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A Report on

CREDIT RISK ASSESSMENT


At

Thesis submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) in partial fulfillment for
the award of the Degree

Master of Business Administration

Submitted by
Mr.Mahadeva Swamy.M
USN: 1RX12MBA01
Under the Guidance of


Internal Guide External Guide
Dr.Tamizharasi M Jagan Mohan
Asst. Professor Dy Gen Manager
RNSIT Vijaya bank
Bangalore Bangalore



R N S Institute of Technology
Bangalore 560098
June 2014
Certificate from the Organization.

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Certificate from the Guide.
This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation/project report titled Credit Risk Assessmemt at
Vijaya Bank, submitted by Mr.Mahadeva Swamy.M to Visvesvaraya Technological
University (VTU), for the award of degree of MBA is a record of bonafide research work
carried out by him under my guidance and supervision. This has not been previously formed
the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma. Associateship, Fellowship or other similar
title to the candidate.

Place: Bangalore
Date:


Dr.Tamizharasi


Project Guide









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Declaration
I hereby declare that titled the thesis/dissertation/project report Credit Risk Management at
Vijaya Bank has been written by me during my study period under the guidance of
Prof.Tamizharasi, Dept of MBA.
I further declare that the thesis is the result of my own effort and has not been
submitted earlier to any other university for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship,
fellowship or other similar title.

Place: Bangalore
Date: Mahadeva Swamy.M
MBA IV Semester











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Acknowledgement
I have a great pleasure in expressing my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. ASDF for giving me
an opportunity to do a research project in his esteemed organization.
I express my profound respect and sincere thanks to Prof. Tamizharasi for her
invaluable guidance and scholarly advice through out the period of this study.
My special thanks to the Principal for his supportive role, advice and valuable
suggestions which helped me in successful completion of this project.
I wish to record my heartfelt thanks to al my faculty members in the department for
their encouragement in accomplishing this research work.
Last but no way least; my thanks are due to all those who have helped me directly and
indirectly in completion of this project.

Place:
Date: Candidates
Name





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Table of contents
Page No.
Executive summary 8
Chapter 1: Introduction 9
Chapter 2: Industry & Company Profile 16-46
Chapter 3: Theoretical Background of the study 50-63
Chapter 4: Data analysis & interpretation 64-96
Chapter 5: Summary of findings, suggestions & conclusions 97-99
Bibliography 100
Annexure 101-103








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LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS
Sl.
No.
Titles Page
No.
1. Board of Directors 28
2. Financial Statement of Vijaya Bank 47-49
3. Credit Risk Management Framework 55
4. Mapping Process 60
5.
Risk weight Mapping of the Short Term Ratings of the domestic rating
agencies:

62
6. Table internal ceiling of risk rating 65
7. Score Sheet for ACB Electricals Limited

67
8 Graphical Representation on Business Risk (ACB Electricals) 69
9. Graphical Representation on Financial Risk(ACB Electricals) 70
10. Graphical Representation on Management Risk(ACB Electricals) 72
11. Score Sheet for PQR Energy Limited

76-77
12. Graphical Representation on Business Risk (PQR Limited) 77
13. Graphical Representation on Completion Risk (PQR Limited) 78
14. Graphical Representation on Execution Risk (PQR Limited) 79
15. Graphical Representation on Financial Risk (PQR Limited) 81
Score Sheet for JKL Power Limited

84
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16. Graphical Representation on Business Risk (JKL Power Limited) 86
17. Graphical Representation on Completion Risk (JKL Power Limited) 88
18. Graphical Representation on Execution Risk (JKL Power Limited) 89
19. Graphical Representation on Financial Risk (JKL Power Limited) 91
20. Altman Z Score 95
21. Annexure 101-103















