLD.
eumr rr . 110.
It s not
ft rght.
11 . The post e of s n-g s formed reguary 3d part. neut. fut. 72.)
s w of eorg srpLD comp. 70.) of st g of wsmrg <spd Lh
and of emsesr TLD eusm h. These are a common.
119. a.
May ths honey be put the store-room ? It must not.
b. sstr uemtp-u eo urcLDtr? uts LDmLL r.
ths horse go n the bandy? It w not.
c. eurr sr da dt? srg.
Is the compant whch the pantff It s not a fttng one.
has presented a fttng one?
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X RCI 3 . L ON 40.
Is t a ft tng to abuse hm? To abuse s not becomng.
e. ffsutr a a n- L 60 B 5 Loegus sn' <s en sssr LDr?
houd the respondent present a petton n court.
srr sa en <osm T d .
e need not sho Xd not c)
ercse 3 .
120. a.) u sauussr un ua uds LDnL f <sm rf'm'.
ff LDfTLL fTh etmgu 3 rr ) 'T T. d s<ss)t dan sr
smLDdB' srr' 3 u mhrruD .<sud st LD<ssr6m1ss < em h.
s- f as<smms B 116. a_ ) 5 ' Tssrsar tfn )? .s
ffss) "*) ' 76060/7-a) 127.| <sf<sunu <f n6\) ods TfT? u
sf- useu .) LDfT? g rfusoeo. 43.) <sruuLs B m
gs neo fffunuL dom for gfumbs: sneo whch s more
correct) /f/tsw- 9 3rLo 172. 2. aw thng a a.) s B um m r 'm.
susasTL-tTLD uurf uusasnh Tosrd ) uTrr 6u.t urrth
unh For urrn we often hear up r or upp unLu.n
t won't touch suffce). Thus s ws s|du td syu psudtu up0
the wages wo't suffce for my suu g/. Ths s often sad by the
common peope.
b.) The watchman sad that the agers beat hm but the wtnesses
dd not g e ther deposton rghty. hy w you make a dsturbance
n the age? though the defendant ked the dog you must forg e hs
faut. They a sat down n the court. They were seated n the pace
of ustce when the genteman came n. Ths and that agree. Te hm
how the affar happened. e says that he cannot earn the esson. The
ser ant sad he woud not do that. They dened a knowedge of the
atfar. The munsh sad that I need not wrte that esson.
Lesson 40.
Other parts of the negat e erb.
121. 1.) n ordnary famar nperat e. To the thrd sng. neut.
neg. add ct for the sng. sr s-to for the pote form and sr L.k r
for the pura.
From fB surff/ t waks not does not happen)
are formed m <sun- don't wak
r enr L LD don't wak sr
r smr u msm don't you wak.
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X RCI 39.
2.) The negat e erb partcpe 27.) s formed by addng s or
\LD ) to the root. One of the forms s therefore the same as te 3d
ng. neut. nes . 110.
not Icar ng.
3.) By addng to the abo e the au ay erb sometmes ut
and other roots) n a ts parts a compete negat e erb may be
constructed though the forms a'e rather cumbrous. Thus:
uuLurTLDeo )r/f d cw< r ) / .
- ne does not earn he s not earnng).
uLpLuTp ek esr )
T m do not wak.
n'LD6 nnfr ) f you do not ak.
Further e ampes are not necessary but compounds of ths knd are
constanty used.
4.) negat e reat e partcpe for a tenses and partcpa nouns
answerng to te forms n 74. 7.) are formed by changng e- of the
erba partcpe n s nto or sometmes chefy n poetry by smpy
omttng ).
B erg 2- y \ /B sufT who or whch waks not.
er Lo r L/sar he s a boy who earns not or has not earned).
Lrm sL-L fT 62) a? a house whch I ha e not but.
5.) nd thence we obtan the foowng negat e partcpa nouns:
/ euTeuear he who does not uak.
nguar. fB sureu r she who does not wak.
IB .<s IT that whch does not wak.
I I <s r s IT he hon.) who does not oak.
Pura. - <suref ser they t ho do not wak.
s uTsmeussr they whch do not wak.
e0 60T dr one who has not.
121. * oc B. uga hurry 56. II.). be dspersed come to nothng
56. II.). F resT wsdom. y rssTh foy gnorance heathensm. gr<so
thread a work on a scence. Lorpg) the reat e aue of a meta ts fneness.
2_ 5m/r standard of god. d 62.) sob. tu 57.) cease rest. Nether nor
_LD 2_f wth a negat e.
ercse 39.
122. a.) < )LD <9 I L ITLD60 kTTeO a fT Lpeu fT . 56) oo r
snLL s u unsn snstsr L In su Gr T'2ssr ssruf-Lua h.
ts LsCcsfr sssares) stLu fT r |ssrr usrr L | fr usf.
TLDeO TfT ) u'T ) \)) TL-) |IT' / /eOT" LL L-LIT
etsr sae) unh <s u u uen h? ow w the esson come? ow
can he understand t? uf rf sarftum -. sn<3 ff- ffh
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L ON 41.
u<suasr . u TeDu u |fT osr. uT6| G)s uun T LDesr Ln
u b/o From . 6 . / rrasr eo uut rror -.nu
ufT n-s mrrpu:) 6\)'2eo ssarT L ) e) what s got wthout
effort s not aued). e a 254.) Loasu rraL| uLu snesanrm
Idom: wthout hs knowng t- Probaby a corrupton from ysar
/ 3) / utTmeo.) Many of these sentences can be rendered n
arous ways. Try w d I sktd Tm. eesr
b.) I had not seen hm. If he w not come. hy do not the
ser ants open the doors? If they do not open the doors when I te them
mrresr .3r<soh urr) what can I do ermesrsm- stLa <sru ) ? If the
attorney does not propery represent the affar n court o ru emeo eo
sfurus srrfu emu ustd o umeo) what can the pantff do ? Ths
s a thng whch has not happened and cannot happen. ence Ths s
an mpossbe thng. hat s not possbe to us s possbe to m.
Lesson 41.
ome msceaneous forms.
123. a.) 70. 2.) The form u m c. s ugary pronounced
uf |cOTT and up s uss-g or usa-. o ug s us-. Ths
s not to be mtated but n ery common con ersaton can hardy be
ute a oded. Tus uT3 gu or u t.s s used for uru esr or un-esr
|- Ths s eeganty uru pu. o u ms Gsrg u pg s ug.
s or <#-
.) The shortened L'ut s occasonay used n composton where
u Ln-LDPo 121. 2.) woud be the fu form). Ths s chefy found n
the phrases _g)a)6/r -L t<5\) .su urr <LL rreo ursrr af_ffeu and the
ke. e Lt fr ) f you ea e 6 ). Thus s uu rr L t w mean
' not dong f you) ea e " g keon- e L Teo "not beng f you)
ea e '' urrsrdLL Te\) "not gong f you) ea e." Tey are e u a-
ent to "uness you c. " "f you do not c."
The fu forms .9u u TLDeo sfrw c. are perhaps more eegant.
c.) For ' u rs)) 95. a.) you w often hear ad raarr f you do
un- essfr f you go c. Ths s ether from the poetca form
fss reo or from <FtLsfr o sfTffO ffo -t- sd 0-3 turrns rre ) where
an s a poetca word for areoLh tme t hen.
d.) Letters are often nterchanged n dfferent parts of the Tam
country. Thus s u n Madras and er n Tne ey and the south.
sfTL a fow s srru n Madras and Ga/rsrf) n the south.
<3- and L are aso nterchanged.
79
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X RCI 40
Thus e u T sckness s n the south often e3 rr.
e.) The 3d pura mas. and fem.) s strangey corrupted n ery
ugar con ersaton. Thus ' eun-ram becomes em srr c. <3
rrser s ometmes pronounced somethng ke 3 1111701 cheythawa.)
f.) There s a common form whch the ower orders sometmes use n
addressng a superor that s pu ng to a begnner: for eo they say
) s c. Ths seems to be the honorfc pura s-mser added. Ths
s carred to a great e tent n Madras.
g.) e ha e n ngsh a number of words whch are apparenty
mere redupcatons such as hury-bury topsy-tur ey c. In Tam these
occur much more fre uenty. In genera any noun may be so repeated
of course n the merest coo ua daect). If the word does not begn
wth the redupcated syabe generay does. Thus <p frewood
becomes sf g "frewood c.'' wem s<f s "the tabe and ts
appurtenances." aLLeo Leo for sLuf- d a cot. srr u3 h <s for
aTt sLD a tte. Ths s worth notng carefuy.
Ths whoe esson may be taked o er wth a muns or other ntegent na-
t e and such forms coected. These are g en as a specmen. The great matter
s to know e acty what the peope say. e can choose our own words and forms
at esure.
124. oc B. mesr yet. ut go added to nstranst e words g es the
dea of competeness as ut does to transt es. 106. 5.) snp 56.1.) be
defcent 56. III.) dmnsh essen. BCp tam. ures L a anguage.
ercse 40.
125. a.) cgy/F <s sL uuL-. ebrL t unhu urnrss suem
)' eOedfreBLLL-neo p d p s u Lo/y sOT" uTs <a|6snr bh' <sut
sserr uesarstns srr a LL fT ) s m eO urr eu) ). s
n un )e\)) O|rs r strsusdo unu-uu 6 .) <s o Br .
wf G' /' su s'ufr<9 <9 "-"' G)<u ha ng done. u t has be-
come. s accompshed 5 . III.) the work s fnshed. ery common
form.) oesresr ' u'eo sstr? hat has the work become? we. s
the work fnshed). Madras cook speaks: snu I su unss for
srL s s:L uTu p. the fow s dead. Tne ey hanan speaks
skesr e s'n eressru* rfurr e ery b pronounced wth a
whrr) for srawesr <s uurr erOT / mrr I don know what
dsease ths s). s'wsn ey'eo mesTth s s c )'u n? sL
<a '? ) su 56m sssu 0' Ironca). ekearh . fu u
|BTao-F s TLD6\) s p ersaresT?* eesrswh c<?<* sred
Te me how you got on?) smfo uy ps. for psf-k The af-
far s accompshed.)
* OT f) becomes akrem n common tak thus maru s em )'-
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L ON 42.
b.) Ths work s fnshed. If you do ths e you w persh. Don't
go ou had better not go. Put t on the tabe. Do you understand
Tam p or tBLpuureeoe)? I understand t a tte red. form).
ness you go you cannot obtan t. If he does not send hs ser ant for
t the genteman w not g e t. If you do not hear obey you w
persh. houd the tte boy be so dsobedent? t-arLuPo. 56. II).
Lesson 42.
ords denotng un ersaty.
126. ome uses of s-t and.
a.) hen added to an nterrogat e form -d makes an un ersa.
eru ufrap when? eo sru u/r u aways.
erscr who? - enam e ery one.
era where? -d eTBt u) e ery where.
eruuL how? -w eruuLu- n e ery way y a means.
uneudr who Poet. ) . f fre C< k changed to t | a persons.
uT | whch | a rh e ery thng.
g so much e-t " ssrsffu a rather unusua).
b.) 2_tD s aso added to ? a 3tk < sr mguLf. and many other words
used ad erbay.
d ) o er) - dd moreo er.
ek esr after) - -h d/r asrLu:) besdes.
LDgauL another step) 4- e_tD LDgauu th agan.
127. <sr<keor a. asu a. hsr so uch. Poet.
a.) <5r<so'B r as an ad ect e s pref ed to nouns but re ures w to be
put after the noun.
er<k) OT tD 5f5/f<5 Bff a men.
er oeoT mfsfmLo a women.
sr<so )T < s T)LD a houses
b.) ersoeofT 5r<scs)rr s-d s a neuter noun e er?/ thng. It s de-
cned after the anaogy of nouns n substtutng psn for sn and
re ures the s- after each case.
2d Case: er<PCCorrsupea L LD ec.
3d Case: 6ra) f /r< 2 G' T ' ) c.
c.) <? s a anscrt word a. It s used as an ad ect e sr e r.
s'seo Ln<s T ff)M c. a men c. It s aso used as a neuter noun
aeow and decned reguary ke t/s but wth the addton of s- . s*
oosmu- h aekr rrm he saw the whoe a.
d.) sy )r makes g sng neut.) so much and hsru pu. neut.)
so many 'sd the totaty s reguary decned. These are tte
used e cept n poetry.
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X RCI 41.
Ce.| er ooOfr .ssm and a form nouns pura mas. and fern.)
Thus:
erseonr ) r -m com. 7.) r a peope.
aa f)LD IT -LD.) I These are decned by nsertng the
r L eu T -LD.) -<| sgns of the cases between the words
I and -Ln : er ) ) rr sn t h FseoesrrL h
1 gy raucto/ny) c.
f.) These forms are often put after the nomnat e case of the noun
to whch they beong : thus
L- essTLD er oeoTLD seork p )'' 70.2.) the whoe toon was agtated.
M.rrTT sr 0 TT F) suhr ra<sfT a the agers came.
uLenrseT ' ssT u arrn LD suLLt raT he caed a ho had earned.
Many of the other words n 126 may be used n the same way.
g. ) Instead of ersoeon- fLh and dosra uy ereo e n- u and sutt d
are eeganty used.
h.| P ad . t hoe. p mLD the hoe. p su p Lgff the
whoe. The ast two are decned as the words n e.). p Lg re u'es s-
to be added to the noun to whch t s pref ed.
12 . oc B. sfTpfesT a mason. GsTeoeoasr a backsmth. ae hre.
sLDuefTLD wages. euLorTesTs a present. 3 rs srr< oy used for a
present). urrrrLh a fne seost the word mefr whch s e stng
w o Toc. o ). ) sacred hoy. 3 es u a congregaton assemby te.
- 'sau the hoy Church. u/T b e to 56. II.). sn- s'h a tte a few.
ffer |T-3 r a kng wth or wtout). stso tme for <st \)u ). s
aTLD at any tme whate er r be remo ed 60. act remo e 56. III.).
ercse 41.
129. ft-) Dd you see a the peons? hy are a the agers
assembed together? who had commtted sn feared. ou must
earn a the esson we. e wrote and sent a etter to a the ser ants.
hy dd a the carpenters ea e ther work ? here are a the brck-
ayers ? G e a the backsmths ther hre. a e a the ser ants re-
ce ed ther wages? The boy who earns a the essons we. The
kngs who go ern a the word. The kng who go erns the whoe word.
I w fne you. e ne er earns.
b ) <eT )e\)fT yh eurrTser. )6\)fTLD eu unu p. 5 .
I .) 124.). -eO LD sk -erGfr 0 :s'ss) -s) oB)LD un bu.
u'?n\)dsrTffT t<50eOfr Ts s uunfh unL ssr- ereoedn s 's
sT rfL LD urrrrLD < |T es)T. snppn \ un u sk-e 50.)
eunB s ' nsm nhsen' ' su' sL ss 0d sessrdssd
<?<56\) rf|3 Tdsm)s < |D ffnsnm <s6ssr L) 5 . I.) 10 . c).
2
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L ON 43.
s_6)<3r ro ereoeOfTLD . sy ) rek- rBtrm- uunh pp ut s I Ihn a
desttute wretch 90'). ordu e h n sru Or uneo sremesaf rsn sr maa
< | essr h . *' umrn LrT <5rssr'2ssr 1 psounn Tsauo <sT<s5r <s ay' s)
un un? uutT ff s Ths s poetca but understood.) ffssr et)
eOr urT 6\ e0mh Tosr'2ssr ebr Lohsassuuu urns sn r rff
ueo_ o sT 239. T< 7r r. s'<5 )uu rr sarr 1 0. Beoeonuo sL
Lesson 43-
uafyng words. pposton.
130. It may be broady stated that n Tam there are no ad ect es.
ow then are nouns uafed ? Compare 74. The past reat e par-
tcpe of 5 . II.) 74.) s ssr or u forms of u ssr or r)
"ha ng become." These nserted between any two nouns w ether
con ert the fo'mer nto somethng answerng to an ad ect e or pace
the two n apposton. Ths s common and ceary ntegbe.
h or LD 72*) s used for sar poetcay as ercreLD 132.).
Thus: e fft u er a heroc kng a kng who w he a hero' .
tsuuresr sLssh . a red acket suu redness suuc frasr red or whch
has become red. ou may aso say L L <g stLea ).
T T3 n' sarT | n'g kng Da d Da d the kng. ou can say aso /rs '
rT T.9 r or T< erdr ) rr n common anguage srer p s used for era|r
m) o r srasTosruuLL r'3 r.
131. From the abo e t appears that two nouns may often be .smpy
oned together to form a compound after the manner of steam-shp
b-ck-house c. Ths s constanty done n Tam poetry and s doubt-
ess most n accordance wth the genus of the anguage. In fact t may
be ad down as a aw of the anguage that e ery noun becomes an ad ec-
t e by beng pref ed to another noun wth or wthout change. The
anscrt choar may compare these forms wth Tat-furusha and
armmad'haraya compounds.
a.) ometmes ths s done wthout any other change than the
doubng of etters as u urB a spark of fre fre un/ a
spark). F mr'hmr the outsde ya C astreet 5m'hssr apa).
b.) hen the former noun ends n d that etter s eded.
Ths s especay the case n anscrt compounds.
Thus: LD s strmLf a branch of a tree d u a tree. arrLD a branch).
3 rr<st seC oOesLD omnpotence .sreuLh a eueoseaLo power ).
3
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L ON 43.
c.) arous changes take pace n the former word of whch the
foowng are types: Com. 1 . c. d.
F L |' 'rm an ron chan fd ron. s t a chan).
sr Ffg d sfT 'r a young buock er f)g| a buock. arBstr a young mae).
p 3 ek fsh from the r er M ) t r er. dr a fsh).
LOd/esto a fock of sheep .m a sheep. LDes a fock).
ucar sr a pamyra unge u sr a pamyra. t a unge).
The nasa s hardened nto the surd L of and p o gn doubed d n-
serted.
d.) c. sy. psa are often used as connect es and are thus
used as sgns of the s th case ua m uneo cows mk. n g
LDsncr a man of ths pace.
The nfectona base s used n compounds Comp 21.
e.) cass of nouns of uaty endng n emw 1 4) when pref ed to
other nouns unde'go certan euphonc changes. The foowng are chefy
to be notced :
1.) u rF) smLD greatness becomes u uff u F ) ut.
2.) gaeaLD tteness becomes gn / u gt: pgs
3.) mss)LC precousness becomes gy 5. ffu d t.
4.) N OLD freshness becomes us? u u us-d u '< - swuc.
ampes.
unF fBfe' - prde / * breast.
urR rB3 r<c )LD a great beneft.
u h ur a great snner before d d u .
ufffdruu) ea eny bss before a owe .
\_ uffu may be regarded aso as a knd of past reat e partcpe. Compare
L| u 74.
u f LD s a knd of future re. part. 74) from u F) C 62 grow great.'
g Of these the roots are undoubtedy Cur ut ueo ) p eo) T u
but the Nannu wth good reason ut 135 6.) treats each of them as ha ng
become frst an abstract noun and as ha ng been arousy modfed when
paced as the frst member of a compound by the re ecton of eaM the addton
of o or s_) the engthenng of the root owe or the redupcaton of the fna
root consonant. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 121.
132. or:kM s the re. part. fut. of erdr sa . 70. 1.) 74.) Lt. " of
whom one woud sa/."
It s thus used rr< erasrLo urrr kng Da d.
LnresuM ereks sruL the defence of shame.
uP tusrLD ers sf rtL pant the adder of pety.
Ths s rather stff and pedantc.
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L ON 43.
133. The root s-err sgnfes e stence the ha ng othn.'' To t are
referred the foowng erba forms:
3d sng for a
genders and numbers
e. nr ' <m g ) there s. 43.)
- Trsrr s used to sgnfy " t s " but more generay "t s true '" "t s
reay so."
Re. part e-srrerr contanng possessng wthn tsef. Co. 1 4.
Ths ast form added to a noun w ha e neary the same effect as car.
Thus: ffds pefrefr suek 0a LD 7ncrcy) a mercfu God.
ometmes s-crrsr and cw may be used ndscrmnatey.
OTc|r 3 tu rp m or mLDfrnm \
an '"' y dear son.
GTcsr uffLLDrresr LDrrr asr |
Generay howe er the dfference between asr "ha ng become "
and a-srerr 'ha ng possessed " must be obser ed.
fsa perew 3r not f asLDTesT.
eTLDfTssr anso not m pmre .
The oppostes to s-srer and ssr are bp eoeor whch are n the
same way added to nouns :
Thus naaLDpp mercess.
gy cease. 6 . 74.
u<rmrL e\)<sorr penness.
eo not 121. a doube negat e.
To anscrt noun ot- hna) desttute of s added
thus L u sar \
Lu asTLDrew n Lcs dr a se7seess man.
t-u ssT pcTerr
or L/r sarssr.
In Tam Grammar the 4th cass of words conssts of those caed s
cF/re) uaty words. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 11 121.
These are subd ded nto uu r -tff noun uaty and s -tf erb
uaty.
The words ncuded under these d sons are used respect ey to uafy
nouns and erbs they may therefore be caed ad ect es and ad erbs. They
are howe er reay nouns and partcpes and t w tend greaty to ad the
earner n ac urng the Tam dom f he steady regard them as such.
134. oc B. LDg r LD sweetness su btterness meuu) newness err op-
poste. gff tte. LpdsLD custom famarty sr-s comfort heath .grmeu
eusoeo<3B)LD omnpotence. ear herb. ursm u: a esse mn four. r L ck
a thef umetr a pt. w mdde. ep o bete. ar a creepng pant
ueodr or ue'sk strength.
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X RCI 42. L ON 44.
ercse 42.
135. a.) Ths s a oyfu day. I ha e come to 7th case) my mer-
cfu father. Ths s an e thng. e s a ust kng. Ths s a rea-
sonabe compant. The accountant has brought a rght account to the
ba aar-man. Four accountants ga e e dence n the court. the
watchman put the the es n prson? my famar frends came wth
me to the pace of ustce. Ths s Da d the accountant. 3 ways).
Ths s an affar concernng the church F)<s .emud sn-ffftum). new
esse. weet Tam. re you we. Ths s a herb garden.
syrrTaefr. s'eue sdeOetDLD ersfr ts tL 1. d /r urrfrusresr.
eo euknrrssfr. 3en-'2efTa uuu useOnLon? eu r B k
p u . Pro erb.| sfmook srm rD <sss)t -s<snrfm' eurresr. b <su 1
u )s pe< d arrffsmuD. o /b 'e d sfT f. B ppsT sr
BsOuD. e e sr whch s sutabe for.) ssrm r eos<s
th <om m-s eoeo 3I I that whch s not. 7.) -eo
Lesson 44.
Idoms connected wth pg.
136. a.) r T aer bt uu d s hrrc
e four persons to become f come
If we four persons come together.
b.) s s used n summng up a atogether.
That whch ga e s) four that whch he ga e s) f e makng atogeter nne.
c.) ur LDTsu L ssyg ss s bury t carefuy. ere s y added
to a noun con erts t nto an ad erb. 140.)
d.) . t sn- erm' osr eurr|' rr skm-rrs sr csr I thought he tod me
to come O/rssrsM- a as though t sad. srrdresrmL s aso used.
L as f.'
137. a. ssm sr d rsk an accountant s.
b. s 5 sr ' mu md Trf'5sr he s an accountant.
c. semsask F)d Trf s the accountant there)? so so he s not.
d. s<smrss u s rf eu) s he an accountant? eoso he s not.
added to a noun shews t to be the predcate. 1.)
Ths s of thk utmost mportance. Carefuy consder the abo e e ampes.
6
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X RCI 43. L ON 45
13 . oC B. uLsmLD a town. pen n od man. tp: anodwoman-
p go down to descend aght 62.) f) B stea 56. II.) Gurr that
whch s common. -<ce) ss)LD possessons. un' n'sr substance weath. rtDrrek.
goods utenss d weath eudso a arge brass esse npmorr a sea.
unh care. gu f e. saeru nne se su pace put 56.111.) su em rr mt.
e <o IT s )Lh 4th case -to mt.) /6w btry 56. III.) stuu eat 6 .)
ercse 43.
139. a-) sn ut 0 t T LLu.6m ) e pe u sn- <s L
uf. O p as ' er ruu urr s e\) n common) smeun
79. 2). - o )L- snns2ofn|L Lh u eaBr <sdo T u ep su'a | utL
6 .) o eo pmT 50.) L 6 ) '-' b a es t et u ud s
//? sL. th un 106.) smd sn | smrrd th uuMn
su L <5 rosy" srebr sn< s:s eo fBrrer 50.) e/srr 50.) e tL
f ?a) s'ttuuL smssBn hTTTssrr. 106. 4.) rT 'n s udtu
eu ff prrssGffnscrm'- buud LLmfr<ssu un suam rr s rr
b.) ere are 5 and there 4: tota 9. If he and you together go to
the od man's house he w g e you the goods. Put t carefuy n the
house. e has great weath whch he has carefuy bured n the garden.
t whch house has he aghted? hen we obtaned the goods whch he
had carefuy sent by the peon we put them nto the store-room. Is ths
honey? No t s btter. Dd he eat ths sweet honey? Is there honey
there? No. Dd he speak as f the Muhammedan woud come? I ha e not
seen the od man for many days.
Lesson 45.
Optat e and desderat e forms.
140. a. Bu so s tps a e et ths fa nto the pt
b. mrp T |T may'st thou prosper
c. t eurrups may you prosper.
d. u r L- LD et t go
e. mmh srag e u s sLLL dsr eruL r m se LD act accordng
to the order I ha e sent you.
a.) The defect e root <s- "ought must" s reguary decned thus:
/F/rew" 0<F L/ 5 .s G' CT" I ought or must do .
Ou|us a B TL thou oughtcst or must do .
It s added to the nfnt e of any erb to form a knd of optat e mood.
7 "
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X CI 44.
b.) s ke the ebrew n corap. Nordhemer's ebrew Grammar
204 206 added to the future of any erb forms an optat e mood.
The neuter partcpa noun future s used for the 3d person future.
3 am I to do. . < may I do I much wsh to do
s d sur 3sr he w do. Lwna may he do I ong for hm to do
m uuT may t take pace.
Ths s e denty a strong breathng merey e press e of desre but t
s e paned by the Grammarans as the nf. of . 41. It s pronounc-
ed .
c.) s ke forms an optat e mood but t s added to the root of a
erb s the same for a numbers and persons and s chefy used n
poetry.
Bfrdr urrs et me go r aL-s may you hear
d.) Is an unauthor ed but ery common form. It conssts n the
addton of L Bd or L to the root nsertng sd when the present
takes d ss. The form s abbre ated by castng away the fna owe
of the root. It s the same for a numbers and persons
nrr . . . ) ot me do tBtrm 3 d L-LT may I do t
susk ' he may do
Ths s sad to be a corrupton of 1. Bd permt from <- B.
141. oc B. gy pr t e. urut n ustce uw a town gasr or gn a
pref e had. LLtrrrssLD a way. LDmTds<3r one who waks n a way. -
sense. Lorff a counseor prme mnster. rrsPB Icng rue. LB
much ery. B he ahundant 60. III.) past re. part whch has ahounded.)
ahundance. purr ear 30.) abundant. LfsFre a sensbe person r
ssh ength pronounced drkkam n the compounds) rdam- a- ong-fe
u sh or .M'df- age fe). rdsrff a prophet a seer <sfff one who sees).
utrdo as ums) ur m). 56. I ) prosper. The termnaton <r/re
. s n one who possesses s often used.
ercse 44.
142. a-) s/s|r uus Osa rr osr OT)a) /s utss s
rTesr. L h L | <g fr09 om'rr6\ ffssnush - rGrre|.s s-s
rrrs ern'OT -fr. sn'bso s'hun uumurTs 121.) ' f unu
Tuesyuu uessnsssfssr euna eO Losm <s Lp<s/ un eo 56
srrrs uh s ns- f tumuLrr ) sasrp LL omr e) mu:Tfr.s
sdr o sr p srar nuL <odsr p m f<oau d ) 3u/s Ostrem
ssrpr s. su u o s eut u B' m s Poet.) no bye paths.
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L ON 46. X RCI 45.
b.) ay not so. Pray do not say so. I beg you to do ths. If
I ha e destroyed hs house may I mysef persh. There s much honey
n the town. Let the un ust man pe-sh e who commts n ustce
w not prosper. though I persh I w not do n ustce. May I
wak sensby e s a ery sensbe person. Let hm do as hs coun-
seors sad. May my affars prosper It won't answer. a O kng

Lesson 46.
erba nouns n na.
143. By addng ems to erba roots whch take gu n the p'esent and
aess to those whch take g a erba noun s formed neary e u aent
to the ngsh erba noun n ng.
t Lens the dong a deed.
/ /5_<sgra<s the wakng a ne of conduct.
144. ome of the abo e are n common use as nouns but more gen-
eray they are used to form an absoute case ke the abat e absoute n
Latn or the gen. abs. n Greek.
sm uuL< ff rr ec ema u ed whe he was sayng so.
145. msureo ) by the becomng: therefo-e.
146. oc B. <s |3r2bBr a fa ee ated seat n front of a house. ff cm two.
er ft up take up 56. III.). er |u un take away. a fruu/T food.
uT.3 esrLD food nourshment. asrssTLDtfood chefy boed rce sfrsrh food
hat s rece ed nto the body. |) uud rce cakes bread. n- artLuf. bread a oaf.
< the goddess of prosperty -ea-s kck 56. III.). m m turn away
56. II.). 3 TLD boed rce.
ercse 45.
147. a.) 9 7 mnsr tsn n u b stt s L sm' smru eo
131. c.) u s sT T0 ssst s\). s/T<ss r ereoeOrLD eu u eo
urremst do srem <smns aesart fTrser. d s u urrL-
eonmT 's ssr sLGsst dsL usst 't. hsrf e snu u
<O<sfTesaru Td o Dsu eo s a sfTLDeo mss- s eym. aunsm
sum s L ) s nLD 3nL|u es' ) /f/tsst k<s LL L . rT s
b.) he the ba aar -man came runnng 'tf uews sb the thef
knowng that came down from the tree. G e me the oaf. G e us
bread. he there are rce-cakes there s enough for us. he the
mother was gone to procure food the chd ded. he the f e men
were seepng n the erandah of the house the peons came. May I go
whe he s earnng hs esson? he a are workng s t rght for you
to be de?
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L ON 47. e ercse' 46.
Lesson 47.
erba nouns n eo c.
14 . erba nouns are aso formed by addng o 00 aeo ct
or . ) eo or <s ffo to the root.
a.) erbs whch take g n the present take gyOT a).
u ffLueo F f e a dong.
L k a\ <s ) . meo a submttng.
The few cases where seo or a) s apparenty added may be thus
e paned: there was a root n now obsoete to whch syeo or eo was
added: thus
ut urr ) urseo u r ) uT e.
b.) erbs whch take s ) n the present take ) a3.eo a ed.
-tfs -tsneo -ecod e ) a kckng.
I I f :d eo a t akng.
149. oC B. tDtrT butter mk. rrskn an earthenpot. ereff that t ch
s easy. that whch s hard uuf. measure manner added to reat e
partcpes as). sT< ) a command o" / str up 56. II.).
e began to consder.
e a studyng became.
e fe a thnkng.
Ths dom though poetca s sometmes heard n common con ersaton.
ercse 46.
150. a.) " DrrT 6)rr b 4th case n order to) hs e
L go umL nsmsf- s as srrem s//r" <omg .smL| rT
serr. ' sndo eo eGO )n0 h ersf sneoe n 70. I.) for
O/rsors r us sLuusO fmb.'' " smsr Offuuedns . 7. tun
amgu u fT opmg s-t 47. 172. 126. any one thng whatsoe er'
Poet.) u uT .frrsd ro s'a|sLL LD FuueOfrh' <o b LD
LDfTtu Ts p. Comp. 40. ny number of nouns may thus be unt-
ed together by d and L added to the ast con erts the whoe nto
an ad erba cause. eussr ssupusf. fu r .
h.) It s easy to send the watchman to buy mk. he he com-
manded I submtted. Ths s the kng's command. It s dffcut to wak
thus. The submttng to the command of the udge s easy. The ha ng
pty s easy. May you kck the earthen pot? Is t hard for boys to
earn ther essons ? Is t not easy to read a book whe wakng?
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L ON 4 .
Lesson 4 .
151. a.) Partces used nstead of or n addton to the proper
termnatons of cases.
The partcpa nouns from the roots otsbt and are sometmes used to
pont out and throw emphass on the nomnat e case. pemasr <sr s p
euek c. are aso used n ery common tak. 7. .
These answer n some degree to the Greek artce.
b.) T Lcrn- are added to nouns honorfcay.
Tu a mother but rurr s more respectfu.
-u a teacher -u f urr.
LDrr s pura ser may be added.
suuesTLorrT the fathers auum)
0< 6yrtD/r/f the sprtua gudes |-
- u r LD rr IT the sckoo- asters -urr ).
c.) n honorfc form s made aso by addng /f to certan words :
of these snfr Thou God s common.
d.| s ek together t th L- near emea by the sde of
sgnfyng cone on asnh) are used as casa termnatons smea
s often redundant: m sm-ea uudsu on the south sde.
e.) "Trees beasts fcP mnksm fsm 'sT pe u saesen. " e-
ng buyng and other affars" sn- Bdaeo eutr seo pwrear arButter.
"Ca the carpenter brckayer c." ssasr srppdr psnnssreTa sn-d
"Food cothes c.' 'ear <sa Trs r. ' s the anscrt for peo.|
The words are formed nto a anscrt compound wth the Tam termnaton atsk.
g3" npe ues suser 1 " are added to nouns n the nomnat e
tpeoresremssm | ' sng or pura and are then e u aent
to " c." pm) " frst." pe ueaen
weoTsw' uTssfr m. and fern. a <sr as f a part noun from root psn
7 . b . ) 7 ew /rcffT sm <s s|r f Xo 150 BT
_| emenser those thngs whch ha e become.
p areur foowed by a noun common to a the partcuars ntended to be
ncuded may be used: p<soT smf us seT.
ns uan 3a<sfr c. and n the ast case sfrr u/ssr tc.) may be n any
case but the partcuars enumerated reman n the nomnat e.
f.) s| s used for s eo 7th case): sreue L- for ersm
D e ery where.
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X RCI 47. L ON 49.
152. oc B. s n7ch 7norc. d Mount Meru. d a straw. ud sst
s ) a house-wfe. atruurp p protect 56. II.) Co. pg-' sL_a/srr Dety.
Lo Cp 56. I.) e ut. sr- f- the strychnos tree eoe the sk cotton tree.
fre uu 56. II.) he burned asar a dscpe.
ercse 47.
153. a-) s sB tTGL etsr d uutnu rrssmt a/' so
sLue T mmosu LD s nss scks t. 136. d . suasr LD' osre LDfTT
rrssBT urLDfTTLD |)Ie d:3s mTsefT. s e<s nTo sr<suT T ueuetr
euro /b/Dth suffTLneo sm'/ssrs sf uurr h's nn. 121. C.) Trans-
ate so that t sha not come. mLDnfrssns r s?L- ) d e
s sT )'2ooa ) su )fTy eusuT wBy <oTsfr . <9/Tsff er st
ssLD esT <suT . sht-. ds< t srrsr pe\)rresrss) |s2sfru
u T sL snfT'obr. .ssn' dso surrr |s ) used for busness n
genera) peOfrem' smfmrhseffso uu<s s t- er osr L sunn
. esr s Rp emem? LLL <B n.
b.) e came wth hs wfe chdren ser ants c. Ths s my
mother. Thou God art our Father. The sprtua gudes came wth
ther dscpes. Come not near me. e s ust n a hs deangs
sr ssk euTms' O peatrecr ). Come to the north sde <s <s|6 r<saL u
usw). hat s the name of ths tree <)? Near mount Meru
s a sea. On the south sde of the styrchnos tree s a sk cotton tree.
The ne t house caught fre ' gyss3raL_sg' . The kng wth hs counse-
ors and others came to the town. Compare 233-251.
Lesson 49.
Negat e erba noun n sd.
154. negat e erba noun s formed by addng otd to the root
or more p-ecsey by addng emd ness ty 1 4. a. to the abbre ated
form of the neg. erb. part. 121. 4) : su w oo .)
g LurrenLD the not dong.
ssufTmLD the not wakng.
o<soTsaLD the not e stng. Doube negat e.)
LuresLD the not earnng.
) )fres LD the not beng so.
92
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X RCI 4 . L ON 50.
LD s added to the present and ess fre uenty to the past) reat e par-
tcpe to form an affrmat e noun correspondng to ths: thus -gL enrf not
3 u p) esLD ekf LD the dong. L ss smd u.6s d the
ha ng earned. Ths s tte used.
155. oc B. uT T f'c6 LD en y urrg endure) gsserp one of se era
w es a r a. '-' gut bood-gutness se ca out 56. II.). r <s r p t s
good a good thng fse s ). fower boom 56. III.) aso as a noun
a fower sud truth an oath. o thought pua abty.
ercse 4 .
156. a-) o ' ssrd sn o ) nun e unne LLL-rrTs r' m'ssrh
eO OnemLDun ue p euh obr- eru urapu) <5s d s u
u nsnLD tBfsr rather hgh asr 3 r' uu<f s <ss r urT T <omLDu
uT fLn| ufT G )er- Lf e eo L surreaLD s . eu n smL )
T<o aLDurr60 because there s no) fftuh uemuss r- e asr nsmh
\sB 5 mnd knoong wfuy ) s u 0)rr<ss)LDu c ) umunu
b.) hy do you en y hm? ow can ths gut be remo ed? They
ha e submtted because they had no money. I suffer much because I
ha e no food. Because there were no wtnesses the genteman sent the
companant away. hy dd the r a wfe k the tte chd? I cmb-
ed the tree to ook for grass. e came down from the tree because there
was no grass on t. Do you thnk t s good not to tak? ou w de
from not eatng bread rce and other food.
--
Lesson 50.
Purpose ntenton.
157. It may be usefu to the earner to compare the arety of ways
n whch an ngsh phrase may be rendered n Tam Take the sen-
tence "man eats to e."
a.) LDs m '3eeyLpss-3-- srruu fdr. Ltera but not ery cear. The
nf. go erned by the foowng erb:
b.) gofsar -. Lursf |' ) \ 3 ruu B T .
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L ON 50.
f the step that "
Lt.- as the step that n order to that he may.
to the step that |
The use of uLp. uu ts uL f. ) s perfecty domatc.
c.) u osnssr eetpss ssrs3 3 rL u B nfm. Lt. "as a thng that s ft
for hm to e'" that he may.
R. 6 .) he fttng defect e but reg.).
Pre. s s ssr Re. part ss part noun <ss eBr sawew ssg c.
Ths use of ssrs s not neegant.
a.)Laews sr< . r . sfruu rmesT.- neut. snar. pres. and
o . "r './ Lfut. n the 4th case.
\O nLpuuf arr<s '3 | |
The future forms are esteemed more hghy than the other.
e.) LDsansBT 3 )Lps th ufr TLL 3 <9'fruu B sr for the purpose of
ng rather hgh).
\_ ur F L- from ufr fer . 1 4. b. err LL) substance that whch
has the property of.
f.) LDeter etaLpes <a<sm u era r T rfdsr. Lt. 'sayng t s
necessary to e" coo ua).
Cg-) LDe ek eaLpe sr 3 TL|u B far "for the sake of
ng" somewhat stff).
'5su cause s used ahsoutey aone or wth L or <s added to t
n the sense of "for the sake of"'
h.) sr<s r stoa/ eurrmDeo uu 3'L <st I dd ths that no def-
cency mght arse to me errn'uLd ).
these forms w often occur n books and common con ersaton.
They ustrate doms wth whch the earner must take great pans to
famar e hmsef.
15 . oc B. - rCsT nsde. <L-L h a rapd course. eat. )L3- take to
fght gaop off I se e. 56. III.) sk three. f rrLeas a Tam hour
24 mnutes. ea LDes rB an ngsh hour one unss be f n
tme). F) Ts an hour rs- s a gurry on whch hours are struck).
u|rurru a udge LfT LD rght . u a ruer : a anscrt compound).
ruL - a decson. Lf. accordng to. LDruLh ony. t fftrn- 56. IIL)
pray beseech. Lt Lh peasure desre. u m a part usk a- cotton e r
< LD traffc. pLea . a bunde. er<s a rat. euerrr 56. III.) brng p.
TFf - or 2_ T5<3r proof . Ru u.). - T5*<s/n-< g - Fo-L u s - 56. 11.) pro e.
- 3 sfr 56. III.) g e proof . T< LL rf u an e ampe.
94
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X RCI 49. L ON 51.
ercse 49.
159. a.) cgy/F P-es eDwsaus e sn a susuufrs t .3
ffu fTm. - | r ns peouuu u propery <snn<s 3 m
u u) f |s r pesr uT LDnmh sL- neo st <sbs<s a rr'
LD srm ff L F st enm. ea <2 . s s rTs\) )rT rd Lh
sfTsu 136. sf' | T ss th uemesnser. <3? LLea s' sfr
s s r <3:u rT Td Lh ufT0LL sursetT e T '2sst<3uu sumrsnr
6 T sfTeo' per. sar uesoT'fnco |u csmpd snesnr
s 0 pr L LDn u rrT <s LL d L| urTt . ersar sueoeOeuDstu
)f p urT TLL uuu s surrT. em eaw /73r smga LLsf.s
u L 6\)L e/s f ssrm 5Tm rrf'm.
b.) ow can you pro e ths? hat e ampe ha e you to afford
e dence that ths house s yours ? e went to fetch hs wfe. I beseech
you to do me ustce. e traffcks to obtan proft. e g es an e ampe
to pro e hs case. ou must act ony accordng to rue. Do as you
pease. I w g e you a reason why you shoud earn dgenty. Pro e
ceary before the magstrate that ths house s your father's. From the
absence of proof and e ampes the house w be taken from you and
g en to the merchant. The cat runs to catch the rat. not the rat
run to escape the cat ? hat s ths for ? I obtaned ths money by hs
means. 242.
Lesson .
Causa erbs and transt e erbs n genera.
160. The foowng e ampes w render e panatons and rues un-
necessary. These forms are generay to be found n the dctonary.
They may be d ded nto two casses:
I. Forms ndcatng that the person causes another to perform the
acton of the erb.
a.) From root etp ca 56. III. where the present takes d ) s formed
osLpu cause to ca 56. III.). ere 9 s added and doubed.
<s<ck erekssr eoLpu3sd s L- Tr the kng sent for me and asked.
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L ON 51.
b.) From root <9 do 56. I. where the present has su) s formed
ue cause to do 56. III.). ere aO s added to form the causa root.
h suu s).F 3 tL6 5fr sk he caused a skp to be but.
c.) From root ersar say 2) s formed er<t 56. III.) cause to say pro e
root sT<sm see 70.) srsm sm. aressr | cause to see. show.
From -s OT eat 56. I.) s formed -skn feed.
From ao earn 70) s formed sp teach.
ere s added. There are many other forms of ths knd n common use.
II. mpe tran.st es formed from ntranst e roots.
d.) From root r wak 57. I.) s formed h g cause to wak ead 56.
II.). There are few of these and chefy from roots n and e_.
The root bc has aso a causa /b u accordng to o). 56. III.)
e.) From root er ascend 56. II.) s formed e pg) cause to ascend ft
56. II.) com.). To e fff and other transt e forms afmay be added to form
a causa.
33' In ths and the foowng forms the causa strengthens the root by
doubng the consonant or by hardenng a nasa.
f.) From root eg run 56. II.) s formed ge cause to run dr e
56. II.) com.).
In Ind. I. comp. 3 r B 3 mL B sut gtL . c. .C.
g.) From roots f be remo ed 70.) s formed remo e put away 62.)
2_ T5 5 ro 56. III.) - TL B ro o er. 62.)
h.) From root e submt 56. II.) s formed u.s put under
cause to submt 56. II.). In Ind. I. comp. /f/ / d ).'
.) From Oug grow ncrease 62) s formed u t<s 62) mutpy.
In Ind. I. comp. <s P <M3' c. .C.
.) From root LDLf turn one's sef 56. II.) s formed u turn
another cause to turn 56. II.).
In. Ind. I. comp. etrmt eruL Bud tu st I st u
LpLDL tp L k.LOL r L . C. C.
k.) From root srL become dry 56. I.) s formed artu a- bo make dry
by heat 56. II.). There are ery few of these forms.
I.) Many roots may foow 56. I.) and are then ntranst e or 56. III.)
and are then transt e. Compare 15. g.).
In Inde I. compare r B /D tT s ps pg d p
c. c.
ff n ntranst e erb n the r <s r ff ) s caed m dssr own-acton
and a transt e erb t fs af r another -acton. These terms are taken from
the parasma-padam and dtmane padam of the anscrt but the casses of erbs
are far from correspondng. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 100-106.
96
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X RCI 50. L ON 52.
161. oc B. be yng down 56. I.). g c.) ay down pace n
a recumbent poston u suffer 56 -)- - nfct upon cause to suffer.
3' The two ast mentoned erbs are added to nouns to form ntranst e
and transt e erbs respect ey: thus <fh ffr<5 oy rs /reuu
re oce <nh r aL L|u Bg 7nake gad.'
so ) go pass 56. III.). -9 s'< 56. II.) cause to go pay dscharge.
0 be 60. II.). f) 56. II.) pace cause to be. Lpsa an nfant.
g -3 rf L LD astonshment. 3 ud nearness dh other dfferent. eue Lh
dsguse appearance af make known <|.
ercse 50.
162. a.) suosr pk sT <ss) |s sfTem < u sresr uds eO
Poet.) Bresr sndsresruts sL s snes n<0rT ) sasrs s uLu.
p sL e y e suT p 3 u sB. pesr. urr6\ snLffs. enpmu
b.) They brought a tte nfant and ad t before me. The physcan
ed the mother to the house. Te genteman caused the watchman to be
caed. hy ha e you caused the merchant to be sent for ? Tu'n the
bandy round. Put that man down. Lft that bunde. Put that bunde
up on the bandy. Bo that con ee for the nfant. Dr e the buocks.
They fted up the chd upon the horse. The rats are astonshed to see
the cats. The cats re oce to see the rats. Dd you bo the mk?
you ft the cotton-baes ? Don't dr e the bandy.
Lesson 52.
erbs formed f'om nouns.
163. erbs are often formed from nouns of anscrt der aton endng
ngy. by changng d nto |). They foow 56. I These are not
ery common and shoud be used sparngy.
ff fTLD spendor. trrsBtr I shne. 3r sT s pest I shne.
rsrr <s r I shone.
gsr u um I sha shne.
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X RCI 51.
164. Many nouns are aso erba roots as n ngsh
ffaf e ceedng oy. sefr re oce 56. III.). so d /Dsr I re oce .c.
prase. prase 56. III.). g pek I prase.
165. uessr make perform s do become a make cause
to become are often added to nouns of uaty.
Thus a-LD purt .sss b u ssstg . purfy 56. II.).
rLDr become pure 56. II.).
3LDT cea7se 56. II.).
srr ' o F n estgaton .rfrrrossr su n estgate 5G. I.).
* These forms may be d ded nto two knds n one of whch there s a
manfest epss of the 2d case n the other the noun or partce forms wth
the erb one compound dea. The former are e paned n 50) and n them
|: u n the begnnng of the added erb s not doubed generay. In the
atter case t s. pp. . Thus sn stabty a standng pace. nd -o
ugf 56. 11)) ean u ug u not doubed . But B suu 161.) s a
compound become setted ed u s doubed). They are n constant use.
166. oc B. 6Tpu Bg appont estabsh 56. II.). . w eephant.
sr a charot sreorm a foot soder srrso foot. .M person). 0rr
a woman esd pure god. uT TLD a oad t eght. L rrsrr LD manner. eurTLh.
a week. ush|d the donty pro dence fate. -ewetrLn the mnd the nner man.
ssrsrLD fasehood gue anp 56. I.) become soft dsso e a my. . ydr
that day. ssrga ths day. ererg) what day? when? These three words form
ther fourth case rreguary: <s res p ) ss<ss)ps ff) to day sresretnpdLD for
e er. OTsar s doubed generay n the ast form: erm pmespsLD for e er
and e er.) nfn. of/f be fu 56.1.) s used domatcay thus ssot
ess\ff ceary face to face LDosrrrf wngy knoungy .srrrru ceary ds-
tncty. rrsre troube.
ercse 51.
167. a.) sms sL urrsrr -f nes 'Bsr mun
) es) u< s T6 Br fT<' <m' D/D- -er'2esru urfL usk d
eum. ere urftus osr t<5 5 s a compound. e T surr /d
oTsarssr ? erhut rsfTnDrTas ffrsLD 6aar<a 'TseT. LD sn <s5)p B
nB <? CC)/f<ssrr. <5| obr D<5sr off)pd h /a/sto/r s u
sufTTsefr or uurrrrTer). m ss)rd' 5m serf m'. eksD/Dd
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L ON 53.
h.) The kng came wth eephants charots and foot soders. -
though you saw t wth your eyes do not speak of t to any one. e
w persh for e er. That kng's foot soders carred burdens of god.
e a re oced and prased the kng. They purfed the charots that
day for the women. If you sn wfuy how can you escape? I heard ds-
tncty. To-day I sha ha e much troube. Pray e amne ths we my
father not the udge do ustce to the agers? The gentemen
w punsh the watchman.
Lesson 53.
The nfnt e mood.
16 . The erba form obtaned by addng to the roots of erbs
whch form ther present wth s) and to the remander has been
caed t|e nfnt e mood because t answers to that part of the erb n
some respects. The earner must beware of supposng howe er that
where er the ngsh has the nfnt e mood ths Tam form can be used
or ce ersa. The foowng e ampes re ure attenton:
a.) r 3'G.3 T sr rr he tod me) to come. The ngsh dom and the
Tam correspond.
hen some went and tod the kng the kng caed hm).
c.) r s fr <s<d O or -areoeoeLD pease to say.
d.) uuds rr you) must not do t).
LasuuL- m I was beaten.
c.) aLsu u< Bsr eB)T he made me hear a way of ormng a causs . Com.
160. .
f.) ut sresru ut.
"Go" I) to say go.
Go when you arc tod.
169. The use of the nfnt e n b) answers to the Latn abat- ab-
soute and s ery concse and eegant but sometmes t s not ery cear.
It s essentay a poetca dom.
IBIT0 uuuf-' r XoO sur fsnhrrf rsrasr uus .3 Teou: u T
g euT rT or mrek uuL.3 <3 rreoeasu ) eur eu/srr.
99
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L ON 53.
170. e era nfnt es are used as ad erbs prepostons or con unc-
tons:
wthout
together
together
besdes but
3k.
f-
urreo
p Ba . 5 *
wth
round about
e cept
oudy ceary
as
ucky
sowy
graduay
spontaneousy
off
cease). sr soau umBu
eanhuu coa-\<o F u su
esce). om fTh rs|r
ere eofr LD eg
F da-ff ?<s
r) < '
< F) unte).
s fa).
L B drau
near).
'< . on)
L surround).
fr remo e).
uffd grow
stro|g).
ures resem-
be).
make haste).
probaby of Od
CT f chew).
surr come).
us be mpe-
ed).
e eO get out of
the way).
asssB su
es su eo
erer es) B at
ers|r LDsmL|a
asr
ueo su ua
he became cean
from a sn.
they unanmous-
y sad they dd
not want t.
thc a came to-
gether.
there s no way
besdes ths.
when they came
near the town.
my son came wth
they stood round
about hm.
they a re oced
but hm.
speak oud.
Cu/rso that aso \s) ke
e LD I ths.
s s np Ba ) he spoke uck-
<FOcF/rs |r 65)OT I y.
c )<oO Loea do t sowy.
eu enffdsfru
kg urr p
amuu ug
srr frT
esu urr
the ower s
graduay dry-
ng up.
he freey ga e 10
fanams.
get out of my
way.
sss srrmm
The e pressons ps uuuf. kss uu
That standng so ths beng so that beng so
seem to be neegant though not absoutey ncorrect.
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X CI 52.
ercse 52.
171. oc B. 166.)
ufTs<s I )'2eo not e en haf the mud oas remo ed. <_L_ e en). nh
c? sfTu I Ttu sTLD ugary for r rmu to he fu nf. of / d/.
56. II. . s<o T thueh frhsTs uem) rr ' 5sr. sTtue|)
sometmes snhueLD ery ug.) ep eus sm eumefr eo "
Lnu n f6\) "hs cud p snerr rm ss a )s r d9 60 -
r oarr LdtLDrr?
ssTm sp T ufLtons uFnss 3 u fr ) eLtu srew<s <9' s b
s rT uness you do) m peana <su r <s r mrd s/Bd
tr L un60 srfd D urr )) urrs rT | u sm es s s n gsbt th
h.) ness you pay the money you w not be aowed to go. n-
ess a man eats he w not e. I dd not obtan e en that. hen sha
I obtan knowedge so that my gnorance sha depart my doubts remo e
and ray heart re oce? e ga e the money spontaneousy to a who asked
hm so that ther hearts re oced. My ser ant goes and comes when
I te hm. By con ersaton the way w seem short. Com. 244.
ou must not speak or thnk so. e ga e much.
101
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L ON 54.
172. Numeras.
Lesson 54.
Cardna nouns.
smr )
')ff<sa r B two ug.
7es r B )
perg three ug.
" / /r 2/ f5trek four.
sg f e ug.
s)
s
e . se en
stL eght
mug nne ....
\ug ten
R B.
IGN.
T M.
IGN.
10
D| CTI
FORM .
D RI D NO N .
0 g/f ' g BT or f
Loesner /r er ) o f d a cer-
rf 3 sr . tan person.
T ff suT two persons.
r .
p p pek ' peuT three persons.
/ /rebar/f four persons.
Poet.)
: ) / . ' euT f e persons.
erem stL .
Ths seems to be r one
frotn ten. Compare the
Roman numera IX. where
the dea s the same.
2.) r
.3 c O|
.: fco
'
0) O C3
o
?k - I
ussresnumsr
u osrf
c
11
a)a
12
Da.
13
CDs
14
Off"
19
Ds
u e F O /r ee en persons.
uero0 a T twe e persons.
3.) r
a t
-. -w
2 2
5 |
f -
s s
t
) TF) g
) rF) rrekg) c.
| |
fBrpuff
LD g| ....
11 3| . . .
oT ....
erekrus
rw
20
2. )
21
2.
30
un
40
u)
50
u)
60
*t D
70
CT )
0
D
90
a )
100
m
101
ms 1
The ad ect e form of a the fo-
owng s smar to ths : us s
changed nto u'.
Probaby from rer a root sg-
nfyng defect) nd.s rg.
The ad . form s srf throughout.
ug. p saek.
102
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X RCI 53.
Cardna nouns.
4.)
f
sr Lg T
rmerru r h
u ffLD
R B.
T M.
IGN.
IGN.
200
2.nr
300
P IT
400
f/TT
500
TT
600
<3tITT
700
CTTT
00
rn
900
a fr
1000

