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HYDRAULICS

&
PNEUMATICS
LECTURE # -----
PROBLEM:
A double acting, single
piston cylinder has a
piston of diameter 100
mm and a piston rod of
diameter 25 mm. what
is the ratio of the
extend and return
forces if a pressure of 6
bar is applied as shown
in figure.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Pneumatic cylinders have been developed in the
following directions:
Contact less requirements, hence use of magnet
Stopping heavy loads
Rod less cylinder for limited space
Protective coatings for harsh environment
Increased load carrying capacity
Robotic applications
Hollow piston rods for vacuum suction cups
DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH
END POSITION CUSHIONING
Used to reduce Sudden damage
impacts for heavy loads
To achieve correct deceleration
Regulating screw ,screwed fully
Backed off in order to be adjusted slowly to
the optimum value.
End Cushioning:
TANDEM DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER
Two double acting cylinders joined to form a
single unit
Suitable for application where high forces
are required but the cylinder diameter is
restricted.
CYLINDERS WITH THROUGH PISTON ROD
Through piston rod open at both sides
Force is same on both sides
Can be hollow to:
Conduct media such as compressed air
Vacuum connection is possible
Multi-position Cylinders:
Consists of two or several
double acting cylinders,
which are interconnected.

In case of two cylinders
with different stroke
lengths, four positions are
obtained.
IMPACT CYLINDERS
Impact cylinders are used for high kinetic
energy.
For high kinetic energy by increasing the
piston speed.
Not suitable for large forming distances.
Semi rotary actuator:
Dual piston type actuator
Vane actuator
DUAL PISTON TYPE ACTUATOR
(Rotary Cylinder):
Gear-tooth profile
Piston rod drives a gear wheel (conversion of linear to
rotary)
Range varies from 45,90,180,270,360.
Torque is dependent on:
Pressure
Piston surface
Gear ratio
VANE ACTUATOR:
Rodless Cylinder:
Shorter in length
Eliminates risk of buckling piston rod
Movement takes place over entire stroke
Extremely large cylinders upto 10m
Load can be directly attached on mounting surface
Principle used for the construction of Rod less
cylinders:
Band or cable cylinder
Sealing band cylinder with slotted cylinder barrel
Cylinder with magnetically coupled slide


Band or cable cylinder

Force is transferred to slide via circulating band
Leaving the piston chamber, the band passes through a seal
Band is reversed via guide rollers
Wipers ensure that no contamination reaches the guide rollers via
the band
Sealing band cylinder with slotted cylinder
barrel

Cylinder barrel is provided with a slot across the entire length
The force is transmitted via a slide
Slide is permanently connected to the piston
Connection is directed outward via the slotted cylinder barrel
Slot is sealed by sealing band
Cylinder with magnetically coupled slide

Consists of
Cylindrical barrel
Piston
2 slides
Angular permanent magnets fitted on piston and slide
Cylinder barrel is hermetically sealed from outer slide
No leakage losses