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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This project is done on Credit Risk Management practices in Vijaya Bank
In the fast growing world, banks are facing many types of risks among which Credit
Risk stands at the top of the list. Hence, the topic is Credit Risk Management. One bank was
chosen to understand the practices followed by them in depth which would apply to other
banks in general.
Vijaya Bank is one of the Public Sector Banks and is supposed to be in line with RBI
guidelines. This helped in understanding the credit risk management practices followed by a
bank in a better way.
The process of Credit Risk Management is Identification, Measurement, Monitoring
& Control. The bank follows these steps very clearly and has a sound Credit Risk
Management system installed. Is has also installed a software for risk rating which was
provided by CRISIL which is in turn in lines with RBI guidelines.
The bank Net Profit has seen a growth of 234% & the total business is up by 16%.
The banks deposits are up by 13% & the gross advances are up by 19%. The credit risk
exposure is increased to 80064.90 as of Sep 30, 2011.
The credit risk of the bank has decreased over the past 5 years. They have installed an
integrated risk management system in line with BASEL II norms and RBI guidelines.
They follow strict hedging policies to reduce credit risk of the banks. They take
financial collaterals and guarantees to hedge their credit risk.
Hence, all the policies and strategies have led to a sound credit risk management system.



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INTRODUCTION
Brief Background of the research topic:-
Risk management in Indian Banks is relatively a new practice, but has already shown
to increase efficiency in governing of these banks as such procedures tend to increase the
corporate governance of financial institutions. In times of volatility & fluctuations in the
market, financial institutions prove themselves by withstanding the market variations &
achieve sustainability in terms of growth & have a stable share value. Hence, an essential
component of Risk Management framework would be needed to mitigate all risks & rewards
of all products & services offered by the bank. Thus the need for an efficient Risk
Management framework is paramount in order to factor internal & external risks.

The financial sector in various economies like that of India is undergoing a monumental
change factoring into account world events such as the banking crisis across the globe. The
2007 recession in USA has highlighted the need for banks to incorporate the concept of Risk
Management into their regular procedures. Ten various aspects is increasing global
competition to Indian Banks by Foreign Banks, increasing deregulation, introduction of
innovative products & financial instruments as well as innovation in delivery channels have
highlighted the need for Indian Banks to be prepared in terms of Risk Management.


Indian Banks have been making great advancements in terms of technology, quality as well
as stability such that they have started to expand & diversify at a rapid rate. However, such
expansion brings these banks into the context of risk especially at the onset of increasing
Globalization & Liberalization. In Banks and other financial institutions, risk plays a major
role in the earnings of the banks. Higher the risk, higher the return, hence, it is essential to
maintain a parity between risk & return. Hence, management of financial risk
incorporating a set of systematic & professional methods especially those defined by the
Basel II becomes essential requirement of the banks. The more risk averse the bank is, the
safer is their capital base.

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Importance of Credit Risk Management:-
The Credit Risk Management is the very important area the banking sector & there
are wide prospects of growth & other financial institutions also face the problems which are
financial in nature.

Also banking professional have to maintain a balance between the risks & rewards.
For a large customer base banks need to have a variety of loan products. If bank lowers the
interest rates for the loan it offers, it suffers.

In terms of equity banks must have substantial amount of capital on its reserve, but
not too much that it misses the investment revenue, and not too littler that it leads itself to
financial instability and to the risk of regulatory compliance.

Credit Risk Management is the risk assessment that comes in an investment. Risk
often comes in investing and in the allocation of capital. The risks must be assessed so as to
derive a sound investment decision. And such decision must be made by balancing between
risks and returns.

Giving loans is a risky affair for banks sometimes and certain risks may also come
when banks offer securities and other forms of investments. The risk of losses that results in
default of payment by the debtors is kind of a risk that must be expected. A bank to keep
substantial amount of capital to protect its solvency and to maintain its economic stability.

The greater the banks are exposed to risks; greater should be the amount of capital
needed so as to maintain its solvency and stability.

Credit Risk Management must play its role to help the banks to be in compliance with
Basel II Accord and other regulatory bodies.

For assessing the risks, banks should plan certain estimates, conduct monitoring, and
perform reviews of performance of the banks. They should also loan review and portfolio
analysis in order to determine the risks involved.
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Banks must be active in managing the risks in various securities and derivatives. Still
progress has to be made for analyzing the credits and determining the probability of defaults
and risks of losses.