1001

The ad . form of u td s h9
100 000 s ctLcFLD a ac.
mon s u eoL-sLD.
sT f- s used for 10 mons. r
t tr tTL for 10 on tmes a
ercse 63.
173. oc B. 166.)
g Obser e the epss of the pura sgn 'sr the noun put before the
numera s_u) omtted and a summed up by u nsrnLo. Compare the
foowng where the same s e pressed more precsey but ess domatcay.
The pacng of the noun of number after the noun t beongs to s eegant.
55 75 "srremu m psar 0 )ns'uu: <5| Lp Ds TsdsfrtLh. epmu
ss |Gsar h- u sr oT ssr r/b wusstmD 175 |e
I O u'emh uff <sf? uBs aT srr. <57'2G LDsssf? ct sst Loessf
BITLb? GT ssr LDgsaf u /b? ' )- ||T/F ITLG u h
the Tam way of sayng It s noon). euLons sthnrs r 136. a.).
s' esT u L9 r'2 frsa srf . r t pesretD/Duw r 'L' 40.)
seok 66. seaLDueO 14 .) omest f e ok 165.). pear usm s
d sfr sfr 'p0 srr LL th eesr Ds 194.) enskLh LD b n/'
5 P ' ?sD/Lo mr/D f- CTssrLo 3 r 6m ssuh
oBrp srekLD u sfrsm urrtrsefr ts eg s ke a stck c-
s one th t. g'tf famary "my / e/u/ " sometmes n contempt).
LD fT sf LD |T p LD T T LD fT upd s fTem ufTsk.
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L ON 55. X RCI 54.
b.) Ffty persons came. The whoe 50 persons came. Ths happened
n the year one thousand four hundred and twenty-se en. 175. There
are 24 narge n one day. There are se en days n a week and 52
weeks n a year. ow many peons a-e there n the court 37.) ?
hat o'cock s t? ow many bes?) They came ten together.
G e the boy 10 000 pagodas. as the companant one eye or two?
e brought 10 fanams to the ba aar. ou may buy two rce-cakes for a
pce. The ndus say there are s sects. G e the ser ant 3 Rs. 5 s.
6 P. F e tmes f e.
Lesson 55.
174. The Tam peope do not ordnary use the decma notaton. It
shoud be ntroduced nto a schoos. In Tam ttD 5 15. Ths
shoud of course be wrtten s 5. The rabc system of notaton has
been recenty ntroduced n a go ernment offces.
175. The ordna are formed from the abo e by addng to the cardna
forms o or 'su 3d pers. neut. fut. and part noun fut. of ) 72. .).
But crg one makes p psBmn-m or peon-eug rst and n com-
pounds epmg becomes g /f takng the ad . form) u er TLD c.
the 2d day of the month. the fourth mnster.
Lt. two-whch w become.) |u. four -whch w become.)
176. The former s used as an ad ect e ony the atter s ether an
ad ect e or an ad erb.
177. ome of these numbers are repeated n a pecuar way to form
dstrbut es one by one c. c.
Thus: w snrmg the frst etter ony of sekgn s taken) one by one.
sus rrsssr the frst etter of srem ) two by two n twos.
puas\g the frst syabe of pssrffs shortened p) by threes.
mek m Bd rm)Bsr< ) esau eueur er<s e w sreu eu. .
uuug usueu ). None s formed from <o mus .
17 . oc B. s/T h chapter. 6T ns es nu more or ess s p to ascend
sapu to decrease). - d about more or ess. srrrrstB on an a erage.
a/ LD doubt. mnnL-er a bnd man. aa resr. a hunchback. s|'
contempt urrreoet son sght. nps a back. fpLL a a bunde d d
other.
ercse 54.
179. a-) e d nG<rn rr srrem emf rfh mmu nrrsns
-emr fT eek sLL nsk obs. the two uses of ?< sfr. 70.).
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L ON 56.
s? T <5 3r 5 25_osr eu w urT en ' on- d sem sk-esTm sff
Lrrs : " *eytT m "-'"" 55 5 <s633r untTessusarTu u 1 2. _) eebr er.
LDfT |u uafrd peo'- u frs <smfnL LD ep sesnTaL| unru u sr'' srssr
n 'mr. puu ps snuf- s s frs rLo ?fTpu essr ess)u sT) feuf
eufrLD LpM L sn'Ln sfTs rBL IT GfT L LL fT eu)/b ut 6\) e tsfr
)T. r sar fT LD r /Ds urreunL. urf'X-
srm'usuT <5 mr <9hs: o<yeLLh urr snn|D fBrreOmh <su<f6srd so sng
* wr rn arrru come up " Oanu/rar ute true
b.) In the fourth chapter. man bnd of one eye. One was de-
formed and the other had but one eye. They must come one by one.
Pace these bundes by threes. The chdren are arranged f e n a
cass. Ths s the ffteth tme I ha e waked round the tempe. On
an a erage he comes e ery ffth month. On the second day of ast
month. Ten wtnesses more or ess pro ed the companant's statement.
The fourth person had a bunde on hs back. Come for your wages on
the frst of the month. I w pay you the money on the 20th n the
e enng.
Lesson 56.
Der at e nouns.
1 0. From prmt es are der ed what are caed appeat e nouns.
These are n constant use.
From nouns n h they are formed by changng ud nto gy s? 1 . e.)
and addng sk for the sng mascune err for the sng femnne
for the sng neuter) ft' or frsm for the epcene pura and emeu for
the neuter pura. Many other uouns smpy add these termnatons.
Thus: strr LD a trbe srrrrrrer a man of a trbe.
rnrrm a woman of a trbe.
s rff<Trr aar peope of a trbe.
mT a age marTk snarrer ss :ttt.
g There are many e ceptons to ths snce anscrt words ntroduced nto Tam
foow the rues of ther own anguage.
Thus L <okresBa rtue has Lam-esfu sfrear whch s the anscrt for a
rtuous man so urraLD sn hag u/raO a snner. The Dctonary must he con-
suted for these forms /e/t makes f nLL-mT the country peope Comp. 1 . c)
but aso Br rm a andhoder a head man among certan trbes.
* These two are not so fre uenty used.
14 105
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X RCI 55.
1 1. sr ssr m.) and srft f.) '
. a maker doer.' I
srf m. and f.) re added to nouns n ther con unct
srr manage affars .'\ form 131 ) to form compounds.
re m. and f.)
. a possessor.' |
From<5_s3r adebt \feha. e s e a debtor s sksn'rm a debtor sL drsaf.
.M a sheep L- darrrer a sheep-man . ssmB.
-/ sense t a sensbe person.
pTL-t LD a garden trLt ssrum a gardener.
1 2. oc B. fpLh apart at y ng. a man of parts) mb knd famy.
frd th happness uck weath. urrs L sarssr a happy man. urs uen
a happy or bessed woman. sL-L reB a partner s/ a race. Fr caste.
b s'd famy. uTL-L Te \ urr sufferng) a aborous man. ertre d
nstr bewderment) one under the nfuence of a demon. ppwn a crmna.
'ueofTT near neghbours uo). suupsrar saors. smnps rn<
a fsherman emLeo a hook). Bu a foat used by fshermen ). p
frT eders become od).
ercse 55.
1 3. a-) 3f pfTeorrL B| suL9 b) 173. 1 1. both partes).
urd a|wnesr. '' seoens <FBfu rT0u:) sesr'hssru uns u < u m'unT
<5eff." 5 T .sk-LL fT fssr uu n s<3 yrresr. srn.
_rnT oT6\) )n0 <5_ Td r 'Ts r. - sor s tLL-nffL-do e ffnB.
e asT ' umL nef com.). enasetr aa<s s t sm d
efrrreffssfr -em . uunuurru ed hp sun Gfts' LL e LL rrT.
eo sdbr." Pro . ' rre sseOeO mu ps sbru p.'' Poet.).
np nn smssresr unnOD fL rh' ytosr urTd u| rT 9 sussr
b.) the agers stood near. My peope. The peope of my
trbe. the peope of the word w be astonshed. the peope
of the nhabted country and those who dwe n the wderness sr sfr ).
The nhabtants of a ands prased that bra e person. They are a of
one caste and famy. The watchman s a ery hard-workng man. ou
must n ure of the neghbours of the crmna. Many foosh peope go
about as f possessed by a demon. the saors eft the shp. The
fsherman sts on the bank of the r er.
Toe
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L ON o7.
Lesson 57.
Der at es contnued.)
1 4. From prmt e roots used as ad ect es many nouns are formed
whch are both common and eegant.
a.) By addng mtD many of these become abstract nouns of uaty.
Beo good or that whch s good /esstsdd goodness e\) d <sstd).
\ .sr sudr .ssr ggssr s. mas. raton. Com. 29.
b.) By addng err suer |er s. fem. raton.
the suff es )t <5t t r pura m. and. f. raton.
Cora. 31.) I 1 g s. com. rrat.
| * 0r saeu p. com. rrat. nouns are formed.
These termnatons may be added to any nouns.
g Fna becomes before these termnatons. Those g en here are
coo ua forms.
r \ mskes r et<cO er a good man.
B ) serr a good woman
/seocOeT sr /
good peope.
t 0 I O | rr \
Beoeos good thng.
/Beoed asusofr good thngs.
sma makes / usek a ftcper-
son m.)
/ ueuer a tte person f.)
/ I nTT tte persons m. and f.)
u sp that whch s tte.
/ tuemeuaer those whch are tte n.)
c) The abo e beong to the 3d person. But such nouns may be
formed for the 1st and 2d persons aso. These are not much used
n the common daect. Thus
foot makes ' m I a ser ant e Gsr beng the erba persona
term of 1st snguar. 31).
hen a person wshes to be ery humbe n hs address he says :
L f- u f ae e <sb 0st for / /ra|r ec.
/ a sa e to themse es am come.
en tBT u<asr I a dog and other dsgustng e pressons of the same knd
are sometmes used.
nd r crue makes amtumL thou a crue person.
Ths s not used n common Tam.
Tam Grammarans consder these to be a speces of erb. n ordnary
erb s caed rB dso sffc understandng-poston- erb a erb whch
mpes an acton a tme an ob ect or an nstrument . But these forms are caed
/ uLf ssr sgn erb . e.) they can ony nferentay e press tme .c.
* Corap. ths wth the rue n Lat. that the nom. and ace. of neuter puras aways
end n a.
107
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X RCI 56.
They ha e been caed "con ugated nouns " " erba appeat es " and
"appeat e erbs". Nannu ut. 321.) They are formed n poetry n great
abundance from nomna roots whch are d ded for ths purpose nto s
casses .
1.) Nouns e press e of some thng possessed fOuyT-err : smp an earrng.
2.) Nouns of pace d): L pLo outsde.
3.) Nouns of tme sT<sOLb): dT'Td a month.
4.) Nouns e press e of some member or part 3osr): ssssr an eye.
.5.) Nouns of uaty outward or nward smw): -<5m<csLD fdety.
6.) Nouns e press e of somethng done tso )-. rr6\ a word.
Rue. Prepare the noun n whate er way t s prepared for the recepton of the
casa sgns 1 ) then add the persona termnatons as n 31. 7. Compare aso
pp. . Paradgm of erbs .) The nouns thus formed for a persons
and numbers may be reguary decned. Comp. Pope's III Gram. 93.
1 5. OC B.
From - sm that whch beongs to are der ed
s a u a sgn of the 6th case -est ue dr he who possesses.
Comp. 21. -s tusuer she c.
-sD that whch c.
sea uecos \
ssr
-es uears r they who c.
sss fresrsuek c. are aso used.
ere e_OT s used for sm ug . For etsreusr c. see 7. 5 . 151.
_srr 133) -ertorreusk - str errek ) he to hom there s who has.
- srora esT she c.
- sher t to whch there s whch has.
-erereu IT -k en rr t ) 1 .
they to whom :c. ra. f.)
serermrscr )
-s r fr<5sy s sr they to whch c.
53" The abo e are regarded by Tamans as fnte erbs but the pura
neuter nouns as 2_te)_tu 2_er syr so ufu are capabe aso of beng used n
e ery respect as reat e partcpes and are sometmes so consdered.
ercse 56.
1 6- a.) urTd u pss u e|Ts r cp T<su Tt|a eo'hso. eo eoar urr
<sp 7 LD )60s L 'here ssy u go erns the 2d case). rB tunss)n
urf otufTT <surrn<5m ss) u LL rrLoeO b . to' ssru rTer eoe r o?
10
those whch c.
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L ON 5 .
urr' G csrs s sfTt G ) -em neBr ssnfe f u e060.
uff fTT esratT urruu a esr '''' -u 0 TG r<3 r u efr
b.) There are none who are aways happy. The great ha e sad so.
e s a man of great weath. e. Crue peope g e troube to the
poor. both sma and great w be there. hat sha 1 a snner
do? Three of hs partners are great peope. The nhabtants of that
age are tte peope. e s a man of mercy. our humbe ser ant s
we by your bessng ep your ser ant who s but as a dog.
generatons sha ca me bessed f.). Lte peope must be humbe.
Lesson 5 .
1 7. Many words of foregn orgn are n constant use n Tam.
a.) ome of these are ngsh. Thus sck a word of un er-
sa use Court sn-rL amm coumn of a 31. . L m fees c. c.
b.) ome ha e come nto Tam through the nd. These are of
most fre uent occur'ence n offca documents.
Cc.) Many are of Portuguese orgn. 0sb9 ktchen c.
d.) ome are der ed from Mahratta Teugu Canarese Maayam
c.
e) . anscrt words can hardy be spoken of as foregn to the Tam
5 In regard to these words t may be remarked that they cannot be
atogether dspensed wth. owe er we may dske ntermngng words of
foregn orgn wth what we choose to ca pure Tam these words are n
un ersa use and must be earnt. gan snce many of these are names
of thngs brought nto the country by foregners there can be no reason why
they shoud not brng n the names as we as the thngs. It s mere pedantry
to refuse to use the nd Gu ss) for fabe and make the compound unearu
usosss food-board). On the other hand f there be a reay good Tam
word for a thng why shoud a foregn one be ntroduced? hy say
when e urr sckness s we known. Most of these words w be found n
these essons or n Inde I. and the e u aent Tam words where any e st.
1 . oc B. s specmens.) LD sd a me. L |udge. mu rft
ospta. Lhur number meur rab.) a per son. suurr ahot) shoes
sorr a antern uhtt boots nd.) amaf rab.) a prsoner. r LD ff
mus uto curtans s Te. - domatera mus uto- e emrr.)
109
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X RCI 57. L ON 59.
ercse 57.
1 9. a-) s ck ssnh s Tf'm. eum' B srp p th
h.) Brng my shoes. Let down the mus uto curtans. ow many
mes s t to the town ? as he ad the tabe ? Brng the kette. a e
they made a compant n the court ? as the Coector arr ed ? here
s the cergyman ?
Obs. There are pecuar ways of e pressng foregn words n Tam
whch must be notced. No nat e woud understand : sck but a
recogn e .
Lesson 59.
Der at es.
190. a.) ome erba der at es ha e been notced n 7. . 143.
14 . Besdes these many nouns are formed from erba roots by add-
ng a/ or u- accordng to the anaogy of the future: e uu .
erbs whch ha e en n the future take / those whch ha e or uu
take uLf. The nouns treated of n ths esson dffer from those n 7.
. 14 . n ha ng no go ernng power. Those are n e ery sense parts
of the erb: these are nouns formed from the erba roots.
b.) Pass e nouns are formed chefy from roots n s- by changng s-
nto s.
- me) a garand that whch s strung) from O/r strng together Poet.)
_ o:_ a garment that whch s put on) from 2_ put on - Bu.)
s- aLn a burden that whch s carred) from sua carry.
g: anscrt nouns n generay change nto when they are brought
nto Tam: so ta em ab'ha a congregaton s ff B) .
c.) LD s added to some erba roots to form nouns.
dsu) weath what s made or ac ured) from <5 make.
L-L h a moton what s mo ed) from L mo e.
g In some cases the consonant of the root s doubed or hardened before
the addton of .d as rL La from sm c. There s howe er
a form trtL .'
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L ON 59.
d.) Many roots consstng of one short syabe fna s- does not reay
beong to the root) engthen ths n order to form nouns.
u brng forth obtan makes ug that whch s ganed or brought |orth.
uT F) meet fght makes urr a heap batte.
g e makes what s g en as an e u aent o pedge.
- Ths s amost the ony case n whch the Tam oates the prncpe
that through e ery modfcaton n nfe on and con ugaton the Root s
unchanged. Of course fna e_ does not beong to the root.
Ce.| ome roots n s not short monosyabes) doube the
fna consonant. Comp. 1 . c. d. 131. c
Thus erfws etter sr L g wrte 62.) unL a song un sng. 62.)
p a ne ff scratch spt).
f.) sf s added to some erba roots.
ser hear ask. Gcserraf a ueston report.
rreo be defeated. msde defeat.
g.) s added to some roots: ./ a s eeper p o . II.). These
nouns then ndcate the doer of the acton.
h.) s added to some roots.
Oa run s ) Lop forgeffuncss p).
.) s s added to some roots: w p s.s w p re oce
sp despse).
.) emLD s added to the present and past reat e partcpes. Com. 154.
Thus s' skpesLD 3 u a <ss LD. But ths s by no means common and
s strcty a erba form.
k.) In many cases the root of the erb s aso used as a noun. Comp.
164.
Thus sL a cut or cut 62 sL a te or te 62.
.) ome nouns are formed by addng _sr e stence to the erba'root.
Thus .FML sr poetry from u as the Greek nor ag from Ttoeco to
make). ur er substance from ut come together.)
191 . oc B. as earnng ad earn 70. |. L nDek a neghbour 3p other)
umetaeu a brd L p fy). e essr an es eo n an). t g on )
5th case toGeo). er 56. I.) send as a msse arrow). s reo sL
fatL sweep 56. II.) a church sweeper Grsrdsh ntenton fBrd ook
56. II). 3L-L a congregaton a-LL coect). a destructon s de-
stroy) ur sufferng u suffer). rB<cat . wak conduct b wak) dah
fear a). s hg ntenton a fg thnk).
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X RCI 5 . L ON 60.
ercse 5 .
192. c') e)' so ts smsfp u/Dems|-ssfr BeO erBuun sunek fTt
gyt. u T f ) LDus'en' <o nrr sen'. Lseur phrr sr T sr d s
urrd nd arT. f s od ntasss mDeO ps e L am'' eat
from L resur serr rfd snem sunesr. es GmLDL
usaLDLL 65 25 '/ Beoeorr ' 'ss pua tBnessT p|D r e doeonTs eo
suh eesrasruu m- fDT rr p) ud srre uesan eut
em u BrrssLD sreunm? B|ek snemr s su p. 5
<o ) u o s u an? eun ' eussrsum' urr euesrs st.
b.) Do not re oce too much n prosperty nor gre e too much u ad-
ersty. Ca the church sweeper. Nether prase nor bame affects the
dead p<a Tss ) o). The househod are much deghted
because a son s born. They a fought n the unge. Do not
negect earnng. The young gueur 1 5.) shoud not k brds. hat
s the ntenton of ths erse ? hat s the meanng of ths word? hat
s the substance of ths sentence? hat s the purport of the etter he
has wrtten? Ths s a fata affr. e s a ery forgetfu person. o
I hear
#3
Lesson 60.
193. The foowng are used as nter ectons.
a.) Ok ff B Can" 0?o rr |ere behod r there see
rr here see utr aas eu ao oh eau u T oh aas atr hao
These are used n the begnnng of a sentence.
cr T? soeceufT? ' ) oo < 2 r corrupted nto so eor)? s t not? h?
s mLD I suppose forsooth certany.
b.) d g) ) s put at the end when t sgnfes "forsooth ' and after the
emphatc word when t ndcates certan/.
eusr \ s) ek <s g) he must he reconed a good man I suppose.
s ff)LD I eo sum he ndeed s a good man. Ths s not cassca.)
c.) m- rather hgh) sded eurr keoeur ) <sot ugar) are
put at the end of a sentence or after the emphatc word st 7ot?
d.) sfrem sfrLD mperat e of srrem see) are n constant use n
much the same sense as we use the word noo: erdsrm srrmh e what
note.
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X RCI 59. L ON 61.
194. oc B. LD dscreton. d t <3: ) detrment danger decet. LD Lor-au
oss of sense wth ut 5 .) ose sense become senseess. mkL-a-LDh subtt
ncety srett easy. -Fpg) .s p p a tte. 5c9 g mstake b6. II.). sf r grow
up 55. I.). s much generay used wth s_u) se Lh). tr brghtness.
t ma s.) yo feow.' gyf. f.) my good woman. utL grandmother.
. t u IT .' father .' uu eo a worthess feow erffr come up we ru andsu
usr are used as words of respect. t u suu esr ' mother rb).
ercse 59.
195. a.) spG's/r errefrnu 21. h. s changed nto <u) ctsstsot
fTffu s IT |? LDCoLDrT LD fT eOn LD T? u f| | L ILD
rB p f< f srs u eTerf6\ 6\) C 5' 6._). p p 9<3' I )
<5 ureut) e ' r CoLD. g "| uruuru L . aysrr Issud Mrsdsnf
1 2 ) aesr so eorr uuus srrssrsBT um? nsr sntfnua
''ct/e/ o <sm r) /s s ekp o<?/7." tomun-Ls ap m 'd 1 eesar
I a 3 uus s LL n 'u ? ug. for. cssr t-rr.) turrT _/r eesr y
o L-L fTosr. ssresr sudI t rfuu u peur. e ssr
uufT h B Lo ? su 5 T emLu u T <s<5sr3?<s / Lprresr. eusu
etre n? rr asetfu-so < ms w ff. e sun sr- Obser e
the n erson whch s ery domatc.)
b.) e s t not ten o'cock? as I am dece ed what sha
I do My mother. hch s the way to Tan ore? Ths boy s the
ce er feow o ths s the earned man you mentoned. ere s
a rupee for you. I w come mysef. ao gardener come here.
I suppose that physcan was your father. top a bt you feow e's
a great scamp. as nothng has grown n my fed.
Lesson 61.
Forms correspondng to the comparat e and superat e degrees.
196. From 130 133 t appears that there are no ad ect es proper/
so caed n Tam.
The noun used as an ad ect e does not admt of changes e press e of
the degrees of comparson. ow then can we e press n Tam ths s
better than that" and that s the best of a?
1.) "Ths s better than that."
a. . p 60 . The dat e of that whch has ess of the uaty
spoken of: "To that ths s good."
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X RCI 60.
b. ua g meoeo. The 5th case wth e_LD denotng competeness):
"From that atogether ths s good." Ths s to be preferred to the former. If
ths be regarded as the 7th case n opposton to nat e Grammarans the sense
woud be "In a that ths s good."
c. . d ) s mkoOg . The 5th case ''from that ths s good."
cr shoud be added.)
These three are eegant.
/. es Bu urrTs Lc g s oeo urrd LD from |/r/r 56. III. athough
you see 100. 2.)) '- though you see that ths s good."
e. <omsu urrrss I | hoed uarss the nfn. of u/r/r 169.): That
whe you see ths s good.
These are common and ute correct though not ery eegant forms.
g. es s<s fB<kog 's _ to ea e : "That to ea e ths s good."
Ths s rather coo ua.
f. syg) sy fB o) < more may be pref ed to e so n
a the abo e. It s not needed.)
g. 6 )sd arrL-LLD _ Boeog stLd from stL show 56. II.
athough you show) '' though you show that ths s good." Ths s decded-
y a ugar form.
2.) "That s the best of a."
a. . sreoeorrsu sre\)eo TLD ) f )<oO. The 5th case wth -d
and a word denotng un ersaty: "From a ths s good."
b. . orw \ r<sup/ b Lc sr )efrd Lh) /seoe. The 4th case wth
2_): "To a ths s good."
c. e -LD ) aL- u). These two words are anscrt and
sgnfy "best nost e ceent."
197. oc B. Lodr D more and more d ) too sh the frst
syabe shortened for the sake of euphony). 107. Lp go before 56. II.
30/5 erb and part.) |f/ore. p f m n.) Lp p frst of a. Com.)
7n- T <3 rff | <ar ffr kngy. _u<s /r ) obser ance. . s_ n
anscrt compounds) kngg honours. <o L- |sk one of the shepherd caste.
LD<sm <m LD ff)). a eght maund. B s u/r/f.s f/u) e ceed).
ercse 60.
19 . a.) n nu3 n T r <ssrd t eu roh w
s 0DL Lusps fBfT < BfTeT from day to day sLona mL?
huLurTs 157.) L-. 165.) .sLnm- seum I. sf. L
OT2/<5 <3 ) e u utfrresr srrfuu) e fr) 6\)'2eo. su nm'
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L ON 62.
''ee esrm- p esr h - m) suuuns srr ssth'''' Poet.) nn-
D6ts3r0 rn TLDrr osr suG u uua puo fsesreoLD - 2_?ot
enfLD ussr 173.) LDema d e ) sLDfrss srTuurrp < <osr.
" B ss) 3 rre\ Iss LDsnh ff0'2sw." Poet-_) nu eo pk ep sa
utTLu u<3? /D Du Tfr<s s rr /D ud beoeo.
b.) ou must earn more and more n the schoo. In the schoo
you must get the frst of a. e s the most stupd of a the she -
herds. Ths mnster s greater than the kng. It s better to work
than to beg. There s no weath more precous than earnng. he
s the best of a the women n the age. The mother re oces
when her son s sad to be wser than others. The eephant s greater
than the tger but the tger s more crue. Ths s the hea est
burden. The son s better than the father. Ths s greater than
that. Ths s sweeter than honey.

Lesson 62.
o such as.
199. a.) g uu 3 Lu eoTLDrr? May fo) do thus? 103).
e LDrs ees'||T' aeu tsmLDT e LDnL C. C. mght
be used nstead of uuf.
b.) u urruuL-L- sTfftu eP<F sLud _ BLDfr? 103). Is t rght
to do such a thng? ut name u suffer. Ths s common but not
eegant.)
c.) u u Lu u Lu. LDresrd s rresr srf uesyd <3 u dn-LDr ?
Thus-affected Tonour -destroyng tng may one do?)
Is t rght to do such a dshonorabe acton.
d.\ uuLs sTaesr eresresrd )?
To ths-kened person to tuhat? g agree be ke 56. III.
hat s such a feow) good for?
e.) 0 ereueuefT sL-Lssrn e B euer
In ths how-much he s ce er but n that so-much
p e )u f L| IT r.
a bockhead he w be.
srs 0r<3 wth a and entsuefre. )
f') ''-" eruuL turr /srr uuLrek.
s s the father so s the chd.
Ths may be aso thus e pressed :
.suusru urreou rdsr d w.
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X CI 61. L ON 63.
It can hardy be necessary to remnd the earner that n renderng as nto
Tam he must consder ts e act meanng. If as when the sentence must
be changed. Thus
1.) s / was gong /F/rsar uT asu )
or / /rs|r un- peuLu eo
or / trer ua p C eu3s<Tt )
I or / /rdr euLu eo B B utr p aLou o c. e.
2.) Ths s B arge that g eLD / <f//?/
or _g) p g '3 <5/f/
or sau uTscu uff ?)
or m etre ufrrd p u/ran
p s'/ffLmLf 25' c. C.
200. oc B. s<5m B3L fnd out b . 111.) sem ha ng seen. t3u se e
upon). a- an nfant. shm nfantcde .|t murder from the
anscrt) erff/a e ery where for <oTe o). ed under 56. I.).
ercse 61.
201. a ) TuuLu uL- Bumu LLsuDmtL m sem t ds
a ss L 5 ) |3 srr uumT. Lptsmesu nm un.L 'ew
L rT<5sr- * s s s 11 LD rT em' 'eo rusf- -modd ss uunLDeo rsrrear
uD smg |a '?eou 6\ fT LnrT? '''' Poe-) au sr stuu
LL 6 o )? su'ssru urrrds 5rssrs sms P-Gstsr . euu
eh at any rate) susar sdcs ufa snfuuua. uuud u
Lsn'hsfT fo s p. uch a chd com.) uemtpuu uuf. u fu
b.) Dd you e er see such a boy? hat s ths dog good for?
The more he wanders n the streets the more w he earn e
thngs. hat knd of peope are there n the age? hy dd
you commt such great foy? ow can I do such an e ? e has
gone as he was wont. t any rate I ha e se ed the thef. hat
are such boys good for? They are takng ust as they used to tak.
May we do such a thng? hat knd of thngs may we do? Oo
s he such a foo? uch an one came.
Lesson 63.
202. s\3 )TLD ) sar from gya) whch denes a uaty and _g)ff)so/r
Loeo from ) ) -whch denes e stence 43.) are n constant use.
eoeoTLD and k <so t d are neg. erb. part. 121. 2.) o so rg and eo
eor are aso used generay wth ct: eofforr ss oeor .
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X RCI 62.
dr/ and er/ I are rreg. erb. part from the unused past teases dr
/Desr dr pm. 77. Comp. 56. III.).
s) so IT LD so and eosoTLDeo thus n o e a doube negat e: a negat e form
of a negat e erb.
a.) so )frLDeo and sw- are both used for wthout absoutey
D N ING the e stence of that to whch tey are attached.
LD saLp eoeoTLDeo L<5srr ennssu u B wrse<r the nhabtants suffer from
the absence of ran.
tu/r T sL h / eu F.C uu-L-nm' he suffered wthout any ad
whatsoe er.
b.) soaLDeo cr/ are used for besdes e cept but affrmng
the e stence of the thng to whch they are attached.
eoeorLoo beng thus a preposton and ha ng the meanng of e ceptng
e cudng go erns the 2d case: erercksru eO OrLDo besdes me.
aeoTom ufffu urffem ma m) t sr Lpeue'eorrLDeo err
euLL LDr ? eu otrur f you put a hea y burden on a stone par t w break
but not bend.
c.) k sotTLD ns) and skLLo sgnfy moreo er. The 2_ ) may be
added to the pre ous word thus: _g)a/a) eoeortDeo g ew dr .
203. oc B. ur r h . ..th any whatsoe er urrff whch F) one. .sd
e en. 126.) eu f u troube. e nhuu be troubed. wskr desre
56. II.). a Lh the supreme used chefy by worshp|ers of euasr). .g
seed aso e0g efgw/r.
ercse 62.
204. a.) CTssr sems ew t edeotTuoeo su p s rrLL k'bso. suh
Compare these two: adru rLh srag - om rr? any thng
besdes that ohch s sown be produced?
e ssT rgLo dstreu . okr a? any thng grow wthout seed?
eo n teo sstsstd su p -em rr? srr0d m urrL - ard
3 ffrT<obr<osr )tc 60 f6 )'2eo. ssrd sssm 3 <osyts s<3fr.
<ssrrB ug. srssfu eo) suemt u muf smnuh . ) esf L IdrTT-
or e esu fBrresr rr'eoss suemr D eo aLcdo -L< s snFu n
erssrssr? sr'esnusoeomD60 ufrrr e Bnrser? e L Tturr-gc fL ssr
5r<s 5< sa 4 0).
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L ON 64.
b.) Ths chd s the ony wtness there s no other. any
thng grow wthout water? Ths seed w grow but not that stone.
re there any besdes ths ? they come wthout t ? e must
earn hs essons: what ese? e t-oubes me wthout any cause
whate er. I ha e tod you one thng : besdes that there s another
whch no one knows but mysef. The peope are sufferng from the
ack of true wsdom. They are wanderng about wthout any ght.
It s hard to e wthout sn. Come wthout deay. If there shoud
be no water.
Lesson 64.
205. " ther ths or that must be true."
b. aaro assreo du ut s d.
c. g wL eo n L-L-Tso g du 123 b.)
/ "' M' T Lc wLu rru d Lh 100. 2.)) "' '/ *' '"*
and f t be that.
: Obser e the use of the future n the abo e mtst be acknowedged to
be must he you must confess that t s. e may be added. . . DLLfnu d
a.) <s s s the part noun neut. fut. of that whch w be
or become ether .... or. It must be repeated after each of the thngs
ds oned.
It s aso used for at east: g rsug Louurtu df Lo ths at
east you w grant to be true. nd for "a< a '" ur Fsarreug to
any one at a.
b.) oer/ en 7th case of epdrn one n one case understood) ths
n one case) that s true. Ths s not a cassca form but e presses
the demma ery e acty and s ute ntegbe.
c.) eoeo era r Tye) eo ) an- Trf'sn) f you say t s not then.
d.) oeog neut. part noun of that whch s not so s used
for or. It has some authorty but t seems a doubtfu use of the word.
206. oc B. u ueCfT n pace of. sm sLDrs wthout any
apparent reason suddeny by the staton of God. d sLurrs by d ne ap-
pontment. T sr a day but sr / rd f r smuPesnh that sstd day)
to-morrow. / rr snu er m- cmps Com. 166.) ron. fBre eres or furreressr
2sB rd m) the day after to-morrow asrg 4th case).
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X RCI 63. L ON 65. X RCI 64.
ercse .
u rT Gu ueOns LuTesru rT) -<5srd < G)<sfT d /D5sr pres. for
0/rerr eo s '2e\ rT )m wfTs d srerr. asstr sn'u stsr
LDTs /F/y o Tt ssr 6sr )/DdsrTe' sun as r. 'eoeorrs) s oeo rsso
ssr )'. su T <ss)p u rr u n cufr) )'?eo u n?
b.) ther ths or that must be true. ther he s guty or the
wtness s speakng fasey. Come to-morrow or ese I w punsh you.
Brng me ether a horse or a bandy or an eephant. G e t to some one
or other. Put some one n your pace or I must fne you. Ths at
east you w acknowedge. They ether suffer from the absence of ran
or from some other cause. I am a earned man and not a merchant.
Lesson 65.
20 . "Nether ths nor that s true."
) / d' eoff) 's LD d eoeo ths s not true and that s
not true.
g| du )<s) 2/ GLDL eoec ths s not true that aso s not true.
h.) ma reu duut rrtrg. Neg. of 206. a.).
c-) I | . f/o enw) s LD ff) LDLtLmL ms
100. 2.) and f t be ths and f t be that t s not true.
209. oc B. LDter saffron-yeow. p coour. L B a etter docu-
ment. gm 56. II.) g e wa recede. _ f thunder. Gsede e pendture
03 00 go).
ercse 64.
210. a.) nssr suGsL o s eur <su a h <sur m eo' LL<5m d
s t s aus ) ) )e . hu y suL m ) ) LD s<5rr ap pLD go ).
esr .fLD Tor T 5srpeLo 6\)'2sy suesr LD<mrh f umu u
)ssr 5T 5sr nssrpts) so' sw. eu eueur s rresar Cou
tL LD ufTs eusmuL . p )GO. peOeO <o< re 3eOsurT th
sLL Lh. 1 )'20O e ye/ ?6)'3sw ffsm Beo'hso. ' ' rft easr
t T ) < B 5 )ff-\ Lp<sm .'''' Pro . f L I )'? ) urftemsnLD ys ' s .
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L ON 66.
b.) Nether the kng nor any of hs counseors were present. Ths
was known to nether the watchman of the age npr to the nhabtants.
The book s nether here nor there. Nether of these s sweet. Nether
as the physcan come nor has he sent hs ser ant. e has nether
frends nor reatons n the age. Nether of these w yed to the
other. I cannot ute bee e what ether the pantff or the defendant
or the wtnesses of the peons say.

Lesson 66.
211. The word wL means e tent probaby a corrupton of suL-d
a crce.)
euemT boundary snemr draw wrte).
wfLtLo term mt anscrt.)
and srey measure.
These words are used to e press e tent duraton c. and are e u aent to
"as far as " "unt " "unto " "to " c.
o. )fB rsr u L Bu unt to-day not necessary ncudng the day spoken
of).
L h dLd to ths pace as far as ths.
-0 r ms\) ' std- d u earn as much as you can. By you-whch-has-
become-the-mt earn )
LDtL Bs Lh 4th wth -d) s aso used but s not eegant.
It shoud foow the nomnat e or the reat e partcpe.
LhLDL- thus much. dd- Bd so much. 6t1Ld- Bd how much are
aso used. d- ts F) keep wthn bounds.
b. k Tsr euemrLD "
' ID o II 'Of u \ou IT B r \-I .'
fBrer <sa< )ru |
snp | s s/r< a up to the neck.
r uuLn.s Gs L p<s <c rs )LD as ong as you do ths.
_) s eeganty added to denote competeness 126.).
a/ B/r foows the nomnat e or the re. part.
c. urB'uLD shoud ony be used n combnaton wth a anscrt noun. ' du
emuB ht t death s eegant and s a reguar an. compound.
d. e cr -afrefr<or<s ) '\ as ong as I e e-s/r e stence used
absoutey and sr doubed.)
mrek <ctoLp ms LD 'srff '/) | etoLp 56. III. e.)
srrer en hua oTsy s ru ey D/r< g) ennh rr) suesfraLD sh kd d- Bd )
unt I come.
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X RCI 65. L ON 67.
eue etre eueueret era/e/errs)/ thus muck so uch how much. 25.)
T<ss|6rr<our e Lc how much soe er 100. 2.) 20 . c.
e. oTskp skL LDr| srec pasT I w) te you as much as I can.
_LDfT L . . M TR the whoc e tent.'
212. oc B. o-L as an ad . scanty .ndsmrm a rash hasty person.
sar denotes measure and s ony used n comp. thus: thus much
ar so much srfssr how muck or many 25.) nLo boed rce sr f/
L ff 3- emon tree. srL unrpe frut. sr s <s rr L 131. c). rsau) ds-
putaton. rdsrrmaM ogc . s apeo psons or npp srrekr )
<suss)rs m from that to ths.
ercse 65.
213. a-) <3? 6srLDLL LD u rr<f u u fcom. . s' str t asar
I mar. Bso'eoa fr Ln G)/7 Oeone LL .n sO Lon eu DfT Lh
ffysor un p srres) nL L a saemu . uasd
<s__/70 o3r suessnu LDLL d LD sfTssr G ) r. rsfTesr e eusuewe?
puu <suss)rrd LD rds snst ruD esssm/s tu spgua sressTL n sr.
fbrresr o r I L d pesr <oTssr rf/'T- rrL su 'd strsf u-f npfrefr.
/bssrr<s )'?e\ . susuetrGsasrr 'eM. spsap me sL u
uu p6 )/D ussrT s -
b.) s ong as we a e we must abour patenty and dgenty.
I w not yed a ot of what I cam. e was up to the chn n water.
Thus much I ha e borne. t east take up ths tte burden. Be thou
fathfu unto death It s as arge as a me. I w wat t to-morrow.
I w do what I can. From the tme the earned man came unt now I
ha e been thnkng about the matter. s wsdom s mmeasurabe.
nt to day.
Lesson 67.
214. cra r. why?
ermesT whatf Le . 13.) Poet. srm m?
a. er -ff r eurd ? hy dd you come? ug. er s. ea m s r L ? \
These words are sometmes used n a manner that may perpe the earner.
b. L| L 3 L T m3sr? hy docs he any one) do ths?
uuL. <3 ue sk ? hy do ths?
16 121
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X RCI 66.
c. s enr e ) . . . .- /
. . r 5 /) GTCsr 6r3OT T)'e\) 2/ om say why wherefore.
Many smar forms are n use.)
d. L| Lp. u D srem ? hy do you do thus?
c. eTeB LD soe er. Ths may be erek .d or a corrupton of u emw.'
It s e u aent to u n such forms as 6r<s<ser <s_h fsr syra/
eremtLp) how much soe er. 212. d.
f. ersBr ? ur a esrsar ? F)IBt 0 erer sr? ufr e ererasr ?
hat matters t whether they reman or go? e or de?
Ths s common and yet strcty cassca.
g. erer urBso 0'' 7 /-o Tesr Pray ha e mercy pon me
ere e m pray do s ether for e emphatc or from ersar why not?
215. oc B. ss- cease. 56. 1.) re e 56. III.) -a decet fra
ffLD scence /rtu search nto 56. I.) .skr draw near 56. II.) M
fecty. eu rerr a food u/ru 56. I.) rush en em ueo a bandy. LD.3g:T r
es LD |et t LD'sfsaresr ) a brother-n-aw. -me reatonshp. -meur
56. II.) c<m reatonshp ardsr a buock asrer an eder sster.
ercse .
216. a.) efunop um s Teo r)< |T f .f B d eon ar 1 4.)
Bd p<a rrs eft ) upp nu T nrr <5 ) p< T B t ) m sa s' etts
sL u |s ) snsw Tta<s'2efr . TmuTe|T L IpTd s-usnn
Gf LD esresr. un u esresr? "spurr fT <5r sr tso/' su ? -etr efr rs
m<5s pun ? .<osrss | o T oTosrear B esr u)? .: s?o <o n esBr no
ues. eusssreo OsuCot?
LDssar -/De rr <su m?
ns. dsrrdstrd srem .
Ths s a specmen of a knd of rdde ery common among Taraans.
' 'The handy runs why?
The brother-n-aw cams reatonshp why?'"
By means of the buock dstr str /a an sr 25.)
srem . 239. -? eder sster nsn. marrage wth whom consttutes hm
\_ a u3d'3 Tek. pp. .)
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L ON 6 . X RCI 67.
b.) hy do you do ths? e w not g e because he has no money.
e w not g e e en a gran of hemp seed. G e me a tte water at
east. ou must e amne those who cam reatonshp for they seem
to be dece ers. It rushes on wthout ceasng. Draw near to the G er
of bessedness. hat s a ths nose about? hat matters t whether
such peope come or go? Pease g e me that money.

