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DEVELOPMENT OF WEB BASED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR

ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION AND CONSERVATION IN INDONESIA




KEYWORDS: WebGIS, Archeological Object, Excavation, Conservation

ABSTRACT:
Indonesia is one of the countries, rich of cultural heritage. Culture means order of human life that
have adhered and inherited from generation to the next. Indonesias cultural heritage can divided into
physical and non-physical form. The best example for the physical culture is Temple. The temple is
architectural building for worship place that become the identity of Hindu-Buddhas in their period of
glory of Hindu-Buddha kingdom, they build the Temple to several location in Indonesia. In this time,
we know that we have limited of archeological object documentation just like photos, sketch, and
book, we just get little of information if we use just one of that documentation media. Some of
archeological information are needed because historical story of the nation that stored in their heritage
will never be replaced and need to be conserved. Because of that, very important if we make a spatial
documentation that can be used in archeological object reconstruction process and non-spatial
attribute use to know history description, architectural form, archeological object elements, and
others. Spatial documentation can be made as a 2-dimentional WebGIS or 3-dimentional WebGIS that
can represent archeological objects for excavation and conservation need. Excavation is the specific
activity of archeology, so excavation can be called as archeology identity. Geographic Information
System that have storing, showing, and analyzing data ability, it can role in storing archeological data
that is needed by researcher to help excavation process. GIS make archeologist able to acquire
topography development in the researched temple efficiently. It is difficult to do before computer and
GIS was found (Harris, 2001). WebGIS has advantage in presenting spatial data. WebGIS give such
ease for user to access required spatial data, just only need computer and internet connection even
without GIS software. Then they can publish their data to public so the people can see and know
archeological objects found there. Beside in excavation job, WebGIS can also be used in
conservation. Conservation mean as branch of archeology that tries to preserve and manage
archeological object to a lot of academic-practical interest (Yuwono, 2003). In conservation job, GIS
can be used by several parties; such as archeologist, archeological object manager for conserve or
reconstruction and some people that just want to know about object information. The researched
object of WebGIS development for excavation job is Batujaya Temple, Batujaya District, Karawang,
West Java, whereas for the conservation is Sewu Temple, Klaten, Yogyakarta. The method for
developing WebGIS for archaelogical excavation and conservation of archaelogical object has several
stages. The stages begin with data acquisition. These data came from archeologist whose have been
collecting data during the research. The required data generally include excavation grid, stratigraphic,
artifact, benchmark coordinate, sector of the sites and also the map of location for excavation. The
next step is the design of spatial database, this step includes conceptual design, logical design and
physical design. These database design then have to be implemented with PostgreSQL and PostGIS
software. PostgreSQL has the role in saving database files while PostGIS has the role in integrating
spatial data to stored into PostgreSQL database. Besides designing the database, we also creating the
design of the application which must suit for the user. To create the WebGIS application for
excavation we use Mapserver and Google Maps API. Generally, the development of web-based 3D
GIS for conservation of archaeological documentation has some simililarity to developing WebGIS
for excavation but yet has some differences. Data for WebGIS conservation using orthofoto sewu
temple area, archaeological data collection, 3D models, and details of temple architecture. Principle of
3D GIS for conservation is more directed to the terms of visualization. To create the temple
visualization in the GIS application we use Google Earth API. Our expectation for the result in the
development of web-based geographic information system for archaelogical excavation is a product
which can help the archaelogist to store and accessing their data collection in the process of
archaelogical excavation. This application will be displaying the local grid of arhaelogical excavation
with 2,5 m x 2,5 m dimension. When user choose one of the grid, it will show all of the information
about that excavation grid. The information will represent text, photos and also videos. While,
expectation result for the 3D WebGIS for conservation documentation is an application that will
represent 3D visualization of Sewu Temple area. 3D models of each part of temple are shown at LOD
2, LOD 3, until LOD 4. The application then can be used by archeologist. For example, to reconstruct
temple. Beside it can be used by people to get the whole information about Sewu Temple then they
can use for academic-practical interest. By building WebGIS, archeologist can be accessing and
updating archeological data so that excavation and conservation process can be done efficiently and
effectively.