PRESENT SITUATION:
Indian Banking sector has proved to be very stringent during the times of economic
crisis in India and has ensured the economy has not suffered due to global crisis as a result.
How well the bank has been able to handle the credit default from their customers end and
how the banks have been able to post decent profit figures at the year end.

OBJECTIVES:
To study the credit risk faced by the Vijaya Bank
To analyze the process of Credit Risk Management in Vijaya Bank
To assess the credit risk of selected projects of Vijaya Bank

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
It is limited to the boundary of Bangalore City (Head Office)

METHODOLOGY:
Type of Research: Descriptive Research- This is a descriptive research explaining what
Vijaya Bank does with respect to Credit Risk Management.


DATA COLLECTION:
Primary Data: Primary Data has been collected through personal interview by direct contact
method.
Personal interview and discussion was made with manager and other personnel in the bank
for the purpose.

Secondary Data: This part of the data is collected through internet.
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LITERATURE REVIEW:
R.S.Raghavan. (2003) - Author here talks about meaning of risks and the need for risk
management initially. Different types of risks and losses as defined by the RBI guidelines are
explained in detail. It also measures each type of risks by using VaR (Value at Risk) or worst
case type analytical model to determine both expected and unexpected losses. It also talks
about minimum capital requirement as per RBI guidelines.

Credit Risk and the tools for the management of the Credit Risk are also explained in detail.
It is also said that credit risk is measured through probability of default (POD), loss given
default (LGD) also through credit quality over time

Ms. Asha Singh (2013) - Here the researcher talks about various guidelines laid down by the
RBI and also talks about various mitigation techniques. It says risk in inherent part of banks
business and effective risk management is very essential for any banks financial soundness. It
says credit risk primarily composed of two risks i.e. quantity of the risks, which is nothing
but the outstanding loan balance as on the date of default and quality of the risk i.e. the
severity of the loss defined by both probability of default as reduced by the recoveries that
could be made in the event of default. Thus the credit risk is the combined outcome of
Default Risk and Exposure Risk.

Somana Devi Thiagarajan, A.Ramachandran (2011) - In this article the study was carried
out to measure the credit risk component of the Indian Scheduled Commercial Banking
Sector by using the data of 10 years 2001-2010. It illustrates how credit risk ratios can be
used to measure the credit risk in the banking sector. The results of the study indicate a
consistent increase in the total loans to total assets ratio and the total loans to total deposits
ratios for both public and private sector during the period of study. There was a gradual
decrease in the ratio of non performing loans to total loans for both public and private sector
banks from 2001-2008 but there was a gradual increase from 2009-2010 and that was
significantly higher for private sector banks than for public sector banks.

Brigitte Gidbillion-Campus and Christophe J. Godlewskil (2005) - This research is about
the two types of information bank has. One is hard information, which is present in balance
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sheet and produced with credit scoring, and is quantifiable and verifiable. Second is soft
information, which is produced in bank relationship and is qualitative, non verifiable but
manipulable. The results of the research show that the soft information allows the banker to
decrease the capital allocation for VaR coverage. So that banker should be given sufficient
incentive to not change the soft information as it is crucial input to risk management.

Prof. Dr. Srinivas Gumparthi (2012) - The need to reduce banks Non Performing Assets
(NPA) level to match the competitors forms the primary reason/backbone for the
development of the model. Also, the appropriate weights in the current system triggered the
need for the development of the same. The model was constructed using two step method.
Risks were assessed using a comprehensive score card. Discriminant analysis was used to
classify the objects/records in to two or more groups based on the knowledge of some
variables related to them. The analysis was used for the classification of assets in to
performing and non performing assets based on the factors identified from the risk scorecard.