Lesson 6 .
hether. oe er. though.
217. a. e eo u fs d t eo so ur erer p .3rd LD utr
mL B< 6Fn' r st rer I sad so to try whether there was de oton n hm or not. 46.)
b. uuL <Fu /D uer L r ufr euek smer .
hoe er docs thus he s a robber.
c. oTm s ss| sguuL / r sam rL dt? 100.)
In any pace soe er can a back dog become a whte dog?
d. u umhur LD urfftu f-Oa/rsOT Lsa eu sssr u
though t be a sma snake you must strke t wth a bg stck.
e. urrT sL d 140) et hm be whom he may <s L Bu ' ) who-
soe er.
21 . oc B. us F) 60. III.) speak. Poet. Loeor a fower LDeorrssro
fowery feet. s-gbts a head Poet. ess upon. Poet. p so a corner
ef hde. 6.) gamng r gambe. 56.11.) prr ow persons.
p. 1 4. . -ee)rr speak. Poet. /e/ 64.) stffen erect.
ercse 67.
219. a.) <oT s LD s em 1 em- u. rr ? aer /rsro/T'df sns
u fr LD sn . Loeaar u Gm o sot" u Id srruur bf osrs
OT2/c5 5 _6OT . es o ITL| eT s fT s| LD Ih.
5 )Ts sesar sru un rr u un rfuL Lc tsu etD s .
Obser e the order. Ths s ery domatc) ek eth uessr
m urT s rTo /r<auTs'2efr rs ous a_L_/r. Lrr nT LL ) /r
pe| our s s rT<osr. ' ' rTT u s )) rp setarr.'' au un sy<
sfTser 5n5< sresar <s rT'2e grs LDrr. u un sn )
t I'esrrer. ctott Loemu sd epr L s sye su snem
snem e G eOLD sspu td s .u urrsf-. Obser e
the confuson of sub ects. The sheep ded and not the spasm).
123
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L ON 69. X RCI 6 .
urtrr a|r ererur sre\e\rb ? ur
Dost thou not see 110.4 1. Tn - sormw : 0. a? O Lor |
Before I) spe.k s t not known r Before snfu me 1 5. c.)
c Fr rtr urr t arssrh srGoh ''-
t thou not oone ? et at :ny tme whate er
the tuwery feet 131.) my head upon 251.) wt thou not pace? 2G3.)
NOT 1.) In poetry after ek s sometmes changed nto
2.) en ) foows u one s often eded.
3.) onorfcs are not used n Tam poetry generay.
b.| Pa e you seen my eder sster any where? I w run away some
where or other. e s hdden n some corner or other c r)s n asr
- he s ha ng hdden). hoe er teaches we he s a Munsh. hether
he be rch or poor a ar w be despsed. Can a murderer escape any
where? Can you te me whether the prce s what he says or not?
though he s a young man he s a great physcan. I asked hm those
uestons to try whether he had earnt the esson or not.
.
Lesson 69.
220. In 121 we saw that the negat e reat e partcpe ended n
s and that the form n was chefy used n poetry. The negat e
partcpa noun ends n p - Note the foowng forms:
a. r s e / rr rtprn osr before you came here <sun'<s pek ssr ). sk0
pap or <s3 )<sp s probaby better Tam.
b. f rdr s s uTsrpt np sr BT 4th case of neg. partc. noun) be-
fore I went there.
c. ear ea s D'|| e tu fr Lp- c < <5mu B 3st he wanders about
dy dong nothng ery common but not ery eegant).
1 L| L<s: g LunuL ap ek I ordered yon not to do f.
More eeganty uu< su dah. fr ererg OtF/rcorG'earOT".
221. oc B. onLp a faut. <s0P regard thnk of 56. II.). a yed
mosture weep 56. I.). s_ 5 met 56. II. - d g. act.). t ossr thnk remem-
ber 56. III.). ufTff 56. III.) bear wth forg e.
ercse 6 .
222. a.) " sG\)e\ rTu d s s Tnu osp e s b t )
124
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L ON 70. X RCI 69.
Poet. Idoms. 1. The sgn of the 2d case omtted emLpemuL LD.
2. sffL 0Ofr tc for aeoeofr. 3. s'reun-L future for mperat e or optat e.
pd asr nsrLD pem asr) su'e dsfT T eurrrserr. euear enrrn
b.) Pardon my faut n not thnkng of t. e goes about wthout
speakng a word. Before the sun set he went to seep. Before I thought
of that I wept. hy does the boy go about. earnng no e.ssons ?' houd
any one go about dong nothng? e s a bockhead that understands
nothns:.
Lesson 7C-
* -223. oc B. a T sr sfL ery back sek<ssr s-s).
aassrBs u ute aone earean esr|.
er5 r s tu ery tte t<sk<s r g).
uasrcsTLD uBu ery great uskemLo u k| ).
g: These and smar forms are n constant use. No rue can be ad
down for ther formaton. ther the ad ect a form s used as arf tu or the
uLT sr.d-LD 76.) as sg).
LD sm<k) sand. ue .56. II.) to angush. smDu ust. arrLD/r ust c.
151.) fT tsar's: ek a demon 'sos a butt to be amed at. r m) a coour. ud
a de . Ge ea <su red. useaau us 3 green. uuu new.
6nL_ the ast mdde.
ercse 69.
224. ft.) <sur r u Tssfr su wsmp gnposp ed w.
ssresr <ss)L-. s yrssrta s s ps pmefT | sr uBnek.
d e|tour? ssresrh e f u f Lua err. sss3 eueu
etrnd s n ' r. <s |u d ugssu u<f BpMn|b Td p.
L L L BL snem |B d nr 'er.
|et back n hue ust anrt other aboca demons unto
c ot sot <sossns snenB ur o ? 215.) urtn sr n I
Me a butt why has't thou) eft ? O Godhead "
\_ L| |s m era|r T uud aesr ssr.- pa ambT 151. e.) n t a -a u ud s
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L ON 71. X RCI 70.
b.) The demon's face was et back and he had great broad shouders.
he went a aone n the desert. e has a ery tte dog. ery
back coud hd the sun. Must I angush aone ? The corn s ute
green n the feds. That cow s entrey red.
Lesson 71.
pear dr. ee ocabuary 4.)
f Both these words are used
225. 1.) pm before n pace or tme. | n the formaton of nnumerabe
t sar after n pace or tme. compounds of ery common and
Ldomatc use.
For pm are used aso
2.) -par asr emphatc
posTLf sometmes wth 'L and
p<a rmLD per:o r L generay reatng to tme
tpesresrp ugar per srr poetca.
Tff r 6B) and pek eo.
3.) per and er form compounds thus: p bsr<o<:)LD sreou) the be-
fore-tme and the after-tme. ere sbt becomes p before <s.
4.) t er ear mL asrssrr poetca pur ut a state.) d )
'P from . Prdk) are aso used.
5.) dr ssr s used for moreo er.
6.) The erbs ps and 56. II.) are used for go before and come
after of these the erb. part. ph and t /h are domatcay empoyed.
7.) pek and s t are used n composton wth many erbs. Thus
pmc 6 .) put before.
pdrs eo 70.) stand before protect.
t dre 6 .) put after.
ssrupg 62.) mtate foow after.
m< T5 62.) draw back.
ercse 70.
226. a-) prB <50 L0<3m- fmss)h ucssrsrr esrmfT L|
"136.) un D urr Lp LDp n ' r6 sr eurs r t) 3r CT) ?60 /de
surBn sr. ts t <su pp g pm' esr. eonrrer ur 56r burr .
usL Lf 3r 3)G'6) rLD s BaT Gtr. sp B nemesr 3p
urr . 5T63r osr ssr aser sr )6\)T Th en assr com. . ' ' eyerrefTLD
a Th p osr e r " sm- upu. euem u). Pro . pasr sst Gffuu
pus). u / BrT osr pu urr pesr ksuffeonuD. pkn .
sum" pm< susrLDmLL-rT sr.
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L ON 72.
b.) The brother went before and the sster came after. Dg your
garden before the ran comes for afterwards there w be no tme.
fterwards I heard them say so. Compare the conte t sentences before
and after). I knew ths before. The crmna stood speechess before
the udge. There were uprght udges both before and after hm. Look
we both before and behnd.
- '2 -
Lesson 72.
ureo ufmo .
227. Of uTsa 56. I- ) resembe be ke the root uro the nfn.
urreo the 3d neut. fut. ursa and the past re. part. urdsrp rarey)
are n use and sgnfy ke as.
In the hgher daect many other such partcuars are used. Com.
Pope's III Gram. 109.
1.) these go ern the 2d case.
2.) But as n other e ampes the nom. may be put for the ace.
3.) er may be added ur eo ure eu ut d.
4.) ometmes ures ureo are added to the sub unct e n ) 95. a.
Thus 3 T <so u so as f one shoud do.
They are often added to the erba noun n s su pg ureo 7.) ke
the dong.
5.) The forms G)<3 7u uT cO and uru urr e as soon as you)
do or dd are n ery common use beng pronounced n a ery hurred way so
as to sound ke s fuu and u ruu eo. They are probaby corrup-
tons of a tu p urreo ke the way of dong n od Tam means wa?/
manner). 3 LL LDrru uT<so whch aso fre uenty occurs s a correct form
3 u LD urreo) as f he) woud do.
22 . oc B. mT 56. I.) totter grow feebe. B a uhhe. rs g LB
a bubbe on the water 131.) uo a body s d ). parrot. < ds)
prce. sf -turk ery auabe suur 56. I. be hgh). a0 ) eypu upp
precous so e p to ascend. upp whch has obtaned. u p obtan 56.
II.)) ssLX costness. eua fu/rs r costy. pe a pear. n
esr) a gem. neardaeo a ewe. 131.) eus srmek a washerman . du-
dr a barber mn esdr a potter ee 56. III.) '" beat cothes on a stone.
L B 56. II.) to sharpen. L-. ds ) a hone <9 r'hmT ) . se e 56. III.).
seo a potter's stone. Lorff manner fashon.
__ .
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X RCI 71. L ON 73.
ercse 71.
229. a.) "fTLu m r' sr mnknp unen ) before u
nto p) sT us Lo t ' Brrosr f rrrBffa esr Dssr.'' sL
sD u srreog0 | efuneO eff6 ) |u urr6\)). e 'ouLurk
<5srs seo'u uneou L3n-sn - uuu u u urreo n
srgu p. LoppeunsbsfT unsO <5T sr'2esr ' ssrdsr 'for 'sstut
) u LD ep nsrr66\)eOfT nd L6L urresr/D - ). bs ffmL
asnur ptpasr L|r < Gh' <s r e'ssarfGm ssr sasud p 60'2eou urreo
s u) ' u) u L I or LL d se\)'2eoL urreosu) us sur sseo'bsoL| ua
)<s LD s o a/ 2/ LD rfuns3 s u smssar smhrfs r- . 3r
saru uTh s eys psrsfr Lof er s 5a uu
seLD rf. |)/ s 6B osf sau LI umso su dss f s ssrp .
" e\)na <op s ff -fu - fTT | aso DLD6\) s agu unp r enp
b ) Is there any one ke hm ? s you sent me so I w send hm.
In coour t s ke saffron n shape ke the moon. It woud be hard to
fnd a man as sensbe as the shop-keeper s. In fashon that garment s
ke the mother's. Don't thnk of hm as of others. uddeny the mes-
sengers came to fetch hm. Is a back rock e ua n aue to a precous
stone ? re there any counseors as auabe as these ? outh s ke a
bubbe on the water. It woud be ery hard to fnd a frend as fathfu
as he s. o n ths case aso you may udge.
Lesson 73.
230. Bs s the ad erb part of ? . IIT.) pont out b/ a sg
ha ng ponted out up s te ad erb part of upgn ay hod of 56. II. )
ha ng ad hod of tL s the ad erb part of r \_o . II.)
touch ha ng touched.
These are used for concernng regardng about touchng. s
correct and eegant up< s correct but not eegant the use of nL
appears to be a mere foregn dom.
esu up u ec\T N he spoke about that affar.
enf 6btL B u )It y
In ery common tak |) from g B 6 . 263.) s used n the
same way :
5y n L et u T BuL- m I suffered much from that.
ufftso or uu f ea 7th case of ur or uuT name| about.
12
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X RCI 72.
earned man about the kng a oorh c npoed.
fsrd erb part of tBfra ook at 56. II.) ha ng ooked at.
urrrg erb. part of ufrr see 56. III.) ha ng seen.
These are used as e u aent to to n such sentences as
f sn sr BTs uur s rmBr mesr. Ths s
rather stff.)
euu unrg u-3 6 t m esm . Ths s
2.- ' coo ua.)
e sad thus to h < n r .rr. .
e ssr fp'oO uuL r3sr esr. Ihs s better
than ether of the precedng.)
euL ear uuLp. G a tTm eT)m. Ths s not
ery good but common.)
The erb partcpes are often eeganty and domatcay used n
Tam for partces. Ths re ures much attenton. Comp. 77.
231. oc B. uTBs- s.) recommendaton. t .m a foo g/ so
a hndrance /Bd s s aso used) sud cause urr part. u/rL- Bd
on account of. <o )d dsgrace g etatD. 1 4.) aa T ) weght. tar ad .
much. uLDtr de wthout reason. .sBe trrsmu) a weddng. ernsm 56. II.)
desre seek for.
ercse 72.
232. rt.) < '2esTL| urrr: saf oLDso uu3 gL un sm
rm. 0 L-'2esrd / ff unfs- sL n r. Frrsrr <ssr
err' sfrssfr uuuunLDeO L-ffeewfru ) fd X)<o )d asm e sesr
t - .: T T0sr. s unL sksss f u usn-eunL ?
ff eO LDa nh uuuu eo sn. ere ss-fsmasr
mght be used. s' a nemrODs r a a T LL <ok- u .d
srrs LD gy . -s' smLnu ut-L m d s used here for fB
)' cffy'2s5r 1 c5 strrfLLO Greosonuo LDmLu ufTc <s IL .
ff9e)'2s )|. < |u pg) u ufTLL d su ru u r) our' s6\)<2 <su) | un
/ s .sear an LL t ssr. ep psnknsau u hf9 |s f sO
eu F sunas efr 60eorTLD r|oLDn' eusr LDmLnrsen''
b.) I ha e n ured concernng t. e taked about the affars of the
age a ong tme. I tod you before a about t. hat w you tak
about to the mother ? It s sad concernng ths n the 3d chapter. e
has some end n ew n comng to you. hat are the agers sayng
about that matter ? e addressed the kng and hs counseors concern-
ng the affars of the country. e has composed a poem about the kng.
The man s ery much troubed about the means of subsstence. The
teacher sad to hm earn ths esson carefuy.
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L ON 74. X RCI 73.
Lesson 74.
233. ampes ustratng the domatc use of the 1st case.
Cf" pss s the key to amost e ery Tam dom.
The frst case often stands for the other cases 50.)
1.) uLL em LD 193.) urm he went to the town 1st for 4th).
2.) ThLD r LD ut go to hm agan 1st for 7th: for
3.) a-fs'etsr' sr srmemn|a 132.) Tm B susst 172.) /ftsbt
there was a kng caed u-darsanan good-aspect).
n e ampe of apposton.)
4.) r soL t) LDfr sOLL h srm ) sud eprr essrr ertsarueuTsefr dssr
eu FfLD 127.) u u.
Nom. for 7th and 2d.)
Those Brahmans who do not recte the 4 edas n the mornng and n the e enng
are a chaff.
5.) ws 50.) semh /u pd LD <sd 136.) se/s <s r r sr
wth weepng eyes he stood sn eng and confounded.
ere wth the nom. case s used for the 3d case n gs or there s an
epss of a-errsrro/s|r 133. 1 4.) after the nom.
6.) 5 / /rsff epof) fTfTLDemrer <Ls. ) feu I: efs /ruL/) s '/e/< cF 16 .)
s ru3L frn'a sr one day n a Brdh7nan's house they both ate t ther rbs were
we ned. \_L rrrLD smer s 6th case. wt s used ad erbay.
7.) Bsr refrru eurr sressrL /srrTs r they ed prosperousy for
many days.
ere there s an epss ofserr. / .
234. oc B. 3 T3 rnh a foregn country ans. com.) ff 56. II.)
stumbe trp. GBrrekru a ame man. uea<3 mosture. su er er m
G<s <sr whte) a we-pcked hone. srrs 56. II.) snatch at.
ercse 13.
235. 'mh T ) ufT esr ut 1) un 106. 2.) ep wnen-
< T T srT ) Lr I s p mnessn u pgu- 123. a. rrsh
sr saaressf/T ssu ufT . f mt a) as) eoeon su r
eTmemud sems d ssu ueoeoemsffLo 100. u rmno.
s n O | < aL r). r TLD f LLD fTmL d tf. 2srr
r LDfT fs p - s redundant) emu unn u ssn|o
un r 'LDed u <ssr. un<s g d turT h a '2ssr sa eunr
__ _ _
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L ON 75. X RCI 74.
Lesson 75.
236. ampes ustratng the domatc use of the 2d case. 1 .)
1.) edosr LomLsmL rer he sha ed hm bare.
2.) meLearrL ufr' -3' rmfrer he went to the town. For sasg 50.))
3.) eau urrsr Gser rLDe )fBrrer he dd not know that t was
mere pretence t that t t as .
4.) - T' ssBr o asTga LD u teaT'F d frer/mT oa a ur srsBrg mppeseus
dstr|: a n- sr mT he cas men "hgh caste " and other thngs "ow caste." The
technca words for the grammatca d son of nouns nto 1. those whch
ndcate ratona bengs: - |Thmr 2. rratona bengs: oo' sm 29.)).
The sgn of the 2d case n Tam s s. In Maayam e. In Teugu
t s nu or n n whch the rea sufR s probaby n. In ancent Canarese
t s am. In modern Canarese a or annu and n a the anguages of the
Indo- uropean famy m or n are for the most part found n the accusat e.
The orgn of the Tam suff s seems to be ths : the nasa was dropt
the Tam peope often pronounce o a r a e') and fna retaned n Can.
and engthened nto e n Ma.) became as so s the Tam for the
Canarese taa.) Comp. Bopp. 149.
237. oc B. uTLprs esarg an od e. L|rp aed to ueaLpu) for-
saken decayed urrp d ws and eded. f tressr 56. III.)
he ame. C 56. II.) draw near. LDnL<m badness. OLDtnLem .| -f-
make bad strke bad t.). strt re an a e. t m<s crookedness.
ercse 74-
23 . enssrssT nn tsrr s r sn'bso .-?rT6ssr /D- s fs hs sm.3
fBsm u sm <smf s sr 3 r em p sr. pw<3 snwL C?ggg) < g
<st03 L| uLL-neo LL LDn not 'sst? sd h L I h ep
urrtw sm betD D 6 7d p 5sr smL.sf. es) T. < T|usu'2esr bt
sfTLD ) LD<ss) frrsseOTLDT ' BfTu asr <sun'?e\)s ssmd s dseOfTLDrT?
' s sfT Lfrrskr un p. gts I eucerr rem s ssm 6sr. u )
e Gfra s snesrs rrasT. e osr'ssr uutsf. /2s37 suGsar nu:).
er<5br'2stsr L| L<f grr eO nr Lnn? <5 ks s T ssbr sar/a)
eontop stT un/bp suem . '2ssr Lon eehrgt s fT6br osnor.
fBrrosr st suL f | srL-ne . rrrrs 6sr s )sdsrTfr 5 )fT3 onps
s fr'?e\ ssnu em e fTr- Two accusat es.
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L ON 76. X RCI 75.
Lesson 76.
ampes of the 3d case.
239. The partces connected wth the reguar termnatons of the
3d case are :
-_ar together cth srrem by means of.
ou one one a whoe meon wth rce
hdng ke decet to make to rght s) opposed
th s he repro ed.
2.) euek a sr eo ept so ut fftrs f er e
Tm she ran wth haste and brought the rce n the eaf.
3.) ereeTL p ssr er'm _ gr a euskrLD ut r unte me
to my husband.
4.) urr ffOr B er s' O Fs pg there s honey m ed wth the mk.
5.) hu efr sremu Lcmr ur haa|: pm a r n<m he embraced
the chd and kssed t.
6.) s ?ksr urL LDr s sL- Bd arrm t sefr hear hm from the
begnnng to the end.
7.) ens n B|T s T muLDnru hd p uLureo snce these two are both
of one shape. uf . often wrtten uLu eeo uLu e s ) by the
step that snce.'
mm he coughed when I tod hm not. Therefore I stabbed hm.
9.) -r sreorr so esrs ufrrdOsfrsm er rm she stood ookng
out of the undow.
10.) udr enrrud ' rreod st<ss - ssd . < d < .
s mouth-word by means of ndeed ths I ha e known.
11.) 'rrsmLD' sT tsu sodarrrf dTL L e -Fn'drer the paace ser ant-
mad tod her husband.
ercse 75.
son eO se h u s sn g ks smLtsf- eO fk srresuT
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L ON / / .
In gross darkuess and n thck ran croakng frogs ke
mr sesarrre: fftsrarso frsah t_rsu 163) ue|Iuu eresr ?"
tsef whch does not understand by means of scence ds utatons
f you engage n that whch w resut s) wat:
T for a poet. form. 270. 5.).
un eOn sso fr uneo ch s 'soeon rmuf ph tfu T. <saf
- -
Lesson 77.
ampes of the 4th or Dat e case.
242. The partces connected wth the 4th case are:
I.) s for ug.) II.) OTf|r 2. < s s<asr t r ost
I ga e sayng to hm.) III.) dts pedLDT for the sake of. 157.
1.) |IT LD ITds r LD B TLu uTu IT< '.)
The eephant and the pot are e u aent n the account): Put one aganst the other.
2.) erard '-'ff' ua-d er TFs esT Dssr
to me twenty cows there are.
.3.) p<s F)LD a | -<s r s s T s sdrg e o rr d I tu u L-L-rTsm
three persons came and dsputed about f each camng t.
4.) G 5 0/ra g t ek eums euss etosy/rsrr
a certan woman for acash bought some fsh and brngng t kept t n the house).
LDetBLod LD LD<ssu d o-s s IT p - Pffesr a son who mpars pre-
sent and future bss.
5.) u u L cm g d s arrsuL rr eo pk r
he aghted a kutham from that town.
6.) _ 3rs/r /r D/nyD -t rsu emsyTL LD fBfrers ssr f / r<c|r u h
our mother and your father I ha ng seen a ong day has eapsed.'
It s a ong tme snce I saw your father and mother.
7.) I euT B std tBT'sk rrers'rn'sd: 3 r eo O en em Lm
you to them I as ha ng sad to say whch must
as t foows.'
ou must fe them from me that c.
T33
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X RCI 76.
.) u Thd ep eurn sLDL r ar Bds 0<9 rrdT m<sr
to tach ute one esse o ' water to e he commanded.
9.) eusr "eren et sra s" erer a-L s n) " aed "
he "where s my chh" to the asky " e s) not here"
they sad.
10.) s/s r Osus/Tffcsr rre u cD <c g< rr_a e|tT k s sn' s
he whch had grasped the weath to the schoar ha ng taken he ga e
and to the thef accordng to the aw punshment he awarded.
11.) < L- B<s sr sr w s rfa r
he s wthn the house.
ere s the sga of the 4th case to whch s added -.er er a sgn of the
7th. Ths accumuaton of nfe ona partces s fre uent n Tam and n the
other . Ind. daects.
Thus IN-TO wT -N c. combne two prepostons.
244. oC B. e_/f possesson whence - /|ewLD possesson srfueuek str
g he she t to whom or whch t) beongs go ernng a dat e of the thng
possessed g en safr a egumnous pant u u peas euffLn u u . 131. c.)
retnh tme n musc sg agree wth 56. III.) <c sn F p c. Lasu
. astm to a step Lf-) or ug. .us sa nLD often one tme to a step.)
ercse 76.
<a ' errd sa'dsTu eo) eun T <se |o suu o I )'?e\)- erd
euetre rT<ss)s< su n a G ) d rresr <5 3aT 3 seoeat do esar
). OT sr s yr swear <5 ssr<ssr sha eorruD? for 4th.) eTa rd d anu|o
eukg e rd fuuf fftL h ? 5 srear u u )rr ).
sn L-s eeganty for u. )). <s s Lurr r ssu
a rfe '. Lerfd Be\ ) s er0'T 6T. esun eu ea | s n'd d
oTrr rrs un. ressr d urfusessro ) e ' errs .
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L ON 7 .
Lesson 7 .
ampes of the 5th case.
245. 1.) . ff eo uTu e 0 areoa orff <3 6Bauu frLd
OF that water wth the haf y) fot we
' s pe d .srem c ' r.
I washed. 106. 4.
'c f) rr |Iseeo samg)s one of the monkeys that were n t.
2.) urr<3 3 Id -csrsre eo urrss e .
af the mud e en your feet from has not gone.)
ou ha e 7ot haf ceaned your feet of the mud.
3.) eue f Ta<oft ) -dr Lf eLsr turrr srsar / st.L rfek.
''' Of these two s thy husband whch?" he asked.
e asked some of those who came wth am how t was.
4.) s ef)Ca) srmu u/rffO ms rfsuer -Loesr.
Of these the best s he who resembes whc/ ?
5.) eun'< r p ss p fr.s eurrsurrTam swu s /h LDmhuLp sums
In order each one's from the hand the mango-frut whch came
m fffLfLD.
the way s pan.
/ ha e found out n order the way n whch the mango-frut passed from hand to hand.
6.) . f)ff urrrfreg su /d ut -msrL r? Is any one comng from that
pace that pace used as a nouu and F h used as the sgn of
5th case)?
7.) akwu un' )emt 'a <)<su un' F)<str\a <s6 pu e\)eorr<suT Those
who abound n the weath of earnng and n the weath of earthy good.
.) 6rdr o n e T s from me eTcrssr r .
ere the sgn of the 7th ease s put between the root and the sgn of the
5th case. Lt. ha ng been n the pace of nc.
9.) LDr asn'ff sr s hL /Bg tL-Lp.e n 'h Ls armsr ea
eu F es u eo Lek sm . s LDrr )p enhrm.
The owner of the tree hearng the nose came runnng from hs house scodng
a the way. The thef hearng hm came down from the tree. Obs. the uses of

246. oc B. euea urL for <9 u<oaLDa mL rghty we esrer npeam


sff ) the comng. peap order) n order. spu 56. III.) de er up to. ah
charge hek a monkey. t d . hta auta proper and mproper)
good and e rght and wrong enm a ehood.
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X RCI 77. L ON 79.
ercse 77.
Lesson 79.
ampes of the 6th case.
24 . 1.) f< h L TL-L-g su uts trkrasr he came by the wa
of hs house garden.
f pss of the casa sgn the nouns sff and nL LD
<? T) I 6 prepared for ts recepton accordng to 1 . Ths has
". . ' < been termed the "ob ue case " or the ob ue form of the
* r* ' 6th case. Ths s a ery common and at the same tme eegant
Inform. Corap. 131.
ou must not come wthout your | father's consent.
ere aso there s an epss of the sgn. Comp. 50.
2.) urdre osr d 2_go _/ /yb Gun' asr Losssremdr d 2_s D_/
dsrre\ srsr d ?
hen the esse of god s broken t s god. hen the esse of earth s
broken what s t?
dr used for the sgn of the 6th case. 1 . Ths form s too much used by
uropeans. en here perhaps urrekeor u d woud be better " a
esse made of god." 130.
3.) uTus| er r Trfdr for tur hoa us or urug ) whose s t?
The form urr/r s poetca g beng a term of the 6th case n the hgher
daect.
4.) rBLD p for rsM Lp< ) .u ) our ugar .
5.) LDtTdsrrresr the owner of the tree. tL. B.s Trdsr the house-hoder.
Comp. 1 .
_LDnu sTf asr the partce g beng nserted. 1 .
36
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X RCI 7 . L ON 0.
em ur the bock-head oho sends hs wfe to her othcr's house and does not
afterwards support her s chaff.
7.) efa/ffsw" sp/D 70.) seoaf. 190.
The schoar's earnng.
Lt. " the earnng whch the schoar has earnt."
g" It s ery eegant and domatc n cases ke ths to use an ad ect e
partcpe nstead of the 6th case.
.) s ma fu <sm )L-' F<oms.sefr her uates and e ceences.
: -rfu s often used for the ngsh Possess case.
9.) /B aat e eo sss. u ) due sst dt a pot bewdered who has
ost hs course n the mdde of the sea n md-ocean.
249. oc B. sr LDL bone. tL a rcddy a caste of cut ators eunud
arrffL) a water-course. < er a dscpe. .ressrLp- an obstnate feo .
ercse 7 .
250. emesT ss pps * sGmn<s u unm. snf
u -9buLsnL eO sro/r pos) u urfns 'bssTaseorTLDrr? euesr
u ssr fssu d sfTsssTL-fT|ssfr. esaresaPr synLdsneo <s
uunu sf-p' ODfTL ssfTfT <aLf 5sr. nu <su nnato ) sefTfT
) rfrffrT s rfu DnLL emtML th sfT T pu::. f LoesBssn-
*' ere the partce o s nserted nstead of the sgn of the 6th case:
Ps) < '' pp aoDrr the r er's bank. Pope's III Gram. 10 . |

Lesson 0.
ampes of the 7th or ocat e abat e case. )' ' ')
251. In the hgher daect there are upwards of 20 partces denotng
pace or poston that may occupy the pace of |)a). mong these are
dgo abo e p beot L- p sde -er wthn pek before ek after
pace )) 2X urrso part /sssras ' s r en
L near may aso be used.
3: ome of these partces are pref ed to erbs to form compounds whch
are n constant and famar use. Comp 225. 7)) Thus:
Ls p anm f) d ) r<sr . 56. III.) o ercome obtan the hgher
pace).
uuuf p L. 56. submt snk to the ower pace.)
_ | 37
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L ON 0.
2_t5 Cff 0 \_ -ek ff eu . 64. enter n.
pekegn _ Lpm B. 6 . M before: g e the prorty
3dsrefT 9ot a /r/s/ . 62. drao bach: take the pace behnd.
L Duu _L p ) u B. 56. II.) set out: e perence the outer pace.
asm meanng pace s aso used. These are a essentay nouns and
reman so howe er compounded. Pope's III Gram. 63.
1.) n s rm fTLnm er o\)fnh tLg t caught a the snakes that
were found n t.
2.) ufrg7< fBfreoru sT) | fraTd sarruk he ga e 4000 Pagodas n
common.
3.) susk <casu eo < fr B sr ths man's hand n I ga e.
4.) Guek -L ear g s s p u ufrud s r Bs p< sr 6r<3 r rfasr he
mmedatey to the Muhammedan gong ' I g e '' sad he.
of the 4th ca.se added to _g)_so.
5.) u u sssr <5m f) s-ehga u m
e approached the oman and spoke.
6.) msffdr f s s snLOL tTa 3 hsm<su s\)
Of the age near aone n the comng.)
hen he as comng near the age aone.
7.) Lp- oeo f- Lrreo mLD 'Lh /f-sd.
troke on stroke f you strke e en the grndng stone w be mo ed.
ss s 60. I. be mo ed.)
.) auLLnL f) p L /rssf L re sd euer <s m urg M
fOT-are ossrest sseo .sfr a decetfu mnster though he be ce er must
not be near a kng.
9.) enm To e p sr I fe at hs feet.
10.) p e o ds))
The Bambu-eaf upon
seep the dew-water.*
* There s a story worth teng connected wth these nes.
amban the transator ofthe Ranayanan and the greatest master of Tam Rythn passng by
a tank cue e eung heard a cut ator as he watered hs fed sng the ne
"On the eaf of the Bamb".
The man ha ng then competed hs number of buckets of water ceased at once hs work
and hs song.
araban was struck wth the ne and sad to hmsef "what can be on the tny eaf of the
banbu? Probaby to-morrow mornng the abourer M begn hs work wth the ne t ne ofthe
song. I must be there to hear t." ccordngy wth the dawn amban stood on the border of
the tank and was rewarded by hearng the man as he drew hs frst bucket of water chaunt the
second ne
" eeps the tte drop of dew."
Mora. There s penty of poetry and sentment n the Tam peope f you can ony get at t.
Tss
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X RCI 79. L ON 1.
252. oc B. <3/r 56. III.) to assert mantan. d a brass esse.
p sr a tender shoot. sm rff an a e: art-n . nsmu odour poet.) ereh
rape seed eag eau po erty. m es t s e poet.). F) prosperty.
seo 70.) earn.
ercse 79.
253. ep eum uuurah d urrw esf eOeaG
LD r) Tr0 o F/b | ?L//ru|<F so eu G aefr s h sstu su
unh s < 5 s sL- p< urT esT esr f resr 2_6ar emsa eo G rr
uem'essrd sfTGm' nsar. . y/5 euLp uuns BLk sunra r- resar
fuDLssfBeO f sspu an<sm r ff <3 rToar dr two esses fu c).
ou f so tBL 6B 5ur obser e the compound.) rT <ssrp
u ) r rnss dstw ppB e sn rf Osnem eutL enew ouem
t). L6\ rF ) LDsmr fh T retfe Ttsm esarL ) 2_ _sa) I Tf seO5
uneo. 6T e rfd soDfr D eo un G )asr. psf w eo e ff60<sm<3s
th-the-good-endured than po erty bad ndeed s) wth-the-gnorant-en oyed weath
_'sm before t becomes L page 11. III.) f.
Lesson 1.
ses of the root af ea e. 6 .
254. Many of the chef dffcutes n the anguage are connected
wth the pecuar use of ths and the foowng erbs. ach sentence
s a formua.
g It w be seen that where n ngsh a preposton or ad erb s
re ured after a erb the Tam often adds an au ary erb. Thus go
away urnu sf .
1.) - LDss OTs s r e L
unr ron a rat has eaten up.
2.) em c suek eag eL- rdr
t that uncture he came back.
3.) s eT s sr<cmT un-L L-t g .
ha k ha ng fted up has taken aw at.
4.) susr m L .s u ur LL tr<ssr.
e hs house to went off.
5.) eaTs u e L- rer.
Them he sent away.
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L ON 2.
e accompaned them a tte dstance on ther oay
6.) saer sasg ckg eLLt rer
he affrghted stood st.
7.) 50 Ga uu T npapu e L- Bd s 6 u- L fr ' rfL Lh uts
esse-of-water whoe ha ng et out athough you) washed haf the mud
e en has not gone
.) ssr sfTL-u t:L-L-gu the scorpon stung them redundant).
9.) tspcku dr u rnh eurrrs ssr ' / L ' fr ra d sfr Be B
Nne-thousand pagodas to ths chd g e up.
10.) es Br r ITB eroeor) a r LDespuTsu uLa sresar
. Mu).\up sreoeo Loemp Lu- esr for a whoe nght ncessant
ran descended. In the mornng after the ran had ceased.
11.) Lpf s e L-L a aT Bg w B ps r I w pa up oth prncpa
and nterest.
12.) rear n se t u r u s smmr<ss) T s L wsfrer he ept sheddng
tears n drops.
13.) ea eur u urrrs D u t<o\)u uss eo pL-d u t- F
n fBah L eo uttL L tost as though he woud take t to ook at t
he threw t away nto a fre whch as knded there. C'omp. Lesson 61.
14.) m es susm'su- sr e LLtrTer he became a ashna an re-
dundant).
15.) OTcnr d sc suot <sr <.L tT0sr
e caused troube to come upon me.
16.) gy ? < - BIu um psa C|u/TcF*
It has got oose.
17.) 6 ) s L sBff et t aone.
1 .) I | . tenssr d<s<LL dtI ths s the tree whch he brought to be
sawn eft to be .
Lesson 2.
255. ses of the root 62. mo e dance. Trans. tL . 160.
1.) usma fTef mLeto -p<sufrLd s Bds <a<sm LD
hoste nhabtant fegnng ntynacy you) must destroy.
fTL-Lf. su ssrd a Bds6)TL.'
2.) eu osru L sp <srrmT frL mT he prased hm and ceebrated hm.
sT<5m .)
3.) suL-ea <cs s ) whe he as huntng.
4.) euG T ) u T )ao sn e\) ) su an he s a ery ce er feow n
dancng and sngng.
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L ON 3.
5.) eufrasto T sr<sf'efrr B -seaa eu srrL eunFh ernhgssT uro e)
hat w t proft though you for e er go round about tempes from the rght n ths
wde word ke buocks that go round the press n whch o-men grnd the rape seed?
/foff eotM the wde and. us)u eunn go round from the rght sde
6.) ffrrB B ps gOTff esTLD the conduct of a ccntots woman
s a dsgrace to her famy .
7.) B p LDT-<ca .M- f-s ap s C<m <mr B ufr B3pLDfTLL o u urd
spaa euem h a dancng cow you must mk dancng and a sngng cow
you must mk sngng.
o must adapt yoursef to peope's humour.)
.) afreorr d a T B when the stck dances the monkey dances.
9.) usmg ds T B nfm he s ery urgent for oney.
10.) L d a mo ement enterpr e. 190.
susk / s urra u. d .M -m
e keeps tryng to go there.
rnafrL-L-LDru ke a monkey.
Lesson 3.
256. ses of the root ua put. 6 .
1.) u) ua nf sr she caumnates.
erek d o u unL tresr on me he put gut.
2.) euea u s dasrs strs <sBLpp/6 ek arr eo urL s snessn n sr
e took off hs ear-rngs and put them n hs own ears.
3.) /FdB t Tff amga uTL- g that hefer has ca ed.
4.) LDtrsrffLD er pu urrL-L- mr he wrote off the news.
5.) e r pe T d seoedmh sruurf d : d toppd <F e s fLD
ths efT uTL- Bd <3 u u euem w for a who come you yourse es must
pro de board and a other e penses.
6.) ewff unL. Bs sa B srdr rfdr uu u stas umL d sfr B<sfrenr
' ' G e me your hand upon t " sad he so he ga e hs hand upon t.
7.) 555 c y/ s 'Lfsb unL < L g rr 9 5 O/e/t /errsfsb us
m p< k I w ust put t' nto that house and be th you n an nstant.
.) f sL L3 sfr srr ssretmrh urt scnTLDa? Can you make a summerset
171 the bottom of a pot? Compare aso 106. 5.
9.) p- <so umL tTLD sr/B ufr though yot throo money) nto
the r er measure what you throw
10.) p 3) / /rsu * a " unL. ug. four or f e doors off.
Perhaps for urL af .
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L ON 4 5.
Lesson 4.
257. ses of the root t5 be born. -
1.) BLru rus 'f 3 h s pg LD r<sr 4 .3 T<ssr em the udge
began to doubt and tod hm to come to-morrow.
2.) sra pe n B T/smratu 3p a oce was heard from the sky.
3.) asu e|rn euseB s merr sr tu 3pd e ery now and then
a gracous word proceeds forth.
4.) B0 L-ekuLf-dstaaesL u t ouL e -s <sr6 F rn's<sr they caused
an agreement to be made doube causa. and ef 160. 92. )
5.) euer euru e s p p surren) ersoeoah urL e ery word
that comes out of hs mouth s fase.
6.) eraLDrosr _srsy tpneo s-d ueoaLc f the m asters order be forth
comng you) may do t.
7.) er'3 LDrr_s ) euck d so s 3 T<9 Lh pg the master took
a great fancy to hm.
Lesson 5.
25 . ses of the roots un go and un-d . 5 . 160.
1.) a ss u.'u . s <oB) uudsTu TLDp urra pg
s e cess e ust not brngng beneft went.)
s e cess e desre was uttery unproduct e.
2.) c y/ LossyL| usdseh erec sosTLD ptss urru esr a the co s n that
herd ded went dead).
3.) < ed m'3 Fff urenruL er mTLD <s u do as seems good to hm.
4.) wrrLD ut d wc arc cheated.
5.) euesr erer ssr dtsI) urra tdsr he cheated me urrs 56. II.
s a causa transt e erb from ut).
r eueo urrnps uTs escr he wasted hs tme n gamng.
6.) ufTssLf. urdr he foowed hs track ufrd syf the step
n whch he) went).
7.) ur rdsra u ru p n sb du 3 sf a e<ss sr BLh f any tng
be ost t ust be ac ured agan.
eum o ur T fT erffCcOmh r umuLorrd u uru p a hs substance
un usty was ost.
.) erss< fF)d p ' bd urrsng my frendshp w not cease.
142
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L ON 6.
9.) u u< r u rr s L B h : en p u3 3L ua- et that proposton
aone: turn to somethng ese.
ut means go ea e be ost depart cease to be. dded to ntranst e
erbs t often g es the dea of competeness:
euTLu ur pga t s faded.
g| urru pgu t s destroyed.'
10.) //B eo) uts d b/d t ech eresrea ug settng asde that and
the rest s mne that and to go).
11.) L-en u uTssL ' sfstr g d /Dg|
There s a ght to scatter the darkness.
2.) s Br s ur DfT? pd s ut dt?
ha I ose my tongue? or my nose?
13.) su' sa-uurrrrg a arrem . su ek. ea) 0O sI d uBt
su urru p ereksn senek 3 rresr ee3r "/ dd t ke ookng at her and so
the esse became too arge " sad the potter.
14.) sm s'cs T Cu/r B)e3r he has gone to seep.
Compare aso 32. 5 . 124.
Lesson 6.
259. ses of the root < rr<ar s obtan take to one's sef 56. III.).
1.) Lg s sfTsm ek I awoke.
2.) uTTd rer<ord .s/rs rg sw' he tod me to beware to oatch ook out.
3.) unL Bs G Br6Bsn rr r he put on hmsef).
4.) tsnegG srf<5mL< f)Br< he had stored up.
5.) .3 rsoms sremt nm they were takng among themse es).
6.) d a rfmsr . p sn<5kr- F)fasr those hefers were n mk.
7.) dsr LD d ea<s aT6 u.rrsk he paced hs desre tpon t.
.) eu smu un eo u snem rm he assumed a shape ke hm.
9.) p d Os/rsOT s?1dt rrek he was sent hangng down
hs head.
10.) srrum snem rr he became angry.
11.) m rrLDempurrsu uu ' Bmpssny. /B t was ranng ncessanty.
12.) B <s<5 rdsg L-. asT sL- Bd srmr rdr he asked wth much
respect.
13.) susr 0n<3 s surg npeo srem g ts an LD
From the tme he sad that unt now.
peo srrcsm ha ng that) for a begnnng from that tme).
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L ON 7 .
14.) LDfT seonsD s essa snsm k a ur sk
Takng n hs hand the mango frut e came here.
15.) aur eurraLD u<smesf eT he marred as a mn.ster).
sur e uT LD uessres srsm rr he got marred.
Compare aso 106. 4.)
16.) eusmfT'ff' r sh o sresfd afrsrr |sk I w cut ate hs frendshp.
Lesson 7.
260. ses of the root srmr see. 70.
1.) B enr |s' sn-s asm e -t ekuLf.d as uemeseraerr they made
an agreement n whch these partcuars were ncuded.
2.) hsaLDL TT p p e) tpaug T sw <cs T r.n s <sTms\ the
thread whch the od ady spns not suffce for a wast-strng for the od gen-
teman.
3.) 75 LD/eff s L " ufrLt f D u'hsrs sem us suem
suu dt" eTec r r 'TseF they went to the fock and sad to the herdsman "wc
want a cow can t be had?''
4.) sTuuLsssm u uesr? to sem em rog to hm.
ow can I fnd t? see and take t.
5.) e m d od T6 pLh s r u d' s h sessr seh eun uuLLt mdr
he got a cod and fe er and teas ery poory.
6.) B5 |T emsu e) atT g d s<sm sn<ss r srr
Take that n your hand and go to st hm.
7.) ererdssrd srr m:)LD 0 3 u a ssr he dd t when I was not there to see t.
not seeng me he dd t).
.) erek<a aaLD hat s that an nter ecton. 214.193. )

Lesson .
261. ses of the root 6a/. )/ace. 64.
1.) erdr' ssTs sLLLp.es uds urr te e up and go yoursef redundant).
2.) utrp fT ee sgd srr<ckr dea.3 d LD uresrsLD hLDnu 0
ps s ke the man who stored up hs weath n sacks and yet went a beggng.
3.) euTss srd srut tL. G hhuuf. u smGs L m send hm to cat pro-
baby a corrupton of uL/a uyt the causa 160.)
4.) B eseufrLb uesys B <5 cs <ad )TsTff athough you aow
fre to ncrease don't aow hatred to ncrease.
5.) CTr ufff ffO sfu|D o dsrr don't be angry wth me.'
6.) . eum' <L- d m .|t L - <s aeud peo s I sha not tread hs threshod.
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L ON 9.
7 ) LL m 0au <oT LDmu ) essurLD n sm/Der ' .3 /be o/D
emu fBr B though ou take a woodouse and put t on a bed t w seek the rub-
bsh heap.
.) hdstrBu oss pLee)e dn'6\ eaeuuL r r? If you co er that
affar w t not come abroad?
9.) <sm 6s <5B).su 0O s a< fnL Ba frd -F sfrsmes sstru ds u
uT LDT? To hm who bears the gobe n hs hand and mo es t s a chunde frut
a great weght?
10.) as trs\) m cafrfr ) LDr. s f you preser e t a tuft
f you sha e t badness. \ am n your power.)
11.) d C)euLese0d Tr r he s yng n wat for hm t. a
shot he has paced for hm).
12.) . euhr m 3u F) nfwr he keeps her mpropery).
Lesson 9.
262. Idomatc uses of root L 5Mer. 56. 11.).
'Ter arschandra the great kng son of Trsangu who regned o er Oude. eru
L- for easn )
2.) Lf/ouuL- Bu ufr es)Tser they set out. u wth what we shoud ca
an ad erb: u pLD.)
3.) seruuL- c en- I heard t. u wth a noun.)
4.) saek d ss os so uL. -mL g hs head struck aganst
the grndng stone and t as broken.
5.) gy surser -L suLLL sTT m they agreed to t. u wth whats
e u aent to a preposton.)
6.) )2.-L LL a sTm you sha suff'er twe e strpes.
7.) - e a) suuL me . oC s<casd d t? Can the thngs whch
ha e got nto the mortar escape the peste ?
.) Daro sar eufrm sesrLD Buu eo w ws LDrdosru urro u' .nssr
ke a hart caught n the tos he has faen nto the net of domestc fecty.
u wt a erba root LdsuuLLt n k.
9.) s/rs IL so u huLf.u|trs < aL asr he ran so that hs hees
touched hs hnders.
10.) s T mo erensomD eca< s 'uu u a ay be accompshed by
stratagem. etnsu a u eu-s so u d.)
Compare aso 92. 161.
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L ON 90.
Lesson 90.
263. ses of the root w. 6 .
1.) um L- Bs s fr m IT L B LD et the d de t among themse es.
a part to g e
G)sr r r g es the dea of among themse es.'
2.) s r u<5m'ff r au LL d srem uT dsr he took hs cfe away.
m LDs ssr LL e fBfrer he brought hs son wth hm.
ere s used for takng uth one g ng the hand to one.
3.) u F) Lps LL B<s 3 rr<k pT <sr you are makng a great compant
of t.
ere L makng g ng out.
4.) a T . uuL eressremLD - Bs smm Fdetaau : .
he he was thus thnkng n hs mnd.
ere L B turnng o er g ng t hs thoughts.
5.) L skerLL Bu ur fLhuL u rrm- he made them) turn back.
penssntLL afT-du erssnLL L swsar he dreo back the foot that he had
ad anced and turned back.
6.) m 3k.<d'<360 tLfrear he made a great row.
7.) ftL- L em L u up/ u ufrt/rssr he went n the way that frst
presented sef. /bt opposte.)
.) sBeaeu pLu u -L. B 3e \u ) shrm.
e shut the door ocked t and came out. y- .)
ere B seems redundant or ese up: he ocked t up. Ths s ery
common.
9.) pprm ) 5 pus emu ds - 75
50. 16 .
-mpsa a < ff)p nLD unrruff asr .'
7. 74.
O thou who possessest grace by hch my fauts dmnsh ad good dspostons ncrease
wthn me O God kn of my sou '.
CD|) ) ncrease. -pp r from s-g be possess. Not ery common.
gss r) used for f p rLh. -ps reatonshp used for -peear a reaton.
10.) sw p kswLL Bd sfrsm B .<s rff ) ua eussr I w make that
a prete t for gong to hm.
11.) . afren ) L- e -Lk ssstgstd L eorrLDfr? Is t rght to stea from
a house where they ha e s ped us wth food?
12.) 6rs3|r LD ms u DO ep us? aemt ug Cds L-Lf. TF s ps
In my herd a co has pcked np n fesh and ncreased n s e.
ere t aso s used domatcay.)
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L ON 91 92.
13.) uuLa <sL| s<t L- F 6 . Grant mc ths Thus gra-
cousy g e con and.)
14.) ff rB Ba bu Bb enru p -1 | aressr nen- wth
trembng hand and trembng body and stammerng ps she screa ed aoud and
wept.
s '/f a mere mtat e word.

Lesson 91.
264. ses of the root er grant. 62.)
1.) dr<o mu3L-p/b er Lg e \en- he ascended bengnant to hs seat.
2.) sf-eum .' ersardtm sanh eo <a /r .' swCa/essrO) sr you must grant me
a fa orabe repy.
3.) us 'Bn' srLD F)<s r '3 ssr erckff euM ues remesssr he perform-
ed penances prayng for mae ssue.
4.) LhLDT3 r60 e h etf eBT he arose and seated hmsef on hs
throne.
5.) eum su/fcssrr sp r e uuL u tB srsm uaar 'sr
pssr as my Lord sha pease to drect I w conduct mysef.
ere urrrr asr pm a F) psk. The erb s un pg but the
strcty poetca form urrrr ek pek ur pm s used. Com. 33.
Lesson 92.
265. se of the root -sbut eat. 56. III.)
1.) I L-. B em Ln r s sr they were cut down.
2.) sar sBeo sL- Bmsn <ser she t ho as ted to a par.
3.) OpLD -<sssr p rr<<eB) e eu -Gmu/r ufT? they eat poson
wth the tongue that eats ambrosa?
4.) <m LD smL em ufru pg the nk s sped.
5.) npL- msr ssftu/rC don''t stoop after you' e ht your head.
6.) ")0B<5O. B/r o20r sOLL em B st he goes about dstracted by hs
desres.
. skr s ether 1. There s 43.) or 2. ha ng eaten p. erb. part of s-essr
eat 56. III.) or 3. t s used for the pass e and so e u aent to uL . In
ths case -em s added to the root. Com. 133.
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L ON 93 94.
Lesson 93.
266. ses of te root f beat. 64.)
1.) LDdsTga umTL ua DnLem )-g rr L- < <5m Lh sha e
these three persons bare ad send them away.
2.) LuT T LLorg a country whch has not suffered w not earn.
3.) )3 r npsstrsL- Lh r T<ssrT L- BLh Gresrgn .-o d r 'er to day
to-morrow sayng he causes me to dance attendance dsou to wander. Ld
mssr he knocks me about tu omtted.)
4.) euer 3rf'3m a /Dfp npm ssr sa msa F)LD ftssd uesnTmDeo Lp.
gu un B<B Tm hy hs preachng he shuts the mouths of gansay ers.
5.) OunhLDssLp Ls p urrg f tr g) gfppeo d uh erf
rhLD t does not grow coo when hea y ran fas but when gente showers fa.
6.) ao/ra L/< sufrrf Lp.d Tf: he rdes the horse.
7.) T5 sfTPO LL uek nem s rro Lu uesr s-LDLOfr d s d s
L .ss 5rer emo .mst I w pough the and once or e en twce but useessy
agan and agan I cannot pough t. ere . L probaby refers to the buocks
that draw the pough.)
.) eueustre rrruLD a/ t Lo rrem eufru cO yrrrreufru uf.gu uaL-
t frcr a that rce and curry n two mouthfus he ate up.
9.) f s DL-eatus sTsrdsr Lgs aa<ssr u Tu L rrTsm they
robbed that ba aar.
Lesson 94.
267. ome domatc uses of the reat e and ad erba partcpes. 25.
1.) B ssr eunn p m/ uL the sgn of hs comng.
2.) es)pd p sT|apLD the pcota toth whch you are drawng water.
3.) LD6ts <sL- p an'rr<omL erekosr? hy do you te the be?
4.) e r Ls L -ssnd aTLm he showed the strpes he had
suff'cred.
5.) urreosp us- a cow n mk.
6.) rs d p ods eruuLp-L u:) b s d an affar whch s predestned w
happen any how.
7.) a ' s-Lesr uemLb Gsr<ssrs .3 sceo o so the money e pended n
budng that house s not yet pad.
.) . ) ss / p / s the knowedge of that.
o -smnh p - cmsrrs the feeng of a thng.
9.) Ddr | p a the day of hs comng.
Ths s ute domatc
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L ON 95 96.
10.) osrnpe o ) fr /D .Ffffmeoec.
It s not rght that the e pendture shoud be greater tan the capta.
s r whch has become. ppeo capta.'
11.) ek straer f)tB .M u eresr? hat s the use of ther e stence ?
For )/sP e ). It s a gerund.
o fr ) sfTL fr er mss LDsdo<rd sfruur bu ueot -<5mt fr ? Is there any
use n keepng buffaoes that yed no m ?
Lesson 95.
Idomatc uses of the root g. 5 .
26 . Many of these ha e been ustrated fuy n the foregong essons.
It may be we to coect and e hbt a few of them n one esson.
1.) ' tLu eusmLu eosorLD . <3 LTu n a u rs 3h) a s done that
was to be done.
| b npLg s fnshed competed. s u <-1 the tme s up.
2.) spnns es | sssrem ppt npm esr eut sr ser<s LD
smsssrffo sfr before knowng a man's dsposton to assocate wth hm t s
unft.
o F/daeorrsfTsy t ought not to be.
ere sr ang t s not proper ft.
.ff'fnsdeOffOn-LDfT? 3 r k <s so t d srroeoeofran.
May one say '? One may say one may not say.
3.) 0<s .Mssr -L ear erer sm F d Osfrmsfrs eo s)? hy dd
not you redeem t as soon as the date was e pred.
4.) s np r uu upkpnm he fe ke the wnd?
\_L - erb. part. ee. 40.
Lesson 93.
269. Idomatc uses of the tenses.
1.) sus'tr mLp-dear petaLo eoeorreuer erekgn ./ f' sr.
" he s) domestc affars' abty one who s wthout " I ha e dsco ered.
_ff/s r 6r/ / ) d ffr God s e ery where.
Past for present.)
2.) f uuLd LeurrL eo estrL f you do so you are dead man.
3.) GsL euffsws arr ssr your re uest s granted.
149
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L ON 97.
Present for future.)
4.) oTL rB rhn ) 3 afr Bd Desr I w fnd t out for you n
eght days.
5.) Brdr 3 u g eunn Dcr era|r sr " / w m edatey con er and
rctur7 " sad he. Cora. snr psar sy/rCer.
Future to denote custom.)
6.) er< rss <ssr Lcsa Btuu urrrs sTefTefr|' fT6\ surrsB he tes
me to mnd hs herd.
7.) eru urM atuasmu unhga .rrehr /ffeurer he s aways
gong about seekng the wonderfu.
.) rLpesr emTssr . u Ls saeosnrrsGr our ancestors sad so.
Future for mperat e.)
9.) L<3 .3 c frtL do ths
gr a.) The past s used for the present n some few cases domatcay
and to ndcate certanty.
b.) The present s used for the future to ndcate certanty
c.) The future s used often to e press a habt or any thng customary .
d.) The future s used as n ngsh potey for the npcrat e. Ths s
especay common n poetry. Com. 140. c.)