Carl Felsenfeld (2005) - outlined the patterns of international Banking regulation and the sources of
governing law. He reviewed the present practices and evolving changes in the field of control systems
and regulatory environment. The book dealt a wide area of regulatory aspects of Banking in the
United States, regulation of international Banking, international Bank services and international
monetary exchange. The work attempted in depth analysis of all aspects of Bank Regulation and
Supervision.
Money Laundering has been of serious concern worldwide. Its risk has wide ramifications.
Money Laundering has lead to the fall of Banks like BCCI in the past. In this context the
book on Anti-Money Laundering: International Practice and Policies by John Broome
Published by Sweet and Maxwell (August 2005) reviews the developments in the area of
Money Laundering. The author explains with reference to case studies the possible effects of
Money Laundering. The book gives a comprehensive account of the existing rules and
practices and suggests several improvements to make the control systems and oversight more
failsafe.

Daniele Nouy (2006) - elaborates the Basel Core Principles for effective Banking Supervision, its
innovativeness, content and the challenges of quality implementation. Core Principles are a set of
supervisory guidelines aimed at providing a general framework for effective Banking supervision in
all countries. They are innovative in the way that they were developed by a mixed drafting group and
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they were comprehensive in coverage, providing a checklist of the principal features of a well
designed supervisory system.
The core Principles specify preconditions for effective banking supervision characteristics of
an effective supervisory body, need for credit risk management and elaborates on Principle
22 dealing with supervisory powers. Dearth of skilled human resources, poor financial
strength of supervisor and consequent inability to retain talented staff, inadequate autonomy
and the need for greater understanding of modern risk management techniques are identified
as the main difficulties in quality implementation. The critical elements of infrastructure,
legal framework that supports sound banking supervision and a credit culture that supports
lending practices are the essence of a strong banking system. Widespread failures have
occurred during a period of increased vulnerability that can be traced back to some regime
change induced by policy or by external conditions

Jacques de Larosiere (2006) - Former Managing Director of the International Monetary
Fund(31) discusses the implications of the new Prudential Framework. He explains at length
how the new Regulatory code could have some dangerous side effects. The increased capital
requirements as decided by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in September 2010
will affect the amount of own funds would affect the profitability of the Banks. The
consequences of such increased capital requirements would incentivise the Banks to transfer
certain operations that are heavily taxed in terms of capital requirements to shadow Banking
to avoid the scope of regulation. The risks of such a practice might affect the financial
stability. While the Central Banking authorities might contemplate registration and
supervision of such shadow banking entities like the hedge funds and other pools, such a
course might be more cumbersome than expected. The new regulation would result in the
Banks to reduce activities with rather poor margins. For example they may reduce exposure
to small and medium enterprises or increase credit costs or concentrate on more profitable but
higher risk activities. He is also critical of the proposal of Basel to introduce an absolute
leverage ratio that might push Banks to concentrate their assets in riskier operations. The
author feels that the banking model which favours financial stability and economic growth
might become the victim of the new prudential framework, and force Banks to search for
assets with maximum returns despite the attendant risks.

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Crouhy, Gala, Marick 2008 - have summarized the core principles of Enterprise wide Risk
Management. As per the authors Risk Management culture should percolate from the Board
Level to the lowest level employee. Firms will be required to make significant investment
necessary to comply with the latest best practices in the new generation of Risk Regulation
and Management.. Generally firms did not institute a truly integrated set of Risk measures,
methodologies or Risk Management Architecture. The ensuing decades will usher in a new
set of Risk Management tools encompassing all the activities of a Corporation. The integrated
Risk Management infrastructure would cover areas like Corporate Compliance, Corporate
Governance, Capital Management etc. Areas like business risk, reputation risk and strategic
risk also will be incorporated in the overall Risk Architecture more formally. As always it
will be the Banks and the Financial Services firms which will lead the way in this
evolutionary process. The compliance requirements of Basel II and III accords will also
oblige Banks and Financial institutions to put in place robust Risk Management
methodologies.

Hannan and Hanweck (2007) - felt that the insolvency for Banks becomes true when
current losses exhaust capital completely. It also occurs when the return on assets (ROA) is
less than the negative capital-asset ratio. The probability of insolvency is explained in terms
of an equation p, 1/ (2(Z2). The help of Z-statistics is commonly employed by Academicians
in computing probabilities.



LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
It is limited to only Vijaya Bank
It is based on only limited availability documents
Since the data regarding the Credit Risk Management is highly confidential, primary data
availability was very limited.
It also limited only to data availed through research papers and internet.



INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
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Modern Banking in Indian can be traced back to the establishment of Bank of Bengal
Jan 02, 1809, the first joint stock bank sponsored by Government of Bengal and Government
of the Royal Charter of British India Government. It was followed by the establishment of
Bank of Bombay April 15, 1840 and the Bank of Madras, July 1, 1843. These three banks,
known as the presidency banks, marked the beginning of the limited liability and the joint
stock banking in India and were also vested with right of note issue.

In 1921, the three presidency banks were merged to form the Imperial Bank of India
which had multiple roles and responsibilities and that functioned as commercial banks, a
banker to the government and a bankers bank. Following the establishment of Reserve Bank
of India (RBI) in 1935, the central banking responsibilities that the Imperial Bank of India
was carrying out came to an end, leading it to become more of a commercial bank. At the
time of independence of India, the capital and reserves of the Imperial Bank stood at Rs. 118
Million, deposits at Rs. 2751 million and advances at 723 million and a network of 172
branches and 200 sub offices spread all over the country.

In 1951, in the backdrop of central planning and the need to extend bank credit to the
rural areas, the government constituted All India Rural Survey Committee, which
recommended the creation of a state sponsored institution that will extend banking services to
the rural areas. Following this, by an act of parliament passed in May 1955, State Bank of
India was established in July 1955. In 1959, State Bank of India took over the eight former
state-associated banks as its subsidiaries. To further accelerate the flow of credit flow to the
rural areas and the vital sections of the economy such as agriculture, small scale industries,
etc., that are of national importance, social control over the banks was announced in 1967 and
a National Credit Council was setup in 1968 to asses the demand for credit by these sectors
and determine resource allocations. The decade of 1960s also witnessed significant
consolidations in Indian Banking Industry with more than 500 banks functioning in 1950s
reduced to 89 by 1969.

For the Indian Banking Industry, July 19, 1969, as a landmark day, on which
nationalization of 14 major banks were announced that each had a minimum of Rs.500
Million and above of aggregate deposits. In 1980, eight more banks were nationalized. In
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1976, the Regional Rural Banks Act came into being, that allowed opening of
specialized regional rural banks to exclusively cater to the credit requirements in the rural
areas. These banks were setup jointly by the Central Government, Commercial Banks and the
respective local governments of the states in which these are located.

The period following the Nationalization was characterized by rapid rise in the banks
business and helped in increasing national savings. Savings rate in the country leapfrogged
from 10-12% in the two decades of 1950-70 to about 25% post nationalization period.
Aggregate deposits which registered annual growth in the range of 10%-12% in the 1960s to
about 19% in the 1970s and 1980s. Branch Network expanded significantly leading to
increasing in the banking coverage.

Indian Banking, which experienced rapid growth following the nationalization, began
to face pressures on asset quality by the 1980s. Simultaneously, the banking world
everywhere was gearing up towards new prudential norms and operational standards
pertaining to capital adequacy, accounting and risk management, transparency and disclosure
etc. In the early 1990s, India embarked on an ambitious economic reforms programme in
which banking sector reforms formed a major part. The committee on a financial system
1991, more popularly known as the Narasimham Committee prepared the blueprint of the
reforms. A few of the major aspects of the reform included:
a. Moving towards international norms in income recognition and other related
aspects of accounting
b. Liberalization of entry and exit norms leading to the establishment of several New
private sector banks and entry of number of new foreign banks,
c. Freeing of deposits and lending rates (except the savings deposit rates),
d. Allowing public sector banks access to public equity markets for raising capital
and diluting the government stake
e. Greater transparency and disclosure standards in financial reporting,
f. Suitable adoption of BASEL Accord on capital adequacy
g. Introduction of technology in banking operation etc.

The reforms lead to major changes in the approaches of the banks towards aspects
such as competition, profitably and productivity and the need and the scope for
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harmonization of global operational standards and adoption of best practices. Greater focus
was given to deriving efficiency by improvement performance and rationalization of
resources and greater reliance on technology including promoting in a big way
computerization of banking operations and introduction of electronic banking.