Lesson 97.
ome poetca forms and doms.
270. The ob ect of ths work s to teach the common Tam as spoken
by a casses of the peope. There are certan poetca forms whch
must be understood before the earner can read the two tte works
caed Lf. and sn-dres/u sLudr by the poetess eyar*.
These w be ustrated here. other poetca forms and doms must
be reser ed t the earner s abe to read the Ird Grammar where he
w fnd a fu e panaton of e ery poetca form and dom.
* The tradtons current among the Tam peope regardng the "wonderfu od
woman" are ery numerous.
he was one day sttng n the porch of a tempe wth her feet stretched out
straght before her not consdered to be a ery respectfu poston n the pre-
sence of a superor.
The offcatng prest rushed out to her wth the ueston " are you not ashamed
to stretch o?/f your feet n the presence of the um? sn a p fse sra C
To whch she reped : nrrasr gu /r.' s-n s e:r sens sremn|na m s ur| s
s o) LL pasr : ery true sr f you w show me here the um |o ) s not
I w go and stretch out my feet there."
_
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L ON 97.
1.) In begnnng the study of Tam poetry the earner must remark
that the sgns of the cases are ery commordy eded. Ths s caed
sapg<cs LC nms <spg cs u a cased termnaton aess epss. I
Gram. 152.).
p ' u LDL 'for apsm ).
rtue to do desre.
u hw uu T<rG)<3u cut ate n the season Ff from -euh
a season s prepared accordng to 1 for the recepton of the casa sgn whch
s omtted and er emphatc nserted).
2.) Letters are constanty omtted wene er the rhythm re ures t.
In the abo e 0<y// s for Lu.* Comp. I Gram. 41.
3.) Partcpa nouns and appeat es 1 5.) are ery fre uenty
ntroduced.
s tesTLo g 56. II. gro coo. nt. part noun neut. sng. .) that
whch w must) grow coo s) anger.
seasLDg a neut. appeat e for ssssud energy) that whch beongs to
energetc acton.
4.) negat e mperat e s often found whch s not at a used n
common Tam.
sn <s sr hde a ereo) < )s seo eos m remo e) erth uea
tefTLDu re ea) e t eo 'a ) ea e) < w<k - - y despse) do not
hde remo e c. c.
era) a engthened form of .eo not) s added to the root of erbs whch
form ther present wth a and those whch form the present wth d
nsert sd. I Gram. 92.
5.) The root of a erb s fre uenty pref ed to a noun and forms
wth t a compound. Ths s caed af strO/rsMa faffc erb rms
epss an epss of the pecuar nfecton of the erb).
'u F)h3 O.PI u the root used for <F p or <s:u L Lh 74).
I Gram. 153.
The work whch you do to be accurate do.)
hat you do do we.
ometmes a etter s ntroduced for the sake of euphony.
* n amusng story turns on ths :
earned man presented hmsef before rra unmsna dsr a ceebrated kng
hmsef a poet of no mean abty and wen the kng demanded the reason of hs
comng he reped :
our ma esty a senseess man knowng I came.
The courters stood aghast. The kng smed and beray rewarded the stor.
But why? e raer eeoraesr one who s Otkott and t L/u a ara sr O e
who s senseess. But aso /u n sense and ot- a sun : a hgh poetca word.
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L ON 9
C/f-sf-) hg g T sr <u here the a may ser e to e press
a future dea.
The pace to be approached ha ng known approach )
a ng frst ascertaned the ft pace for you to be n take 7tp your abode n t.
Ths s a ery common dom. Thus entTLpBrer for eurr /D or en/rapLD
fBtrsfr ) fe-tme.
6.) The rrtfsmu or partce s used nstead of a casa termnaton :
thus
srek nr 'T rnn on thysef to the assemby of the worthy srm n
eat L _g) 3r srs eo f))- III Gram. 10 .
7.) ssr s nserted before the termnaton of a case : thus
ensu uTnF)L-m om3sr duu uanher ssoe
and weath than true weath s) earnng.
ere for ufT eBcar than weath 21.) ufT sr esr esr s used
sr and coaesce n L).

Lesson 9 .
271. 1.) Cautons usefu n transatng nto Tam.
our pershng body s not -dr . L urr ro sfrn but e er sr -ggr/
es u 3 f?r tM or e aerrr u er rnh.
The ad . pronoun comes before ts noun.
2.) Do not use the pass e form u | where er t occurs n ngsh.
Thus
a.) e ordered t to be g en to her. Not e smd g| afr BdsL| L-
0<F/rar B)/r but <5 e<d m s sfr B<ssG)frek eT.
b.) a-sufff ) GTOD | rnh u 6ds rpgLo . oo<3u rrs r aedrm aesar
Rsu um mer ke a pcture panted on a wa not mo ng n the east
she sang so that a stone e en woud be meted. Not st uuL. )
c.) smurf utsumsetr fowers whose staks are cut off'. Not //?
u uuL )
3.) Do not thnk t necessary aways to fnd a word for "a " "aw"
or " e" n transatng.
Ths s a tree g ds d nssr. Not | LnnLDnu
Ths s the man I spoke of fBrek srrskosr LDes er |esrrrer.
4.) 'ffs c." may often be omtted as n Greek.
The boy earns hs esson esuum umh uL<3 rm. Not . s u sau 3 r
<ssr urr LD La 0'sr.
he s gone to her house suew L Bscu uru< LL T r. Not
sm eLL d .
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L ON 9 .
o.) / ha e. Not r trdr -<om s e d /Dcr but ors r< -skr .
" st pro habeo c."
6.) e tod me oho t as that dd so uus sLeuasr s rsw
erearg 5r3 rd s rrsr Not uuLf.d sd euar .r ormg .
7.) e sad he ooud come en r euek era|r nmck or rrer eu entr
sd 0<5 /r 5r 5) 3r. Not eunhsufrer ordsrff sresftemer
.) new nomnat e shoud not come n between the erba part-
cpe and the fnte erb that competes a sentence. Thus
The aw cr stated ther case and the udge ac utted them eud o nrs
Ths s ncorrect. Render t rather thus:
ad eo euT emse t| aas au u us or u 35n3asTL or u msr )
'd|rLau c.
Rue. hate er number of erba partcpes may come n a sentence they
ha e a the same nomnat e as he fna erb.
9.) Idomatc e pressons must not be rendered teray n genera.
" t atery gra e s good ngsh <s 3m-<m? 7errsfr t C s gt s rdcu-
ous. em os rB ) Bd pdrdr s Tam.
10.) e tod me how to act. Not sruucd' guu euem sresrga
FTskfessfr but era re ILDfrad s'uu eue BLh sresrg sp trr or 0<fu
a aemrLu afsw srasrd d sL st L- rrr.
11.) It s not aways suffcent to transate the ngsh nfnt e mood
by the Tam nfnt e.
Thus 6rOT r srrem eurrrsm they came to see me s correct. But
"It s not rght to do so " s not uuLd su ud <3 f <k)<sd but uuud
The nfnt e n ngsh s a noun aso.
These cautons mght be mutped ndefntey there s but room
howe er to add one genera pece of ad ce : anay e we whate er you
wsh to put nto Tam. Break t up nto shorter sentences f necessary.
Transfuse deas ra.ther than transate words. Ne er be content t the
whoe meanng s fuy brought out n your erson. Then reconsder
your M . wth a ew to abrdgment and condensaton.
20 1.53
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L ON 99.
Lesson 99.
272. nts regardng transaton from ngsh nto Tam.
Besch we says "soepe dcmus atna erba non atne et soepus
europeau nguan o umur tanucs e-bs." e ha e often used atn
words wthout the atn dom and st more fre uenty do we cothe
uropean dom n Tam words. The mnd must be to a great e tent m-
bued wt Tam habts of thought before a man can speak domatcay.
hen the earner has wth great abour and study ac ured the habt of
thnkng n Tam he may hope to speak the anguage we but not t
then. tens e readng and constant ntercourse wth nat es are
essentay necessary to hm who woud e ce.
few e ampes w ser e to ad the earner n transatng.
I.) " ea en s that fod of the Great hepherd nto whch no enemy
enters and from whch no frend departs." Bshop omm
nd frst as to the words: " ea en" s best rendered here by uuLD-mn
)LD the other sphere) for ths ndcates a pace whch the sense re ures
and not a state whch LomLLh beraton) sgnfes.
Fod Loes) r suLo. The former means the herd or fock rather the
atter that n whch they are encosed.
Great urffu means ths but dst urrto I uL -ckssr L ffrresr are a
words not nappcabe.
hepherd d uut one oho feeds. Not s t sr a name for the caste.
nem <y 5 or t )seueBr n an opponent srnrre an ad ersary)
nter L-t s 56. III.) / 56. II.) saw 56. I.) creep n s k
56. I.) draw near.
Frend th ssr F s opposed to F f en-errsrsesr to uess
euer) f d D um.
Depart sftOa? urru d rf urr s tL u urr e L-CB t 56. II.).
Then the constructon f e act w re ure the reat e partcpe
and w run thus:
" ea en. . .no enemy enterng and no frend departng . ..of the great shepherd
. . . the fod. . .s.'' Otherwse "eawc s the fod of the great hepherd. No
enemy enters t no frend departs from t."
n T\ o r LD<c ) ) or
m LP wt ' u urrsT' |LDTsr u srasr LD uurFen < " *. .
2. urfLD'omt eOLDrrosr urfu duuu st | Lckes. ues)sd
1 .54 "
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L ON 99.
3. LD rLL.3L|D uuM LDuuffk LDhm fTLD: s rf mseu sm ft
4. LDTL-sLDrasT orp ff) epuu ssnufrm oTssr r/'k uffu d u u u h<om u.u
0rr Lpe d <uut d. eo utms penrssr eu srre u: dtL tt
ser. B s psurre T L t . u/sm Lb LDrLL rraer.
II.) " e s the freeman whom the Truth makes free
nd a are sa es besdes." Cowper.
ords. Freeman s-urasrasr one who rests on hs own foundaton.
s/ ) L//rs2 r sugar e <s em euer one who has
ohfanc.d reease.
e Be asuuLLL s er one who has been reeased.
a|r OT< F n<?<s/r a|r one who es as he kes.
Truth |u du -wetaLD.
a e . t ufLes) L ) a bond sa e.
L essr eu ek one who s bound.
em/D a capt e.
CON TR CTION.
B / truth made-freeman -freeman s a ese sa es are.
1. sufr o e 3 s u u L su ar <s oLrrs reu r LD/b /DedeorrrmtD
sLL 6m suTsek.
2. suh ereu sr e 3ss s sarC/r . t| u esr af ua/Ds er Lnm D |T
enrff LD ssypss<stT3sr.
3. sLf freo emp ' asreudr esp m e0sr toppureurmw es pu
LL <sn3 errrrer.
4. -<o snsu)LD af 6my w ds tm hsu ssr w 3so m /<s<suer Lop
peosT hLb La.'sm LD a srr n L r rfrsm.
III.) anas est ongam am optare et de bona ta parura curare.
It s a/)ty to desre to e ong and to care too tte ahot ng we.
ords. anty LDrtusm' . sud/ L fasehood. e emr an. < em s n ff d
a an thng.
Lfe eusk .m- The former fe tsef the other fe tme.
e s rr eo t fe tme but not pure Tam) <su rr th t <sfr happy days.
Long eTLDfresr Msm t-L LDrrasr /bs m
rdsa gf anscrt ong fe y esar tt a fu age.
Desre < fLd ps ) < a p ) eusm pg ) sr p ps| )<a fr
d p ) Care seu sduu p .)
e BssT r 'a sLD nLD |T fB0O6\ fu O a good man) me euL a ed
n a good way.
To e fBt d p ) g 3 p.)
153 "
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L ON 100.
CON TR CTION.
bout a good fe or ng we not carng a ong fe to e
ong) to desre s anty.
1. / 2ro s ff ss) u : nw<ma ga seuasouu fTLDs rrssru- reroreu
euTLp smr LD ordsTff maybe omtted). fd eu "
d D \ es h) n 11 IT LD .
\ uus | LD TL oms u. r .
2. rB B Brcnra L ssLpas s skn- nk uu saLpds mru-frtDeo F/
LDrrLms. ere b tL e Lpds s tera and n Tam unmeanng.
3. Lf rr<sm L s- e LD euuu- efrer '|- 3 Lcf/hs| e eo ef/rey/r.
Rather foregn.)
4. mdretoLD 7:pk fsTstrmu eunp r LDurrLDeo M<om n'<crTL enrrp hLDL
3g usd or essrL fsrsfrrru en t p trd B<es LD e DB rBr rru eurp
s FLDurTLDeo TL|ug s pm.
/ crs ou) 9mph s st ambguous as s the ngsh c) and may refer
ony to matera prosperty .'
The earner w fnd that ths may be ared amost at peasure but the
1st e presses the meanng. The foowng erse embodes neary the dea.
It s a kuRa eb.
" re many days great f a man docs not ruons deeds? One day spent n
dong good s great.
pua rtue. )m <so-s\)n- u< one who s not. ueodr one who
does not do. e ). f. Beos goodness.
Lesson 100.
273. Imtat e words ce the foownp are n ery fre uent use n
Tam. Ther use ares consderaby n dfferent ocates.
2_ seTssr erdtrp srs p| the rce-pot has wth a huhhng sound.
s .scsrerg Lss.rsrdr ) p < rer he fe down oth a thump.
neo Tmff n''r ' prnursu urtu m r sr he went drect and stood
before the kng.
ks BfTu eureheufr er-dr p ss p that dog keeps up a how.
s sns pcsrgu sLpp/ er he turned round the whee wth a uhr.
__
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L ON 100.
/
sr'ensms mgm sr sThe 3 ) - ps| the chd has a strong fc cT.
s T oTkkg ueoLn msr he wept aoud.
essrssTT m rG) rer/ md /D the water s cy cod.
B<s mu utrcksres LL y ssr un LD ckga - F Lf-e L the cat roed
o er the pe of pots wth a crash.
ssmessPT LDL-LD mgu eb 3p the water runs on t h a nurmurg sound
esr LD TLD r rgt u es\<ssr he spoke ery oud.
eurudstre eo smessrr srs|r s/ < d the water runs n the
channe wth a gurgng sound.
rb m Bs u uLhff s mm he cred out fearng and tremhng greaty.
L.L 1I) u <s) IT LD e L erg r Bs p the body trembes a o er.
1 eu cB 1 c eur a T BrTff) Dre dr eomg a sr a u tL| /rerr
f you et her tak she o get up a terrbe uarre.
)/su <o nF aeOLL sLps tp g 9 D the oatcr runs freey from
the ucer.
sa -5 2 3 smg) L puuL-L-g the fo s came forth th a rushng nose.
Lhu ass errrs p the body s hot wth fe er.
LD<c u .Frefr ' rr sfrer uug the ran came do n n torrents.
ppm un- T ssr ps the shower comes rattng down.
snasr er .'drMLn setrsefr oTOrg usfeunrafr he keeps 2p a contnua chatter.
asssrs 'assrca- uuLs esr he keeps up a drummng nose.
_L_DL| <553rsOs3 r 3r 3 sru p the body s hot fh fe er.
C)/ 55* u u orga s p the heart paptates oenty.
\ n'p urr : hg uL-u ckgu LDemtp e mss LL ' the ran came
patterng down suddeny other thngs contnung as they erc.
urru) urr frD ) u uGt ek u L-t rrsr he seeng saw not and sp okc
rashy.
L 'ardsr B<sr ses eoesr uLf.d 0-r<s<s r the chdren are readng n fu chorus.
0_e|r C) d Tg Lf. eu)em- the thef scampered off sharp.
e<mrL ) s s cr urr p the bandy goes rattng aong.
.s 3/6:f setrerP) ueou o eur srk' p the ard s chrpng.
sreo ems srecmmh eueo eu eoesrnhd p the arms and egs are a cramped.
ffa ) LDfrgn Lcr pmf hs ps the thn bscut s ery crsp.
sL 6 OT LDeaw Ls p the ran beats n oenty.
sL-w usdeomh pe p<s r h< ps| the whoe body s ptarched up.
T<sm< sps p T Fs ps the throat s parched.
-t mL ar sr .ek sru p the body s dry wth fe er.
t p M) 0O < BTs: s T sssrg ur p the bowes are oenty dsturbed.
eusT sff sD sr R pg the hot oater s steamng.
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L ON 100.
<6rTLD LpLD B esrgn B p the am frut rattes n ts she.
oTu urrLD sst s r sr mg ua- fdr he aways speaks hasty.
erdr srs sem reo B erff w sst he aoays fas fou of me when
he sees me.
< n- ss)puuLpw )s. T sa Lpskg mmrs ufru h urrFs ) the pantan
has gone ute bad.
su L- Lps ssr md3fss that sk s ery soft.
eum srrff LD srededrrLh enLpsuLp Oa/rLp0.a/rtf hs affars are a dsordered.
m/ ep ) u sn <s sr efrf u r p that frewood has burnt up a
at once.
rs< 3 g ssf uTs? un' '3 ' urss? that coth has torn beng
rotten before).
ssr.m sLDs Dgn Loessrs p the sanda yeds a fragrant odour.
sauu dr b t < s-f.u u/ra LLL frdr that boy has run off' sharp.
suusa snsn B T 'd LD rs LD T <3 m ffs p that coth s ery strong
and oe wo en.
s fr rresr umh- sp B p the snake gdes off wth a rustng nose.
6r<sartf s Opssr eu p I am ute bewdered my head whrs round.
__m n sL LDL ererssr LDfr ga p r/ nh p hs body s someho
rather fat he wants a thrashng s nsoent.)
sr rs f'sa s u ueo so rBgu f GpmgnsLs 'an' he grnds hs teeth nhs seep.
ersarear snoLDfr G/r- <s/rO<F 3r 2 3 r k y< k what e s aways whsper-
ng somewhat bu ng n one's ear).
sreoeornh LDtrs LDr ss rga euhff LDrud sressr aTsm they a came
custerng together thcky.
r L osru utrffO 3 pdTg3 e tp d r er he ooks askance ke a thef.
-L LD GTg <3 fT pcsrnFd ps the body s a rough.
a ssru upu pssr d sfr sm B unfer er they dragged hm away
oenty.
erasrear LDtr np -p essrekg rrs LDfTuu u n-ss r they taked about some-
thng or other n a ow mysterous way.
rres r B f TLBetns dL. B : rT 5m T <s Tmg) e frLDe) u mm for two
hours he taked on ncessanty.
srerssr LDT rLpsM ear or d ps the face s somehow gstenng.
eTssBr ar smesrff ua- n<s r he taks thcky as one who has a cod).
Bs e p m * 3/ w-0/Ds|r 3/ erffu e sd that frewood docs not burn brsky.
uems 3s)sau arru u rr L-I t so Brrs m e <Opsr TF)d p f you put
tobacco nto your mouth your tongue w be burnt.
. f fm Brff e- ) n /- 7 ...
ar e\ ercsrsBr DfT \ . p'rswrns there s a rngng m my ears.
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L ON 100.
e u g) h L amg su m p the stomach s much st oen.
B) tL t ) rreT fBfT eresr/ hd D | f ynu touch t t s soft.
LDret srp sr p sr nhs pg| that four s coarse.
s:g) Drr LDr m' nFa pg the mud s thck and makes a nose when the
foot s put n t.
smsser u<sru <ofrearg csre n p the ewes gsten ery brghty.
sBL s<9s < F<sr/ 'f)s p the nose s ery great.
.suuL- a sfre|sr 2/ C)C3r 3 tpLd rfer .L<s n.m ) he s caught
and ooks afrad.
dr rfBg utrds- the fre se ed that house brsky burned brghty and
the house s burnt up.
srsk euu 0<5sr srf p my stomach burns.
LDTLDrT< Lpu) u fT ) ) u fT 00 osrff sTL B<sm9p from the mango tree
the fruts are fang.
OeofT eOfr ekgu uuLd3 :r he beats the drum wth a du sound.
mdsrr )<ssrg fRd p the chd smes cheerfuy.
srm asrffnpLD en B <su ekgu usf- fT asr he s aways speakng sharpy.
sauset\< f)s| ueaaras sfu urs t- rr er p FBdr sr he poured out the
money from the sacks n heaps.
uu sn oTu ufTta fr sfr srff )d p that t ay s aways
muddy.
p ' eo ser'srLD LDtr mCLDrr s str eu F ps| the water comes down n
the r er.
LD-osLp sfTs sn-mg smLCB p the ran s comng down n buckets-fu.
s T m r Bkg md ndsr he s ery wd.
u uT L Bph pdsr/ nhd p that powder s ery coarse.
3 )a asrg) u m)frs<sr they spoke secrets.
sT L msd d fT sr L er nnd p the braceet s sack on the hand.
2_t_ )L/ L s u ampfd pg the body s tchng a o er.
DfTaLD e /7<s rrsfr a erek Fd p the rng s oose on the fnger.
LDeoLD soesrg seasrsssf/f L- w 'sr she s weepng abundanty.
e L k e) IT ) re sr wdr trnu urdsf the house s a tumb-
ng to run.
g<su <so<sorrLD -uuu ureo ur eockg s tr p the hoe wa s
crumbng away t th the sat ar.
su srd semt n-ec B L m w B fTs they a fear the sght of
htn.
. / OTt ssOsekgu Bmm p that ewe shnes ery brghty.
159
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L ON 101.
sussT ers r r B<ss sr fr<s a s -er us rr when he sees mc he
speaks angry.
g<ss Bpp 9Ln. LDtr D LDfr /Dssr d D | the newy washed garment s
stff.
sek mssrmo L dsr rr d rcsr he reads uenth .
LD<cmLp utu esr L o u 3u 3 mg npdsrnhd /D | after the ran the
feds arc green oh grass.
Many nouns are formed n ths way:
sh p 3 ) u Lf dgence uusu an tchng sensaton. s s u- . se erty.
gu guu a benumbng of the mbs. Lg LuL paptaton. uu
gddness.
Lesson 101.
274. Idomatc sentences.
1.) u uTO g a 'Ffr ' ek the wretch who feared nether gut
nor sn. u s d utT<sus LD r eL esr).
ere -d s omtted.)
2.) rs serf '' uu e <s es u u suu'Orr srek I ha e thus made
my petton to your worshp.
.g: u ) the dong. asTtk I ha e become.
3.) In the concuson of a etter uus stands for "thus wrtes c.
the od form "ths from your o ng frend c.)-
4.) a af/rs r u es d urufrturrsd 0/r _ af G'a'/rto we w
g e to each of these two persons haf ururrurra e su t aus LD
uTnrrs. .
5.) srssr -es) smLDeau uuu ts e Lodse rsrf|L-t tr? as t come
to ths that my goods shoud be so estmated?
fBT rght n the way. drect g e he BB to come to pass happen.
6.) tL ssts srem <aT 'fFL|u B o 5m s rd er<srrr suesr
f the companant pro e t by utnesscs I w be sub ected to punshment.
-s|r wthn under. . enek I sha become.'
7.) rksm emu enL-L TF)<saLD u RetnLDs sns srro srdfTrse'T thc
shoocd off the rareness and greatness of ther earnng.
_ mLD and u T smLD oned together and the pura termnaton added to
the atter.
Thus e-r s sGr oys and sorro s.
.) h ' 3/rsrr srs|rsnr efooO .? hat s the prce of these horses.
n epss of the 4th case. /5<s esyrs ms
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L ON 101.
9.) <ccr s.r a 0O euro eurrrLDed LDf unec '.m es he stood ke a tree
unabe tu say t t. the mouth not comng .
10.) LDd ff)4 .sLDLDdeuu ufre . Tm eF <s r he spoke as though he
appro ed of t C 0<s outwardy' .
11.) srrpff as LDfT sm<uL-L rrn he heard t reported.
\_ Tpff '5 <s LD ru as a thng borne by the wnds.
12.) ns <mp ap r pu Ts respect ey n order. Repettons of ths knd are
fre uent: thus .s pdsrg er m p ) day by day.
13.) seosuh u n u rR p LD t sourr ssreo uro tp uDecT
en hLD prosperty stands not st wth any one but ke a charot whee turns
upsde down.
14.) In p 5yf put to rout .56. III.) up su put to fght and
smar forms there s a contracton:
p Lrdr gM L u Ls rm I f -\k
upss . p-rrdr ups |auL .s t fk . |
15.) urrssu urrds LD m) LDLB LD nu eLf.dstasu rtI Fd u the more
one ooks the more the spectace satsfes the mnd.
The nfnt e doubed. 16 . Thus a eu r by degrees.)
\ .) LDsrr urrstk m e srdTga a.sr<s np sr <ssr
' Tkat great snner such an one" au/n/ to thee be/ore
s d r . 6\) ed en n ?
I tod dd I not?
I tod you before dd I not who 2 as the great snner?
Lfn L sr )er 2)sw' srtkg / uL d sressTLDnL nLD o ss snm she feared
not beng abe to pont out the husband.
r ek uch an one.
17.) s/ rermLD G fensanL eo f)'Br ) euek ermm' ur Bu rrer?
If a these four be wth a man what w henots f'erf
_) a.) g" The dom here s ngsh.
1 .) ut aa sr ek s LL d .<sa)Lpd moer B ufr mesr he
took the chdren home wth hm.
Obser e the use of <5s Lp.)
19.) tu IT en f)Lh LD6rT<s r smffa .d r <a mr ds <s sm LD . t sro .
LfT<s L rrL /_/0ao s70) a must medtate great thngs. If they are
unattanabe st greatness w be the resut.
20.) trr sfrekesruL' u sL- uosr I w obey you strcty.
s- uasr I w hear. To hear s to obey n Tam.)
21.) . srffuh for '/ <s smBuh) that affar.
ere .g and srrBuu are put n apposton.)
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L ON 101.
22.) s d ) e dsLD e carL- ar u gs a r<sm Tssr deep
dstress se ed hm and he ay down th gref.
Both tf 56. I. and er 56. I. are used domatcay. smsrs u u t 6r Bd
p I am hungry. )
23.) .pawrasfT srreksrff: erks s rFurr.
To ths that whch they sad s: e dont know.)
They sad we don't know.
24.) sneog atr the rght ear. ff srg the eft ear.
-rrbgsdems the rce hand.
euedtsms the rght hand. \ ?< . r
7 / 7 ery commony ds eas the hand used for
w)L-so )s the eft hand. \ |
' " baser purposes.
25.) aawu u Fs pg t s grown fat
_G) s IT u - a hs ps fat ha ng ascended s."
sfrfBt h f / su p the affar s prosperng.
_rB / 3 F) p gong on ascendng t comes.'
26.) . eu otsr . <soLpf L a rek I sent for hm.
ere the ad erb part. .snLpg seems to be used for the nfn. eapds
I sent to ca hm.
o sL- -uL send to en ure sL mu . u .
27.) 0 -u trssrefL- esT.
_ C ear - sr.'
77. b. 1.30. 106. 2.)
a ng taught was become as soon as.'
s soon as the Guru had fnshed teachng.
eudr uftueuer Mear /d after he was grown up.
ND OF T L ON .
162
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PP NDIX I.
I.- ORT NT NC .
1.) uru fehg Gtauenu Oa/etgacr ?
70.77. 1 . 70. 72. 46.
fasehood stand and con uer truth '
2.) Rtrafefs m* Ossus/ ffLu C /sobtOo.
190. 117. 190. 41. 39.
To the ncome suted e pendture make one) must.
*<s 6 . 157. /s/ past. re. part. s srdr 4)
3.) Grattude and ngrattude.
1 . e. 1 5. 130. 172. 74.
151. 1 4. 22. 251. 92. 190. 227.
b e sfTGOu) efrf | 3) epLB 4) osr eoeOrr LD<ssT pes .tu
131. 233. 72.269. 74. 121. 133. 6 . 1 5.
6p y 5 5 <y fL - Trfh t d <or p u uL
172. 251.
o| n u ufr60<3 s' u un n ssr Lo/. sO/ra)
227. 25. 10 . c.) 72. 269. 14 .
OT/5 < sneou) BGo eOfTrdCcs usfTr sueo e/em ).
126. 1 4. 193. 50. 14 . 39.
Notes. 1.) sL for 0<su u- u hc7 has been done or conferred.
Or an epss of ffauar : whch one has conferred. The Tam a ods the use
of the pass e oce as much as possbe.
163
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IMPL R DING L ON . apP. I.
2.) Forms ke -eaLtner c are caed erbs by the Tamans 1 5.)
and sometmes go ern cases accordngy. To an ngsh Grammaran t seems
more natura to consder s-sb to be a preposton beongng to) go ernng
the ob ect e case and to whch entr s added.
3.) sa s uafes sg0 75<s g. so does LDstT pesLu . a rteoso/r
uafes d std. In such cases t s dffcut to say whether a word ke <Lm
beongs to drL or reaches o er to dsstd. The sense must determne the
ueston. s LB ep msu m< to ones oho reman the rest.
4.) sBTL eoe\)n' er ece|r. pp. . .)
Transaton.
The beneft done to those posses.sec of a good dsposton ke the
nscrpton nscrbed upon back stone Grante) for a ong tme w
appear the beneft done tothe rest possessed-of-mnds desttute-of-o e
ke the nscrpton nscrbed upon water e en then when t s done
w persh. Therefore n e ery tme to the good especay the dong
of benefts s necessary. Comp. 229.
4.) The Turkey fancyng tsef a peacock.
smLuGO a p LDu ffOfTsw ssrsa u )Lp r r
1 .19.21. 269. 151. a.) 10 . 133.
1 . e. 64.77. 169. 10. 70. a. eded.
|resT sa fTosr s rrss)th uLDu 6\)fT '2csr scspes n
131. 151. 10 . 7. 25. 136. 64. 10 .
Lp eOsOrr psm<s e f uu uh o \) eod<s6ssr
121. 7. b.) 227.
eod L ssfrd pp< h L empu bp <s s I<5mL L| L9srs ds
70. 7. 90. 169.
<3 )f<ssGm on |s' efrd sp/Dr tunsu fr rrssr spp L emLpun u
77. a. eded 121. 4) 130.
se emu sr'Gsn a b/r s ' es t soar essf u L rT'f d D-
1 . b. 77. 7.
1.) For ff ss<smeas L LD 0s u ss)\L LD the two words formed nto
a compound and the pura ng partce added to the ast. III. Gram. 156.
The sub ect s r3 s s pg . The fna erb s urw.
Ths s a good though somewhat dffcut e ercse n Tam constructon.
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aPP. I. IMPL DINO L ON .
5.) Nosctur a socs.
1 4. 131. 1 . 1 5. 1 . e.) 131. 190.
ffnsu uneOs app Bf s appf <su s r 9 <f srtsuTT.
. 227. 193. 64. 72.
sns 5 )s - s n L- I /. eo s p sasres) < LD uneoa
270. 5.) 74. 1 . e.) 72.
sppr to n PLDLn PLp <smn u stTsm rr-synT-
6.) Mens consca Rect.
10 . 1 . e.) 1 5 137. 7. 131.
e sn L-d eO eeffffd saem n< LO.
172.7. 121. 4.) 251. 62.77. 64. 1 6. 4.) 72.
10 . 131. 127. 74.
pp. . II.) 22. 251. 23 1 . a.
1 5. 64.
25. 117.
7.) The kng and the earned man.
rs'ssrL pp rd spp - s\ su'Bssr L rmhsp
1 . 7. pp. . f o that e ery 70. 57.
faut shoud k'e o e. 170.
urnned srs'etfru uard Lh L 3u tour puemuL eaL ' osr
95. 196.
5 .
oT f. oT sfs)
9 .
|T<3 emt u ffeo ) fTLD6\) urstu
202.
43. 6. ' 5 .
sB|seffeO sr XoOrrua nrffurres) knfT Lh.
127. 4.3. 72.
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.
IMPL R DING L ON . aPP. I.
II.- IMPL R DING L ON IT GR MM TIC L
R F R NC .
1. The Lord's Prayer
<3 IT ) I | 3" LD.
LIITLDe rL )I | ffsO s p oII < 3 r 3n <s \
272. 29. e). 74. 60. IL 37. 21. 1 . a.)
- D peaL | fBrTLDLD fs?3 u u <o ns )
37. pp. . b.) 161. 140. b.)
70. 140. b.)
- p 5Dt | unLDsm eO eO stuuu u p urreOu
1 . e.) 21. 23. 16 . 92. 7. 227.
1 .21. 23. 126. 92. 140. b)
Intro. . . I .)
166.274. 12)12 .133. 37. 1 . e.) 166. 70.27.
Gn 6B e<s e drrrrLDrrL pp s u p auT s rBrr s r
41. 40. 50.51. 7.21. 37.
LD sr6 fs p urreO ertasefr pphs'bsfr erf | erd u ssTeaf m'
64 7 227. 37. 29. 37. 27.64.65.
4. 21. 242. 251. 41. 121. 2.)
64. 21. 37. 64. 77. b) 106. 4)
7. 7. 7. 166. 126.
1 4. 1 5. 6. 10 .
1.) Ths form s not ute domatc. It s n fact coned and propery
so for the purpose. Lt. t woud be uBs-u u u u wra.
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aPP. I. IMPL R DING L ON .
2. The Creed.
<o <3r r3'L| L LLfTo n. The aw of fath.
131
1 . e) 7. 1 . b.) 7. 7. 130. 131. 134 133.
1 . a) 137. 7. 3. 34.
a 0 ) | eG LDrT T eu)u 0d D Bh psst u 5nn
31. e.) pp. . 172.23. 137. 7. 37. 11. c.) 29.31. e.)
Intro. . .) 1 . a) 7. Farad of Tron. pp. . 131.
t2 u ) ) aekeaf LDrf rr <om | s uueo bus u
21.22.23. 130. 21. 1 .21. 77. b.)
77. b.) 21.107. 262. 50. 77. b.) 21.
om/DfessT LDfs L-dsh u em sssr u u L unasfrfssGffdo
26.5. 77. b.) 77. b.) 50. 92. 21.29.
71. 3. 175. 233. 7. 245. pp. . Note.
77. b.) 77. a) 264. 1 . 21. 77. a)
130. 21. 21.23. 77. b.) 79.
3. 25. 21. 1 5. 7. 7. 7.
50. 41. 70. 72. 3.
40. 7.
7. 1 0. 29. 7. 51.
50. 77. b.) 14 . 7. 131. 7. 43. 133. 2.
sn d pm. LDm.
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IMPL DNC L ON . aPP. 1.
3 Te tree fshes.
. 1 . e) 5. h eded. 7. 3.
are \ 5.
o oorLD pmssr 'skssfr Bs f rmnd s'Tt
17:. 21). 40 for many days. 60.
233. C7.)
106. 4)74. . 233. 6.) 1 1. 25.23.
smGssFfr <ssfT s LDau 0d /DfT 5msu fr )'2e r < h |5' P
137. 145. _ -t- w 74.
127. f.) 64. 106. 4.)
R. sar. 70. 10 . 29. b.) 7 .
Brrh ws D e tL d TLDrrsu L puuL yo sr LD sF
25. 254. 136. 262.
25. 131. 14 . 117. 2.
70. 34.
eu LD urr urrTsd <ssfTer Gr a.'mh sntfuth f u) un
106. 2) 106. 4) 263. 106. 2.)
pp. II.) 157. 225.
254. 10 . c.)
214. 25. 70. 157.46. 217. 16 .
47. 172. 121. 2) 62. 100.
110. 14 . 117.
23. 193.
254.
16
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aPP. 1. IMPL R DING L ON .
50.
d /TL/ a/ OT"" s uL s' snp unp u/r<?/r/ / 5 ueasressfd
161. 5 .227.
106. 4.) 5 .
251.
261. 251. pp. . II). Tortw pss of 242.
wthn n the meanwhe sgn of case.
56. 11.)
' Tuusnssr'''' a '?e d r suuL u un T ear shuueOnh
251. 103.
<oT<sk | ) / / ) ept sad sLD t ssr sem u fr )
169.
70. Oars . u ps g)-. 172. 126. 70."
145. 126. 163. 64.
4. The merchant reso es to engage n busness agan.
sot I . pp. . . Maha a 132.
woman Rupya beautfa.
. RDD - 130. 172. 60. 11.) 242. 2.)
M N thr ng.
uessrm '- 'oar r ffLD ns euesar t oTasr p sssu
100. 1.) 124.125. 39. 4.
14 .26 . 5 . 9 . 203.
.
Is any thng dffcut of ac uston that one) must ac ure.
ffuaurrcssfd snuurrpp suem st srruufrpn esr s) e tr
nom. rr understood. 10 7. 7. a|cT/? .
165. 10 . 7. 77.
22 169 "
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IMPL R DING L ON . aPP. I.
LD ra Tp eoeuLds eam ). <5 <35y<s5T rr 'eo snuunp
131. 196. 2.) 190. a. 9 . 121. 4.)
165. 72. 121. 4) 72.
) s 3 ffunnp seosuLa fT c ssar /) <6sr<f
77. 121 5) 72.* 2.
and by there beng Both beca use there s. 7 . 126.
u) f45c3" OTCosff. 242. II). | 7. 50.
14 . 133. 136. 50. 23. 10 .
121. 5.) a wakng corpse. 131. 5 .
o LD LDto r LD ff D fT u L rd LD CT63r 2/
145. . 23. 6.
11. 106. 4.) a. 10 . 74.
I <oTpf < y/D " . a sesr " ''s/fsott" < okuD utuetsfr 2_ 3)_u
77. . Te feow ser ant. . The oy causer 132. 1 5.
172. 7. 160. 106. 4.) b. 234.235. 5 -
5. The un-rse.
Ths s a spefmen of anscrt-Tam The stye s nfated and the dom not pure.
'sot rrrrdsTGO <sL.) I te rG srs s'Bsrru
25. The nght season of that day 172.
oa 00d m/D rfu us |tTor Lfs <ss)<f eo Bh sbrp
7. 79. 33. 131. pp. . 70. 33.
131.. pp. .III. III.)ffu ff /D) 74. 151. ctuu4 ctu/4. 199. 9
-eOs |s' srr ' so sarasyr eu rr L t . upueo srr o DLDs'2errd
1 1. 13. 131.
syrrpd <53srrs'/T<s s'prB eueOnus s s dsrp -sfr<sm
170. as f t woud weed out 131.
7.
n d LD epuup/D fT ) .ff-uL fLDessfd| fr ''dtosrh uunsssru
no
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aPP. 1. IMPL B DING L ON .
151. 1 5.
unpr <f k ufT IT IT err sn pm <2 <ssn<s h semgn sura
uneo spposp eusmu L'hoOLL Lh <5T Lp usemsd s Dffds syrt/LD sm L
1 5.
TeO T om<ssr <s n'Tu sLsnrrscf B sr currsessf
easu so s- sufru ed umLsu urrs<5mtT uneo
)a s6ffp ur 60 10' 5' dy saT-t ) L| LL
<f 60 L9aes3f<sLD s f d seFuusm ssr. kandam.
6. s a specmen of ugar tara or G)3 rr.s<5 ) tbe foowng sentences
from the rfsa e e)rLD or Pay of " arschandra " are nserted.
The erses are g en wth the prose erson.
The person who speaks s the t-. enLLta rm or sca enger of
as whose busness t was to burn the dead and to act as pubc
e ecutoner.
arschandra s offered for sae as a sa e.
nter mLL.
erse. _ h a speces of metre.
/f urr em e s <sr s ) ffpa s- t m?
ut sresrsur f ssurr srrasr srcsrosr umu weed aecr snenrf
10 . 74.
urrrfeb u<s )p'ums esr uemsrsmL s sr B T O f
22. rans Int. .
T 3 tM' sf/)6 sLD -sm' . T LDr Tffoenm| .
130 72.* 269.
Prose. 6T fskr e sm fr ut e s 2sn-
193.
s <s < ps ? / /rs|r tL rrt Tck utmssa
sfr Bs n-o s p< LDesrs ssn fT ? uu e<so
94. note ) 43. 46. 9 .
oT sT ? ut sTdresr? c 2so ers|rsar se aOturr aeo I
Notes. <sm or emee u . ur thrown n as a knd of nter ecton.
s sf<s g. e d p e p ps 70. Root e 6\) ke a ). r
p pff who s t that s seng? Te neut. erb s often used n such cases.
:d p s e p pp . 157. d.) The corrupton of pp nto p
e. s ery common. 3 eo OsfTeo a. common corrupton n pro-
nuncaton.
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IMPL R DING L ON . aPP. I.
The person who ses arschancra repes :
erse. 9dtu enmr f fr ssr e eteo so< tu s
22. 50. 23.
263. .) 9 .
P/D1 o OTLDp '3 IT ) IT c T LLe| ' / T p
202. 263. .) 51.
Prose. '- uurr ensmr rssr wdsaw wps eut er. re
104. 194.
OsTer enLD urreo '' d Fs reL .u. -mssru
227.
urrfT ers r< F sLarru r. pg . <s r sr ee/f
97.
urr B||.g sreaeo shud uurr
Notes. Before fu s understood srssrst. 39. 157.
_) s understood after t sst and ut.
sT<sr smLD ureo hreo f there s a probabt of your buyng.
The eL-L Tnk repes :
erse. rru p 'cmp e m' en dso sru um
251. 50. 270. 5.) 269. c.)
ffor s <sT f) sr mL ur
220. 50.
rek < Mpuno ss eu/ ek
/ e p Tr '<so r soenffLorss s t m en <3 r .
Notes. s Tu o n caste as to my caste.
e pureo. Root a |a). 70. 1.)
ng. neut. part. noun. fut. e pu. .
Ths n the 3d case s <pufT because you arc seng.
Prose. erdrsot u t ut ups .3 n. er r u r ars /T .
fBrsr stt r sr m ms p . dso srs p
tL. | ) <3oO u. ppu f.u3 es) eo sss
239. 2.)
161.
269. 6.)
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aPP. I. IMPL R DING L ON .
Notes ers r pgro u t ut as regards my Caste. s thus used for
but f you ask Com. 46.). orrn rGO s added often 9 ).
u D'd'rr for usapasfr. 131.
BfTsk s p. Ths s common the pace where I dwe.
_s oTa s fd p ? here do you e?
rsn'm 's /d rrr I e n Tan ore.'
ss sLs.
03" The whoe ffsmu < ecrr FLD s worth readng. It contans one or
two passages ony unft for perusa.
7. erse.
The foowng uatran s worth knowng.
The Tam phosophers d de the sub ects of composton nto four
casses : /d rtue urm- possessons swud peastre a? |na
de erance from ths morta co. I Gram. 215. was asked
for a defnton of these four. he reped
GI ING s ktde e forsakng to accumuate s weath e er
FF CTIOX T O P R ON IN MIND ING PT PPORT
' ' I 5.
IC XP RI NC D s PL R T PR M ING CONT MPL T D T T R
c I s uferu a?0
IC FOR N s T M NCIP TION OF TR BLI .
The words not n common use are LLt ) - coectng together
er fr ek 11 LD e er 126
a r ) affecton ' -p to subsst osNhg for sur uffesr the upreme.
The omsson of fna s_ s marked by an apostrophe and the frst syabe
of each metrca foot by an accent.
For the metre see Pope's III Gram. 190.
173
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L TT R FROM CO RT PL D R. aPP. II.
PP NDIX II.
L TT R FROM CO RT PL D R.
The frst ne s the e act orgna. The 2d the corrected erson. Compare them caref -.
Read them aoud to accustom your ear to the corruptons. |
ws n m" 3 T an p sap u rr s err s p s s su s eO
uD Lc 0 s 3 L 2- u)a.6_ OurrL- eun-e s)
a T 16\) eL LDfT3 _ - d | ufTL rr GO
O <35 6 T 65 IL Ld IB T IOT n'L <3-'rru3
L- IT G T g _ smrrueufrssrruu saar _ tr u e rs 3
1 7. 1 7. 1 7.
apu BLnuTsdstr u<s 3pef\sT . mu u r fIr? 1fT6Tu) 2 a
mpuL fBwuTsdofru up/ u L3 T6k)rTL s m ufT /b-s m
Ousmu ss) L m m Lht smpu ' Gm <ss) u
T<osru<o )uu y 2_0 |o f LD emrru up rs a |
)3u rrT ) ) / sfT6m ffuuu s
9<s fnt s f Lt T -rsroff L rsmr s Dp
u eo Lau LDsrr unu efuf stnessr L d/t
usurr< sfr Tnfn u) 2 d s n u /6 ed G h est 5 e s err d t / u s
uT r " nGT to BhuBeo s sar ks r tDrfueo
174
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aPP. II. L TT FROM CO RT PL D R.
u 50 Test 3 IT m s s t9 sn so || ssr 9 d <syo fn frfr< srr
a/ T fT u s sOO m p < I )L-.I 9 9 TT t D
3 em mr u u essr s a a9 m Ln<o0fr fr o )pu Gfr<s
1 7.
u 3 r ' u Ld 6 ms frTs oO OtBueu d ssst
pc'sn' frfss snrLeo c LLu<5 )<sus sra eufTL sn ss
su s37) Lo r ssr Ld IT u u fr p T as Lp n <3-
<5m LD skghy IT fT pp T/|OT" s
LC 93<3 .D u Lt oTefTu: s upu:fTL9 op p 3s m3 a sO ssssr
LD< sfT ss <suesar <sr<ssruD s Isutdtu nppsnu eo sesar
O L 9 m3 :fffr<sO<ofr Oa -osr nuuL-L <s3yrLD eOfnurr a frs' Tr
' d /Ts etr. seBreuruLL sssr GOtut |.Tser
G s| s < LDfr3 ooO 151 35 st|sssT .wsssB f a5 B|3 Gr a m
O p ms 7r T orr m)u <ssT <srp oO usmetsr
175 """
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L TT R FROM CO RT PL D R. aPP. II.
r IT' Os| M Ofusu sr Onpu Osrrp Oa.
-ff s )s s ssm Lh- 5p<sa/D | osrLh topuu anTLL <3 L
r< 5 LD e IT LD M rr 3 LD LD 15 L ) IT 637 2.r T LD 15 LD fT
asrrp. oed < 5)fD ue fraerrnpssrurrs Otusw 5aT O' t rfr
sTTL-Leo L G fT suTasfT pssrurrs erear sarc sLL rrr-
s cT T<s m n e G\ < r IT <s) ) | u Ln sar en / d
s IB s G 7) L_/u 9. u r us5 ns5T5srn m O a IT err err
. 35 p fT 6 G p Lb
/Tr fL
gg
The chef dfferences to be notced are
1.) for sa . 2.) p for n- 3.) p for p. 4.) The mute
sgn -\<Bn<c \) s omtted throughout as are a stops C. 5.) The words are
not separated. 6.) 2_t_a for -ea u n the 6th case. 7.) sressr for ers r.
.) for ./ though now obsoete s reay good.
In regard to Grammar.
Note 1. enT w for '<arff . Ths s poetca. s used
absoutey as the sgn of the 7th case. 251.
2. s. s s ery ugar. It was wrtten formery .so L thus
ha ng done. It s e u aent to sm fT ).
3. ' for 5 common but ugar.
e era Idoms are worthy of notce.
1.) LD Brr arerofff s a anscrt form.
Loarr frLDtr u rnrgmrB one who possesses fc.
great kngy kng's ftct .
2.) sem sr Lo F/s rs n Lt. ha ng seen you ha e ndeed wrt-
ten you ha e seen |t to wrte.
3.) Gd ) for o dw hereafter.
4.) ..|rre .M-s eusssr u:) Lt. an answer must become I beg for a rep .
r76
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aPP. III. N L I OP CI IL CO P.T COMPL INT.
Free Transaton.
To the ery respectabe IMr. nt of Tan ore Rangasam astr
Court ake wt hs compments wrtes as foows :
our etter posted and sent on 22d ugust 1 53 came to hand on
the 23d nstant and I ha e made mysef ac uanted wth ts contents
e I was thnkng that when the new ssstant udge apponted and
arr ed shoud speak about the abo e Numbers . e. the cases n
court) I woud te hm that n the appea case No. 37 no answer
was needed and aso nform hm of youf ntentons regardng No. 205
the new ssstant |udge hmsef asked me why no answer was g en n
the case No. 37 . nce I knew we your opnon that no answer shoud
be g en . I tod hm so on te th of December. ou wrote n a former
etter that n regard to the Mer free-grant-and the documents had
been sent to the awyer n Madras. ow has the Madras awyer wrt-
ten about what you are hereafter to do ? I beg you to wrte me your
wshes about what I am to do n court regardng that affar. esterday
the head wrter asked me before the udge n court about No. 205 rea-
tng to Meur. I tod ra tat I must nform you before 1 can repy.
Therefore I beg you to g e me a repy mmedatey that I may know
your wshes n ths case. Ths s my desre. aau.
Rangasam astr
1 54 |anuary 10. ak.
PP NDIX III.
For te words see the ocabuary at the end of the book. .
nayss of a compant preferred n a c court.
49th year 1 49) No. 114.
D an addut Cumbuconum dstrct uddtonuL
3T s:n' sn'<ssh- OP' s<s m <su rr s en u r u 3" Ln
udramn t ther presence companants: n the Pu andsam
ffT ssfT Luus srre so s LD ) /D umssr
Tuduk n ade/anyd who- -be dead-and < one
""23 nt
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N L I OP CI IL CO RT COMPL INT. PP. I
em <s ed p <s tr saar rr <os m su <s err es) eu u s e <s
dekaam Turakonduns ons uttngam
p O 3 rr 633r /_ /r sar-a-co r t u r O m err 3 p d t rf op g sn
p sfTGm Tsbr " ) mrrrfa m erear p LDrrf pff
Tarawnddn 1.) Mauy who s caed Marmutt
p . rsmL rrofr 9. fB / Brfraf- n 6 fr < Grr h p u u
p sT' mn fT sr a-) sr L nrrs-. L ffeutTserr mpu
Turakonda 2) Ther coudtonn fe mrusdurs. Defendants: n the abo e
snfso s s ph unesr s?L|L9snD 3sf ok' p srr sBnmm
age who-t es dead-and-gone uppramanyan Turakotdcm's
O u eaar rr s rr B ew 5/_ esr m
24 | uema ssms stT: ew LL s<Lo5rh
cfe Tanukud : stuaton: househoder.
f5esr s | L < r f m L rfT 6\)LD sd ss
etand dryand of these knds the and to fu to
wemuu <9 |su \) ufLDnessnh urrtL sn
whch shoud n the affar aue rupees 135
m ) su rr srr LT) p u orsurOuBe) O 3 uu
sm * " eurrsstr opus L9rr uT cuf60 Guo u
annas 9 the Pantff's the abo e defendant upon whch
u t t5 <oro resrO o <ssT 7r <o) ap ffd r eu 3 r e r
s made the compant chat f you ask: 1. The defendant's
husband and ourse es brethren because we are The abo e
smt k3rred3 m n p-3s rr ' LD e) e ? frD
adeyangu-as-ong-as-the moon and sunast age consstng of ) es O
tsffd s\) O u fB s GT 3 m r p n r O s' rru u r esr
n the and to us by heredtary rght -our-own be7y
npss o so IT sssT ssy) 3 msrrsrrfB nOg'tu L esrOFususmBtunr
Pn ssr B <sO <opssrgus gLsrrsrr b st sL L 53r s u euemsa rT
one-thrd part tchch s wetand dry and cf the knd
17
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aPP. III. N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT.
eu <s9 D <30 .s m u fB -s <of? eo p <s en fr O u Trp ffO
eue I aO eos LD sksefeo peo o rr usrndo
es 10 tu the yruund of us the fmt cumpta?ant n the name
L nf 3rfr3s<s 3r rr <3 <3' u ssr u rr a u u
ofthemrs wth regster wth out ob ecton en oyng
e O 3 IT e or mpusL. fr 'Ln 'o LD<oO<s up ss p
contnuuh the abo e taye tte yo emnentu
share onh to the) Tun ore Msson cergyman by the company
mnesBuuuD .3 u uuuuL.tsf- m- p uuuurso or | ef<ocoL..u mpL|
a gft It s made because beongng to our he abo e
LB 7r at ed3 m Lc ' 0 srr p sm <s u frfBtufr <
rrrs eos uo Deosufrrres) unftufTds'
mns ground the gu ernmenta share to the cery man
0 0<sr ffrar eo) f s sn usrenrrLn
s s sfT<sm 106) BtT | r ts urssfrnL )
ha ng pad con muay we both as peope who ha e not d ded ther nhertance
u 3 tu rr 3 ' < tn t r eu t ss) t I s\)
and as ha ng one common en oyment of the property) whe we contnued to be
u fB 3 sff ffO | suO<3 .L m) u L puu. 9p
T |<setf s su GcFI- st u mpuL Ist
of us the atogether best who was the abo e de end-
eu T u m 3 ssT n-sfBu ssT tsf u3 e u 7) u e
surr 1-1 1 ebr t <?/5 <skr L ) ffnusu
ant's husband so7 descendant wthout n the Prab'ha a
<ss) IT \ Oup 'B uTu9< r<ssr
) aarr Drr6\) p unLe LLL nesr.
year n the sttere month ded and ent away.
o <s 5 2F) 3 sn <3<3 e <s p r <s Gm d O u
For hm we a rtes ha ng done
and perodca ceremones perform.ng we contnue. II. Tus whe
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N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT. aPP. 111.
u3 O e) Ln 3" 3 IT T) u tr sr LopuL peu/r ssr
t I a woan t f has an btng te ubu e defendant'' s
u tted subsstence
LD t e r uf<oO<s| Ot LDtr sst <s fr 3<s rr 3 nu rs a
consent pun aanyhama '|uuk embunhud
TT ) ) e f O ' G) ssT O s /r tor / tr ear O u ssr u s sst s nh t sst
|umangan Tenkondan t hu s cued wt/ some peope
LD u sn <5 - y. fba Lnpuu:3p ' ) r' 9 ssr u earn-
a crowd coectng comng the abo e defendant's daughter
e 3 rr ffO fT <sf' as) u -s s u rr ssyr m O 3'- \u O 3 tr err st eu ssp
< g rT )fTLL ss) -s ss uunernn|o GsL sfT r r 104) euesm ua
Mss de-eyes m<rugc makng to take to themse es ce must
O LD em 3 p ' | 3) eo ts r tn 3 ' tr ut eb
wth the so sayng desre we hch-we-had .put on
T es) s 3 em sar a osrr u u: 9 r fffy o e\) O u fB s G-t es) L
whch-te- ewes her and besdes some o 'uur
3 1. u f | 3 srr 11 m r p h fT n9 s rr sar u r em etn
L- u f s' etr L h r p LDm'us arrem uaesrsmd
utensds by oence took away 25 )
/o 3 ff'u)CT- 37 4f ? sd np O en IT w rr en
concernng n the -1 tk year n the month of |am the frst companant them
O u f .1 r r 3 u | rr u tp <5d et IT O t O
ufg) f r L ffLDfLu pso en uBso
pon and) cthout cause the frst companant upon
1 LL p u <. r sr ut| tTe e C ) 3 rr '/ <s <s r
uapusf. T rrLuth unsue .h rssa
the abo e defendant n the) Pucanasum T'dk
LD et p I - eo O '3 tu O - T essr /_ 3 n s 3 3 t
tnagstera department made for the compant
_n p u LO- u IT e9 . 9 3" IT p e rr 1 3 O u em 3" u IT
mpuu urrs 'sr -f L sTeuna - uLLetD urL
he abo e poce offcer to the defendant parta
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aPP. III. N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT.
9 m ru ' 3: t ssar rtp 35 ' au t a'sm u g fT9 0ufr<s
beng the |rst cunpununt recuncdtd to yo
<9reO's pu 3r 3\u3 eo s n : u ew 3 t dsn
sreO' T uB 3tus: )6d 0 LDLusn.t|s'hor
ha y tod troube because he yuce some arbtratos
es) 61| s O 33 If 6 |I G 9 no IT t3 <ss) | / t 3?
aouy appouttd of the de tdant the n e-tme
) p I9 n otr 1 LT 3 3 . 3 IT 3 L ) p '0 3 O
us ony as fur the sub - stence the abo e n the yruund
f5 T \3 < ) s s 10 LD 63) | TT <s p 1 1 LD
bm fu \) sue sod Bns serr ts p earLO
n the wet ground e ' and toe ue to ea e
|m oT G' 3 15 3 'Lp 'a IT <o T 3|1 3'- t IT LD o\)
cgy D |3 | T 1 L/.'5L0 p< n 3 T 3t L ITLD )
and that she nortyaye co enant t 'c not ahug
1 I n I IT esT 3 sy O 3 a s or 3 /r <o c u d 3 'u
ts produce h means f subsstence makng
s y 3 p0sa| )p T5yTLC 3'- u 3 O 3 3 snr 1
su p ekLD TLDT c Tm ffL sremL-.
I to contnue so determnuton whch they made
9 p 3 IT IT LD 3p 5)9 p I 3 sfT 3 3 T 9 f \ <5)| f I 3
I st ) -I ' 's o If B| s'eT s sem L Ie\)o s en LLo
accordny to these partcuh s enumeratng n the Pa auga year
L T IT 3 L ? D _ -9 ffO 9 3 . o 3 G3) 3 GT h
LOnT L LDITLD T s\) 3n' n I IT | LD
muryar month 17 th day to the defendant we
fT O I < . m Lt <3 I t|: ty 3 tn 3 3 GfT T) u
snetr fn | d u s__63r uudt5s 3<sser pu I
and she to us co enants ha ng
s 3| 1 O 3 3 1|337" 5 ) 3 3 3 T GLCp o LCm)
caused to be produced ha ng seen that to the abo e
p 1 1 n Lt 3 h m 3 3 u u t 1 ms m
3-L 3ITd 3n BITLD3 LD s 17 L| L p
magstera compant a deed of reconcaton has been g en.
1 1
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N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT. aPP. III.
tfn - eu rf GO) Ln IT ss) su e rr e O s r <sasT _ O u fr e sp
<s rrr f TLDnos a| ennm snem uns .s
III. T/at deed f reconcaton who took the poce
ar uo T T <s r p e rar m) e O tu r | ss) ub
offcer what from mot es' ho-s-a-womun-to-whom
3<s<srf51u frmr 3p6 rr<s3 a p u s. d e
sssfTtftumssr r - euns Dpusf. f 6\) )
a-subsstance-s-aowed to the defendant n the abo e and
O em esm) O <s <sn u. <s .s O s essr u. u u rr 00
tF 60 epesT <ss) ds suesar a- | urreo
one thrd to fa must as f
osLnfra9 |<s pOua Luput
un usty to the chef athort/ a report a ny wrtten h the abo e
\ ) s <s f eo st fTr O s smr sm s err err eo
D 3| 9 eoeO h eo eeurdetren' u p
10 es of and one thrd whch s beow
<s ssar L <oO <ss) 3psyTs|3uu BLD n_
spec ed 259) and the defendant to put n posseson of
|- sn <su fB ru p.sfr3<o| srr g <3 u u s m-
a- s/ B rs prru s etr <o|3 uu esr
an order s come as f she the ha ng put n possesson of
frtL3 u0u<o3r LD u p u s f ) s r 2__ r7
s an n ustce that that and) the abo e document of reconcaton
u s ss) s s srr <s sssr ap <sO' fr f)s)s rr< m Ptp so n
L 6 ).ss'2 frs sssar ped rr feo 6urrd p6 )
and agreement ookng at the frst pantff n the head cutcherr/ e dence
B p 03L o )L )utru9 s srrp dossr O 3 n
s T Bs:-p ff- sLD<mLD nu e snff'sssr sL
to hs ha ng g en rghty e amnaton mak g
fruMfresr < -s Oc9utufrMe m< 7r T tr s s
uufTuuLDnssr P-ns s u n rTLD< )90< r t set. -<s
a ust answer not makng they a? e. I .
LT) p I p e IT TF 3 p Lb 3) / 7 < CT O)
mpus eun t u3 Bn as
The abo e defendu t's husband and ourse es
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aPP. n. N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT.
s u frstrrrnt 5fr6Tr6 ' 3 ru9oO L pus
beng those who not d ded ther property and to ths day to the abo e
f O sm LD <s Gfh <35 np eoe|TOu Trf eo Trf 3r
affars n the frst Pantff's name ttemrds
rf uuse 'Ou pseOs en 3) 3 <s rr / d
muue r s /bsssr su su Lhs<snff) D
besdes beng before beng-a-woman- ho-has-a-subsstence-aowed-her
en sT D ubpu <sd: au utr r r
to her and the abo e and anysoe er
gLnufBLeOffdrr d LnOu:Oe<d uu e u. h u uf<ses)
connecton there not beng us wrtten abo e an agreement ha ng
arsen 256) n that ay. In the magstera department a deed
em LD IT a s 9 p m 7 <s s a9 u | Gwese fB
BnLone p y<<ss) ) enssm ss60 0/
of reconcaton ha ng arsen n our care whch was
f es)9ps fre|3uu a- s O < p u u
eoemu 3Tsn eus'L| 3:n o\ ffu|L
and the defendant to g e possesson of permsson to make
/ s I esf L <sfrp em fr <erR .s <srp eo eo tr g) n
to the Re enue authortes authorty by beng none
u u L e|3 uu esr e Lp f u u rr m
|) L| f- a F L| o r e p | fTL D I' )
thus the ha ng caused to take possesson a breach of order and
. y <? oO 30 IT es) u t p e rr L- <oM ub 3) f a em m
'f sO )n gth arT L L h BT | m
t beng hat cannot take effect the defendant' s husband and ourse es
s u mrOerresrup L0pu r e3)Mrr
s uT<ser e srLp mhuL )rrnt5m DrT
peope whose property s not d ded to the fact f the abo e deed of reconcaton
-LL L<' n: np e fre n 6sr LC 7Fg-s<s erf r s p
oru<ses)s p oOT r rsLD s-s r d p
and agreement and many other pro fs by ther
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N L I OF CI IL CO RT COMPL INT. aPP. I.
. fT 11 LC 3\ no ' IT 3 L R <3 IT L p I -
he the dr 'cndat whch-has-taken-pusse son of the ubuce
) sd 67) T e 3' err srr O s s\) s Lnu .s n' s.
oe thd-bey and acc rdny to the agreement
su 63) LD3 s ssr<s G srr gy u e
for ub stance she whch en ayhg
eu p C 6X| Ot u s e .' sOLc urrsMpp'BsO m
eur eutosarLu sus I o u uns '25 | wpp b'eOm
must contnue | of a e and besdes the rest < f the and
O u | <s TR s a O s sD I <s <s O o ossr u u sst s f s
to us to fo that t must concernng
9 p su IT ur e T 3'\ut ' d T u.
3rrs:n uf ) 230 u rn s'd u sd 26 )Ld.
thcdefondant upon ths compant we ha e made.
Transaton.
To the presence of the addtona udr meen n the Combaconum
Dstrct Court of D an daut.
Companants. Defendant.
The sons of the ate dekaam Tanukod wdow of the ate ubra-
Tureykond n of adeyanga n the raanyan Tureykondan of the aforesad
Pa anasam Tduk. age.
1. attngam Tureykondan \ Condton n fe: househoder.
2. Murmuttu Tureykondan aas
Maray-
Condton n fe: Mrasdars.
In the matter of ands Nan e and Pun e whch are camed. aue
135 Rupees 9 nnas.
I. e the phtts and the defendant's husband ben brothers
and one thrd of the age of ade anga whch conssts of thrty es
hed as abso te 2ro )crty beng ours by heredtary rght and we
en oyng t the mras beng entered wthout any dspute n the name
of the trst panttF and because the go ernmenta share of the age
of ths our mras ground was made o er to the Tan ore Msson we
contnung to pay to the Cergyman of Tan ore the abo e go ernmenta
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app. h. anayss of a c court compant.
share and we as brethren whose nhertance s en oyed n common
n that d son contnung to en oy t: our most worthy brother the
abo e defendant's husband ded wthout mae ssue n the month of
mrr n the year Prabha a. e performed hs funera rtes and
contnue to ceebrate the perodca ceremones n commemoraton of hm).
II. Thngs beng so 1-amangara Tenkondan of the age of em-
bankud n the aangaman Tauk wth the consent of the defendant
coected a crowd and took away by oence defendant's daughter
de-eyes wth the ntenton of marryng her she ha ng on the
ewes wth whch we had n ested her. They aso took away other
thngs beongng to us.
Concernng ths n the month of |une 1 47 n reference to the
compant whch the 1st pantff made aganst them and to the compant
aso whch wthout any cause the present defendant made aganst the
1st pantff n the magstrate's department n the Pa anasam Tauk
the abo e poce offcers eanng to the defendant's sde used oence
to nduce the pantff to compromse the compant. rbtrators were
therefore apponted and n the month of Mrgar n the Pa anga year
deeds were sgned by the defendant and the 1st pantff respect ey
n whch t was specfed that we shoud de er up to the defendant
for her subsstence of a e of and whch she shoud not ha e power
to mortgage or otherwse aenate but en oy the proceeds thereof hersef.
Thus n the magstrate's court an act of compromse was sgned and
de ered.
III. The poce offcer who rece ed ths deed from us actuated by we
know not what mot es wrote a report to head uarters to the effect that
3 of the and shoud be g en to the present defendant to whom sub-
sstence was assgned n conse uence of whch | of the and as specfed
beow was put nto the possesson of the defendant. The representatons
of the pantff supported by the abo e deed of compromse that such
an order had come and that t was un ust so to put her n possesson
were not e amned and a ust repy g en.
I . The p-esent defendant's husband and ourse es beng brothers
who had not d ded ther property and the mras of the abo e property
beng st n the name of the 1st pantff and the defendant beng
one to whom aready subsstence was aowed and she ha ng no
connecton wth the and whate er and snce a deed of compromse
to ths effect ha ng been g en n the magstrate's offce the re enue
authortes had no rght to put the defendant n possesson of and whch
was n our charge and ther ha ng so put her n charge beng a breach
of order and od n aw the defendant's husband and ourse es beng
aso persons who had not d ded our nhertance as s e dent from the
abo e cted deed of compromse and many other proofs : we ha e made
ths compant n order to -eco er the abo e and e cept the of a e
aowed for the defendant's subsstence accordng to the terms of the deed
of comp'omse aforesad.
The specf.caton of the parces of and foows.
24 1 5
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L TT R ND IT N R. aPP. I .
Notes on the abo e.
1. Obser e that there s an epss of the sgns of the cases and of
ntermedate partces where er ths s possbe. 2.) eurser wrtten and
pronounced ar/rsrr commony) s honorfc and s n constant use. 3.) <3 p
sd o the good face a pote form n araby used n smar cases.
4.) 5<5 '"0 or whch w be for s /d or : ths uafes the
name es s e s a d. 5.) The names of the nd duas and ther castes are
g en. The fna th of the name s omtted. 6.) s'd uuuL for 6 L
a common dom. 7.) a sr'rer for s srarasfr a common abbre aton.
.) The corruptons n genera w be understood by comparng the orgna
wth the corrected copy. 9.) Obser e the use of 2_:_ Br for as a sgn of
the 3d case. 10.) a Lu )rr LD a strange but common form for <s
rm G uk the dong 274.) 2.) d we ha e become. 11.) There are
parts of the abo e whch are not to be strcty parsed : t s the composton
of terate men.
g
PP NDIX I .
Letter from a younger brother to the eder.
The auspcous a good dspostons possesstg the nfnte La shm's
srsearesrrfTssr m'sarfresr utBunedsrnssr mL<osr u<smrr
presence possessng who g es rce and supports dependents
ffds | \ 6)< |ITfT r LD IT DLD T |TfffT 5 r Bp )< O | T
who possesses power to support who has the strength of mount Meru ho s adorned wth
good uates who s a sea of knowedge the most honorabe of the eder
brother to the d ne otus feet I a sa e Bramhanuthan
wth much de oton and affecton makng prostratons wth eght members
<sfrr ffu ernpdOstresnr ffTs rnas 6 5srt a|' srdeor
and wth f e whch has wrtten the most humbe address: That s
to say and now the current Purattus month the 5th day unt
I a sa e and your sa e's nfant offsprng
atd the father -7-aw raputtra Pey wth hs wfe and chdren
and Narayana Pey of the west street and the rest who are desred
nu raerem'tsuh tLom 6) s ' rr | ) essres uunn
frends a are n) heath. There yourse es the eder sster-
|T fm 7) Lorrrfesr semusfTL Iut) omns m h
n-a a and the ong- ed son annusdm and the ong- ed Tureysdm
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apP. I . L TT R ND IT N R
and the ong- ed ady and ornan and the nfant n arms atd other
n that pace who are frends a n body heath that they are
the news to wrte and send I pray you to g e
permsson and now yourse es Purrattas month the 15th day
u u G )u3uu s rr <nuB < n s u urrrr
whch you) wrote and sent the etter comng readng and ookng at
a the thngs I ha e ascertaned I to yourse es
L T|-Ln t - u gt| snu f6\ -aesw
n the month of Purrattas h day whch wrote 7 the etter to the ong- ed
annusum who teas affanced urandeyd Pey's daughter amadch s
<suu <ss 3 rTsd r uL '2e\ wpps esBr |s efr |soT)
1 1 years od. There s no horoscope a other uates
setre u f ) unT<om<s es)h 5 5)LDuns su u s /D urr rr
as far as I hear or see are ute good. There s
no faut. Moreo er for ong- ed Turesdm who was proposed demanded
.M.g2 IP' m9 sr'2etr ds t L I eotLsetssr perrerr
rumugattd Pey's daughter s endowed wth ery e ceent uates.
er) age s) 9. To the eye of fu age she appears a
B<ssr< DLD unu n s p OT)a) oLL fTO e T s n ) TTserr
s good about her but they say she s the th.
That ndeed to my mnd s doubtfu. Therefore
your dea on the sub ect ha ng known thereupon any thng
6Brrff||t snuu u fT3 'esru n fa p sr oDsuuneo
whatsoe er to arrange frmy I am ntendng therefore
s s r ssm L ' sr e s )1 u e uL fT/rtu ph
ths etter when you ha e seen your dea
to me that t may be understood ha ng wrtten to me a sa e
1-101 u osrgu sL 'sr u tL etr en sssn u .
whch s the proper way gracosy to command t s necessary.
uch s my petton .
1 7
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L TT R ND IT N R. aPP. I .
NOT .
Ths s a rea etter. The e tra agant respect shown by the younger
to the eder s amusng. The speng has not been atered. the ab-
bre atons ha e been e paned before and the earner w easy master t.
The wrter s n urng about w es for hs two nephews. e has
found two but the one affanced aready has no horoscope whch a
chdren shoud ha e. The other s the th chd and that s unucky.
e wats for the commands of hs brother
1. em eu s used for a ery humbe petton. It may be from the
ans. Danda at prostrate. It s connected wth <5ssn LD.
2. uum for u urwua and now.
3. f Raf- Lpkesssr and sfr L-Lf. are t. cken-nfants and chd-
wheps. They are famar e pressons.
4. LDTLDT oc. of LDfTLDssT a father -u-uw here used for the nom.
5. B pmm for L- peretr u s often nserted where t s not
re ured.
6. LDh here s an epss of u fe fn'ser.
7. for s e a ans word sgnfyng ong- ed. It s used ony by a
senor speakng kndy of a unor.
. 2_ra/ for -uef stuu eemLu . It s necessary for you)
to g e permsson I pray you kndy to do t.
9. esr " I ha e noted the contents."
10. 'ff ere s an epss of besdes ths moreo er.
11. euLD for Csusr3r mresuruuLD s the endng of a etter: Ths
s necessary Ths s my petton.
rong speng.
gsur/ C for fLpaaf an nfant.
es LDm for LD bL the other
LDu prrrer for L prrrser frends.
u sLfrer for Tserr peope desred or beo ed.
uuL-L r for LTL- rT the month e u aent to ept. Oct.
suuu B for t9| s |uu Bd render certan.
eo em pefrerg for 6CL-3 < r <sr srff s of good uates.
u amu) for u rrrruu ntenton.
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aPP. . a etter and ts N P .
PP NDIX .
Te ansoer to the former etter : from the eder brother to the younger.
To the ong- ed younger brother Bramtunuthan of God
h/ the grace a good thngs and eght knds- of weath
possessons honor estate and carrage earnng and sense more and more
to ncrease may t be and 7ow ths current Purattas month
. De7<s_ usarTu ) Btr pLD s pffrr p) sk' orr L ts th wpg)
"21th day unt we and our cfe and chdren and
other a?d other reat es n ths pace a-e) n heath. In that pace thou
a_<5sr s pfffT ph LDnrT<ssr LD r 5uh LDnn'
and thy ufe and the ong- ed son Mahade an and the ong- ed daughter
marapath and other our reat es and frends
of a ther heath ten you must wrte
and 710 thou n the Purattas monthwhch has wrtten the etter has come
to hand. ' ts substance we ha e noted. But the gr
engaged for my edest so7 u-hethcr she s short or ta
)LL g:sssr Lpsfrefr ssr / ) sOtsGmL IeOGo esrh su uswd
handsome or pan back
suuGkssto sasr s rr L eO t5LD epsBrh
or red by thy etter we nothng
rf u e eOfeo e u - osr sDL L sssressf sOssm'LDrrse h
earn. gan thy eder sster-n-aw says she must be) handsome
LLem ussruD fBLLGn uesr L eoeorrweo LDfT TfTss LD
nether too short nor too ta of a mdde stature
and ft for domestc fe.
6)mD60 cGrru 5 ) L < s sL usm urfeO ftLrror
Besdes for the younger son hc s engaged the gr I am) n fa our ndeed.
But as to her beng the eghth many worthy peope
e snrBs sGsr o6\)G0T r 65 5 dt un eo < L p u smnek
I mpdred of. They a as one cord say another gr
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L TT R ND IT N R. aPP. .
must be ooked out. To our house wfe
u uem ufeO rfu hrrssr sfTrfu 0) | LD
upon that yr s fa or. On that account she aso
as s thnkng about to you to nform she tes me. Therefore
sresT pua bu usmr e LLt-fTsmTLL u:) ds udsh B Tr u
st that gr's reat es fC round about e
to e amne. Thereupon the eghth ndeed certany
to thee f t be ascertaned afterwards to thee n any foregn strange
house whate er agreeng askng to determne where er t s necessary so
determne. Moreo er the pedgng Bete before
dong a etter wrtng f you send" then thy eder
emressfssu L e d psar DsOsu p <ss mned
sster-n-aw I send besdes n the comng Te month
to perform the auspcous ceremony the day and ucky tme to appont
I w rte and send afterwards for that the needfu thngs
a n at pace make dgence to procure.
Besdes to be done a other needfu thngs e cept your own
satsfacton n any matter my consent you need not wat for
n that pace whch happen the affars to me that |ay be known
from tme to tme wthout any forgetfuness you must wrte
and send. It s necessary. Long- ed one to the eders
my respects to present to the younger " My ong- ed
one'' to present.
It s necessary Gur unc than s our hep
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aPP. I. D D OF MORTG G .
PP NDIX I.
Bond assgnng a house-ground as a pedge.
u aent to a ong ease.
3ruu LD srrs u rr' om- 3" s tr p ub CTffTffuDf <s < ttf <s m
Prosperty g ng of the u ra u uhana n the year 1743 of the ayga
acferrr -a. a9 tneo s en sorr t ssrp s cp fr LL IT
4922. In the abo e n the current sha year n the month mas
D T 3 t5' re TF LD IT s L GfT
I th day n the cty of Tan e ho s Dru da Pey's
u | p <r T rr Ln u 9 err ostr u p <5sr 2? ' ' ' '
grand son to ramba Pey's son Pdmannu
3I err srr <s Lnpu m. B < TR 3 t u rr r s tr 6s u em p
)srr3s r<5 5 d du e<r fe fs t|D ufTfssrremfu uemsrr
Pey n the abo e town who s Parkkun Pandt
eufT efT LLnre| T r rr 3 3 rr 1 u essr p c 3 eueou u rr
62|T r LDfTffesr TfTs snr uemur m eueouun
ther son Rusangkar Pandt \) hs younger brother eappu
uemrp srre usuufrs mrra mrr u essr s p
uemsn sne reuutT LDr fr nrnLD GomuT
Pandt 2) Go ndappd's son trdm Pandt 3)
f f | <s err - err Gte /t f o t dssr /_ 3 rr 3" ear p /
we and our reat es a house-ground pedge bond rtng
m us u rB errf smen | e3 p B as u tn rr 3
as we ha e g en : ths day our need beng the reason
LC np t es)<s eo. Re) 33 osr <s s u p Lr d e))
pt pem uu u b'd s\ <ss<s LD'2esrd e urnh: dgo
n ther hand as a pedge commtted of the house the specfcaton : In west
IT rr 3 toff u eo sp y3 e em p e)<s3'fr3s
ng street n est ane n the south sde an d
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D D OF MORTG G . aPP. I.
ara Peruma s house te a pedge takng whch ha e
LCds3T 3 p < R | | < T < fT o T LC) o T < LD ff 35 < fTIT
to the house south ours hch s to the house of the messenger
urfTD'd ufBsp LnTfrut I f ' rrrr su /r w 55 g
L IT fTL I L L I | nT LDfT|TIT L < ) L | IT IT IT < 6r g
asum yangkCu's son Patte angkur to them
g)/ 7<55 rr L- t9 p LD o T 65 LD G I <
sfT aer u. sfT d p LD'2 sr< Lb <su d
we a pedge ohch ha e g en to the house north
sasuu LDrrrrsmuf- LD'2ssr d h s| sd
to the physcan umurands house to Tru engas pedged
LD Bssr s 3 LB LB p a rTLs ' frLr tb rr r rr u e rr
La'hssrsLD dp mLLssfT frrTu esnT
house west to the troughman Narayana
9 GIT doT -5 5 ) IB ' fT I u9 T p LB ds T 65 /57
)sff3s r fBTT |s T stt P d' cst d e
Pey we whch ha e pedged to the house
LB 3 3\ 3 9 B 3) ' OoO GfT o L L ID fT <o:yT
LDd s Bf osr seofsodr r |LLL-.LDrm6r
east thus 136) these four boundares othn encrced
| IB 3 G IT o3T IT sB LB s T p 611 L m
oT sefTTssr sfTo mesr b Ld
our whch s the empty house measurng) from south to north
3 LB ') 3 Lp < LB p < OLB d c rr L
9 yard font east to west ncudng the est wa
3" LB n LB IT 3 < XTT . 3 LB | D ' 3p < p m
ss'd st ) Lonr dsmTL- ") .ssd s / P) P Lpd
9 yards s uare yards 5h and aso) east of ths an unoccuped
3k<5 r < p 3e .' m 3 LB 'p tp GLBp<
ground from south to north 4 yards from east to t est
3 t 2.6 | LB r k s <s3sr I 3 Ln I|DD 'a9'osrLB -'
2 yards s uare yards IO5 thus both together the tota
I92 ""
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aPP. I.
D D OP MORTG G .
3k. e <F LD ffnD 6)D < 3 m 3 LO L
3 - f ) 'f D :< ) ) s) LDL|L C T|)
yards 95f s . yards each estmated at
ffn ' < IT r f Da. 4 a. | h |
fanams thus Pan 32 fanams 2 . Ths and more
whch was g en fayams
u9 f n o r 2D
Ths house-yromd
atogether
nto ther
Pon 32 fanams 3
)su eo
hand a pedge
) 6| <g 3r en IT f
est T 3? r5< Br' <3
ha ng paced that whch we ha e rece ed: n the o n of Trusu
sButrssr eOfre saaf r e OT u sssr e err erf u r ssr
fffurrssr seorreuessf em uearn suGreff unssr
rghty current n doube fanams of s er Pon
TrtDa. 33r LD tf| u B p IT m IT <o
/ 2_) usmh hg -) puusr sm unm
32 fanams 3f these thrty two Pon
Gssr ss) tr u sm tr <s r so u sssr ftp La tsn rs <s s rm su cm b
tp ossr ss) tr k) L sm rr s < r O u sr m
and three a7d a haf and one eghth f a fanam
we
T
both
7r <s <s Ln u <s <s fT em u sf. 9 '\d O u esyr s
ready money because ha e rece ed there s no nterest
6 L t u3 s sO LD dst T <s m |frL y <st dso. u m LL ssr .ss
due on the money nor rent for the house. Ths house s
<s s| r<oLD \ )a9B's <s sm'ueu T
date s) for years 50 ths date ffty years
m err GfT u em /e7 tc m
d m D<sr o BTs <st _ _
wth? 9 - ng the money the ste to ea e
rr LD n ssr eP