The reforms lead to significant changes in the strength and sustainability of Indian
Banking. In addition to significant growth in the business, Indian banks experienced sharp
growth in the profitability, greater emphasis on prudential norms with higher provisioning
levels, reduction in the non performing assets and surge in capital adequacy. All bank groups
witnessed sharp growth in the performance and profitability. Indian Banking industry is
preparing for smooth transition towards more intense competition arising from further
liberalization of banking sector that was envisaged in the year 2009 as a part of the adherence
to liberalization of the financial services industry.


















HISTORY OF BANKING IN INDIA
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The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today,
the journey of Indian Banking system can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are
as mentioned below.
Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks
Nationalization of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian Banking Sector
Reforms
New phase of Indian Banking system with the advent of Indian Financial and Banking
Sector Reforms after 1991.

Phase I:
The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan
and Bengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of
Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency
Banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial bank of India was
established which started as private shareholders bank, mostly European shareholders.
In 1865, Allahabad bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab
National Bank Limited was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and
1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara bank, Indian Bank and
Bank of Mysore were setup. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935.

During the first phase the growth was very slow and the banks also experienced
periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. There was approximately 1100 banks, mostly
small. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of
India came up with The Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking
Regulation Act, 1949 as per the amending Act of 1965 (Act No.23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of
India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of Banking in India as the Central
Banking Authority.

During those days public had lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit
mobilization was slow. Abreast of it savings bank facility was provided by the Postal
department was comparatively safer. Moreover, funds were largely given to traders.

Phase II:
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Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reforms after
independence. In 1955, it nationalized Imperial bank of India with extensive banking
facilities on a large scale especially in rural and semi urban areas. It formed State Bank of
India to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and
State Government all over the country.

Seven Banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalized in 1960. On
July 19
th
, 1969, major process of nationalization was carried out. It was the effort of then
Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country were
nationalized.

Second phase of nationalization of Indian Banking Sector Reforms was carried out in
1980 with seven more banks. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under
Government Ownership.

The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to regulate Banking
Institutions in the country:
1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act
1955: Nationalization of State Bank of India
1959: Nationalization of SBI Subsidiaries
1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits
1969: Nationalization of 14 major banks
1971: Creation of Credit Guarantee Corporation
1975: Creation of Regional Rural Banks
1980: Nationalization of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.

After the nationalization of banks, branches of public sector banks in India rose to
approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11000%.




Phase III:
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This phase has introduced many products and facilities in the banking sector in its
reforms measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up
by his name which worked for the liberalization of banking practices.

The country was flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being
put to give a satisfactory service to its customers. Phone Banking and Net banking was
introduced. The entire banking system became more convenient and swift. Time is given
more importance than money.

The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from
any crisis triggered by any external macro economics shock as other Asian Countries
suffered. This is all due to a flexible change rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the
capital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have limited
foreign exchange exposure.


















STRUCTURE OF INDIAN BANKING
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The Indian Banking Industry has Reserve Bank of India as a regulatory authority. This is a
combination of both Public Sector banks, Private Sector Banks, Co-operative Banks and
Foreign Banks. The Private Sector Banks are again split into old banks and new banks.





























Scheduled Banks in India
Scheduled Commercial
Banks
Scheduled Co operative
Banks
Public Sector
Banks
Private Sector
Banks
Foreign Banks in
India
Regional Rural
Banks
Nationalized
Banks
SBI and its
Associates
Old Private Sector
Banks
New Private Sector
Banks
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The banking system in India has three tiers. They are, Scheduled Commercial Banks, the
Regional Rural Banks, which operate in the rural areas, not covered by the scheduled banks
and the Co operative and special purpose rural banks.

Public Sector Banks:
Public Sector Banks are those in which the majority stake is held by the Government
of India. Public Sector Banks together makeup the largest category in the Indian Banking
System. There are currently 27 Public Sector Banks in India. They include SBI & its six
associates banks, 19 nationalized banks. Public Sector Banks have taken a lead role in branch
expansion, particularly in the rural areas.

Regional Rural Banks:
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established during 1976-1987 with a view to
develop the rural economy. Each RRB is owned jointly by the Central Government,
concerned State Government and a sponsoring Public Sector Commercial Bank. RRBs
provide credit to small farmers, artisans, small entrepreneurs and agricultural labourers.

Private Sector Banks:
In these banks, majority of the capital is held by the private individuals and corporate.
Not all private sector banks were nationalized in 1969 and 1980. The private banks which
were not nationalized are collectively known as Old Private Sector Banks and include banks
such as The Jammu and Kashmir Bank., Lord Krishna Bank Ltd etc. In July 1993, as a part of
banking reform process and as a measure to induce competition in the banking sector, RBI
permitted private sector banks to enter India

Foreign Banks:
These are the banks having their Head Office in a foreign country but they operate
through branches all across the world. RBI permits these banks to operate either through
branches or through wholly owned subsidiaries. The primary activity of most of the foreign
banks has been in the corporate segment. However, some of the foreign banks also have
made consumer financing as a part of their portfolio.


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Co-operative Banks:
Co-operative banks cater to the financing need of agriculture, retail trade, small
industries and self employed businessmen in urban, semi urban and rural areas of India. A
distinctive feature of the co operative credit structure in India is its heterogeneity. The
structure differs across urban and rural areas, across state and loan maturity. Urban areas are
served by Urban Co operative Banks (UCBs), whose operations are limited to one state or
stretch across states.

RBI and National Agriculture and Rural Development Bank (NABARD) have taken
number of measures in recent years to improve financial soundness of Co operative banks.





















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COMPANY PROFILE
[VIJAYA BANK, HEAD OFFICE, MG ROAD, BANGALORE]





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BACKGROUND AND INCEPTION OF THE COMPANY:

Vijaya bank was founded on 23
rd
October 1931 by Late.Shri A.B.Shetty and other
enterprising farmers in Mangalore, Karnataka. The objective of the founders was essentially
banking habit, thrift and entrepreneurship among the farming community of Dakshina
Kannada district in Karnataka. The bank became Scheduled Bank in 1958. Initially, the
banks operations were confined to Dakshina Kannada district and were later extended to
other parts in Karnataka, followed by expansion into other states.

Vijaya Bank steadily grew into a large All India bank, with nine smaller banks
merging with it during 1963-68. The credit for this merger as well as growth goes to
Late.M.Sunder Ram Shetty, who was then the Chief Executive of the Bank. The Bank was
nationalized on 15
th
April 1980. At the time of nationalization, the bank had 571 branches
with a deposit base of 390.44 crores. The Bank has built a network of 1149 branches, 43
Extension Counters and 376 ATMs as at 31.12.2009, that span all 28 states and 4 union
territories in the Country.

Each branch provides efficient and effective services and significantly contributes to
the growth of the individual and the nation.

OVERVIEW:

Vijaya bank today is a PAN India Institution, serving the diverse sections of the
society. The bank has built a network of 1512 branches, 48 extension counters AND 1528
ATMs, that span all 28 states and 4 union territories in the country. The bank has the highest
number of branches in its home state Karnataka.

Vijaya Bank offers a bouquet of innovative and attractive products and services to the
customers. Vijaya Bank also incorporated the latest technology to provide best service to its
customers.

The Bank offers several technology products, such as ATMs, Cash Deposit Machines,
Debit and Credit Cards, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking, Phone Banking, Funds Transfer
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through RTGS and NEFT tec. All Branches and offices are under RTGS/NEFT. The bank
also offers RuPay cards to its customers.

The driving force behind Vjaya23 Banks every initiative has been its 12000 strong
dedicated workforce.

MANAGEMENT:

Today living up to the ideals of the visionaries of the bank, the management includes
dedicated professionals, who bring with them a considerable amount of expertise and
experience in the banking industry.

The bank has a three tier Organization Structure:
Head Office
Regional Office
Branches

The head office hosts various functional departments that are instrumental in policy
formulations and monitoring of the performances of the regions and branches.