<F rr ear 63) s\)


Gs TesT e )
f we) say.
they
Bosr m 3) u I eo so <s be|< 3 err er
the ste to ea e
need
thn ths date
193
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D D OF MORTG G . aPP. |.
Lo dm s u urr rLD u <ss3r e m G b er m eo
D'2e re LL L un f -LD uesar 0<5/7 ) 5Tosr r )
"the ste ea ng we go the money g e" f /ou) say
u ossr f <ss s )o u 5)dso <s osr u
the money to g e need s none. For the term of ffty
<o p p If LD dm 60) IT L t G T CT|/ s
years ths ste they possessng to en oy
<s fT srr sfT eu d u m s <s <s|< ' r 6r9? dm u9 eO
et them. thn ths date on ths ste
IT n LD 3 3r < t <f- 2F) LB LB IT . I - Lt
they a ted roof) though they bud or an upper house thd' they bud or a terraced house
sL t LB<f3r L 3) LB o T p < L- L< ' 3)0
though they bud a we though they dg and bud up
3 tr O -3 f < 0 3LBLL 7r < 60 IT I
for a channe brck and) red stones puttng though
L ) 1 LB u9 Gfr<3 L . p< frLB u|6 fr
they) bud these to the budng of they whate er
0 o| <o3 T p < I t C3) LB LB p I o r m -
< O a L|o Br os s Lfth 3 p )t o T
e pense makng they bud ther account accordng to
G <35 s rr em s ' fr o n' )|L . D sr n-p f <oO u e rar b
ops srr 5sur s .s otsr a t ssr pp o t n|a
agreeng the date when t s e pred the orgna money
IT I 7 fT Da. sm LB f| 6)p L esr d? r b b 3 <3h
urrdr / -) ussar) /b 6) :' sr rh tussf-
Pon o2 fanams 3f wth ths they the ted
LBfTL f- o rrL| m p I 1 I o T LB dm < 3| T ofr<3 oOLB
T LL n| T p | a L o r Lo'25 r a <3rr a| 7 Bh .)
or terraced house hch but the money aso for the house but year by year
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aPP. I. D D OP MORTG G .
u p u rr u sm np a 3 - s rar dsm c35 g <5 <3 stO)
for repars e pended money aso onng then ohch sha he current
L ssBTunTn sn d sLL d sfT L esr w'ssr
money gdng wth the but-roof the ste
t s <sr srr o ) s<s|LC <s B ofr m'< u- os r
LB'tL d sr r surrwfrs e b a suresre osr
we w redeem. he7 the date s e pred
LD Bssr s msfTsfru sssr fa n Bssr L 6frfrMou uT eG\)
to the ste beongng money g ng the ste not beng redeemng f t) go
L dm s u su ss) p u<3frosrubrr s<s.ss r ssm
Lo'2osrd su ua rr<fssnDrTs< sL-s snsm
for the ste ths tsef sae deed as hodng
- pu a /D ufrpLB <ss)trtu ra m ssr 03) u
L r uerr urTr ) <safT rT | n'Bssrssu
sons and grandsons from generaton to generaton the ste
IT b m T OT2/ < s sT 31T or < - o r < |Lb
they ony possessng and en oyng et them he
u B LD'25srd g a| 0aL- srreOsu uts
to ths ste |or a way to go and an e t for the channe
duD <ouL a LL < <n r 'h- LD2ssrd
a way ea ng we g e. Concernng ths ste
ufr frn .s frL <s) oO' efr<oTrosr frosr/6| so
turr T seru eo' so. <s srs )6 rear ntssrr t
any dspute whate er there s not. If any dspute shoud arse
t <s o r sm u 0 -MP f ' ' ' 2? < I5
sn | sk am uB eo u /t.t p osr osf<0
we three persons of some one standng forward
r' < 3) y M IB Lb LL 3 3-
srr < rf uD. Buusf. md
w sette t. Tms agreeng
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D D OP MORTG G . aPP. I.
I ) IB GIT np 3 )I f Ld p r _ 3
wc thee persons to the abo e a pedye-
rLp/ bT LDs ' r rLn.
P B |nns sr nh
bond ha e wrtten and g en.
gned) nrffasnr usmuf-r s'dd 0.)
Rasangar Pandt consent.
eueouufT usobtt 'dd-
eappd Pandt consent.
tdrun Pandt consent.
tnesses.
fBfrrrru essr rrT<s )/r p <m. 10)
Nardyana Row I know.
snureosm f I su.
Gopdasdm I know.
s fas rrs er' sr r sum.
encaddsaa P ey I know.
uesBThuTTes sy aT< -ss ) srs cu sL.
The money sght by me urns seen) of the money ba aar Rengyachett.
snem ffaLDL er'etr ) r su sr.
Gothanda Rdma Pey | know.
Ths document was wrtten by me undaran schoo master at fu ength.
NOT .
1) aurfLDer s anscrt suh prosperty m BLDm prosperous. It s
usua to pref some words ndcatng good fortune to a documents. 2)
.3 me)TBp for 3 ) p. 3) - sr mp rf )L fs-srr - r -d
wthn reat es and ) our whoe famy crce. 4.) Osfr B L L what we
ha e de ered as our act s as foows. 5.) sr/ a<sfrra r our ercasefr 6th
case .esr p. re. part of 130.) 6.) -mu .<sr wthn u fa)
ncus e. 7.) Lorssskn s-sd s uare yards t. yards arsng from nter-
change . .from mutpyng the two precedng together. .) 2_ added to n
nfnt e g es the meanng of "et.'" It s often used wth .ff- Thus up
s s rm <s TLDrseLD et us rece e 9.) sus/ra/s) s an ncorrect form
a redupcaton of <s fsd as though t were a T< L eu eLD e| f eLr
eunh ) by rues of anscrt combnaton year 6?/ /ear. 10.) <fdd and
Gsussr are added to the names of partes sgnng as prncpas or wtnesses
respect ey.
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aPP. II.
DI I ION OF TIM .
PP NDIX II.
Ths s nserted rather as a curosty than for any practca purpose. The ngsh
. D. s now used ery generay.
I. D sons of Tme.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
1 .
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
2 .
29.
30.
31.
t uta 1 07-
dws 1 0 -
s- eo 1 09-
ffLDr 1 10-
ff T/bu 1 11-
/ / T-r 1 12-
ps 1 13-
ue 1 14-
LL 1 15-
rr 1 16-
_ <5*/r 1 17-
eu fre L 1 1 -
sLDIT 1 19-
e d ffw 1 20-
sf* 1 21-
s ufT 1 22-
sutrm 1 23-
Tffem 1 24-
urTu 1 25-
sf L/ 1 26
ff Rs 1 27-
F eurrrf 1 2 -
1 29-
1 30-
1 31
1 32-
1 33
1 34-
1 35
The cyce.

32.
9
33.
10
34.
-11
35.
12
36.
13
37.
-14
3 .
15
39.
-16
40
17
41.
-1
42.
-19
43
20
44.
-21
45
22
46
-23
47
24
4
-25
49
26
50
-27
51
-2
52
-29
53
-30
54
-31 55.
-32 56.
-33 I 57.
gu ... .
m p 1 36-
m3
1 37-
e eTLD 1 3 -39
sf<s/7/f 1 39-40
afrro /f 1 40-41
eoeu 1 41-42
s-u 1 42-43
:3'Tu F g 1 43-44
fffT 1 44-45
e ..3h<su Te 3h 1 45-46
ufftrueu 1 46-47
t5a)<a ff/ 1 47-4
ees 1 4 -49
FefTBtu 1 49-50
srru'sm- 1 50-51
e ffr T 1 51-52
ufffr 1 52-53
t rrmfrs 1 53-54
sr 54-55
sTL-s 1 55-56
/ OT- 1 56-57
/ ser 1 57 5
arc \L 1 5 -59
TT 1 59-60
tretrff 1 60-61
mm 1 61-62
fss B 1 62-63
- D TfTp<srrff 1 63-64
fTTL 1 64-65
ffrssr 1 65-66
LffL 1 66-67
I'
m<oLC) arD.
191
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DI I ION OF TIM .
aPP. II.
II. The Months.
The year begns wth
1. emr pr May.
2. easuarr May |une.
3. .ssf |une |uy.
4. f |uy ug.
5. eussB ug. ept.
6. LffL-t r ept. Oct.
7. Oct. No .
. srfrc s .... No . Dec.
9. Lorrn-sL Dec. |an.
10. |an. Feb.
11. LDr Feb. March.
12. _'/ / of .... March pr.
III. The eek.
su/TT ) n ans. a day of the eek n Tam used for a eek aso.
1. m g)s .... ..... ru n gd peaLD.
The sun
2. ser .... sL- poaLD.
The moon
3. <3 u suru
Mars.
4. Lfek
Mercury.
5. e tLfTp )
|upter.
6. eu re
enus.
7. s em
aturn.
eerud peou
... L nk peaLD.
e o|TLpd petoLD.
s freB p<LD
.... <3 s d psaLD.
) oe LD a day of the week.
3 eu/nrLc er.
For these the anscrt forms are sometmes used
1. urT).
2. 3 nD sumw.
3. LDI I ffO e fTf
4. -// sarrruD.
5. 5 earsLD.
6. sfd eurrTM.
7. urk eaTffLD.
I . Mnor D sons.
6\3 day. ur nght. tBr r 24 hours.
60 mTLeas or rtrrB one mrrer. bt<5 or tam hour s thus 24
mnutes.
19
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aPP. III.
FR CTION.
60 srr make one rrLess.
<3rLD 3 or watch 3 hours.
From 6 to 9 p. m. pf ) r< srrtn.
From 9 to mdnght. ffsm rr snoua.
From 12 to 3 a. m. pm stdu.
From 3 to 6 . M. //rso/rg <frLcLD.
Mdnght s d 3| 'rrrLDth: the mdde of the srn. Noon s
or - TfLD.
PP NDIX III.
Fractons.
The Tam system of fractons s ery defect e. It can ony e press
fractons whose denomnator conssts of no other factors than 2 or 5.
The foowng tabe contans the ements of Tam fractons.
_ 1 .
320 '
I. pm or eu
Two of whch make enfrasn
hch s the haf of aress or g
Three aremt make psresB or
O "90 |
Two sremB make eanr or <s
_
hch s haf of dt or u -|
Two of whch make a<sm wn-
s t
Three uorr make peknLDrr or s)
3 .
Two rrmr Lor make wfrdr t rr
or .3D 1
N. B. In a these the denom-
nator contans ony mutpes of 5
and 2.
II. sreo or sy |
Two of whch make ao/r or 6)
1
2 7
Three sfr ) make p an or
af of /ra) <sr)rrdsr ) or
rr 1
Then sremB - dt Lorrsrem or
a '.ff. or g '
nd I of ths or eamnr eard
ar sB or 3 rd : -'
N. B. The denomnator of these
contans ony mutpes of a..
III. In schoos a fracton s used
caed f pff -I X so
_ _
1 02" 40
n uB s a uantty 101
of whch make one papB
T oT5".2.
ueston s thus asked and
answered.
D de 41 among 5 persons.
nswer
s enL rnrpug : / ycwa .s
5 fwes ore 40 : remander 1 /
5 ?nes 5 / wo remander.
ns 1.
199
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T
POINT OF T COMP . aPP. IX.
PP NDIX IX.
The
ponts of the Compass.
<ca .
N.
-
s t d
C uffdr.
N. .
N. .
aL- LDp
fa
6 /rear r.
f
.
P
.
LDp t |

f

tsmsrer. "
Bnm.
. .
k . .
s.
0s3r )a g
ach of these s caed
1 m3 or g.
The names under are thos
e of the d uureosT
or guardans of the pont.
The ad . North
s a/-: thus euu-emff the north pont.
outh
ek: enrn
5 <9 the south.
ast -
: peae the east.
est -
d ): C?/.frDs<F the west.
200
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aPP. X. T BL OF R L TION IP
PP NDIX X.
Tabe of Reatonshp.
I. Parenta.
I.) suuek father: T T ud |/rdr
II.) uffn suum urftu um ufftu resr a suud
n puum mesr /tct- fathers eder and unor brothers.
III.) . tem father s sster. Lorr .) LOLDrrek |er |usbad.
LD-Ftrer / ther chdren.
II. Materna.
I.) n mother: "3 LDLotr L IdtLI.
II.) u/ffu Tu mother s eder ssters: urB<uu . a m mother s
younger sster <a ru .
III.) LofTLDesr mother's brother r LDmDdr
.sem dt hs t fe.
emLDg etsrek eswg o <s d ) ther chdren.
III. By Marrage.
LDfTLDsk father-n-aw. <3 LDua r parents of the husband or wfe LDa
mother--aw.
sn-ag wfe's eder sster .frasr husband's eder brother and eder
sster's husband. sr LpfB<ser husband's brot er.
rBtT husband's sster: /bt t r|' .) euuLursr husband's
brother's wfe.
LD LD sr tt son-u-a . saeodr g seouu TL) one who has marred one's
wfe's sster. One wfe cas another wfe of the same husband d.s0fr.
I .
rrfT tresT father's father : u3 9.) ua-C er mother s father
used aso for father's father. utu-L father's mother. ddtu mother's
mother. uuru father's mother. p u u mL esr great grand-father.
uffcsr up grand chdren.
ssmLDussr sest essr ek an eder brother : ssnen aee s<9 ) an eder
sster. smes ds an eder brother's fe.
sd younger brother esa saesys| a younger sster.
LDrmnrfosr smu or LDg)T step-mother. )?e<nu uf-urea second wfe.
npf mL' Tssr frst wfe.
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NOP I OF C NG OF T MIL LTT . aI'P. XI.
PP NDIX XL
// ) s o the combnutuns and cangcs of Tam etters.
Compare and study we the tabe n page 2. Introd: so comp. Pope's III Gram.
19-42 for a compete ew of the sub ect.
It may be usefu to the student o ha e before hm a tabe of the
prncpa canges n Tam speng though these rues are not strcty
obser ed n a cases. It s desrabe to wrte as far as possbe as we
educated peope speak not u sng unnecessary changes but retanng those
whch are euphonc and natura.
tht s essenta s ncuded under c foowng s heads:
I. Cobnatun t//out c|un e.
The fna consona.t of a word often combnes smpy wth the nta
owe of the foowng.
edLD s pg BeO Fa p there s ground.
It s n genera better howe er to separate the words.
II. Inserton of etters.
Ts s caed 'rrssrps - appearng snce a new etter a ) ears.
Fundamenta prncpes :
I.) Ta o wp:s cannot coae together.
II.) s. r u R DO BL D FT R O L N T L TT R
O ) o X T FORM R B T NOT N T PR C INO OO
LM'L <2L" L'I T L TT R OR N T R I N LLII' I .
1
B tes.
I.) The fna consonant of a monosyabe whose owe s short
s
doubed before a owe n the begnnng of the foowng word.
LDssr '/? LD skr<sssrBs| the earth s rare.
undr 'nf) nLD u a fk car sa d the prccosncss of tod.
202
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aPP. XI. NOP I OP C NG OF T .MII. L TT R
CIT.) hen a owe at the end of a word meets a owe n the begn-
nng of a foowng word or en s nserted to a od the hatus. 1 .
The same etters are used n a the cognate anguages. Teugu aso
uses n.
1. s take '| as most homogeneous.)
2. T takes ether L or en.
3. The other owes take eu ony.
gsf Lss T e '|- ssar there s yet.
srftu- w utf' L the fre w burn.
eaas s emaeuu a hand. oh .)
67 su that ndeed.
n- ' sr euasr . tf -a esrueaa he s ndeed a kng
III.) hen gy _g) or ot demonstrat e or nterrogat e are
pref ed to words the foowng consonant s doubed.
LD ms <cr wLoemer that nan.
e? ue B ths house.
OT 4- sug s srdeueas ? hat way ?
I .) fter a owe nta a u are doubed the sonant beng
thus changed nto a surd.
LD b/D smBntM appa s/rrB Lo the other affar.
sLc -3 LD ths sound.
To ths there are reguar casses of e ceptons.
a. e e ) sBr B/ rer dd he g e? after an nterrogat e etter.)
b. ?m mn sfT ) eder brother g e after a ocat e case.)
c. <sLea d thou ddst younger brother after a fnte erb.)
d. eaerr seo/t a horse that ran. after a reat e partcpe.)
e. 'B snec the post of a pcota : after a erba root used as an ad .)
/. u s that s great: after a pronoun.)
m<s e< ) B ufT go wth hm: ) . .
g. \ | after a case of a noun.)
Tg m my head:
There are many anomaes here especay when one or both) of the
words s anscrt. In genera whene er the atter n any way go erns the
former and there s no epss the s <? u must be doubed thus throw-
ng the force of the compound on the go ernng word.
.) fter L IT Cp a foowng <s <? or u w for the most part
be doubed.
Ournu 03 sosu urud' 0<fcts d fase prosperty.
T 9 r s L a bubbe on the water.
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NOP I OF C NG OF T MIL L TT R . aPP. XI.
I.) g LD are often doubed after or s at the end of monosy-
abes.
GLD' Tasru) Lr)L T earth true wsdom.
III. Transmutaton of Letters.
Ths s caed o turnng. \
Fundamenta prncpe:
Consonants whch meet must be of the same cass and organ.
I.) Fna d s changed nto h before <s "
OT) s-sr T ssrr 37.) our
Fna d s changed nto s before -f.
That s LD s chang-
ed nto the nasa of
ursuLD .g L " r u T<3| 3 u m |:-the cass to whch
/ ha e snned.
Fna LD s changed nto before .
uemLD rrek ussarm/rer he ga e money .
Compare ntroducton page 3.
thefoowng conso-
nant beongs.
II.) sB|r and e|r before s u and are often changed nto -.
2_sr -f- ff eu rer -LL ff eu drrdr he entered n.
Brm 4- trgM mtrC TLo e ery day.
ere the of the foowng word s ost.
III.) s r and a) before # u and are aften changed nto b.
OLT sr spTL uT b<s n'L a goden esse.
unm' ss ufrpn: a goden pate.
ere s aso changed.
s<so eL-ua spsrLLD a stone budng.
s emrr s b/ sb) t a wa e of the sea.
ere the s aso changed nto.
I .) eo and sr before h are changed nto car and mr respect ey
and tsef s changed nto the same etters or dsappears atogether.
f ) <30 / s|rOT ffff) a good composton.
. er fBTm mck. Lord of grace.
.) eo and err before d are changed nto sr and em respect ey.
ssb LD essTLD a mountan of stone.
pek p pw -ps)- a crown of thorns.
204
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aPP. XI. NOP I OF C NG OF T MIL L TT R .
I.) / after es and car s sometmes changed nto those etters
respect ey.
smr T s ssresT tears.
sesr BffOLD sr ear I OLD hs good.
nd sometmes one of the doube etters s omtted.
I . Omsson of Letters.
Ths s caed s B <m destructon.'
Fundamenta prncpe:
Tam sentences must gde on genty wthout nterrupton.
Rues.
I.) fna 2_ n a words e cept dssyabes whose frst owe s
short) s caed p/Bueo sto short-nature-) and s ost before a
foowng owe.
Lorr e-ear Lorr em 1 . 5 g. 56 a buock s there.
But u 2_ 33r 3 5ssr there s a eow.
et I3| sre|ra r Obesr what s ths?
II.) Fna " s often dropped before or .
s r<c)LD LDTff LD s fT ffo LD fT p the tme w change.
BTLDLh ."B sog TLDBso po T. the name s good.
. anscrt compounds.
The foowng are the most common anscrt changes.
.)4 sr .M-rt s nna s mo eae and mmo eabe.
\ " I ssu eo Lh sufreO a tempe of God.
II.) _ or ser sg errasr -u sd T effu 3<3'LD sprtua
nstructons.
C <?/fa msur osr r eueheurrek Lord of a.
cm )" / or er < . . . .
I s s 1 _ _ L LD u e LD. accordng to one s
desre.
205
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NOP I OF C NG OF T MIL L TT R . aPP. XI.
I. Msceaneous changes.
I.) There are certan anomaous changes whch words undergo
when compounded.
ussr IT uesr arr a pamyra forest.
L ) es) sa ms the pam of the hand.
II.) Letters are omtted.
fsrofrLD s wrtten n e en|).
oOrrenesr s rttcn eeo/rdr or eorrdr.
Ths takes pace chefy n Poetry .
206
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FO M IC T NGT N T OOT
IN INFL CTION. 0)
I. C)
233) . buock.
a- s eded
c 1 w 1 doubed. f )
<'s cgCT-emo) c. added 151)
I. Tom CasOk
era/sr
I . I III. C')
g-P. y rmr. DIub. .< rec.
Fna a. s eded " changed nto<* *.
and /s doubed. 1 ) 1 )
II. ccnsat e 236)
s the ob ect. 3. 21)
7)
.p<3 p
III. b. of Conne on. 23 L/r a).
I) B M N OF: a).
II.) TOG T R IT : g . _n .
21
I . Dat e. 242) s .
TO or FOR. or a.*
ar added for. ' dsns.
Comp. nd. o. 21
. b. ofRemoton. 245 ' .
FROM. g)a e) efB.
-B- or s r. 21) pg.6sfssr -
wn<3
eo.
t nss s.
ff
pr e sTg .
I. Gen. or Possess e. 24 OT2 ao_ .
OF. a.B_u dr /) 5 r. 0
21) Poet. s g . I) rrs .
LL b. of ocaton 2.5 1
T IN IT . or g)_ 5Peo . r n ' / '
/) 26 -eo: p estL-<so
eo.
mpea |. \dt
pr <m. LO .
p o.
III. ocat e. 2ur
CT or fna sy. engthened.
p
os
a) ssssrsaer makes nom. pk
noun. pu. ID/r acr gsar tO h
7th f) asr. Ths s sometmes
cases euphony absoutey re ure
sometme nserted between the
pp torf) as n the cassca Ian
m) For the cases n whch
termnaton n eu. Ths s
tmes used for )_ sa)
p )or sasrr a nserted) c) oo- make
must not be confounded wth the 1 st form of the
more common n poetry than n prose but n many
th case n poetry eessr edsehr. ) In poetry ct- s
rea root s to be sought n the ob ue cases db-c L
" en are g:' h head and oranascr hs hands
suc edto 9 : eessras . o) e may be added to any
chefnes nserted: sGaaaet-pe as- ) -ps s some-
207
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PP NDIX XII.
P DIGM .
I.) NOP I OF T T MIL NO N. 21.)
FORM.
FORM IC I BT O LID t TT R.
FORM IC T NOT N T ROOT 1
I. Norn. Case. ' 233)
4c -s ro< c. added I I)
1. ")
aamaar. n ac-
countant. ute reguar.
The termnatons sm-
py added.
ffa). | sone.
short monosyabe.
. s doubed before
the termnatons.
III.
bP a/ot.
nserted. 1 )
I .
ua. cow.
< r s nserted. 1 )
.
Tg. 71 <r.
Fna o-s eded
before the owe
of a termnaton.
I. C)
ICIF . buock.
Fna a. s eded
and doubed. 1 )
II. 1 III. )
gfg. | r er. 1 . | tree.
Fna . s eded .o changed nto .5.
and 5 doubed 1 ) 1 )
n. ccnsat e. 236)
-- the ob ect. 3. 21)
ae dssn: )
/B/faou.
usaoff .
t|G I
wr es T)
pes p mns.
III. b. of Conne on. 239)
u M N OF: a.
II.)Oa T TB: . )
21)
a r 3a). 0)
a a)re).
6 ? /7 .
mfuta.
sf un .
ua-mna.
us an .
stt n .
) 7t-_/76)
45/7 5.611.
.p Tf .
usr n .
I . Dat e. 242)
TO or FOR. or a-g.
a added /or.
Comp. nd. 'o. 21)
B sstrs.
aurt dsrs
p ssts.
y. b. of Remoton. 243)
F OM. g)d/ c)
' or srp. 21)
Bsmsae ea or
3 6337 <5 .5 6577 63n 63r 3I/ .
<7 nserted.) fp)
tBRa e.
/765nOT7.
nnLtff s.
u rTL6sf gu.
I.Gen.orPossess e. 24 )
OP. < - g* /)
21) Poc . n. .. 0)
3 eB3r<5ars )_L7.
0)6 ot.
'sda ea.
wtTt |
II. b. of Xocaton 25)
T IN In. * or -fe..
CO 21)
sBt a.
u o a.
ans.
wnLuf-et).
P o.
p esf B
n. ocat e. 21)
n or fna sy. engthened.
5PM..') \ h)
seo a
uor a
sr *) Dr ..'
p
ms w:
fa) saaasT makes nom. pu. aGs af or atm aea to whch the termnatons are added. 29) b) a t makes the nom. pu. b7 d a *) or ays sf nserted) "c torO make
noun. pu. uff |ac gscf to whch the termnatons are added d) md makes nom. pu. D-Batfr w a a) 29 ) "e Ts case must not be confounded wth the 1st form of the
'th Cf) '*- Ths s sometmes caed the ob ue case. Cg) " may be nserted between the noun and the casa termnaton. 22) Ths s more common n poetry than n prose but n many
cases euphony absoutey re ures t. The ear w soon become accustomed to ths. I) as* wth *) s used as a termnaton of the 7th case n poen aaatt|cTn . ) In poetry c* s
sometme mserted between the noun and ts casa term. Thus saaa sa sr. ) There s reason to suppose that n many nouns the rea root s to be sought n the ob ue cases :ruL.
p ) r) as n the cassca anguages) /) The ocat e as n a other anguages' takes the weaker theme of the noun. I) The e ampes g en are eg'-'. hs head and fa-nr hs hands
m For the cases n whch such nouns as fa and ror are go erned by foowng nouns see 131). n) g' s sometmes shortened to 9 : cwaOe 0) maybe added to any
termnaton n 0.. Ths s chefy for euphony sometmes t mparts a tte emphass. 23 ) fp) as o from the 7th case s sometmes nserted: aasrate ae:- 1) |a s some-
tmes used for g : aOTarf *. 151. /| - t y - '- -
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r L R L.
P R ON.
. Nom. C-r. rO )
II. ccu
The theme
md chaned
II) TOG T
3d. P so . ' 3d. rtusoN net.
F. \ eut. b) sff arar 67 ro a t.)
O T.)
\< | X)fT.
III. 'b o ) - |serfr6 .
f '
)
I at a_/B<5 e5<5
TO or Fof
rhe shorte
takes
y. b.
from:
Fna ct-
monos '
O
.ts aeff ).
-<s)
s p nserted )_
s)p n ).
'eup/6 es .
5 s eTfT .
6p3 .
up p .
FL X :.
10 )
ss' err.
eu n s efr 60 .
eas seffeo c.
sup c.
I. Gen.
OP" .:
smpe shortp*
often
. |ser.
I L .
?)
II. b.
T IN
f eO.
ufeo.
sufrsefeo.
LDuyneO.
w eo c.
BseBeo he.
upf I )L |.
pr I . \ | efF ).
" n ngsh. 11. b.) f)) B f s used potey or as an honorfc. c) r sa:
</) gaetr the reguar pura s sometmes used hut s rather ant uated.
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r L R L.
P R ON.
ar )
L Nom. c-r. I'o )
II. ccu a-/ 7a sTr
The theme
md chanfred
O T.)
III. 'h o\ P_ setrrTs .
r)B |I . |
II) TOG TI
)
I . at:
TO or ro
rhe shorte
takes .
y. b.
FRO r:
Fna ct-
monosy
3d. P O.N.
P. \ t. b)
\ |eD/T.
eunsenneO.
su nnso.
|Ts efrn .
3d.
". '
I' OX L"X.
d)
XsP nserted )
poT -eo.
enpr f < \|.
enpr .
\< pr p .
FL XI .
r s|rr. c)
10 )
gas sfrn .
. eusfeo c.
m asefReO c. eO c
LD .
-Lo)
up/ dO C.
rsserfeo c.
I. Gen
OF- a.
smpe shortp
often
f | efT.
L-L .
TF t L- |.
)
II. b.
T IN
enTser.
' uprB uu.
LD eo.
" n ngsh. 11. b.) h) eof s used potey or as an honorfc. _c)r a
) ga the reguar pura s sometmes used hut s rather ant uated.
- .
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II.)
ING L .
rr NDIX XII.
'NO' r OF T T MIL I'ONO N . o.)
PL R L.

. orn. case. 10.1 '. 37.)


2d. T ON. 3 1. - R ON. 25)
rf //O . Mas. f r e.
10.) Fen. | ..* s/f.
3d. P . N r.
PO T. a.)
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1st. P R ON. 1 -d. P R ON.
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1 II. ccusat e.
The- theme s shortene|
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m. PO T)
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eunsGara .
3 p ff 3.
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1 I . Dat e.
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tates .
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ff <3. PO T.
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a )
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FROM w c.
na or doubed n
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sup Bo c.
w | c.
. 7. 1.)
I. Gen. or Poss.
mpe shortened theme
often used.
eesr.
s.- *d .)

w - aer.
n-w pas-a .
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a /rastr.
/7 . T| ao _ .
ro au Cr OT _ u
up/B c5) _ |.
PII. M. of Xoca
ama af 6\ .
amseB .
' OT sy a srf _ e
eupt .
tksaf-eo.
N. B. Compare the notes to the Tabe o Nouns.
a) * s used potey as " you" n ngsh. 11.6.) 6) 5<uf s used potey or as an honorfc c)es:
s used as an honorfc. 10 - b) rf) ss- the reguar purr| s sometmes used ut s rather ant uated.
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IND X I.
T I L- IMCLI .
Neary a the words n ths st are n ordnary use. Great care must be taken to ascertan
the e act dea of each word from a Nat e f possbe) before usng t. The references are
to paragraphs of the essons where ether the word s found or some kndred form s us-
trated. Ths Inde and Inde. II are ntended mutuay to ustrate one another.
ords n brackets occur n books chefy or are not to be used wthout carefu e amnaton.
25 115 141.
. s \ sfTnh srrrLh) prde
egotsm.
a k I ems y/B ao -etrer/ us).
the pam of the hand.
su/rmr? 1/ou put t n the pam of
your hand and ck the back of the
hand ?
a s the nteror co. \_L penB.'
. y I se fTL mmense.
< a tree: Corona grandfora.
. s LD urgency necessty . ys/
LLD. grammar sad to be by
the Mun gastya.
. <5/ ffa prde presumpton : _
LDfTL|L IT .
su I L.' -5 . be obtaned caught.
161 244 262. Isd u .
su\u Bgu 161. cause to be
taken.
su I esu a ade usmu.
ug.) 6u.
B s us sTL ts hande.
s Tsfh ufrfh aussu sfrssrdf.
Though t go .50 mes a ade s worth
ony) haf a cash.
. LD mpudence s. ahamI
the mnd a house not common.
| )su r b L eur 5 3 sIT
Many myrads are destroyed by prde
.ff /r a dctonary s. sn
s n) breadth. .< 60<s .s_
narrowness co. ssLem
g)* o se a3. Dt Ths coth
s too narrow.
s I edoO the market prce of pad-
dy : /recftusf .
s 70. become wde separate
from. < y<55 LD.
<st . ystp a moat : d so
sp 62. e tend put away.
gys|2/. 160.
sdg ufT go away from. 25 .
seo.
. .-gya/rL a horse's front foot ropes
before.
. I srr )LD an unproptous tme.
pr at e.
. \ LD anythng unft unpea-
sant a hta.
sT 193.
. sTffLD ntensty ehemence.
arr u e uf r er a se ere
ascetc s a great rogue.
ssLD a sde fhuda.)
aes).s3 . pp. X.
Te. daesp necessty: Cetneu.
ssfTor. an eder sster. 215 216.
pp. X.
. a a /reof a heathen : . e /rsof.
. I d ffLDLD n uty. udd.'
. d rrrr LD a brahman age or
schoo.
.s csn fre. OCT- tp s . pp. .)
213
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'oo. that for .
ro o s r a cass of nouns ncu-
dng a rratona bengs com.
e_u IT ' oosr . 236.
. sBs' a a acket.
ssuL aeuLp. a strrup.
. st body member- sgn dgt.
s/<s I sets fLD arthmetc s.
N G NIT M : < Ora .
. s a robe '/sa.
s sf 64 rece e embrace
assent to. \_? r eT LD.'
|
107
. LD a goad for an eephant.)
. . /gu /r a tmbe.
m ms LD an nch the thumb.
s 3'<s there: e ss o.25.
. I 3 sLD weakness.
T ow peope: 'tpT c err.
mLmL negect contempt.
<sL /_.
< fatgue ennu for urp
suddenness: <s B.
. hL n.9 srfgat) the dong thngs
wthout ookng e at the conse-
uences. TteofaChap. n to.)
a M PR I RI
not-together-bef ore-ook-do.
. /ff? a//ro a oce of an n sbe
beng. -FTff e|rd .'
3 - fatgued fant.
R. -a) the orgna document
prnc a sum.
. 3e . u ) ) ne t neghbourng.
. <LDt| deness soth : ffrrLo
uso.
. 1 I aMueuLD a ery mprobabe
affar.
sgu a scab scurf.
. . :3rLD ood : esrssru:) s_ ?3ra /-
. rr- h somethng rrepa-
rabe ncurabe.
. .'9 s _ffs nr Dg. ssstant.
. T or .: T ready present.
. . ' I ffesnTLD ndgeston : ded.
. mpurty. '. pr .
. / I * mpurty: a- /
pr .
: L L suddenness : <s .
. .' LDTssr rft a canopy : dpsL.
. *2D) ahorse.
e dm the sacrfce of a
horse.
R. r hu ur presence head-
uarters : - T.
sta a syabe produced by one
mo ement ) rumnaton.
sd'T 57. mo e neut.) 271. 64.
mo e act.) 15. g. cud.
Ba3 \ un- pg) chew the
ems I / moton. _ s3 . 190.
dLD fear: uu d. Re erence:
euefdsBM. *.) 192.
. . ds- an a e a type stamp.
L- and prepared for rce
cut aton.
s eneoT Gsr Lrg CCr wth-
out an a e cannot run.
da-a s Lc a prntng offce.
dsr I LDL-.1 LD an cheen Poney.
. okffLD a etter : ot ms .
. s _ eght: enL .
. s T- | the eght members.
's 1- .|I | )' .
. ewLDrsrru) etoLDesru) prop.)
settng.
. mt 64. set as the sun.)
. emeuTrrLD foundaton bass.
. c <F6 re erence : euesnh.
P. 's ) post pubc con eyance :
furrso. ment.
. . tf' cnLD backness magc ont-
detos re erenta fear : uu
OT* f e a corrupton of s .
Comp. . P NC .)
r -* 62. fear : uuuu .
. gy I e g/ran-) gnorance. gy pr .
. r a pawn pedge : sd dt
TLD.
/_<s) 1.) encosng 2.) mo-
desty sef-restrant : e esnuLb. 3.)
an encosure.
214
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L_a 62. put down or under
encose. 160. f. s. ad'has.|
L-3 o the whoe contents a
contract.
gy_ / g- 62. submt go n or
under. 56 7 125 160. f.
L aru urr hL s T sm gps suL
For a rebeuus snake a bambu stck
s kng.
. < y_) obstnacy : eun-LD.
f) 60. grow thck spread.
240. LDf ser L rt arr
a unge thck wth trees.
ILIT .| IL-IT LITL L-
Ts thckness.
. L_a9 a wood : <s/r .
sy-/r 194.
tr unseemy 121. .
-rg s'Xaasr urru eumr he
who does e deeds o suffer.
3 4 24.
L\ ff a suburb f Co//? .
194.
' L a foot the base a stroke.
1 4 243 251 256 261 262
1-.3 1 *su foot steps. 267.
L I w g the abdomen.
L 64. beat strke dr e n.
52 92 236 266.
LL L 3 smreff) a scufRe.
Lo. I aoLD a sa e sa ery 272.
II.) 1 4.
Lp. udr 1 4.
Lf. u ps| be beaten. 92.
c y 64 draw near to beongng
to.
. ) s aheap pe 273.
ff a.< sars: sroa pt n ayers one
o er another.
g 62. pe up pace n regu-
ar order.
/ beongng to near to. .
usury.
u- a hearth s so.
cook.
m ncubaton a knd of cake.
easn- 64. st on eggs.
B_ I T a sttng hen.
D _ 57. attan to obtan. 64.
shut up mortgage.
eo ds a T sf often es s
sedtr / < )a ) a sparrow the
brd that takes refuge.)
B L- ss LD a refuge : srressnh.
ecoL- LD a pouch : 3 . m.
190.
sa I LDomLp ncessant ran. \_
O_.
. <on LDTw pedge mortgage of
rea property s. d'hamanam.
ta I LOfTL a uafyng word.
. ysTO
. oa a frefLh sgn token: uLf.
s L- manner a. esu
T G _a/rs n that manner.
.LL_ a Ik3r nde regster: rre r.
. L deay: tdsd.
C- Ld 140.
LLtotn a wood-ouse. 261 a
eech the soe of a shoe.
s an anna: s d utu.
. tss an ornament : e sfr LD.
syssf 57. put on ornaments adorn
one's sef. essF.'
ssnfe a s urre: ss p rdsr.
6g an atom.
m 62. draw near : L .
2omr a dam dke bed couch.
te food that has burst the dam
return though you weep ?
ffo. ou must bud the dam be/ore
the food comes.
sssrd I sL an anent.
35wr 57. be e tngushed : e /
| ut 239.
64. 1.) embrace: -ss
srrer. 2.) e tngush sf.
. \_esm F bTsm ug. s2 r ? OT 3r ) an
eunuch.
emessrasr eder brother. pp.
oc. essf essr. eaff 'sm
. /mrmdsu g a wast-cord :
Gm sm) 66. ook upwards : bssr
e F /B yL|p-IT. ug . 2| r 5/f.
215
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IND X I.
OT eOT)a u ua. gy<R r /5ff<s g.
e ar sro)6 pp. .
essr IBI ' ) h I u Tt 64. ook up-
wards. 5337-.
<smu)<s u rrT teacher: - /rs .
5ssr< wfe of au eder brother:
Loeof. pp. X.
em h the un erse : sssr sa
fTLD 261.
pp. ekr L|a.'
3sr 62. draw near to : 0/5 5
. 215. \_<sssre< L
ossr s <53sres)L u eo. 151 251.
near at hand.
orsBrss mrG| abren b eu there
are ays to death on e ery sde.
r esbran on one sde 171 a come?:
LDLD owest sans superat e.
LD destructon : e u s .
L B" 62. reprmand : sesru.
r ) adaut ustce a court
of ustce. great.
p a sans pref much ery
sLD 96 97 152.
sfTffM 1.) a chapter 17 . 2.)
authorty : s d.
.srrruuf uD a power of at-
torney u ).
'arrrehr persons ha ng autho-
rty : TD /f e_ em _ 11/ s /f.
3 LD a wonder. 269 : ff
h L nLD.
a u 64. wonder. 163.
\_ a guest : af/ /rerf?.
< L LD L- LD uck fortune.
u a ruer: s suer 15 .
rr I 69 a shakng trembng.
'0.) 190.
sy 5 0. trembe uake : / /sy .
L u9 /rs ) an earth uake 14 .
t that 10 25. a termnaton
of the 6th case.
w 10.
00 57. swe : f '/ /f s_|/.
emuL a sweng : ds).
T attar of Roses perfume.
osr ds.) 25 212.
s a father. Co : /so).
T sr a cousn husband's eder
brother pp. .
sne a husband's sster pp. .
Tff proof e dence : - t
rrL | a-. s fT/Lh.
. murder: 0/7 . wrtten aso
T) and s.) 2.) a fg tree.
. uhLD e ceedng: mLo.
R. mpedment boundary.
nserted 24 .
R. . y hndrance fear addu.)
atrcb h eu su 6uga
he sta?ds at nothng.
. . e n .) for eta. ug.) 2.)
a father's sster mother-n-aw
co. rrffr.' pp. .
. /B before words whch begn wth
a owe y pr t e.
. BBLD nfntes / /ec.
. fBTLD an unfortunate crcum-
stance : y/5.
. f rrre dsrespect: wdu .
. T 1.) wthout begnnng. 2.)
a wdow a poor woman one wth-
out a / /resr.
. uTuh n ustce: u d
<ss B. 141.
. a sans. pref together agan:
wrtten aso s ep.
. .nedLD fa our success: b
eoh .
. gt s- ffsm fa or d ne mercy:
h au ff'sm.
. uTsuD en oyment possesson
. LD permsson: d -
. G/ s many : eursLo.
/BsT many peope.
B that 25.
. _hsdr a bnd man: g sr.
. afTfT 3 darkness: s"" _g)0
.
. hsss<omLD a facuty of the
mnd nterna power the-wthn-
facuty.
. ffr/ a5sro poston rank: sder.LD.
.smnT brahmans hoy men.
em.' 233.
216
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IND X I
. uL ffLD haram nner apartment
. BLD the end pusf 239 beauty:
. rBffs sLD what s hdden: Lo o/Dd
suuL opposed to u fft sLa
or com. e e u ff su).)
. I ffh space e tent: eue .'
msa there 193.
h e enng. rh' Lh e en-
ng prayer mornng
and e enng.
. u or su a partce n comp.
denotng dmnuton nferorty
oss.
. usrft 64. depr e rob: u.
. -/ I < 5ff a mae oent acton :
. opp. to -usrn LD.'
. u I T nfamy: uu .
. u I srrnh nc ty rudeness.
. _urrf a bad woman: eus .
255. \_ )d.
. u s't Lh success defeat: n
. u<sw untruth: utu .
. uuLD asyum refuge : ea d
e-sor uuth etasTga om sr I hcwc ed
to thee /or refuge.
. urrT LD a faut rad. meanng.)
fne 12 244.
. urrrr one guty of a faut. 1 0
. _u ay/r) scanda reproach.
urem -h fase accusaton worth-
essness.
. ur LD danger eopardy : LDfnFLo.
. esLD uncton ordnaton :
u aL-1 .so
. t /Bucsrh gesture.
. /B||ssf 64. ndcate by
gesture. 65 5. pp. .
. ut rrrru Lb opnon sentments :
R. 3 st \ opum.
. yfreuLD an e traordnary matter.
. utLem desre : od a |
LD.
uu ' uum father. pp. .
uuLD bread rce-cakes. 146 :
- TfTLLLf.. Comp. LD.
.uuLfL so ug. sy L . ...25.
. ) u u T- eaf a u er. d
"*' 5yCy .saft.
s -uGsr father : uuek. pp. .
uut Father eb. ab 194
uufTu father's mother uuer
u . pp._ .
. u uasanh bathng wth o.
. u T3LD practce : npup u
ssLD uu b .
. . eo ng. appea. pp. .
I/L/ 62. cap on cause to adhere :
L pLD beyond: uufrffO.
Pd) 25 244.
u ur u uT_ then . 25.
. usurrLf msceaneous heads n
se era accounts.
dL 62. reprmand : L .
LDffh the stern of a shp.
LDffdems uetness : ' rrhw.
LD 60. become cam repose :
LDtr 62. cam uet make
st engage 160.
LDe \ tumut : seoaw.
R. LD o go ernment an offce
LDeO nr a nat e coector of re-
enue.
R. LDre under a coeetor's man-
agement securty trust.
Port. LDT F) a cabe.
. LDmsurr new moon.
. c work done by compuson :
LD aL- au mmLL h.
. tu) ambrosa : w
. Cp 57. and BCpfs 62.
snk down .... 271.
Cp 62. cause to snk put
under.
R. t cr L e an nferor offcer.
p 62. snk be pressed
down: IB .
pd 62. press down : . /trp
d Bwd 160.
. tpLD Itd BpLh am-
brosa s. MRIT .
21'
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mLD 57. agree be engaged be
uet 64. cause to agree en-
gage pro de uet.
gs -D<5 s|r 5OLD<* a mnster of
state: Loff.'
)LD B0O LD enLDB < I LD
a eo uetness agreement 14
190.
gyt) a termnaton of nouns. 163 190.
R. uurTnh a heap of gran c.:
.LDurTfB a howdah.
LDL an arrow: urrem'th.
LDusOL ) a pubc pace where af-
fars are dscussed.
snpu 1 huaa . Con-
sder the matter n pr ate before you
enture to mo e t n pubc.
sttof uea- huah a gmr ? the
words of the poor reach the counc
chamber ?
du2L 3d so far. dL 25 211.
. LnLDemsTLn nakedness: rsufTsssrLD.
MLDT pp. X.
do/Tcf mother aunt by the mo-
ther's sde. pp. X.
LDMTu grand-mother by the mo-
ther's sde. pp. . anu).
LDLDrrsr a ady mother : ddt
LDLDrdr father mother's brother
unce pp. . Co. sw .
d a grndng stone.. .251 262.
heMLn a ady raoter the wfe
of an sma-po 259.
L sorr near neghbours .... 1 2.
a oO/TT BeuTs r prr.
<k) neghbourhood : <s D.
'. ussTtM passage: the southern
and northern course of the sun.
R. uek 1.) actua net cear the
whoe. 2.) Brahra .
. I uas uuD unworthness. .
pr .
utT r : ufr
. rrd seang-wa .
. ffeur a kng : nrrsm rs rr.
ffs- kngy domnon a kng.
a3 n- go ern. 55.
u I tasLo a tree : fcus regosa.
ff a so ourner : un .
ITLD a fe . y a 62) fe
pron. ffref.' _utd .
uenh a nose : sd a serpent :
. s a serpent. From srruuh
T LD ue . In poet ar.'
sm a fortfcaton.
a sm I LD r a paace.
ssr a.
f a sheaf bunde shnu.
rf 57. cutoff be cut off.
64. gnaw sft tch.
rfssrnesr a kng's messenger.
fB rce not boed.). . 62 63.
'47 149 247.
rBuL tchng : fft.) s na/.
e who tches o scratch hmsef.
ffsurre a scke. y//? <s//rGrr.
rfeureTLDomsr a cuttng nstru-
ment stoo and knfe.
. 75 F)LD ffu T costy
precous. I Gram. 121.
5 2 scarce. 5.
5 5 . < F s ff ) 151.
ssetf 64. shudder be horr-
fed. -L LD.'
F) emu LD sun- sng : rmss r
fh I <smLD costness rarty aue.
1 4 22 229. O
sroo. The aue of the chd s known
to her who bore t.
m- a bud : OLD/r< ge|r dt- .
med 64. abomnate : srr .
waf a mountan streamet.
) 3ff)- p) be gracous to
264 : |efuesr nF) h-T.
hesr grace : emu. .257 263.
. . I 09 an n sbe beng.
mr 0 p.' haf: urr. pp. .
mrrdsresf )) -. pp. .
ema 64. grnd and 57.)
. y /r I srem wast-strng : essr
esu)ssu3. ug. <saT sT<sssr. 262.
ma I LD r 6P ) -. pp. .
21
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IND X I.
. nTsLD rrfT LLD dsgust.
. /r) meanng weath a haf:
. frsfrrr a messenger.
R. T a petton report ur . 93.
. sO /s/r ) ornament: stmf.
. ed TT ornamented persons.
ed snreou) dsorder confuson.
enL 62. troube mportune :
souL 62. babbe. 160.
eoML 62. dash about as wa es
wash : so.'
R. sorru fT separate dstnct.
e ) busness: rre .
so a wa e ema 265 266.
dod 57. wander be tossed about.
200. so.-
64 dsturb affct.
doOss 64. e weary gy
dsh 62. rnse.
dcFsb e aton wanderngs.
.
eo not. 43. heb. a.) a term-
naton of nouns. 14 .
Port. eoLDfTff amaro an amra
cothes-press.
ecu usLD day and nght
D nght.
a)e t s not 43 44 20 .
s eOfredsLD hubbub: Loef
107.
6\)ec 205.
ece\)ffO sorrow gref: g skuLo.
) eu /T ? ) eo rr ? o eorr ?
193.
eoeo eu eos\ not at a.
)ecT 202.
e eoTLoeo 200.
eorresLD 154 156.
. tsusfTs means opportunty.
. <su \ r u T nfamy.
. <a '3 nu occason necessty.
pp. .
. eu uLD necessty.
. eoea agony death-symptoms.
. erfTrnh ncarnaton: LDesr/reufr
ffLD.
. eu dstress: eu F th.
en sa defamaton : strer.
. tsu LDnesTLD dsgrace negect:
. euLD an : e easr e n rr.
. eu e LD a member: -gnuu.
euear beans.
eufr 1.) he potey for e/sr.)
2.) they generayea /f< err. )29.
sursar they 29. pp. .
eueo parched rce.
R. euedrr a dr.
ser she 25.
enesrenek each one 10 .*
euer he 25.
e 57. be uenched become
rotten 64. uench bo.
. s ufaeh those who ha e
not d ded ther nhertance.
pp. .
. u ffT | u ffrru op-
non pp. .
e rR ndgo.
e 60. be oosed unted. 64.
oose unte.
. e LD medcne : LD Fg.
<o )<a those n. pu. of . pp.

ff/ |3r/f the Ttans gants : *
ufr.'
eueaerref 25.
eue LD 25.
Lp beauty : ssy .
L 57. persh. 15 16 254 271.
< .
64. destroy. ee under .ysDa /.)
Lff'.sFrrL-Ltuu e aton. //.
LLcL waste destructon '.
Ls / destructon : Oa . t .
271.
) 60. weep cry 61 233 263
s. R .''
' 62. putrfy. /.
drt fth. .
62. press down : pd .
Co. roots and /rtp. 160.
2
219
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IND X I.
ags 62. snk down nto. I
esp 64. ca. 92.
eDLfgs srem ur take '
one. f- end fur one. \
scmLpu 64. cause to ca. 160.
er 66. measure.
Though you .s uander your property
keep an account.
emh a sat-pan : -uu<std. I
sre a measure 115 211. srr.
_ ysrf? 64. bestow.
m T 62. take up by the handfu.
m/r 6 170.
mfrt <5 I <?L too cose deang. -y
f L- B deang.
ptD. rtue rtuous deeds: 5
wm. 270.
From 0 hat s decded
ad down.
57 know 269.
s s notce. \_/ .'\ 143.
ueesrs confess.
r I npsLD ac uantance.
/I ' knowedge 190 267.
172.
gs 6 . cease be determned. 90
91. 64. cut reap saw. 101.
e a wdow gs re .)
\ competeness gn.)
rasu L eo a knd of grass.
guur once for a.
ga I u 172.
t|L/ har est 190.
g I sf a fna decson gn
emp a room 244 190. g.'
s )o) B )/o a gra e.
ana ' a coset nner-room.
smp 57. smte strke.
ss) u o sap crucfy.
Chrstan usage.
. puh mean sma tte: frrp
). . LP .
. pL w a mrace: /s oo.
pp 6 74 90.
pgn 6 77.
. yar C5) a pne-appe.
220"
<ssr<s\) fre.
esre D g ura ke X n
the fre.
' CT)9 mmemora : /e/t.
I < Lo refreshment kndness
success: .skedLD.
r s em I ?/9 64. attend to obser e
attan to. nrrLh.'
s ep I uff|) e perence.
ue 64. e perence en oy or
suffer. pp. . CT/uff|O). 163.
L|3tu 7. pp. .
uL 62. send 7 95 24 254.
s. N .)
uuL a baance n an account
affars n genera.
. s e I LD consent approbaton : 3
LD. pp. .
I a3/r 3rto nference suspcon:
3 p<3 Lh. < 5/f.
' ssr ssT LD ssTeu FLh ssr
rT FLD 126.
m- o e: r LD.
rup0aaru L esrup0 Foow not
the nntoong .'
ssrr dT u ffO . . . 'a). 202.
. esTgu . ssrsmpd ekempssrh
then that day. 25 166 207.
srga t s not : . eceo. . <s\) -t- -)
sk f a) 193.
s rssT) food 5 boed rce. 146 151
263. a swan hamsa.
-asTss' LD foregn other : w Im.
.me un'erssra Lh unon feow-
shp: as LD.
. crdssr a mother: co. eaLD.
k by Brahmans for m '.
46 5 193 pronounced
0sr ena. In sanserf comp.
. o .
a 136 233 242.
. as sLD 206
ss s . pp. .
s L' LD mockery: r ss. urfsr
gLD.
s B 140 217 266.
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IND X
1.
s a f u LD astonshment a wonder-
fu thng 161.
d<s /r 125.
ra e a 123.
o stb estate rches : s ng.
efp urrem goods 123.
r s /rdr a father.
pp. X.
t LD a knd of measure.
D Ln pomp : euLdsas.
o dancng. . 2.5.5.
L the month of |uy. pp. .
0 a sheep 1 1.
m B LDT catte.
<?LD a red sheep.
eueretrrr a goat.
62. dance mo e. 21 255.
) a garment.
p rftonL a cot for tte grs.
un IT' ) I a pettcoat.
<cs |Tun<cssr ss.< cothes and
ornaments.
L ordshp possesson er.'
T'rLL kngy rue.
.srrestfa rL estate.
L-L-u a moton 190) .: -
way manner. Ths word s used
n comp. wth many others ke.
udsT fO ) Lt /ru ./e CI p / or
an II s.
L 1 .
<1 I <s OT_ a sheep-pen.
L- 62. mo e cause to dance.
160.
L I LDfem 131.
L-em ad . form of essr a
year annua.) peurLLea ufrer
a "three-year od. "
. L ud an ob ecton.
L 3 u< ssr ncorrect for L
LD.
. L s' 64. ob ect argue aganst.
pp. .
sBsf a na.
. eser an oath : <3pL d.
smr a mae mascune.
em GuT the Lord master ruer
244. 25-
. sLDM a sacred work : saraLDD. \
s T sTf 121 26 .
s/r 26 .
. st ud mace.
. 3 mLLD ar6 Lh ar sky ether
257.
. sr TLD 1.) food. 146. 2.) ong.
o- .)become be accompshed
ser e for. 5 103 130 136 165
26 . .
peu sr 151.
<k) 9 .
f/ 100 2.) 101 20 217.
u- 130.
O'. 72 *73.
es uT<k . therefore 145.
dsLD ncrease weath.
190.)
. s 'hsr punshment command.
3 62. make. 63 165.
s "'. 1 3.
. msrsfLo for sasmnh.
. ffrrdsL ) as ong as the sun
and moon. sed n aw docu-
ments.)
. -s-ft 64. obser e ceebrate. \
3 r I .'\
R. -fn- appearance beng present :
. msTLD a seat the seat : -d.
. 3'r\ur6' the aurements of ust.
s. -p.\s.\M ust-cord.
. 3'n an nd dua offce hoder
of a pace.
3. <FrffLh obser ance customary rte.
. .c R M.
. srrff a carpenter workman.
. 3 fTrfa n- a prest sprtua teacher.
. 64. desre ust after g
<ss s-.) 272. III.)
R. rr present. a r.)
. reurrLD bessng benedcton.
Teu bess. 64 163.
s-uuff auurf hospta.
ng.) 1 .
. sa.a' desre ust: sem 25 .
uu 6 . desre 259 265
22T
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IND X I.
<sm B a ong tme a year : s F)
P sm a century.
ssrss) a master of sa es : <sm
. ue support respect : sstud.
. rf 64. support. | /.
.r LD gan: eoruLc.
. sT|LD a support a oucher : <
. the begnnng c. 151 239.
. arrT rLD frst-cause. .
. d LD pre-emnence.
. ssr a sun. . eutrrrLD
unday.
. Lo hosptaty: .
. esT dependance go ernment
property.) ee sfsuresr u r
ear eur esnh.
a neg. termnaton 121.
rsfT mother. pp. .
. rrdsrrr e 212 213.
.rth haste rashness .... 212.
g d to one's house a cor-
rupton of ' .
. LDLD LDr LDIT Ou.
. fBLD fecty 215 216.
es an ow.
sn g 3 <sru u g . The ow s
sma but t makes a great nose.
. ud caamty necessty.
ug au urab g eu eu. | ece ttT/
knows no aw.
. uf emuD a ewe.
.f-fc /f the ngsh word offcer.
'P.usrrff a ta on uors and drugs
nto catng beongng to a
maker of nto catng uors.
uum a hopper rce-cake. eomp.
uL a wedge : p' sn .
LD D 3rd the castor-o pant.
p LD s srs the arety of t
from whch the medcna o s
e tracted.
LD60 neg. term 121.
L|T 104.
T. . sd means property g en
product.
R.sD a superntendant.
snD a term of neg. nouns . . . .154.
nLD a tortose : aruDLn.
d 72 *103 104 176.
.MuLa IT LD Lp- |rT \_ LD
uLf.' a caste of peope who per-
formed mena offces n tempes
nd paaces.
LDL m LTssr pemL L frdr s
wem |resr ahousehoder master
of the house husband.
LDuenL o rew p<5 L | rsr m
npen urrar the mstress of a
house. _sLD house.
LD ta customs : a-s LD.
tussfTff r a ta -gatherer.
. gs st s p L g umana -esur
-n' Is there aty ta on rubbsh?
R. ' refT a woman ser ant ayah.
. .MLr<3 wearness annoyance.
mother femae reaton a
respectfu address to a woman. 19 5.
. t5* u3? age fe-tme 141
272. III.) s. ayus. <suu .
. u LD u LD u Ln ns-
trument means preparaton.
u fft) a thousand ) 172.
a um mnsrss ufresbr satr. 1000
mes | 62 |. "Many ttes make a
mc/e.
u 100 245.
dr ..u mLD. 95 9 .
u p 242 26 .
.LL LD u u .u LD awcapon
nstrument: ys .
L err a.ge u sf L s-. s.ayus.
L 1 137 26 .
u Tfrd 57. seect e a-
mne.
atrasr. e cho dues not esurey e am-
ne deser es to de.
ud pp. X.
Lds? 123 26 .
.LLD a etter ntro. I.)
n fuy 166. r.'
L T? ho s that feow? 195.
. \_rTLD a garand neckace : dfso.'
. uLD LD commencement : sudah.
222
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IND X I.
rfLc 3 64. begn: 0/r_/B g. 163.
. fffT' ssr worshp acts of regous
ser ce.
amu 57. search nto 215. r
frLa study. /7-ff /. _ud.
. f Ts Lo heath : asLD <s d
fr . who 47. 2.) an honorfc
termnaton 151.
Lfs u a fT.' Mr. Tger
/f 60. be fu : B<so- p ffLDL.
rrL| B d p) shout hu a 64.
)LDrLD banyan tree.
. a| |) du/d) a tem )e : sr
< '. ) 255.
a press for e tractng uce.
The uppe |uwer s sgur to the
age where there s no sugar-cane
press.
eo n Fsar counse ad ce con-
sutaton.
. <soT 64. thnk take counse.
163 241. )r.3 d5s.' 109.
) 1.) sgn of 3d. case 21. 2.)
sgn of sub . mood 95. 3.) a
banyan tree. a|Lo/ .
euss ugust the 5th ndu
mouth. pp. .
a/ 175 205 20 267.
smsoa scanda bad report.
en o desre : ss <b . su/r.
ff /rsBT he w become. . 72.
aO sprt ar steam 263. Co.
. s LD a ghost.
LpLD depth craft : Co. /r.
LpTL the deep. t the deep.
<rf 1 1.
56. 111.) rue e ercse 262.
e ' ) ' hande manage.
sr a person a termnaton of
nouns. 166. 1 0. p.
e)r Oa:/rOT 3 make One sa e 259.
sruD IT s rr <5 r LD an estabshment of
ser ants peons c.
w srLL a -sD fore-fnger.
B see - pg-)
g 1.) a r er 1 19 250. 2.)
s 17 2. 3.) away method
from g) as urrr from ut F)
and thus used sometme for
/D).
pr so ecystreo ff )fc\ tshg 0ne
foot n the r er and one foot n the
mre demma.)
.M 62. grow coo: ea sf) . . 270.
pp | f:< )r 250.
/b/oa) abty endurance.
.M hff 62. coo comfort bear.
g5-) 160:
u . pg3 satsfy the appette.
p fpff consoe. ee aso
stTuurrpgt.'
0sr 130 135 151 211 26 271 27.)
BT CT)a) therefore. \_ sr 4-
OT- a). 5 7 22 21.
ar_ eaeT -ansr .M'sare s 151.
2 ) 100 101 205 20 .
a e you) not at east heard that
pro erb
sd 9 100.
. s9 ps Tc ) destructon: bt3d.
. csrLDn-u:) the month of |une.
esrek 5 .
3r ua sw an ee hant : sth
srR.- 166.
u:srs gw s-sabr o s . en an
eephant may suffer.
dn a term of mas. nouns. I O.
. fcs -T ng. a7swcr. p. 143: 2_
25 115 pronounced s.
*' CO. despse 190.
)-sLp\-s' contempt 17 190.
sL- dstress: u.
. rs LD what s peasant : s\.
s here 25.
| e TLD thus. 25. / /eOT).
s 62. str e contend.
R. TL an account : .ssws .
R. -frrTfr a contract monopoy.
uLf spasm. 0. draw.
. )< 64. desre : . )-e''-'
223
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_g)acy harmony: ttsd.
stn 57. agree harmon e 64.
cause to agree.
. - LD fattery: npsm.
. sooc desre: sma.
. LD L-d) peasure de-
sre 15 .
. e I eusms one's guardan
d nty.
_g) s _ar a frend p. r r.
. ewff ronng of cothes.
\ green gnger. Co. * .
_ rudeness. C'
_g)L_6ff<s |saa the eft hand.
L-deo cs 21 151 251.
_g) _LD pace room person. Gram.)
244 251 270.
T troube : eu F .
L-ga peo scanda cause of
stumbng.
62. trp stumbe: saga. 62.
D thunder 210 290.
L . 57. fa to peces go to
run 64. pound.
L -opLpsstM a thunder-cap.
La uuM a knd of rce cake
resembng ermce.
. 6 . g e 190 263. s.da.
B c u uuT a Drmt e noun.
a name g en as a sgn.)
Baessr BdsLo stratness
ad ersty.
_g) <s g caws narrowness.
< g 62. pnch carry on the
hps as a chd.)
BuL the ons : _ so
LOLy mpudence : . sre
m mdde wast a weght
. 223 224.
ao ff \er the second son. g)
sn and . |an.'
m 9 ds:) what stands n the md-
de. 15. b. . . 190. b.
sa'um a herdsman. 197 259
272 /. ss.- a | sT ssr.
smL- g /scg| t f eo.
herf|.' mu7s sense s n the nape of hs
neck.
_g)an/_ u an mpedment : em .
sa \'s rrLD<s - ncessanty.
)L_ s .
-sr L -t- from .
230 263.
emrds) concord unon : s ud.
<sssr 62. consent act har-
monousy : eT' . sar.
|fc sr a par : srr .
F.. sssr rr TLug. endorse 1 9.
. _g LD what s peasant ft. hta.
.t d 246 247-
_g) ths 25. pp. corap. ths
and that wth )f and
take away the fna s and t and
n ert them : th ath.' do .)
rr behod 193. comp. Greek
ssr 25 212.
ths 25.
T here see 1 93.
- |\3 rre: u uggng.
. .ffh ff LD an organ of
sense : urr . - -PP- -
. ffesr Indra a kng. ps.)
. / a ndu. The Indus. snd'hu.
uuL thus : emsLDTL 25 199.
uueftt for L urT Lo) and
now.
u uT f no " : fs mTLD . .25.
u urr now 25.
smtD eye-d : emtD.
esLo aTLL 62. wnk.
. Lh 5e F ssf torture affcton.
LDLDL- thus far. 25 211.
LO/ a mnute uantty : pp. .
)LL I c LD ths word : euet'so LD.
_g). 242. 25. 1 4.
uff machne : std.
. LDssr aman god of death.
pp. .
u 70. be possbe can: u. .
Co. er2/.
ueo nature a secton.
g ueo- nature. tu<k.)
. 'un ssr mr ssr an eephant.
. urr.s\ <LDLh prosperty we-
fare.
ffsLD mercy. )|'e .
224
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IND X I.
.|
s-|
.|
s-|
s.
.|
.|
R
| 56. 1.) ' beg: L )<Fa<s 67 .
r / 5) 62. ha e mercy reent
softeu. \_rg.
n-3 LD 1.) mercury 2.) uce:
rr 3 ssr taste : a-es e.
ssr rL-3 6 sr de erance.
) L-g:ser rrL-<3 <sT a sa our :
Lut rrosaer. 7 .
)L rrshf 64. sa e de er.
)ffL-L 64. doube nsm .)
'rrLea L|L efr sr a twn.
" ensnh ucer: - em.
) 6mL suD treachery nmsr .)
nmr two 146 172.
)aem n f one or two 172.
)r) a charot : G/f.
\ | LD bood.
)/7s3r) a gem : Loemf. 9 22 .
IfTLDL LD contentment : d<s d
LD.
rT<su oan: L <sk. <5<s/r 6 )d.
\)ar ae nght : g frfff urr
)) a /s<s msee s) a short
acket worn by grs.
r usLD a tune : usm.
)7ff one of the serpents sup-
posed to cause ecpses.
ffTcB3 ek ffT s<<3 ssr a gant demon.
frrs <srresr roya cty seat of
go ernment.
nr-a eLD kngy dgnty .
T-3 e kng-street. s '. pp.
uasm a kng. rff-s/T".
rrrffsLD kngy rue any thng
kngy 141.
. ft '' |t agreement.
rr f fTLDr a etter of resgnaton
a deed of reconcaton.
ffr TusTffLD 197.
n'LL u LD nrru urs u
LD a kngdom.
fftTLLumM a spnnng whee.
ffreu) an army comp. u
es ua' sfTt LD.
nr B nght : | / ffr. 254.
LnTu<3 LD secretary-shp.
. ru mf fffTLue rf . ra a-
s R. respectabe honourabe
p. 10. p. 144 230.
. nnum 172. a kng 230.
R. urrsuer a horseman. re e7ue.
. ff d esf ffd the ng. word
. ffe a rsh hermt : pes .
172.
60. be. Co. s . RT . 61 79
121.
T)L darkness. 5'sw"
1 4. 25 . e-
t L 62. become dark.
TLLuf-u ura p. It Ias btcome dark.
w ossr uT become dark.
0syr. 25 .
. T)u uo s LD heart: m s-.
. _g)0 season puberty.
|yg tr aa uremrh the 2 1 and
rea marraye.
. m TL--3 Lb red berres used as
beads by de otees.
OTf/n-Lauy. r profound dssc bcr.
h 62. pace cause to be 161.
rsa
fm
u
f L-LD pace of resdence
seat. 5.
f uL 1.) ron ad .) 131.
. 2.) a beng |) .) 264.
f LDeo a cough. G.
R. h'3'T a remttance.
Lp 62. cough 239.
hh- ron 131 254.
TbstDus sscpuasur fs tnr r t
udte ants eat ron?
srr darkness. | / 2_syr.
5 6 III.) become dark
0eff. 75<5B3r_<a ' a dark house.
) u u rnhu GfTTLD much
171. u. from odu to be
fed.
. s a ne : sr eurf p o.
G/7 god eaf tnse: p
eofnh.
172.
100.
172.
the
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IND X I.
sarr food of anmas) bat: s .
eo )pLD domestc rtue opp. to
smtT 57. make a roarng sound:
p pLD.'
LpLp .
eoeotr 123 125 220.
64. pant.
o T |T Don't roar be uet
6oeor 121 245.
eosor oeon-LDe 202.
'se T3 s ) roarng sw/r-
eo OreoLD 254 156.
. nTssua ready money : - an
often added to nouns to form
LD TrdsLD.
negat es. Thus 's Da)/7s ).
R. g)/r<F/r |D remttance: -srrs.
e\)6\)mLL T5)) 123 205.
. g gt not hea y of tte
g d o there s not 43 44 113 114.
aue. _<smLD.
euer she ths woman 25.
. eodaet r grammar: < uasa
\ suc r he ths man 25.
. eos uLn tam compostons.
es sy these thngs pu. of .
._g)a) a butt : |L/. 223 224.
. )d see L or s'.
. so<3 3 LD eoLg|) a ac 100 000.
. 3 <s< 3 shame modesty: C suL.
ss LD brbe : ufrresrLD easd
. eoLemLD 1.) comeness pro-
pp. .
su cm os B f 117.
Lpe oss defect mournng for
the dead. . 190.
p 66. ose.
L 57. descend be humbed.
60. I. draw protract deay.
213.
Lga any thng contemptbe.
esLp thread : ra).
n tfTudM 9 5- cu r saf u u
uwuc g the arrow mssed by a
prety : Loffa fTea 2.) an attr-
bute e ceence : )sses srLD
. so s-B Lakshm prosperty.
. su / destructon: sre.
har's breadth.
. so< 3LD a gratuty.
. )<s so<sLD a tte.
sBLp 64. pane wood c.
swLpuL/srf a pane. 2-f.
eos eoefLDfLD the sk-cotton
er etru young tender: ersf-.
tree 152.
sfT 62. grow soft en-.
etrssf 64. grow weary.
etruuLD nferor uaty.
64. grow ean weary.
dsauL- asstude 190.
ef| urs\. Lke the parrot that wated
fur cotton pods to rpen.
. )rr rft drunkenness: eu.
R. ot s T possesson charge -
stremLD youth: s r 1 4.
mt ursdcton.
. g ecmsn- antern ng.)
dsrLeudr a young person . . . .1 4.
. eofT LD a horse-shoe.
/D a feather wng: /d pu
. g frL3.6 LD euT cuscus root.
uL-esL
. eTur eorruT ng.) aw cr.
p 66. de pass o er.
pp. . a)/ru LD.
ps 62. etdown. \_LDr
dT' LD a horse) stabe: s/r
gpsLD mportaton. /o .
. e LD gender a fgure worshp-
_g)/ / 62. descend aght hang
ped by tes.
down. 13 242 259.
a) a eaf 239.
puLf death: p. 190.' sret .
_g) y fL f O prawns.
. s - )3 LD mnuteness sub-
tty.
ff 6 . drop off break dscharge.
a) not. 202 a house.
pay off.
226
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IND X 1.
g LDfT 66. be proud
a Tcsrdr the guardan of the
62. be tght tght-
N. . uarter :_ p .)
en 160.
pp. .
g LDT L prde haughtness : 0-3
. s sr s-ffasr s ffdr an
5 -
the upreme.
<ss p ta a kng ont of a fnger.
. /a s.y n ury mschef: com.
emp 64. scatter abroad water
/) <?.
feds c 267.
<F6d whstng.
G)g 6 whte ant : s<cepun T )s so.
anp sstsrg mm-ta ater sprngs
drawn.
ss Dff meat: dt d s .
<sff r) uesr a kng. _ sra.
bgu uT 5 . be broken off des-
troyed 25 .
an e u aent pedge 190.
|) -3
- 62. be sa ed. .?affG/_.
t-P 62. sa e. 160.
pph sa aton 190.
L-Lf. a spear.
p<cmp ad . form of ekg beong-
ng to to-day. 131.
esrrrT reat es : -pe or cfeap
t fTT. sar ). 1 0.
ssTLD knd 151 1 2 270.
R. /LD present gft grant.
_g)ssf henceforth: e ok. 25 .
ff/ a gft uotent n d son.
.190.
|TLD mosture.
sred the ungs er c.
meB an onon : / sr Lh.
172.
ssfwLD sweetness : u d
. esTLD dsgrace want. s. hna.
ITLD. s|r. 1 4.
255.
ssruLD deght cw'.
. tsarsBT a ow feow.
pr ssr earthy peasure.
M 56. I or 62.) brng forth.
uffmuLh hea eny bss.
N.
m- 151 24 .
skp 56.
2_
er aLD term. essness : emsor
emLD. _<so es)LD.'
nssnasr s-euom a fa orte.
dre T such.
one who peases. _a a_
_g)a r snr s|rCTTas suae|r. pu. )
pease. 7.
-d rr Lh a beowng.
srmLb yet st 124.
. -d ffw. ehemence.
car s rsf ar BT such and such.
. .s ffrr<mrLD a store-house.
\_< | t s e ot e
R.-srLo an order: s re stL
.)
L-dsf.
_g)s3r ff) r 271. <s|r eB)6 r fem.)
-<9' 62. ug. for - | F) . y.
< 3r 2)/r. pu. such an one.
ntr 62. consut.
ssrepu yet: drssr). Co. s sf.
. -s 3 64. pronounce.
dr 202.
. sdsLD the enth : n-d .
fkff rss)ps esTospu BrLD
-dm oO the crown of the head.
ths day 25 166.
-<ff/r<s3 f the hghest branch.

.a-6<F/f|-/ pronuncaton .d/f.)


. a fy.
.s-d the top: s-ds anLD. 247.
56. g e.
.s-d M a rare present.
eas a gft . 143.): sfrsm
.- L <smLh s-.. .<om|D heat.
I o TLD.
s_ _ -ea tu 24 .
29
227
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IND X I.
s_L_/ s feowshp -
__so possessoas 13 . s_:_.
_LLD - sr n comp.
L_)Ly a body 22 e_L_a .
2_L_ a body : sFfffLD 22 .
2__OT 151 239 262.
2__ ?s r mmedatey. 251 271. 27.)
su.dT Ld s)s a co enant s--s t
/u L. 257.
. eku 6 . agree wth . . . .262.
2. 64. cothe.
. uL cothes s. . 190.)
- wL a guana.
2_gB) _ cothes a- . 1 5 190.
s_ ga) _ 57. be broken. 64. break.
24 262.
s-em u- a channe formed by the
breakng of a bank or dam. s-
_. 190.
-es etaLD possesson - mLo. -
m-. 1 4.
w-u 21 1 5 1 6 24 .
e- 3_ I au/rs|r a scmtar.
-Lst 60. st down for - cr
. nL- fr u 64. enter: 2_err)
esp 272.
s_ 33r 75 60. fee understand. 267.
-<5mTff feeng percepton. 267.
_ smT<s feeng. s-<smr. 190.
_sOT 56. 111.) take food chefy
rce or uds 265.
.0 I ff rpgs TBTsn am uessrnp
be 7ot treacherous to those toho feed /ou.
2_s3 r_/r 62. become. _ 53r
g. 2_ 33r_/7'< g ). cause
to become. -sm s .
. 2_<533rf 1.) a draft b of e -
change hoondy. 2.) food ssssr.)
3.) money coected.
sabr there s 43 133 265 271.
-ssarsw a ba.
- OTsauf e_5 f a tck.
2_ 33rstB reaty truth. 2_s|r
eaw. 1 4. 272. II.)
2_ a p : tp.
-LDL 62. rebuke : L .
. - u fB the eastern h.
. -o LD sun-rse : wLu foaneoLD
-e) 62. assst ser e be usefu.
-gM 62. shake.
. -fTssr ) abuse contempt.
. -r omru) an e ampe.
. srrrf beraty : a trotr ).
- 64. rse d.)
. s- ) bood: r LD.'\
2_0 60. fa off as ea es from
a tree.
s-cB 64. kck 146.
. saLDth the best e ceent. 145
196.
. s-ffs answer command. pp. .
s-ffM an answer.
- TT an answer.
. - u /rsLD ser ce offce.
. s- urrsmm an offcer ser ant.
-ffLD a beam.
. s- 3 |D more or ess 17 . an
estmate.
. 2-u .a sans pref sgnfyng near
o er secondary .
. -usrTffLD a beneft fa our : e_s .
. -u<srrrrLh obser ance respect. 197.
. -u sh nstructon : ufr sr.
. -u an nstructor catechst.
. 2_ ?a 64. teach nstruct:
. -uffsuh affcton : eruth.
a. -u d|Tsu) use assstance: 2_<sf.
. -u u /t one who s of use.
. -ueurrFw fastng: t s.
. -uT affcton.
. -uT LD stratagem means :
ew? Can as much be accompshed
by bra ery as by cunnng ?
. - uemss partaty conn ance.
pp. . s. P .
L/ sat 50 52.
s- L Lu.a a r 2_OTc7OT-a/o sor. Remember
as ong as you e those who ha e g en
you sat.
2_|L/ 62. swe be puffed up:
-uuefTM a sat-pan : btd.
22
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IND X 1.
s_ 3s to you 10 37.
- husk chaff.
. 57. spt send forth emt
-Bp yed.
P. -enLDseufTT a canddate for an
offce ounteer. ummad hope.
_ ) pron. 10 37.
-LD and aso 1 7 100.
denotng un ersaty . . . .126.
. LD |srf ssff grant of and : dts
LD.
- T - 60. be hgh. 22 .
s-O|Tssr a cass of nouns ncu-
dng a ratona bengs f'hmr.'
236.
- |Tg 62. ee ate : -Lr 160.)
suure -ur heght ee aton.
190.
2_ /r fe breath a owe: euek
64. breathe e sgh.
-ffua strength . .
s-aeo a mortar 262.
a_/f skn hde beongng to an
ad ect e : -ft-ff /ns)).
-ff 57. pee off. act. andn.)
fay strp off 64.
2-/f 2LD 243.
fftu 243.
a. 75 s- L s- suu) ) form fgure.
2_ T5 g_62. met n.) 221 222 271.
- T5ff 62. met act.) 160.
.0da LD tenderness commser-
aton. 2- 75 . LD r - Rd LC
compasson.
- F) 62. be strong oent.
. - t ) taste : s-<5 )<su.
. - T * 5* proof 15 . ru u.
- L 62. ro o er act.) -
s-. 273.
2_0 )3r 5)_ anythng round. s-syt.
. T L/ form : termnaton of a case.
- F) L an artce pece 0.)
.rtsuLo form.
0ey 62. perce draw out from
a sheath or scabbard.
n- LDh mdday. pp. .
2_0 M through : aacOs .
a_ 5<or e_ 75 a whee ssuh. _ r
. - t Lo fgure : - f e h.
. -urrL urro a rupee.
-<ss)rr 1.) an e panaton erba
commentary. 2.) standard of
god 122.
e_so)7CT a touch-stone. 2_s/r.
s-ewf- 62. 1.) speak utter 21
219. 2.) toy assay god.
- rrrsaLD fTrdsth ready money.
. . rTmLLp. fTfTL-L bread 146.
. 2- ?/7/rLD dsease 1 0.
. - ffrLDM har: du t.
. -<su< LD the word ... .12 . a
eOT . . LO .
2_su< OT a peste 262.
2-60 75 ' become dry.
- /f 62. dry. 160.
-eoT 62. wak a. and n.)
a_ O/ra/ 62. wak take a wak.
Te. -ustau suppes furnshed to
a great personage on hs route.
2- a rce-pot a furnace . . 273.
s- so pL co er for the rce-pot.
you top the mouth of the age wth
the co er of the rce -pot?
. - emT s eonG) r) ) a meta.
. - 0<soT<3 gaety.
. e_OT /r/-D -<s r<sI an ow.
. -suLDresru n-en s LD a comparson
parabe.
ssT sat : - Lf.
sGT eOLD bracksh so : smr.
- rr a schoomaster.
-p of a measure : atrpu.
2_Lp e/ 70. whr round. s-Lp ).
-t ff/ tage. 2- .
- -p 60. pough.
- pu<3a a pough share.
- w - em/B an eatabe seed.
semtp 64. to.
-eTLD 166. _ syr.
-OT usr a spy. -erey.) 1 4.
corntn s not destro/ed thout a spy.
-sre a secret. -cr.
229
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IND X I.
-cfrg 62. babbe.
2_6r? a chse.
- fhasr 60. st down: s_./r0.
g_ ff 60. be worm-eaten.
e_ mre.
_ syr -ek er e stence nner
wthn among. 6 69 133 211
251. Ths word s much used
n composton : see under -L
and-OT 274. 6.)
-ewL| t ncus ey: -Lu
-muu agree: s-Lu 262.
s_s<syr 12 133 135.
-erefr eaa the pam of the hand:
.ermuL actuay n reaty 157.
-eren the mnd the nner man.
-etrereudr a rch one one to whom
there s) -err 1 4.
- sfr<atrere Lh as ong as t) e sts.
211.
s-m rfrm a snpe.
s_ar<s an onon : mef.
ueftL- fTT s sr etfp nfT partners
assocates: s-syt s-.
. r s sr er nwardy.
2_ r 5r5M nward dea: ' -Ls f)s.
-p ) 62. seep.
-p LD seep -/D/ / g. 190.
epwn 62. cam kndred 215
216 255. /Dff/ c .
2-/Dff/ reatonshp frendshp 215
255 263.
_ net work c. hung from the
roof as a genera receptabe.
_ p) be possess abde
263. Ths s one of the most
mportant roots n the anguage
on account of ts combnatons
though t s not n common use
as a erb. It s aed to 5-
2_ 3 <s g 62. scod.
-g) stabty. 2_.)
- ) | 62. terrfy.
- puL a member part of any
thng a term : sL su euLD.
. -ff Dfr so a handkerchef : Gso*.
- p 62. snar.
s-sap sour mk used for curdng
a sheath scabbard case.
-eap uecf smp.') frost snow.
- snp u -L a dweng pace. 2_
emp t-. 21 5.)
-psnsD 2-<F<Fffs ) forttude men-
ta gour aacrty.
. -puf brth concepton.
'-put
64. be born.
sppmr he who possesses. 263.
2_.
-pnnr -.p<<3sr p<mpn nk .p p
eapa trT : reat es.
2_OT. 10 37.
. 2_G|r :rr the hghest best. s. un-
N T . 272.
psrr
ssa 64. draw nferences udge
from crcumstances : u .
mmssLh energy: dsbt srap . 270.
. 2 a neede such.
asrr* 62. grow rancd.
aar between: asrC .
esr 7 a through.
ssL 62. noursh feed.
sssem food : s-saar.)
2 62. bow.
. msLrr a purpe or brown coour.
aargw fthness.
muLDLD strammonum.
eenoata dumbness.
msnem d'u dT ssLsmLo a dumb per-
son.
eerrsrossabr g uGo/reu ke the duTfO
man's dream whch pershes.)
msLfftTfr agers. aer/f. ....60 1 0.
esu F) 60. creep craw spread o er.
s 0 5af a tank common to a whoe
age aatff a-ss r.
sar/f a age 60 I O.
aec/r
sssLBu) ser ce : u<ss esL- su
LD.
eerp 62. gush forth be steeped.
ssLgasfTtL pckes : sscgn stu .)
ee ms .
230
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IND X I.
s <Lp ) a sprng: ear 190.)
. mnenTLD pr aton.
ssLekff 62. ean stck n.
emL- pg the tck g en me to ean
o breaks my pate.
0 :s3rG'< 5/r L) astaff : upgn ar .1
er 25 115
6r stee : 6roo - s ).
orss<so accumuaton of earth sand
c.
6rcss<.F<s -D at random.
srs . 62. contract draw n.
GT ssw 200.
GT aer our 10 37 3 .
<5r Lb e ery where 126.
oT s where ? 25.
. sr<3 LDn-- r srsLon-asrer master: <<sa r
ea essr sn sr.
er<<Frf 64. warn.
er|d/fL/L/ 5r<3:ffs cs).s warnng
cauton. 90.
6r<?d /) defect posterty. not
common.
ers o wat s eft on the pate
any thng nasty and defed.
eT3 60 the eaf from whch one
has eaten seodso.)
er 60. ft up carry assume
take get. 27 60 146 239 .s .
5r 3 gu uT Take away 146.
Intrans. n a pec. manner see
er u be taken away 92-
<5T t off at a dstance sr .
GTL-L the strychnos nu - omca
tree 152.
CTLy. p Gr' sr ? frturrr 121) ar
psOsBTOT ? hat good s t f the
ett' fruts ? |tat good s t f the
a arcous prosper ?
eru. 172.
oTL 62. reach.
CTs Ts erLLL-rg. I connot comprehend t.
enLuurTT 64. stand on tp toe
to see.
ere or 1.) a number : oddsLD. 2.)
count mp.) 3.) eght 172.
<orem'3' T 5sr - o a body spans
ong.
srokra-euu arthmetca tabes.
GTsssreLD thought dea : f ssru-.
263.
erehetafsems number consde-
raton re erence: du.
sr<sm 62. count thnk.
e dass u usf Thnk before you speak.
er<sssr fff 172.
oTskr smu o : u eOLD. erassr
fB .)
ersmugt 172.
6r<3mLD egt-fod: stL u
. erT s. T as.
. oTrfrsLD uprgtness sncerty :
errTar eors e ar One wO
speaks the truth s e ery one's enemy.
era/rstf ad ersary : r//? . . . .272.
em h One must pre ent comng obsta-
ces.
srffoaL- o poston. sro )
erT opposte. 134 244 erC .
srT 64. oppose : rr srtft.)
rs ? whch ?
sre3T 2d case sng of <orff|. p.
'.
.ercsTuo means ntenton effort.
erdm how many? 25 212.
oT fraud: < s m .
er 62. cheat : 9\.
oTm a dece er: suc.
oTB? whch? 25.
. srBffLD a machne: a/r/ .
ens s my father : erek b<sb .
GTuuL how? 25.
oTuuLL ) by a means ....126.
<oruGurT g when ? 25.
<oTuGu T t LD aways 126.
5T )dL u how far .? 211.
erwLDr rrt how much ? . . . .21 1 .
231
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erDssr LC sk Puto. pp. .
eru 57. send as a msse : / .
errf fre : e u m ) a
577.
OT/f 57. burn ache.
64. burn consume : sof.
g) 5 s sL CT|r /a erfunr?
not ths report be great gref to me ?
<srB<s<s eO anger ndgnaton.
T F manure : sr m.
6r0 buock o : <s/r r. 131 255.
GT hds IT 3o<r 131.
er LD a buffao : eT F)<oaLDLD T B.
267.
ere a rat 15 254.
cr 2?r <: )o eta Ga/eabr
though t be but a rat-hoe one wants
a hoe to one's sef.
sr3'<o 3 a emon tree. 213 212
eTL .3 '3 snu a emon 212.
GTwL- a bone : mp. 249 250.
ereoe< )<s a boundary greo.
sr )<sdrr 162.
ereL)so/r0 ereo sorr FfLD 126.
OTcuff a 107 126 196.
sre\)3so a boundary : ereoems <so t
dsr.
ereuer who whch woman? 25.
grsus r who whch man? 25.
erssu'sfrs 25 199.
sreu dh n what way how? ot
s /-D.) 25.
orse u 0Lh 126. or -2_u ff -).)
T e G) su L- B er<s eu L 177.
<or 172.
er 60. arse: er Lh- suLhu .
Co. GT ) .' 264.
67- 7 62. wrte ....63 P. 143.)
271.
oTO moe an ron pen: srag
g s.
er g a etter 72*73
er<T LD- er tpu-f 62. be strred
up str up. er .) 160.
eT ' IT the nom. case sub ect of
a sentence. From ot a/ /? /
pace. Co. ORGo from oror.
ers g what s easy : eo a-eou
LD Ca)* 149 247. erer.)
ereffeaLD po erty meanness : f)
Co. GTetaLp.Lp. ger.
ereftu poor ersyr. 1 4.
ete a p ganasrLLer he put on an
mporng face.
ere L surasr poor peope ersr.)
1 4.
erek srsyr sT rape seed any thng
trfng 252. 255.
6ref ef 62 despse: otstt.)
sr a throw cast 164.
T/ I 57. throw cast: e s?
erg ML an ant
egtb mmrs seu fL n tone I
hoowed out by the crawng of ants.
eresr 70 2 16 171.
er5sns\ srGafssr 9 .
OT BT 10 37 3 .
era|r 70. say ca by a name. 151.
erms 70. Ths form of the nfn.
of erssr s used poet for when
he) sad.
ermu er sru s) su srekusum' 2
151.
erer 64. pro e cause to say.)
sra r. 160.
_sreBr ufrer erekusear. .
sra r 7 ) 9 .
for e er and e er 126 166
orekgn 70 2 166 242.
ers r) sresrempdLD erm Dasr
er<ssr<s r what? somet. er<s r and
ereBTeanh 47 116.
eremsr LDr somethng or other.
sr<Mh 132.
6rs3r 5 o/D<s g for e er .. 126 166.
51
e an emphatc partce . . . 23 10 .
e s urrsLD one crop.
er< <s 2s LD unty : ss otd <p
232
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IND X 1.
. sT' LD one
. e s urrs Csto common en oy-
ment of any thng.
. er 62. go proceed s. T he
goes.
e dsh ongng desre dsappont-
ment.
e 62. pne angush. ... 62.
err* 62. use abus e anguage.
6 <<3F abuse: <s<c )-3 .
CT eaf page of a book.
. L the ng. head prncpa
p. 145.
CTfoTsf) adder s. shren.
e sm rr ug erssr rr. 195
e - 1.) whch what? er un.
2.) a cause s. hetu. 244.
d s p. 64 dece e: gu er
emrmw abundance : .
e ft a arge tank ake : sddtu.
CT< ). t s dffcut to restran the
waters of a tank but easy to et them
oose.
er pough Co. d <souce
T .
Po. CT O an aucton s. carda-
mon : e esf . "
cr f? 56. III. agree be fttng.
117 11 . uo.-
e o f. poet. 272 111.)
6 sw 50 e sc a command nstg-
aton 149.
/ 62. str up nstgate : essr
149.
172.
-gMp a poor gnorant man. Comp.
ere r.
p<s empu more or ess ....17 .
pu rop 22 .
6T Trf |3 ff ast ug.
e ff 62. ascend ncrease. Co.
r ng. RI Lat. oror.
Ths root s often used n comp.
thus t s s)-'\
p sutaby: ereb. 170.
erpsssr eu erps eu before eary :
pdr ssr rreguar form.
ep be sutabe accept 70.
era) ) p. erp pssr.
g ff.G 7- g e pDr' Is ths befttng
you.
erpu e ps.
epu 6 . undertake become
estabshed greo. 161.
eearaarm o f L-cys cyr. e has
undertaken for me
e pu 62. estabsh gr' 161.
6Tpun- B agreement co enant : sL
Buurr n-<sruLs<oaa.
e ppLD a pcota fow of the tde.
267. 67-.
e era compounds are formed
wth ths noun.
epss 62. ft up put nto a
bandy a shp c.) 160. e .
247.
e pa sfrsr st p.) rece e
accept. \_ ps.'\ 259.
erpguLD e port. \_eTps cd.I
GTssTLD a drnkng esse : urPffw.
eTsareuTLeBr a smpeton : e 'esru a
boar. <sB3 3 <s TLm.
6T6p\ LD 214.
eo-cr why? 9 214.
s. /b 172.
. a-eufButs weath : 0<F Da ) af
L LD aop.
- / f e 13 172.
ssT t ' 172.
ahug hug eru ....172.
LD doubt: s h aLD L pe
ams: t.etas' Poet.)
Lek 111.
urr r 111. a father tutr e .'
em fh 177.
esL uT 193.
tur 193.
r 172.
R. G Csu* substtute nstead
of e u aent property return
recompense.
233
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IND X I.
eg 64. agree 117 11 119 243.
eds atogether 170.
ep 57. be broken : p/ -asu.
64. break.
<sa Best modesty: sd nar-
rowness coseness Bssd.
ep Bd 62 oppress straghten:
od 62. be straghtened
obedent submt: _/m .
. cbLsu epL-eaL a came.
tcL-t sa cobwebs drt.
<LL .h a conca heap eft n dg-
gng a tank a wager.
epL-ek tank-dgger.
oL. LL Bh 140.
sg unon contagous. L .
L 62. adhere aow.
cpsssTLf. aone : sof erp.
<sssrLaarrn a bacheor.
odsm 62. run for sheter ean
aganst u. sbt.
5 F Bg 117.
epg dr sheter : gnd uo d
<d 62. cause to recede.
/ / 209. g e way recede
agreeng consstent : a<3
h 199.
LesrOfr Brer a hosom frend.
5Teto<F hep : 2_sff. <
d mortgage : _ . pp. .
PROP. p I.
< d s IT m h agree 106 243.
uunr compare coate 64.
<uu ke as. .
uu agreement /5/)
uuh agreement sgnature : 6s a
uudss a comparson : -sustntc.
9.
uuffs assocaton reconcaton
medocrty : eos-.
spuurf a funera eegy a nom-
na connecton.
L| 64. de er up to pro e.
246.
spuLf keness .... 190. sg.
Lf 62. consent sbu/.)
uL d sT 64. de er. cguL/
from . <sOa/7-s|r sr5 rece e
259.
LLnrffLD order beauty foppery
nspecton of troops.
c 75 172.
5 I s'h a fast when ony one
mea a day s eaten.
gB 5 .5/reb one furrow once pough-
ed. 3 T k.
B 25 fem.) one or a certan
woman 172 242.
t uuL together 170.
c f u 6 . 170 coaesce. 5
u 161.
< f \LDr 50 u) pp. .
L ds together 170.
64. unte 170.
sp TfsBLD oneness unty: s ud.
172 1 4.
o rsssr 172.
0 I ?a ?etr sometmes perhaps
<so fe r. 172.
C one ony : 172 67.
s sound : s'ss ss)3 .
e I ps I nseo an outer gate
where a the nose s.)
e anythng thn.
speu <s rrg 117.
w <s T F) 172 242.
ceu eurrdrgu ..172.
epP 57. fa 170. 64. remo e
fnsh.
62. fow eak go on
beha e conduct one's sef. .272.
1I1.)_
cpandsu) manners good manners :
BsnL y - 190.
ep d aeak: Lg <k .
<sp Lg order good order : <sp
234
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IND X
I.
eff ght: eue ). Co. Root
eLD ) genera rumour scanda :
Off/er.
epLoe uL . ssn|u uds .
srR 64. hde: Lnmp sr. 21
219. Co. t.
| 193.
u 57 cease rest : epL e . 215.
efu LD a hdng pace from.
ssT|- tota : OffeTO .
pg) 64. punsh troube abstan
6p L- Lh atogether whoy : sT y
gg/T) pawn mortgage : cg.
dfTLD. /r.
e b/ I\<c )<s 64. mortgage 261.
eprrm 1.) margn edge: asw/r. 2.)
p ben/D snge odd. sgcr.
partaty : uL-.a u rLD e re /rffh.
epmug nne 13 172.
epff a acka : / /f.
pdr ) 205.
ff /.
Gdrff 172. Com. one unus e
gg/f 60. n ure accuratey : <
a|7 62. unte become one.
r TL

epT \) accurate n ury decson :


6D 46 217.
30 f a/.
c*' '
g g . e srr 193.
eB o a pam eaf a etter wrtten
epd freTLD sckness : eurrBf s .
on a pam eaf.
e L : nausea.
33 For epsT see sy /'
ea 62. ft up shoot up.
<
<3 ffw 6-3 ff ) ug. a cause : I
1. For words not found under
fLb 231.
s ook n O. 2. The ug- use a
g an. sound. Co. ans /ac/ and
Lat. oc-s. \_u .
for constanty.
s. added to words 140.
ea Lo a fat bottom'd ferry-boat :
.
ssaLD <s ) the armpt : pd
Lso GtrorTL 7 ) ucabr|tfu eLh
a d m. _<B<sssr .
s a n cockroach: anuuem
aas/) dffcuty : eu F rrtufr
the boat n the bandy. One good turn
deser es another.'

Gb 1.) a potsherd a te : LDa


r . 2.) termnaton of 3d.
LD.
62. omt: arussBr
case. 21. dr.
-3 <3 u emesp .
eg 62. run 111 160.
sL-o a course : gaop .
s< < frek hoopng-cough: b
fds'hssr. < 5 .
f 64. gaop off.

srtse rLD a braceet ssd cord


62. dr e. 160. s .
s53_ a crack ad . cracked.
gg e3m 3r a bood-sucker : eb.
epLD damp n houses c.) hy-
drocee.
ted on the arm. comp. -s/t|/.

sf r.s the Ganges : ss rrm.


as 66. be btter: ms.
ag 62. crumpe wash
wrng out. away. 160.
t peo readng rectng sacred books.
ff. 14 .
3 \ 62. be cumped fade
<s# defect faut scar: ppa.
cg 62. read chaunt recte. 223.
ep.'Br sp L sm a wof.
LDra-.
ssuL T tterness : essuL . .5.
ephpt sg 3B) 3r.

.sLD sLD ) 1.) an eephant:


epuuLuT r the husband's eder
.M- 2. nd. a yard : a<F
brother's wfe. pp. . g u|u
LD. 3.) a sprng : pgs.
L | T sr .
R. ff/r surpus : ssd. Co. uts
LDLD bshop's weed a knd of
eca .
sacrfce : raM.
R. ' m darfm' a butcher.
30
235
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IND X I.
. ' T g /7' B). a treasury: ut
a 57. oo e weep 221 222.
s e oo ng. <e0.
R. 3?ur a rncpa age n a
dstrct.
_ 3? LD fT so LD nastness. ug.
ssss cement : usas .
. <s<50 < c a party: uLsm afr
.* a band tape boddce. Co.
fBtr rr.'
R. a<f fft a re enue or poce offce.
s|'eO'F a bet grde : esu ass-.
Co. < <* LDIT / .'
. s LrrLLD a decocton.
. s M pan : e fLc <ss 6ssr.
. en) abour affcton: L rru|r.3 LD.
.a0d /r bang any thng nto -
catng.
a 9t con ee rce water starch.
t- 140.
. s sLD a braceet sassssTLo. Co.
ems s dsn eu Lo.
I 66. pass o er transgress:
saesr Lnrp.
- 62. causa ) 160.
P. <s_/r0 /r9 a etter : sn f|a
s uuresr an ron crowbar. 93.
st esLD a duty : s sr psnp.
_. 1 4.
L 0 sea. Co. r/3 Ls. 101.
s aso Benga gram.
s eu 140.
<s _s/srr the Dety 170. \_s com.
GOD.
ther s_ e-c umorragnor or
_ to:o .srrOT //f the Beng n wom
obgatons centre.
s es9 a debtor. scsr. 1 1.
s esr a debt 1 1.
IT I IT te mae of goats
sheep c.
. s nmLD a fa orabe ook : 7r ur
L ITL 3 Ln < Br 6I ) L I LD .
s rnff a hefer : t rff 259
s reuL 64. thresh corn : urr
|TL. 266.
s rre 62. fasten wth nas:
suf- 57. be angry wth repro e:
sL srefT et. 259.
64. bte.
sug - asperty. <5 .)
. s L'sau) se erty dfh uty hard-
ness. 9 .
s B s Bu sL- n comp. ehe-
ment se ere. Co. s stu
srr .
a 64. be pungent angry s
s . 64. s . 273.
s s s 7M ucky : mfr
euT . 170.
.55 I aOf|L/ austerty s .
s mustard. <s .
<s g 62. hasten. sfs/r a /f.
<s a ss r ear-rng -s/rcs s f.
s sst1 ga-nut.
s uL acute pan.
rsa uL trangury.
om p gsaa uLf Co c.
sss a ba aar the end : ssm .
107. athe.
ssm 57. churn turn wth a
ssm ssesar the corner of the eye.
sem \ the end st s t )
the ast.
seD euTL the corner of the mouth.
. s Tru s B Lc cruety se erty :
sr ss)LD.
sL- 2str a command : - ay. 6
_.
__ |) ouchsafe 6 69 263.
sL tud force compuson brcks
paced breadthwse. Co. eL
ITL LD. )
sLtpL a ump abo.
sL-Ls sT g e u marrage. _s
L . 106.
sL-Lp.s srer sm. anne take un-
usty.
sLsc a cot bed.
sL o Ls 123.
sL a bond te bunde as an
ad . any thng ted or made up.
236
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L B 62. te te on bud 63
201 267 272.
sLL Bd\ srruL roof. ee. srut-.'
sL-en a bock pece of tmber
defcency n ength or breadth
met. a bockhead.
sesurdadr an accountant. _ s essr d rs. .
1 0. G N .
. <a<sa r<s an account gana.
. sessTh easrw an nstant a mut-
tude a dsease of chdren . a'husr.
\_ semsssr husband: L F aL e r.'
setmrsurrtu a pass between hs
se sf.a L proper weght aue c.
. ses LD the scence of com )utaton :
G NIT M. 3r< g.
L? ss sf) agebra.
rts I sesfLD arthmetc.
s a ont knucke.
ff BT a certan dsease of chdren
an arrow a tme.
ssm 1.) an eye aperture a
young pant. 2.) a pace 251.
for s ssrg ug.
ssBur- Temf fTr a Bshop o erseer.
< m sem B c 260.
. s<sm LD a pece a uarter of the
word the throat. -ut-dsem
'LD a pece of sat meat. coth.
s<mr T a woman's cooured
. 'smL 64. repro e punsh. 239.
Co. 2./F s/rsrr.
somL a6mLf. oB s a neck ornament
for men.
s<osn-uL materaty rgor: s<swr
L< LD. \_a<smL.'\
<ossr a ba of thread sugar
candy.
aesr 3 64 ....200 260.
asm I p o actua produce s/r
em.'
s<sm <s r I saw. rreg. p. t.
IT' .) 1.70.
3 sm w ceary. aea r /f.
.s<sm emL a mrror gass.
<mr m 62. nspect ook after.
care for.
a door: \_ sut .'\ 66 67
101 263.
sg 62. croak cry out . . . .240.
. s s. GOING. a path state of
e stence hea en pace of refuge
strength.
R. s the head Ryat.
s 'r an ear of corn a ray spoke
of a whee.
. sew a tae fabe. In comp. sr.)
244.
afr LD 3f . LD ff
B NC .
sr / rrLDessf s. chntaman
ewe yedng e ery knd of
deght.
a p a knfe.
. aft 64. cut wth a par of shears
or scssors.
sPrffdCsfreo a par of scssors.
ssrf brn a.
s 62. bray make a nose. 273.
. fBLD an odour: sur sr LosmLD.
. assLD suphur: s LD.
< 5/Fgro a rag patch : ppeo.
. au Ln au decet : <su 6|<93r dt
. auuf. a dece er.
suLD phegm : OsTsmLp.
R. IT news : aL.
_'/r _) a/.
. suT a capon.
. auTTT take care
. surrL a dsh of roast meat.
. surrffOLD a sku : f s a tr .
. s urth a do e met. a sy feow
" a pgeon. " '-/C7-
s urr a bnd person.
LD- trbute : )s</d.
suueo a shp: LDffdseOLD remsf .
1 2.
suuearr. a brass esse : see an
uuesrr ng. a copper.
su coarsey ground gran a
puy gra e.
suLf a forked branch of a tree:
stT L- seua a|LDL .
237
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IND X I.
LD 1) aceft n the ground caused
by draught. 2) the wast. nd.)
D f I7 0 e cL-tra urc ke pourng
mk nto a ceft of the ecu-th.
P. sLDaek an arch : s/a/.
s s- a shrt. r. chemse.'
the bete-nut tree : un )LD
LD.
. LD LD a poe: a LD w noddng.
. sLD sLD a farm.
. sLD esru noddng : sdud ussd
TLD.
s a wre a strpe n the border
of a coth.
. LDumM sth eB a banket cum-
by. . MM L.
aLD3<sfu u3' nonsense.
. LD1 1|LD depth : LpD.
. .ss us u mr ng. co pany.
u)LD \) hoarseness ha ness a
knd of ear-rng.
P. sdB defcency nferorty.
ah p 62. be hoarse become o er-
spread wth couds.
su g g rope. Pronounced
ug. aa/.
corap. yra). eaLp. e Lo.
66. hde: spe Lcetap. 270.
NOT COM.
s ra a water-pot.
sTL a bear
B a hard knot n wood.
sr Bnp T re r rough.
sBrremru) a summerset a gambo
means 256.
urr B throw a summerset.
atrssnrs u| )\ mrousnh I /O |CL
n your sprng death ensues. or
cure.
sff' a sr a knot ont or pece cut off
a knd of edbe root.
srresrsLD a tte chunam bo .
srresnTL a spoon.
sffuuk scurf eruptons on ch-
dren.
. sr LD hand : sss.
suLDL hard unted ground.
R. <s /r/f certany true e act
an agreement.
sfB charcoa an eephant wtness.
f)ff: ) backness back so.
s fs )sn cotton so.
. f) the embryo : s f ud.
LD e fLL I F the yok of an
egg-
s ossr I s f) the whte of an egg.
nf) s hLD s fftu sTT s back
ncomp. III. Gram. 121.
. T5<s o darkness obscurty : <s 5-
0g 62. become back scorched.
s s k coudness : du Lor
nth.
< T5 the edge of a knfe -c.
. s m Garuda the sacred kte.
. s bsr tenderness compasson : sB
F rM.
mps 'sm the hoy ucharst.
Chrstan usage.
s r 62. thnk regard. 221 222.
s f) opnon dea thought mea-
nng wsh s.
s F)L L 3 F) LD ad . forms of <s 5
' '
.131.
. s ff)LDLh s TLDfr deed acton sp.
funera rtes tc.)
s LDL sugar cane.
s h'sT dred sat fsh: es u.
s f T L-5B L- cnnamon. 0a//r
I I .
T af an nstrument : d.
tsmT a bank shore. Comp. P.
karan
stsaT e ) 62. be sa ed ascend
the bank.
epga 62. sa e rescue hep
up the bank.
smn- 57. n.) met pass away. 271.
64. act. ) met anythng.)
. ars 64. roar : srs .
<sT' osr roarng.
. <s/r<* change e pense.
. srssT s hm r3T a doer.
. sTurf confuson.
.. IT foetus the womb: .s f .
Com. sTuumrf a pregnant
woman.
23
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IND X 1.
. srruL LD camphor.
. sfreuLD prde : Tf<a g. _ s t en d .'
sre 61.) be proud.
seosu) a tumut rebeon 105.
seo.
s<o d<sLD confuson sot. a.
L .
aeu 66. mnge 239.
s<sos 62. confound m up.
OT.
seoff/g 62. be confounded
bewdered m ed up. 160 233.
. O) a pot esse censer.
seousau a pough wthout the
yoke.
\)LD a esse: a measufe of gran
12 marcas. err.
.seOLDua ) a msceany m ture
.aeoausro the mouth of a broken
chatty put o er a mortar to keep
the paddy n when poundng.
seoT dsturbance : s )eo s
. aeo/ru the s erng of a mrror
the nng of copper esses.
. <se msfortune : u.
se L s the ka-yug or ron age.
s / /< 5et) aff / / sk a suce
a ueduct : d/s .
. s urr sn a weddng oy. 231.
. .ss s confuson.
asssuLD a sma sab for grndng
drugs .C.
. s o a buck : sdsLDfrm . ' of the
moon's dameter : earn-
ng : sdoO sfrasru).
<s 57. be dspersed : gs.
64. dsperse.
s so LD a ptcher Bese . sma
earthen esse.
<seb sT 2/ a stone comp. aso
ap p 70 191.
OT f 62. dg up wth a stck
C: mT<mr .
s<Mds ea es used as pates.
grs aaa dsr I ha e aded ths worth-
ess feow n hs e tremty.
<55e ff9 earnng.
seo I af I <? /r a coege pace of
earnng.
seuLD armour ma appcaton
to a wound utng.
sen any thng forked. Co. _/ .
Bsu6m ssntsssr a sng aewsm.)
seuT a forked branch: su a< .
ae T-57 . punder ust after usurp.
aeu :) care 244 272. 111.)
ssusfTLD a mouthfu eephant's
fodder : seun tD.
. senssTLD attenton : snr-ff .
s.<suosr\ 64. attend to 115.
. er senT dr soders.)
. <5sf erse of poetry.
aaf 57. be ntent upon a thng
custer together 57.
a)9<?<5? a putrd sme : s <3 u.
s < 57. be o erturned. 64.
o erturn.
. dsff/ss f) the gate of a fort.
R. se eo agreement k'hou.
se stt one hundred ea es of bete.
6s su busness concern : Ort en
ssue for ssre. . .
aLpff 70. sp off come off.
Lppg) 62. 160. put off take off
256.
ssLfe a paddy-fed : suueo f e
s a stck a narrow backwater.
<s 57. pass off or away suffer
from darrhoea. 56. 64 purge
out abosh.
so s a ga sL pg e s suffer-
ng from darrhoea-
an mpang stake an eage :
)<s/reB f a short fat man.
sapea an ass.
sap the neck : sea d L-ga.
a Lpe 62. wash 245 254.
s w r water n whch rce has
been washed : spss ekr sr.
s s Lp sns a rope-dancer.
mLp a bamboo sn. . \
239
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IND X I.
. s sr a LD a spot faut : Lor's semm. . ssreOT .se|rsonsto seke u Tm
a .srr u LD a granary.
. sstTLD thresg foor a fed.
. sorrr barren ground.
5srre theft smeun stea. 255.
. fferTs-dsT dsT a ascar.
sf oy 164.
asft 57. re oce.
aetuL erdgrs.
63s<r fantness : ure weed.
57 strp pu off weed
61. fant. out.
sstr asr w theft toddy.
ssreru gue fasehood 166.
scremr a thef a m en asr . \_sk'. \
sersf uphorbum or mk hedge
ap 64. mk 255 259 267.
/ curry meat : L B. s .
. s G'hadd ) an hour.
sguL backness 13 217. Co. <s 5.'|
sssp a stan .
p rssr a whte ant: s eo.
ap- 7 . earn 191 253. .
. spudssr a command an n enton.
kapana.
p3 -- 64. command compose
n ent. _spu' r.'\ 220 264.
pL chastty.
spp earnt 70.
ep< p a tte a handfu.
. a r much ssstd.) 231.
. ssar) weght honour 231.
sesru) uT L honorabe wor-
thy.
\_a3 r ) fre : s gsf.
Bssre a dream: OT) sauuesr
su unsM ke a dream.
as \ frut 259.
. .-fesf -Lt-esr a younger brother.
s'hsr 64. negh hem hawk.
sasTga a caf a young pant 14 256.
Comp. Ltf LD .
sasT srmarf' 223 224.
seketr sa 223 224.
adrsnTLD a cheek : s ureu.
th break nto a house
263.
<sa|r OT) 3r a bra er.
a rgn damse. kanya
N .
6 fr
srrsLo a crow : sfT-arrL .
sTsue bas of rce offered to
crows. s .
P. sr sBtM snu 93.
arrssnu a crow : sF h
sfrdsfru u urrer tnse.
<s/r 64. preser e defend wat.
sT os heat: L- <cm t .
R. s Ta rr own persona.
R. <sr<s TeLTssLD tenants of a hgher
cass.
/r* cash 242.
fTL negar.
s r<5s a ua.
IT a unge 19 24. Comp.
. T M.
sh an B a burnng ground.
stL son. \_aTsm.2
srLLuf.LD 196.
sfTL 62. show. \_ T cssr. 160.
62 267.
arL-Lp-d 0ff 64. betray.
sfT/sm-u) horse gram used n the
south where 0/rs|r sr5 con eys
an ndecent meanng.
sre f g ) .- th heredtary rght.
pp. .
srrem .sanuo 193.
.260.
a sssr 70. see suffce
arT 5ssn 64. cause to see show.
160 1 0.* .s/rea r.
. <s/rff 3r an oppressor.
sTLD a kddam 10 mes.
aa|t an ear: e <.
<su srT 64 : enarge and
perforate the ear.
aTrrR 60. arrsOsrer wat
for. 259. /r.
aruurrp 62. protect. sfft|L/.
152 267.
sTut- custody braceets a cord
ted round the arm of a brde-
groom.
240
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IND X 1.
P. aTLDnr a room chamber.
.atTLDt ust 223 224. kama.
sfTLDrds aundce.
sTLDL a stak 271.
sTL Ls a wound.
P. .s fru LD sr LD a paper etter:
a Ba . 93.
.srr unrpe frut.
srLsasf Lps sser egetabe food .
mL 57. become dry hot g. ka)
160.
64 make dry or hot yed
frut. a/ra| 15. g.
s T 3 3 e) fe er. /n .'. 260 273.
srT |3's- 2. bo dry up. 160.
R. . /ru5/r custom rue : \_LDn- p so '
eLD LD.
sTLuL- caous e crescences.
sau u- sr-I - . grow caous.
. sm eannh a cause : ecr 267.
srrnh pungency.
. sTrm s-TB 52 1 1.
. sfTft LD thng matter: ts.
. sTftu\aT T<ssr agent: srrf ewdr.
. <s rremf tu LD tenderness : srfsesTLD.
sfTosarr paster.
sfTT a knd of paddy.
. TT<an- a workshop estabsh-
ment.
. atrreD the month of No . Dec.
pp. .
P. srTunff a superntendant.
. sTco .a5 p LD subsstence ng.
f L P )
< .. pp. 11.
I tme passng. |
. Breo D n the mornng : euc r
esr. 244.
. arreh tme : rBff|D.
s/rs /refr a foot-soder 166.
T mornng 233.
areo 1.) o ) a uarter. pp. .
2.) a eg foot. 5 166 262. 3.)
tme: st od 12 .
sren L a poe for carryng burdens
whch are suspended from ts two
ends.
R. s/rsua) a watch custody: uaar.
ssfrffosr. a watchman. 4 52 53
115. ' L'ser.
apponted a person as a wach and
went away.
srre ' red ochre.
areneufru a kn: str.
arrsfrTm mushroom.
. saeB Durga. wfe of a.
F a young buock 131.
sTga 62. grow stae rancd.
sfT - 57. hawk and spt.
F.an-guTff authorty busness
superntendance.
ar e) D a coar of god or s er
mustness moud.
aupgn wnd affu-f
s.n3s<k mrage apour from e ces-
s e heat.

. ea muuemL an nstament
of ta 101.
. <s smua7<u the haf of the month
when the moon s dark.
. fsL L L a rasr.
66 e be down 161.
64 troube uake an
mtat e word. -
P. L-k a "go-down " store room
t f 62. cause to e down. 160.
161.
rrrff a hefer 256.
o _ a fod or pen the state of
yng down. 3 .
' m 64 happen fa nto be
obtaned.
a rght to that.
L 151 170 251. .
L_d dross.
L an nstrument of torture by
compresson.
L B 62. draw near be obtaned:
<sk . 170 237.
<sm a we: Oud.
hat has a frog n a we to do wth
potcs ?
241
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IND X
I.
s
sar Bf tnkng ornaments.
sT 62. np np off.
sssr 62. dg nto str up.
6B|7 _ 3 r_ /r y the more t s
su g 237.
s 62. erase erasure.
n ured nto the worse t s.
s
<o r essr u a brass cup.

LD song: umL e ).
s
33r 6ro) LD a strnged nstrument of
rftu er str a mungus.
musc.
R. T sr can as.

n/r herb 136.

fame: truLD uu t
R. /TL/ a book tte.
Lf.
eo a ont hnge tar.
62. hat go ame.
ssrecsk one who hats n hs
p under east. 107 21 251.
pp. .
wak.
s
rfsLD a house a panet.
pa an underground r er.
T-) nferor ).
.
t 64. se e comprehend :
upg. GR .
ursLD cut aton of edbe

nsm a ray of ght : <s/f sh r.


roots.
.
LDLn order: <op ' euffsms.
puuu puu 161. submt

a' LD ssT' LD prce sae : o .


obey. p utf .

aTsssTLo an ecpse : grahana.


puu 62. subdue. 161.
ffr attce ra.
puuLp-ursaLD dsobedence :
s
rrfTLDLD a age p. 149. grama.
L arrecoLD.
TT - a co e.
ff 62. draw nes scratch. Co.
s
rft a h : f r Lnds.
.
| fraud.
p ") a ne strpe cocoanuteaf.
s.
ffsn '11 aa act deed kRya.
5
prep to . words ugy bad
mean.
s.
fL-u a dadem LpL d )1 u:.

s.
ffea sport.
s.
5a 5a3r back.
s
ao<s a mountan ca e: edLo.
<u u resn dammer.
feuek a potter: u eum-. 22
s.
snu grace krpa.
s
a worm: - - krm.
s
Cso-sLo angush : eu ssr.
25 .
p
. so eofrf commandant of a fort.

. )'3 T oy gadness.
p od east beongng to. Co.
srtnruu urseorh you may go wtk
p. pp. .
a. my heart
prntD 'a day of the week. pp. .
65 or / contracted for d n
Lpm e )T an od genteman 259.
psussr f. /e ) an od man. 13 .
certan compounds.
P
3. |sf a ktchen.
a scratch : p o.
.
e Lh L-d eprosy : -L_
57. become torn.
T LD.
64. tear scratch 115.
s
ff-s- a hut : Les).
sr Bf. rue a ne.
T- a tte stck or straw.
sfT L- stTLD 62. rase rse.
ueos' a tooth-pck.
160.
3 LD a tasse.
sy a parrot a ocust : s u .srr
CT<5f a chcken tte one.
22 .
g)L- 6 )<s the pam of the hand:
-s|rsrr/Bsros.
ef eo a conch she.
m<s a tea: p . C'-/
s
) a pot 24 25 .
str a branch : saLoL Lcaa 'n
_ffo bowes ntestnes : /f.
242
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L fT L frds ) a bay guf
harbour.
. f- house nhabtant dweng
101 255. s. uT.
tf er 62. take up one's abode.
f. er / 62. sette others n
an abode.
f 64. drnk. 32.
Lp.<c a< F a hut. .
Lsarw dweng occupaton
househod affars. L cBr).
269. pp. .
Lum a drunkard: Os'
Lf-eurrrrh 101.
) B the tuft of har on the back
of the head 261.
. ) _/) famy: . kutamba.
. L- f- a whep young of an anma.
L a buffet cuff.
62. strke wth the fst.
|.s_ 1.) ad .) sma. 2.) a
sma tank. 3.) a dwarf. 4.) a
handkerchef.
. 33r< g crookedness: saemeo
eu strs 237.
sssruu 6 . change one's ds-
poston repent. 161. gsa r.
. gs TOtf. dsposton uaty shurr
euLD. 263 26 . Co. ue\). swd.
. gsasrsuffsr a person of good ua-
tes. g |I T ).
. essrekr er yeasr e t sk .
. Gss) )m fr adorned wth ua-
tes. Br eD/ / /f.
aa B) a pece of ead c. put
nto the ears to wden them.
gsaarfL the posterors: u
L-LD. ug.)
em a ba buet any thng
round.
<cm s '3 L-L a round pan.
gararsw an o : srdssr.
ff)rea dsorder : eO srr
eOLn.
/rs) Com. / //Ta) the
hee: LpaT ).
64. eap.
mT a horse I 266.
amT psLo an embankment of
wood.
5/f an earthen receptace for
gran. Com. 5.
5 273.
. c5 gw<s a contract rent.
a pont a stab thrust.
62. prck peck stab beat
rce pck the teeth. Com. ar
pd h h us gfff < _ 5a m e en
a tte straw uy ser e to pck the
teeth wth.
msLD a hndrance : hsa s .
231.
/5 62. st on the egs wak
on tp-toe.
ur dr the ndu Puto. enL-d
. p3. .)
uu ) heap : ueo.
uLfg) 6 . fa on the face.
a?3 Ts g L p tkefesr he knocked
hm down.
ueau refuse dung: C<5s .
P. LoemT a wrter Gomashta agent.
p. G M T .
dL 62. nauseate oathe :
fF ds6f.
. LDfft a rgn daughter Cape
Comorn.
. LDtrf LDfTffd a daughter : d s
sr LfrB.
. LDruer a son : LDs<ssr L enr
a-esT etaLD/ Gr 1 9.
I bubbe : fsf 22 .
Lpsu 62. sound as thunder
murmur.
LDu ) heap ug.) a crowd: a
ff LD 263. re erence worshp.
LD .sfL a pot wth fre to
warm the hands.
LnL a crowd : s ear d 3k.. d.
LDL 62. become smoked.
L a pay n whch grs cap
ther hands and mo e n a crce.
31
243
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IND X I.
LO p 62. wash genty wth the
hands.
. ueum 0<Fff|25r : enefrnsk. 22 .
a5ff) the Indan cuckoo.
ar a monkey : d/e. 246 255.
/ffLDL a dam channe from a r er.
g a) a sound oce : sd
. 25 F) ffrLDTT sprtua gudes.
G R .
0L_0r a bnd man : urLse
u asr s ufT sasr s<5m )
ftureum 17 .
75 bndness what s bnd :
u nL. c L .
LL tTLL Lh bndness : F) .
5/ bnd 131.
. g0 bood: ff LD.'\
C5r.' tender shoot.
a a tte brd : upes su u- .
. aTLD rancorous hate.
ffeoLD trbe famy caste : s rr
TLD 255.
R. )' OrrLc a sa e: L<c LD L Lgs<sn .
R. g)<ooneo the red powder used at the
ho fest a.
0 g 62. shake wak wth
affected gestures.
gsf/sOs|r rssss 64. shake the
sdes wth aughter.
s0 's 62. shake the sdes c.
g the pt of the stomach a
bunch of frut c : aa.
3so 57 be dsturbed dsso ed
effaced : s so.
64. damage efface : s s).
. ff)<k)eo Tu a cap or bonnet.
a 57. be oned cosed. 64.
heap up accumuate contract.
Lprhaa annfant: 3- urrest k.
161. tp tender.
LpuLf 62. thcken confuse: <s
LpthL broth oam.
LpLDL 62. grow thck confused:
Lpeo ppe fute : sr Lp<k).
' 64. stammer: srr a.
efr 263.
g 1.) a pt : uerefT D. 2.) the
s uare of any thng.
L b tte pts ure soon fed wth
water.
suLp 57. grow tender eas. 166.
64. m rub nto paste wag.
. _.
s T ) a tank : tso e /f L
gerraf a wasp.
m'srg 62. stammer: tpgn.
gsrff 64. bathe: f g) 75.
srf)0 60. grow cod 266.
g f/f <sBh<3 \ cod : TLD Ih
srfff-.
5 5 273.
ff erf cmu Lp ) a boated face.
msrsrdr ) a dwarf Lea
otot ot areda cf <" urrs rr asr he
empoys a dwarf to uncertan the depth
of the r er.
g -Ls_ snorng. 1 7.
/D3F a knd of erse. I Gam.
)g3| L| LLee tnse paper.
ay 62. be sad. C 5 's -
f uL a sgn ndcaton note.
267.
s r consut a fortune-teer.
64. ndcate regard.
3 115 230.
Bo g0LD pg short
sma defcent. In comp.
/ oB s a sme.
what s across.
guessf a marca e/.
fecnn 57. be dmnshed want-
ng. .) 124 263.
64. dmnsh esson. 124 17 .
sn D an/De defcency. 157 190
245.
PpLD a faut : u fM 5:/.
99 115.
ppsTef a crmna 1 2.
p< the stump of a tree.
244
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IND X I.
117.
ffu T haf dead. Ltte fe.
g Cof 57. stoop bow down 265.
gOT" I O B f seeds of the brus p.
beng red wth a sma back spot:
ug. 0 a3r LDB3 f.
drgu a h : ffI d2so mpu.
rg 62. dmnsh: eap.
_<9 _ Oh aas 193.
n_<sss a arge knd of ow : s nL.
L /rssr .
. s-sfT a goget water- esse.
33 62. be ashamed da ed
tcksh set on edge.
a _LD shame : suL d. <s.*.
190.
.<.s ) a row nose : <ocaT3 s 0O
ug.) .s.. 263.
_ wth 170 239.
s LD a ha apartment: trLpefr
ffLh rf.
3k.: fr
cB_ _/r/r) a tent : t.
au sLrsar 211 213.
B a cage : sekr .
a B 62. come together be pos-
sbe 103 117 170.
.ffO 103 104 11 .
sL d a congregaton assemby.
. 191.
3n.LL n-ef a partner 1 2. a .
sL-L one who sweeps: u ffd .
sTu p sLt. a church sweeper.
191. L .
5n. 62. gather together co-
ect sweep: OL/0<s g. a_ .
160.
auL fTurrrnh partnershp n
busness.
< s -L s/ frendshp assocaton :
sd u Lh a_ )a /-
sk.sm' a arge basket cage nest:
Is .-
/r cod.
3r a dance : rsms.
shT 62. dance act on the
stage.
y- Ts an ron crow-bar for dg-
gng wes c.: sL uunm) r.
au I 70. ca g e a whoop :
mLp 52 93. I auLf .' .
sLDL suL 62. cose as a fower
on cose 160.
_0 60. used wth certan nouns
to denote ntensty : thus cs/r.
/ -f / a F remember.
asTL r T) o e 60. III.)
reaa a thatched roof: d n.<ss r.
. <sh_/f af a ffrr sharp acute
heb. kur. s. k'hur.
_/f edge pont prck : f) )
esn.
ITLDLD enLD.
aTstnLD sharpness: sh.T 1 4.
3 e hre a workman / nLse .
12 . 155.
.gay 62. ca out coo : ss-
a pnLDL- ). a sang term for a cow-
ardy good-for-nothng feow.
ah.<Pf mamed defect e cut short
rotten gLLan Ou)/rLL gw_.
seDLpd fT a pecan.
-P. pap- tptt7.
am-LD refuse staks of grass : O.F
ffs) bts of strand : u d .
sff a part : u .
sk-gn 62. procam. Gr.: X yf-.
3<mp marrage garments.
nppo death: LDuessTLo. \_3ff
fate.
. ffuesra r. m.) a hunc-back . . . .17 .
. < _sb9 f.) a hunch-back.
.< .s3r 1.) a hump : eu stre. 2.) a
knd of earthen esse.
<s.
s s often used for s.
ss- 62. suppcate : suam
LDa r y .
sLp. fame terror: rd uo.
a 6 . persh be runed :
64. destroy: f. 15. g. 254.
a 0<s a / a date tme f ed:
eu BT eufrur 26 .
245
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sL
bad spoed 13 14 6 74
93.
0<sf. strong thck : Gusoe|r.ff ).
G)s5LLLf.dsrr <s3r a ce er feow :
sn'LDfrT uer 199.
sL- sk from Oa 6 .
sb a den: sta<s.
aLnu a ruby : aLh-<s<se.
.3s)- 62. make a great uproar:
ss 64. wn.
se u- trumph.
. a LD a shed : u/ffaa.
G destructon 190 191'. 0<s .
sL . 70. R. Crerr. hear ask.
aLLLecdsOurr? a e you not
heard . contract for bL o
dsurr? 114.
sL ost ssL . 70. ?.ssrr.
a we mne. s nr
s

. s one of the serpents supposed


to cause ecpses. \_sB.
s R 62. cacke: s a srrd
?<55s asperson caumny rdcue:
. seueOLD ony smpe weak.
nd. FF.
sL rr a knd of <a //- or gran.
com. se f).
Caeff hear ask. ee G1 /d.)
27 70 190.
Cssrrsf a ueston : sf eB) a rumour
knowedge. 190 262.
se -<s freght.
6)35
sro<s 1.) a hand: sau). 256 259
262 270. 2.) a termnaton of
nouns 143. The compounds
formed wth ths word are many
and n constant use.
CD/r? Is a mrror needed to see e en
what s n your hand?
ens 64. be btter: a<F.
em B Bt. 56. III.) hande practse
o 3<ss_ . 62. cross the hands n
re erence.
sasshB 62. be successfu : 0.
<s s /r come to hand 70
eff)a<s strer sm rece e accept. 56
I.)
er <s<3 '9 T an n oce.
R. tD a prsoner.
emsuupgu 62. se e.
easuL . a handfu : .
sm<5|L/ btterness : a'3 uL .
oe LD uem a wdow: e gwa .
_\u\g. BLD emL-L pessrem .
ecosLDLDrru rafter. _ TLh.
es)a LDrg retrbuton: t rrL uarr
<5 oas/r support afforded by the
hand.
. enaeoTLD an's hea en.
s oaa/cF ) actua possesson.
srd ff 64. shout cacke.
sTs a casp: dL.
aT a heron.
srs- LD afreu prop. stru
s sLh'\ fods of a woman's gar-
ment.
ff/r* g a/r<9P a mos uto gnat :
fT3g) any thng g en o er and
abo e: 3f .
0<Bff| ff<? barbarous speech a uga-
rsm.
T sLD a tte few. s. knchana
some-what.
0/r g*G6y 6/ rtou6OTB) 763r e
es upon a tte-
a 3h 62. fonde : s u /r .
stTL a creeper cothes'ne.
134.
uu. rth creepers spread o er the neyh-
borng trees ony.
OsfTLdsrreo a bete garden a fag:
sTLum arLurrd 1 4.
sTLg) the aw.
srr stTLo s T Lh crue.
Comp.s . 1 4.
246
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IND X I.
sr 6-4. g e afford yed :
r 16 27 60 267.
0<s/r < g the stng of a scorpon
caw of a crab c.
. r es s the fore-arm bent.
sn- Buu ssr g ng n marrage :
Co. s IT er en sr.
sTemL- a gft.' arr . '190.
arrLL reaa sr/.'. geoa a shed :
sTL- rT porch eephant's
stabe.
sTL- rre a yawn. arr af.
s IT L-t u LD a company of carryng
buocks.
amLLtussfr Br amL-Lurfk
a carrer.
stL.'s a cow house : LD TL- a
stL 62. empty out sp. 265.
stng as a scorpon 254.
afTL-emL- a nut seed: a /efa .
sfrLLm da the she of a
cocoa-nut : L d
srem 106 4.)
sTsssr n- - 2. prase ceebrate:
uDLu|s- atreBsr .' 255.
3fT mr 239 241.
Ths s pronounced ugary L
n many cases.
sfrem eB ss r s a tae-
bearer: arrer sreo ms m .
3 rr<5 sr u r take away 27.
a Tem sn T 0<s/re rar_ff brng 27
0n" 33r5B)t_ tuft of har. 50.
sfT 64. bo bubbe up 273.
0<sff<5 <s r buwark baston : Ca/r
arr a bunch: .
Gan- 62. dg up or nto pck
off wth the beak peck.
. srsr<s\ the chef of the poce
n a town.
0<sn-ef 6. rage be tempestuous.
<srw 62. gnaw nbbe.
atruueoT a coer esse boer
a cocoanut wthout the she.
OsffL/L/erR 64. garge rse n
bsters.
sfT L a branch of a tree an ear
ornament.
a.<y5: rtof sruL a g c ff /D t I
on the topmost houyh.
s T u Lf er LD pustue bster.
sfTLDL 1.) a branch : stu
. 131. 2.) horn wnd nstru-
ment. 3.) The fgure O. 4.) a
knd of earrng.
sTL 5 . puck off snp off.
sfrLsf- 62. pat doube n fods.
srr rr gua a tree.
sfrff s/r f/f / a kng's audence
chamber: sr LD<smL- Lh.
srr so murder: u eueen.
/r< n 2/ 56. III.) k: eues).
Comp. the radcas.
sBrr d hack-yard house-garden:
L pdsetaL LpppLD 244.
O/7- ff0 0a|r a backsmth : s LDrm:
aLDLDtT' fr m.
sfTL 64. separate stones c.
from rce.
sT ad . 1.) fat ferte. . 2.)
a pough share.
sT g 64. become fat.
sfT hdsr husband's brother.
pp. X.
sT wfe's sster. pp. .
aT Lg a sender twg tongue
of fre.
sT - a nsoence. 0/r .
s T d 62. entce hook n.
-sfrefmrna an o non : sr em sm d .
Oc /rsyr
areae|Oow takng n marrage :
Co. 0/r L|.fc.
sfT reB a fre brand : aerefs
L- L
ararefartuu s-w gns fatuus.
sTm horse gram. Ths word
s not used n the south: a/rssar )
s used.
Os/rsyr 56. III.) take get ac-
ure buy. 106. 259.
247
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IND X I.
srerdsr 1.) booty robbery:
aa/o. 266. Osff frfBT . 2.) a
pague pestence : atr strdsn
u <d''3 e\). 3.) much: B .
. srrp T a sma whp.
s T/ 64. nbbe np off ears of
paddy.
Csrppssr a brckayer 12 .
0.s/7- 2/ hs busness from an
O a trowe obs. '.)
srresT 'dr he ked.
srmg uTL-L-fTsk he ked. 56.
III.) 77 106.
sT srdssr 1.) a tte cup of ea es :
Oresr. 2.) stammerng speak-
ng wth hestaton.
d u us speak ndstnct-
y-
< fr
Cff a kng cow.
fT 273.
Ca/r 64. strng pears .c. ?</r/7-.
. sr fT sTu 172.
sTL Tk mas uerade : C-s/rsrar
m .' 252.
sa a am rft an a e. 237
. stTL ten mons 172 any thng
new a corner. Cs/r .
?ff a ne horn branch.
srea dsreoLD hot season. srr
es .
srL- rds) grotes ue gestures
antcs : srrres .
sTL-L- r< an ow.
CaffL g D_ a fort : ssLD hao
round the sun or the moon
measure a..) s<cOd.
sfT snk a buffoon.
. snemLD an ange : smg..
srns sretsfsys resBuo a
sack of gunny: 3 t 5 OffL .
ar 62. be bent or crooked :
sr'hser any thng crooked or
awry : smsmD.
s r'hssru u 3 s rreguar tak.
strs| the dry refuse after the uce
has been e pressed : sdema
sT 62. arrange the har eat
mucngy.
< TLDee)u wheat.
srrr LD a trbe : gsw. . . . 1 0.
sn/saL a wof : ep gg/ /ru|.
srruLD anger 244 259.
sT an angry person 1 0.
64. be angry. \_ sruLD.'
n- ffLD a tower steepe.
sfTLDLLt rnpL-L a cass of
traders.
Cs/TLD OT a wast-coth : se sesrLD.
3 IT LD IT eXI one g en to senseess
foosh tak : u<5m.
Csff ug. for arrL 123.
srru eo a church eureoL .
arr ) ).' 191.
sTTffLD horror frght e cess.
. srrrFI a muhammedan tomb.
GsTT 64. strng pears c. on
B. ND R B the ame. a
strng : ar. a a.
saear grasses of arous knds : /
srrTLL the ng. word Court. 115.
Ga/r/fano/ a strng of any thng
beads c. Cs/r/f. 190.
reLD ornament form beauty
pomp.
. r<oO T ' )LD confuson uproar
buste : so DfrppLD. fssr.
sreorrL m fyng fsh : upeasu
T 62. d de out nto beds
bend.
TTe) a stck : f
sT' ) sru so.
sTT eu p s <c a mue. n ass
on whch a kng rdes.
saemsu srremeu a strng of
thngs: ssr srT.)
C<s/r afow 123 244.
Ca/Tts Dtp phegm tmdty: sud
r3 LC 3 1 <3'e<T\.
. ?<56/rer) a ba or gobe : L s.
htossr ss I .
s IT IT Tg confuson rL rg.
24
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C<s/r
ITL
123.
srerr stnL sreo msche ous
tae-bearng: Gs/tL 0<?/rso\)co.
sTf asns desre: GsL/ssar sw.s.
sT.
aT u 62. desre wsh : af -LoL/
ckr 272 111.)
3< fr see <s<a/.
. ssfreuLh decet : toasLD sud
sofre 62 snatch at: seue . 62
234 23 5 242.
c syrerR 1.) a sma knd of ard :
e . 2.) a hundred ea es of
bete.
<3m see .
. emLD a moment.
. or <s a sans pref meanng
wth together saha.)
. 3 LD BORN wT . natura easy
habtua : euraess.
. Fs mud : 'g s| sa ar.
erb ' eu/r/ftt2cf eturLb urrsrr f yu
thrtw a stone nto the mud t won't
spash your neghbour's garment ony.
. #:<s) the word agat.
faurnp. a schoo-feow : a eou
urrLf. a brother-n-aw.
. \)LD 126.
. '9 <sL LD a bandy cart: en esur so
L ) 3 a B. on an a erage
n a ump.
. aseO RLo 126.
3 so\)an s )uuaL Fa oO. pp. .
<5 <5syff<s uropean coth of arous
knds: 3|r B).
. s surrsLD assocaton: uw sd
LD -3 IT s ea a .
. .3 <s IT u LD an era a year: e f LLh
mr .
. a arT LD hep : <op T a<9' stmr
cheapness we s .
. s a femae companon : r .
3 64. suft'er endure: uTgn
s 'ssnM an omen : I. ug.
3 < 113 TLD.
. sTTf a a TrfG T sster brother.
. 3 daL mockery derson : urB
fTLD. 273.
. d' nh a whee dscus chakram.
. Fss r one of se era w es.
3d Lps stee to strke a ght
wth.
' d 'u sk a shoe-maker.
T. gd aarr sarr a store or hoard
of gran.
<3 d<sms the dry cane after the uce
has been e pressed : sr.
. s occurrence affar: a t f u d
e IT LD n 'Oyr LD 111.
. a sL ) 6F aLLt ) straghtened
crcumstances troube : saL .
. F | LD a meetng assemby : .sL
LD.
. <3 sft 64. destroy: Garo.
. s' |spuu w determnaton
O : ff d ssT.
. msT LD destructon : f ra u t
pecu.
. s 64. doubt re erence. #
etaa.
. sr r sbb eptome : <e<so.
. 9 3rrT the passage of the sun
from one sgn to another.
. s a chan 131.
. 3 rs aL psam hymn : Tsaru
utL .
. 3 frsewLD a settng forth ac-
knowedgment : / deas.
. 3 a conch.
. a 'k aLD an understandng be-
tween partes.
. ems doubt: 6F < Lh honor:
e TLB.
. fs'L|o a hare : pueo.
. IC-Fsusro/ /rsarLD bathng wth the
cothes on.
. '3 d<3 ff<s uarre : <?<Fw/r 'sm ea .
<y# crowd of peope buste : a
249
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IND X I.
. <r cF 64. so ourn con erse. 163.
. F '3 r LD dweng con erse
cohabtaton.
. 3 <3 sOL fuctuaton troube : aO /r
. s e a panacea medcne to
engthen fe. sed as a tte n
compment. \_eta
. a k a ceremony : stdI e
. _t LD body: s__ )Ly nert
matter : sL-urkm.
. 3 uf- <3 s' suddenness :
LT eresr.
<s BLD contro ersy competton
uarre : utL.
. 3 <ss . a ong pat of har.
a L- L e amnaton.
L-L u 1.) a frame 2.) regu-
aton: <s Lgm w um ssr. 3.)
copy for schoars.
9 L-.t T u t erdsr a montor sLd
sL-Lp. a pot chatty : un-/ w. 256.
s L- aLD a ade : sussyu.
s'LL'ca 1.) a acket 2.) honor
130.
3 <rm6\ Com. -sGmruL .) hemp.
. 3 5mL-.msfrer a e feow.
asr the moon shnes nto e en an
outcast's house.
3 <5mLa. an obstnate person : a s.3
<smL 249.
sm Leu IT m LD oss n redeemng a
pedge.
<F 33re_ a row tumut batte : <s
tFrrs <sa)) ufrT 107.
aemust a knd of fower tree.*
. au a hundred certanty perpe-
tuty.
R. aT prncpa. pp. .
R. rn er an under- udge.
. 3 crLD a muttude : s ssre etrLD.
. tf/r aways: eru u T ws Lh. sada.
.'5 decet a yBr tofra.
. 3' T a ow rate.
. 3'ffLD abty ce erness a s uare :
. sT four n comp.) an assemby :
. s'fT' |su) a compete army chess.
Four members.
. sTsr an abe person : dts:'.
ffes fesh the soft part of the
oaf 263. Co. ws-.'\
. 3 good n compounds : rsed b<so
0 m|D Fp.
. -aLD 1.) oce : egsw.. 2.)
se en : e . 3.) hre of carts.
c. eTL <5 s sge .
<F dt . 64. utter a sound.
. -3 1-) energy strength: rrrrea .
2.) omtng : eun.
. .asa LD truth: dL 155 272.
II.) an oath : sLDrccmM.
. 'FTM 1.) a pace where food
and odgng are g en: t .
2.) ncson.
. s s rnn an enemy : usms
urre| 272.
. 3 <sLD strength : aretsB u
. 3 kLD aways : t.
. <s fB a race famy : 'F/haeur
arrrLD. 1 2. pp. .
s'fLf- confuence of peope : sL.
LD\ str: s:s s-.
-s'LD the fow of metre : r rsLD
. smnuu con enence : _
. senru) sanda-wood.
. s'krrssrh offsprng : <9 e. 264.
. s' combnaton unon a pace
where streets meet: 3 s e en-
ng. 64.
. '3 /h meet st: s<5kr BG Ter
. \_<3 /BuT twght.
. <3 rrer the moon: eor.
. <3 fB 1.) a corner a pace where
four streets meet 2.) a ont:
. <r/5 ?LD doubt <F p'3 L LD. 17
257.
250
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IND X I.
<?/ s a far c e .
a a LLD oy : d p| a pre-
sent. 161 12 .
. r/t p 3 / fT.3rLh presence of a
great person : a psLo.
. at L'a an ascetc: eu .
. <rut|D a ow mprecaton on one's
sef n case of faure.
. tF/ 64. curse. \_a Tuua. 163.
. 3es u a congregaton assemby
sab'ha.
. -F LD 3 LD.
R. s u u se uestraton attach-
ment ega.)
a uuL-<se a wng : p the
shouder-bade.
a-uuemu)
\ arre |
62. st wth
egs crossed under one : awto
em-LD. u LD.
ffuuaua a canopy for an do : a
uuef) 64. be brused gaunt.
a'uutT s a ame person: np euesr
Po. <5'L /r shoes : C/r 1 .
<3 uL 62. smack the ps suck :
rumu ont any thng thn.
. TLD'mt the whoe : sr eor.
. aLDhresTLD the kng's court me-
tropos. es-.s.'
. 3:M3:as r LD thc e uator: rr3
. aLDLD e uaty e e : sdgst.
e LDn n s<sn parae nes.
a LD_fT an-LL B TeuLh a paraeo-
gram.
. aLD |LD an opportunty a sect.
. FLDTsr a ce er man : <s:rrLDfTT
nr erg ufu? hat s
great dffcut) to a ce er man ?
. 3 LD r4 aTr LD news : a u 256.
. TLDrtresTLD peace. ffT.'
. aLDr the gra e mystc med-
taton.
R. <s LDTu/ LDru/ settement
of re enue.
sLorreff) 64. manage furnsh ac-
compsh.
sLDfrsLD keness e uaty: eauu.
s' 64. bear: uTff dgest.
ence are der ed s- .o and
<a eaLD.
aBuLD nearness : T)a T sm s)LD
L-|d 161.
s'LD sr and st ern'T a and owner
a psLD face presence : /s p
sfTs. pp. .
a paLo the d ne presence.
a pa u LD doubt : F Lo sus-
pcon.
.9 p3 rrTLD famy wfe wordy
affars BLhuh.
a pds/refru a carpet. mon.
a PfTLLo any thng hed n com-
f pr t the sea : s ).
3 wLD 57. become ready ksha-
M . Co. esLD.
64. cook prepare.
sMDL/a) cookng. 5<go tD.
aLD 1.) a sans. pref con. con.
2.) aterm born. a.
aLM g prosperty ac ustons
rches.
ugh t ug ._Ca/ Ts rDesr
prosperty and ad ersty come together.
3 LDufLD connecton : s o d.
s'LDue 64. happen : /5
fLoueTLD wages : _ff 12 .
\_a um<ssrm oae who s perfect who
has attaned to.
a LDur a knd of paddy.
o'LDu IT t' ossr con ersaton nter-
course.
shur 64. obtan ac ure . C .
ffLDuauM ac uston.
f ffp a prncpa accountant :
t essr <s s ' sr . uffu)
3 u) LDL ) pomp : C reoLD o
a LDL a knd of reed or sedge.
swy essT abundance : y 3r r
<s LDss)u dred fsh c anheur .
aLDLDLLL a sedge-hammer horse
whp.
32
251
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IND X 1.
. sLnLD .3 )LD permsson : nnt ' . s eotsutr a messenger : se ton.
u -rrsf.
. <3 -'ea<su washng cothes : eu
. _.g t LDas rLD honor e uaty. eo.
ed.
. ffL-.a' sssr preser aton : ft
. <?a)/7-s a rammer probe.
. sO|osrh seep : psmtr bed.
R. nsoru sa m. pp. .
<5 dry grass c. dr.
yg 64. sft be weared aded
<F s goods of any knd : tdt
or dsgusted.
rffnu- roughness 2 5.
<?6 gB< protecton nterest.
3 B a chan neckace seres:
a uL- dsgust. os .
)sP.
#a) \)_) short-drawers.
. ffemu a foot: utd refuge :
3 )eosaL a arge se e.
esL ssenu).
T. 3 <soeofT musn.
. a <ssa)rTu the otus-ke foot.
. s eo so T LD a daogue.
susmLD n<3LD a otus.
aff broken brcks tes c.
srruuef) a god chan or grde :
. a s t LD troube e aton : rr/h
ff uets sffLDas .
eBT
aueeu copes set n a schoo : sL
a/ se e the coar-bone.
L-th. 17 .
aenft 64. ac ure pro de.
. afffratB on an a erage : aL eo
ae c nferor coth.
R. a TTL|L a money changer shroff.
. 3'<sn ) a corpse: eaanh rrLD.
6//? rght e ua ake. 39 115
asuffhasr neatness.
242 25 . C R .
a:s ffLD sha ng.
<9 -f 57. sde down sp e .
sen so thnness weakness.
64. cause to sp or ro down.
T. s <suef pece goods.
. aftsss god or s er thread: .ssa r
ff: etF 56. III. bend.
g | RIG .
P. a s fru Bu m an nterpreter : ffuu
<F//? g<<F//? ke for ke reta-
a ssr m 93.
aton : L Bs .
P. asurruL sufT L ) an answer.
. ffrfffu a hstory : su so/r.
.asurrff rdng e ercse 266.
afftd|Tu rghty. 39 40. f//?.
. <?e /<sLb a s uare ff/a o \_'F
. 3 f? rLD a body: a- L.
dsLD.
Ffr dead ea es.
. ss afTrTLD soap.
.s a 00 0 B3 ) omnpotence. 134.
. 3 s d9 an nferor custom house.
a Ff f 62. fonde g e sgns : esy-a
P. se d whp.
eassL .
s eu<s sago : swsuB .
<s r 273.
a e9 a cod mucus from the nose.
. ardaemrr sugar. Co. e eue\)w
Co. f.-
u ssm . 101.
64. ha e a cod grow fabby
P. ardsTT the crcar go ernment.
rot.
.a TuuLD a serpent : umoL .
prde foppery : t5 )? .
. ana 0su a. In comp. omn.'
a 2str ntrcacy troube n affars.
. <3 rsLDTe's\ uu free grant. .s/fau
<F g < a 62 sp trp err.
LDrsmLLC.' TOT".
. r a anscrt pref / sb good.
. <F/f | a crD rr God /fau u
<?/b /)G'/D a tte : sn- a LD. 194.
<9 sus 73Br ndugence: erssrr u.
a b e en a tte : srrsLn
)s<ss s o amsss ) tte bes
on chdren's feet c.
to \ pLD 271 .
. smu peope.
. re\ r LLh a cod : erf seuL .
. .ffsTswLo brth : t nuLf.
252
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IND X I.
. s d . aturn: pp. .
. s'o L sr bayonet.
. s r see under 3 b.
. fferLDLD brth: puL 3 ssr<3 sru).
R. <F |rs r a grant document war-
rant.
' srem0O ssrasre) a wndow 239
ueoaen .
. .ffssrssf con usons.
. 3 rrarru a sea : ff _a) psnt.
T 5 . de : u)//?.
. 3 r g) L cut aton.
. rrcms a shed a staton.
.sTssm a sewer : eorssr.
. 3 rrd9rr<ss dgence: a-g aguuLf
| GR T .
n-d ff) a sack pocket prete t fase
e cuse: ufrs .
. rrssarLD document : p.
. /rarLo mmutabty duraton.
R. drrm mrrm ncrease e cess.
. 3 remLD a scence 240.
. s'Te nuuu accordng to aw.
242.
. -fTmff a earned man a tte.
.y/rsru/ ). . pp. .
. /r ag2 _/r/ . ) prostraton wth eght
members. wth-eght-members.
. 3 Tt T rr n the whoe.
<3 rL a ar : t.
<9 rr B 62. rush upon. smssns.
<3 rr<sB a gesture sght notce:
. 'Ffn-L e dence a wtness. 115.
9 tL B 62. transfer beat accuse.
FP'emer f. srmt ) one of the
shdnr trbe.
srren cow-dung.
. rsssr a whetstone 22 .
-s T<ssr a span.
. <3 T m astroogca cacuaton of
nat ty: <3 rss / u .
. fprrLD boed rce : arga. 146 212
239. esTLD.
srresnh 1.) means 2.) for .y/r<F
<9 rrrr pan work.
. <3 Tf Tn<5mLh what s common easy.
. 9 17 caste race. T. 1 2.
3s ) caste s determned) by a
man's deeds.
gtrdsn nutmeg.
eautft mace.
<r/7 64. assert mantan accom-
psh 252
a r s su ermon.
. y/r mdness meekness : rrr
LD Desm . a good person : bso
edenek. d.
. rrrsrBL/LD eo uence : eufrt'dsrreo
. 3 Tf Tr a demon ncarnaton of
the destroyng power.
. sa LD what s practcabe cu-
rabe attanabe.
. ' r ) TemPffL 240.
<5/r 62. shut appy to put on.
101.
. srrdt at ffTaLD e ce-
ence meekness genteness.
. <Fns| meekness : .f/t/e a rr.
. Tnnu 5mu a knd of proonged
fast.
' rr/B / sanda paste mortar.
. ' T LD a curse : s ru B.
R. r/n T a st : <aT<T L
G'esur. 233.
sfTuu .sTL ) eat: /0. 13
rruufT food a mea. Isruu .'
146.
nD-/rasr-Guff-sBBT-) four method
of deang pacfcatun gft opposton
submsson.'
. 3 rrLD T LD ITLDfrr | LDIT
abty sk.
. 9 fTLDLh a watch of 3 hours md-
nght pacfcaton.
R. aTLDrek goods materas : <or
eur LD 13
. ' 'aL s -eun-B Lord : um efr.
. m9 uTsLD the owner's share of
the produce.
R. ar dr r esr ba securty.
s Tes)LD a knd of gran
s'TLDuo ashes : .
253
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IND X I.
TLDunasr the caste tte of the pa-
rahs.
s'rht nrress gum ben on.
sTLDL apece of coth.
.' 'rus sreLD FruffLn e enng.
_s ru the same. e w).
. s'T LD a de or coour : /du sut
R. rruT customs ta . Lt. the
others.
. 3 au 0\) an mage appearance : rr
P|D60 m LD.
p. -FfTu nk : emLD.
. srrsau a shadow : peo.
g rr' 57. ean bend succeed.
64. cause to ean bend.
.FnLuL sope turnng away from
the rght way. _srru .' Frsm
s 'o T <F rr u u Lf conn ance : <sessr
. s m what s essenta uce taste
sa our scaffodng. s. and erb.
<9/7"/f.
s n- T ) a mountan sde
wnd from the mountans. srrr.
. srrrr a charoteer.
. s'rrrmuL) any thng dsted.
. <s Trf a wak way.
nrffea' n grammar a partce n-
serted. 270. <9/rff.
FT gtrT 60. cea e to. Co. /r
L and G<F/f.
s Tsar the mae cobra.
/T/TL/ srre. cea ng to refuge
patronage _<9 mT. 90.
. ffreosLD a dran : tss 6
.'fnsOLD decepton: rrs) u
arnsn . aam.
s'rah _as-OT / 7 OT- " he I sham-
mng.
rre 141 1 1.
. Fre errsssrdr an ancent so eregn
of Inda.
. 3 T?0 house ha a enue. Pers.
sr d a furrow a pot. 266 a year.
P. 3 reoB a shaw.
. <ff rrs| TLD esure.
. reusrrf a soucr banker.
s rs L a choutry : rr.
. sfTsumsTLD crcumspecton.
ffmsue) acock: reue.
Ts bght n corn a key. port :
- rre).
. FT T rrur a st or schedue.
/ra/ death r. 190.
Ffre 6s a a bag.
FTgs uce broth : affLh emw.
arrek rfT the worthy 270. <5ff.
.
.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s. s
s.
s.
s.
s.
s. s
snLD top crest : -s .
a/r a sea : p-smrr.
9ssu a network bag. 0<s .)
entangement shame drt.
s 62. become entanged
be obtaned. Lc/r |-L LOaffsrr.
s .sssr tenacousy.
/s ah a on. smha.
|srrr ornament : . t sk snrnM.
af an nfant : Leetn ureoasr.
a-<m nfantcde. 3? a/p.
sLsT Lp.<st a creator :
L- sf. '
L L 9L-L 64. create: f
ms L6 s-3 dscpne punsh-
ment
f a creature : L.
L sma a sma brd.
6 r a fp.
p 64. dsperse. 266.
f 62. be dspersed come to
nothng 121.
57. persh: 0<s destroy.
64.
Bh w: LD 3F3f 109.
frLD a concuson : TLDrrsunD.
success.
64. prosper succeed : eurr
L. 141. sd'dh.
0 ua a pcture : u d. 271 any
thng eegant.
sor Lcru the month of pr.
pp. . e .
d cct- a sma eather botte : Lf
rBs frendshp affecton : -b
LD.
254
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IND X I.
. B <s r a frend. 255. .-bsd.
272.
. dsm\ s thought: .
C INT . 155.
. g/ 64. thnk: / r. 107 233.
/ 62. sp run as the nose.)
P. ufrrff' ? recommendaton.
L| 3 a bae: L .
|9 a tte she : u . aLDrrrr.
P. Drr countng prce more or ess :
uneB 64. eap for oy.
L B twnkng of the eyes.
. u LDrr<Fe snh throne : I.
ff) the tch.
Tff the head : .
P. ffa <sTmT the head offcer n a
court orcutchery.
. rrt e a ong ed person used
as a sautaton to a younger bro-
ther : pp. . . rLo /7*.
. ffLDt wearness sorrow.
fffnu a chp trowsers.
fft 64. augh: / -n. 196 272.
. t uL-L LD ff<oL s e ceence
0 /r 64. sha e: ssuffLhueBsr -
eo some: /b. _ so 0o <s\
) ) 0\). nannu. 170.
. eoLhuu) fencng.
<s\)/f a few persons : eo utufr. 1 4.
. OTs u LD pr ege: ae sfrTLD.
tefT L a spnter fsh scae.
yr. 0s) s BaL/ across: 5*-
. Csw LLotD phegm : sud.
. Ceusw a doube entendre er. e
capabe of two or more nterpret-
atons.
. so a stone mage : e rsu).
s\ <oO e/D trfng matters odd
money.
'R. e\)a a dstrct.
eceutTtssru odd money : ffO des) D.
eu 66. become red. 0# ).
tsnuLf redness 130 prop. ssu
Lf. g. .
. su) 203.
. eusk a.
aO a paan un : u0O o\)Td .
s a eopard.
p ff) a wng
suutLem
T) 66. be remarkabe beautfu.
puLf any thng remarkabe
magnfcence. 9p. 190
9 that whch s tte tte
gn. 1 4.
) \_ ps) erear L ' tte
134 1 4 217 266.
ffs sparngy : stsd. \_LLuf-.
g)d a wench ug.) euenrr
ff s)LD tteness dsgrace. 1 4 231.
<Rap a capt e : sod.
ep 64. sha e 261. mp. for
\ g T. g. .
p Ipuuer p s-n<sr. pp. .
esTLD anger : ud 270.
ekssr tte sma .. 13 14.
dresr L 223 224.
embryo: a0. of beasts.
h /B LD.
B..9
9
. s uLD uckness 239.
64. scratch the ground as a hen.
. the ng. word sck . . . .\7 .
. La|r Gsr a dscpe: |m.
ss . 152 249 250.
f chnt .
.0 a note wrtng tcket
document 115 209.
Lh sme and mucus.
. <srLD cod : 0fffr f .
. Par ) dowry. 146.
. I s the goddess of prosperty
.sm the wfe of R ma.
pf - custard appe.
62. bow the nose.
L|I-| a comb. s p.'\
. Lb Tm an opuent person.
<ss)LD a dstrct country urope.
I| LD cumn.
9ff<5mLD dgeston.
r good state proprety order.
shar.
< 0LD dsposton good dsposton.
s sn ehood : aLpu.
255
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IND X I.
. <5| ewd I srrf a woman who has
a suna aowed to her out of the
common estate.
| ana amsa kr.
ehood porton person.
. e eL 3 LD au aotted subsstence.
.9<su fe. 272. III.)
. gd 64. e de.
e 62. scrape.
p pus.
62. hss.
esTLD OT) Chna.
ot \ sugar h. a sadde : sssstd.
<3r
a- 1.) asans. partce gr. good
we. 2.) * own.
. *aLo comfort prosperty heath:
3e d Lh 142.
*9. 64. en oy onesef.
. s- r oeon-uw the ac uston of a
frend suhrd a frend )tud
gan.'
a-dsrer a rudder.
sdsfTssrs o me-stone.
.ff dred gnger a sma pece :
. s-t LD to custom : .
. s- | Tssr a ppe for smokng.
. a- purty : s-m.
s-L T ght ray : <s aemLo.
a- o sf dsssr a burnng
ground.
g B 6 . burn roast dscharge
fre arms.
o-L 62. pont out: am- .
s-wr n comp.) smaness.
3h'skn s\a Tu the chunde frut. 261.
. a-'smm )|DL me : /ga. fees c.
. saLD nhertance customary
. a-s T her rghtfu possessor.
. */r a-Tsmu sf-m eo of one's
own accord : ssresnaes)<s .
. I ff<Fto ra|r one who has a good
aspect.
. s-LD purty : a- 165.
s- shueo a hammer.
.sT ) beauty: sst nu Lp .
a- LD a beneft heath prosperty.
shu I ewfftDm auspcous prosper-
ous.
a-uTG LD nature: dsposton: o
. ansau s-ur a go ernment pro nce.
s-uurrT a nat e offcer.
LD 66. carry a oad bear. Co. O
3 DLD.'
LD a pad put under a burden car-
red on the head.
d\ 62) mpose a burden)
on another 160.
3f LD a burden : urrru. kshama.
suMLDT st de wthout reason.
232 259 266.
gm LD n comp. own.
s-a LDLf sef-e stence.
a-L T r<ssr. 272. II.) ssLff.
rr 66. sprng forth gush from:
<3fff < LD an underground passage
mne. as|r.
ffsm 62. scratch scrape out:
s-rrs smL euLD a harp.
a-0L a fe er : s n'u <3<k).
a- h) s an abrdgment. Root. t .
Comp. foowng words and *tp
Lp apg).' a .
<0 62. contract shorten : a
3 F s a snare : au g
d? F 62. shrnk shr e.
3? L :62. ro up. 160. \_3f m.'
sfdLs arem<) ur stea carry off.
* 5 - mo roed or
coed up.
m- F) r s- L. a- f/m a ro. * 5.
*0ua) an mage : s rrsLD ).
*souLo facty : ere.
sh eon'au) a erse coupet: sa .
3fen sfs u eru D s| own: <3 tt.
dr. n Comp.
shsu a sma schoo-book. \_ u.
s-s track foot mark: aaeot
eu/r a wa : 60. heb. R. Co.
_
s-surdst Indra's paradse.
s 3g 62. dry up.
s-surasrua power ndependance.
256
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IND X I.
. |/r<rLD breath.
R. s-enfrume or g' frume a
cerk nterpreter 93. 264.
. s sum <3 n ) Lord sr master.
. seufrdsa a fame. dngs.
. <* I e <3 the gospe good-t-
. 3-srTL a pr ege : eas LD.
s saeu taste: fra|osT.
IfM 56. III.) re o e. Co. tp
a-fps p ) whr round.
160 273. ererff.
*L a crcet cur e cpher : /
s- e F)a a spran.
a-mmT6s \ ynch-pn: prop. sLturr
the pup of frut.
- a shark. LdauL m.
s s m uckness: a nh uf..
s aa-g)u- ndustry dgence 4
273.
s-ppLD reat es connectons : u
s <s r. 99. * 3 .|
gpg 62. surround. 107. Co.
p *|3/.
R. <3-ms rd_ Mahomedan crcum-
cson : e nF sesTLD.

heat a brand : srasff s. .


62. brand wear: rf.
L-s-uah gLD/) sLDLD sub-
tty fneness 194.
L- B 62. put on n est wth :
/9. . 160.
. t decet gambng gamng.
73 21 219.
. LD a rue n scence thread :
gro machne.
/ a ery ug. word.) the seat.
m- 62. wther away : eurr .
. T Br a hero : a 'rsr.
. rf'd m the sun.
. 5 /) a trdent an mpedment
from superstton.
gout.
ge) pregnancy.
. a) g Dff horse-coth c.
tp roundabout: s-p/ tD. 170.
.
T. O
T/seB a whrwnd. pROB.from
P R. |OR P RI. 107 170.
Lp 60. surround: -pg 6u3s<r.
ustr a kn : armenru. Co. */b
<9fP| /-
s uLD acuty wtchcraft.
O .3 ) f<s and n poetry
.gu and O ) n comp. g e
te meanngs red and rght. Co.
B. .
ss <s.... 223 224.
0<s<s an o-m 255.
sseo abrck 0<? ) seo.
'3 m\ a precpce ) g
|- \ .
.9 \<a T ) a sceptre. d <?a/r
G3 fe 0<F ?a e acty rght straght.
u) C)<s .
<rL ashrub: yeaarfa) yss r .
sL-L a ett wrester a mer-
chant.
'L trade keenness.
s'L-es awng p .
sem a ba a ba of fowers
a nosegay.
0<y 62. chp ad grub up.
O.F G' Br from t?n-....5 .
s s dry stcks ea es c :
3 h<m 261.
s'hg anythng possessed of an-
ma fe : sTfresf.
uLD prayer : uTrssr
s uuLD e enness rght ustce :
<a )eaLD. Ot?".
uuL ea a wng.
\_ t|D L-. sm a fsherman.
OsLD u-L red. 161.
.TLDL| a brass esse. 242 cop-
per. <FLD.
<3 y fr s <e\) a red stone aterte.
uLDf red.) sheep. 0<F Lo.
sLDLDfTesrLD redness of the sky.
seuearesnh.
ecot-D correctness recttude. 39.
OLD.
. O
. O
257
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IND X I.
. - LD aLLD ctory: eup .
. 0<5 n 64. con uer: eue e u. 269.
f LD.
u a fed.
3 u 5 . do. 1 13 32 72 165
270. . C T .
s' sns a deed. 143. 0/ /.
L news dongs. <s /. 111.
u I|| 14 .
G 'LL etr )oetry. \_G)a .'
3 L 64. cause to do 160.
ft 64. dgest: B.
O<s0<s prde wantonness : gu
LDr Lf.
Os uL sandas sppers: ?<rff .
reoreuss current : reOLDen.
<s ) I e pendture permsson
to go. oca.) 256. .?-4\ 209
210 244.
aeoeuP 64. spend dsburse. 0<f
esa 62. cause to go pay.
<3 <s.) 161.
0<Fa) 3 6\) 56. III.) go pass.
12. s. C L. 161 267.
' ' euLD prosperty rches. 245.
eo.
s eu 66. be red redden. O
eu.' rtten sometmes e .'
<s e uL redness : su euu.
a <su. 190.
T. e ear : sa.
T. 0<? s/ 0<ysf deafness. o .
3sueurrtL Mars. pp. .
'3 en<sm<s <ss)LD rght uprght-
ness e enness 246. Ocf. ar.
- R.
<3 L 64. foursh thr e.
<rm< sruuL-L-. 5mLD Madras : 3
\_ -3 dresf the head. poet.
/7*. 21 .
<9e5r T ' < r Oo).) 56 251.
. ' 'srru) a parsh assemby.
. Ca/9 64. coect 25 .
. 'T t m the best edest. \_ ffL-
_a r .fL- m.'\
. Cff B mschef: /d .
. sLD destructon cuttng off. 101.
. cut off: ).
. ' a causeway sthmus.
. Gcr ) custody treasure heath.
C -D).
'3 7 s /T 60. draw near ff/f.
236 244 272.
64. gather together unte. 239.
.3 u IB ems n s TL .) the pam of
the hand.
<?tF/r a weght measure.
srdema connecton : sLL B D<sf.
G6-/f. 190. ?<s-/f.
rrecaw a body of soders a sa e.
. ?<r a woman's coth : dso.
. eush ser ce.
. Cff/sw a peon ser ant 115.
G<?a a) a cock : ffre eo.
. <F d f)) ser e 64.
. 3 eme ser ce: sseo u.
su mud 19 245 254.
. 'ff' ssr an array.
. es)'3 cms a sgn gesture: T<3m
. rdsrL/ a ong est.
. s ad.3 Lh remander nterest of
money: euLp.. _u .
. s IT em LD heath: 3su rd
a goods: 2_ D B_eD .
GsreLD propretorshp.
. ru) property own. s-essrrm .
rrr' sssr sense feeng: rs r
<3 Tft 57. fow down : pour out.
.3 T T) 62. tuck n.
. 0<3/r/f65<s warga Indra's hea en.
ured a word : surres) Odt
- F.T eurd .
g Teo 70. say te. 27.
T 57. scratch.
frrasTmr 70.
TL 64. adorn : <so aff-
. ?<Fff a par: shoes.
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IND X I.
. G.9 /r r e amnaton tra |/fL o<F.
. ?<5 /r brghtness: sgerf?. ot. 194.
. .3 rr 64. e amne try.
. <FT u reLD astronomy
astroogy.
. rrussnD congratuaton : fest ty.
snhueo a ness. frthu .'
< FfTt L 62.be a y.
3. -srasssTLD god : unm.
. < Frrrru) ewdness theft: .ssrra/.
T 60. wther fa away sp
down. Co. </ . and sB|
C/rs busness c. 0 2/ .
afrdso a gro e : rrL.
.3 T<srLD choam ma e.
. -rfT urf oence orawar.
3 17 boed rce : arch. 62 63.
srpg setas 274. 24.)
<3F 3rr see under o/.
. ssrd LLD <F<s d u ) deght
comfort: 3? Lr.
For words begnnng wth aa ook
under g) # or ther second co7sonant.
.mu a post par : sa r.
. auseoh a pace : rssr d. 115.
. m0sr mT added to ad . make
them nto nouns.
. or3 64. estabsh : so ffs-
. emresTLD trenTLD.
. en)9 state condton.
oofTLD stabty: e- w.
o rR a woman: uern 166.
. a fBfT/sser the Baptst chrs.
usage.)
. a /sfreuru bathng.
see under cs.
. L the ng. word udge.
. geoLD see .ss.)
p. nTL an answer. awab.
rar a wndow : a|rana). 239.
Tsm a thread : o )rr err<3 r wast
thread 259.
. trus memory: mr. t ya-
P .
ru gu snn: rfftuek. 131.
srupgs Lp nLD unday. pp. .
. s /rsBT) wsdom e /rew sprtua
wse. pp. .
. 5/rC 2)'-'C?<3 sprtua nstructon.
L-
R. unT a head peon.
. _ )| pomp : ane t
I IT
. L T em) a subordnate poce-staton.
. L-fT L a st: 3 c T.
a B a thn pate of meta.
muu<ssr a father 151 194. pp. .
sffLD tn.
R. surrr ob ecton dspute.
s/r 57. be broken to peces.
64. break to peces.
. sesrw burnng.
s T 117 11 26 .
trresars: s eag-. oe er meddes
wth thngs that do not beong to hm
w ose hs fe-
64. burn consume.
6 . be ft. 117 11 157 244.
I ftness g. 190.
2Ds c /roar T5a ) a sparrow eroa
a/ prohbton.
sa 157.
<s 62. come nto one's posses-
son -
ffsf 64. I . e
.. . approprate. 16 1.
<su_/ OTrg/-62. |
younger sster. )p. .
rk sLD pure god: un . 166.
skssm 10 .
m g) 62. abde : /f. n some
connectonsc/onr