The Banks 24 Regional Offices exercise immediate supervision and control over the
branches under their jurisdiction.

Directors (effective from 19-06-2012)
RBI Nominee Director
Smt. Suma Varma
Chief General Manager
Reserve bank of India.





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BOARD OF DIRECTORS:

Sl. No. Name of Directors Designation
1. Shri.V.Kannan Chairman & Managing Director
2. Shri.K.Ramadas Shenoy Executive Director
3. Shri.B.S.Rama Rao Executive Director
4. Smt.Suma Varma RBI Nominee Director
5. Shri.V.K.Chopra Govt. Nominee Director
6. Shri.P.Vaidyanathan Shareholder Director
7. Smt. Bharati Rao Shareholder Director
8. Shri. Ashok Gupta Non Official Director
9. Shri.Prakash Chandra Nalwaya Non Official Director
10. Shri.H.Harish Ballal Officer Employee Director
11. Shri.Y.Muralikrishna Workman Director




















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VISION, MISSION AND QUALITY POLICY:

VISION
Bank is professionally managed with a good track record of customer loyalty and
consistent profitability. The bank has the resilience to face the new challenges successfully an
achieve the goals in vision by its management. Adopting ethical management practices, bank
reiterates its commitment to fulfill national and social priorities, present sound financial
position and above all to improve and meet the challenges posed by a customer driven
banking industry.

MISSION
The mission statement of any organization generally represents its long term goals
and strategies. Every organization must have its own mission, which describes present
business scope of the organization.

The mission statement of the Vijaya Bank is To emerge as a prime national bank
backed by modern technology meeting customers aspirations with professional banking
services and sustained growth contributing to national development.

QUALITY POLICY
The Quality Policy of the Vijaya Bank is of providing Quicker and Better service
and thereby achieving Customer Satisfaction.












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PRODUCT/ SERVICE PROFILE:

Today, personal finance is the fastest growing segment of the banks credit
deployment. Among personal banking products, loans to salaried class occupy a prominent
place. With this backdrop this loan product has been modified from time to time. The purpose
for which this loan scheme can be used are purchase household articles/consumer durables,
Childrens Education, Marriage and thread ceremony of self/dependents, medical expenses
for self/dependants, obsequies expenses, repairs to own house, and any other purpose as to
the satisfaction of the sanctioning authority. The quantum of loan provided shall be to the
maximum of 10 times of the monthly gross salary out of which, the overdraft component
shall not exceed 5 times of the gross salary. The loan has to be repaid with interest with in 5
years.

SAVINGS AND DEPOSITS:

Savings Bank
V Payroll Savings Bank Account
V Genuth Savings Bank Account
V Balika Savings Bank Account
V Platinum Savings bank Account

Current Account
V Platinum Current Account

Term Deposits
Recurring Deposits
V Genuth Unnathi Recurring Deposits Bank Account
Vijayashree Units
Fixed Deposits
V Balika Deposit
Jeevan Nidhi Deposit
Capital Gain Scheme
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Vijaya Tax Savings Scheme
V Cash Certificate.

LOANS AND ADVANCES:

Retail Lending Schemes
Vijaya Home Loan
Education Loan
Education Loan Vocational and Training Courses
Personal Loan
Vehicle Loan
Loans to Transport Operators
V vehicle
Jewel Loans
Vijaya Gold Cash Credit
V Reverse Mortgage
Loans for Trader
V Restaurant
V Secured Overdraft
V Rent
Loan against property
Loan for medical practitioners
V Equip
V CAHSEW
VIAJAYA MANGALA

Government Sponsored Schemes
Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana
Golden Jubilee Rural Housing Scheme
Differential Rate of Interest Scheme
Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
Scheme for Liberation of Rehabilitation of Scavenger
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Special Schemes for women
Debt waiver and Relief Beneficiaries
Online Retail Loans
Facilities to Minority Communities
Finance for Flour, Rice and Dal mills
Advances to agriculture, SSI and others
Non Fund based facilities
Loans against securities.

NRI SERVICES:

International Banking
NRI Services
NRE Accounts
NRO Accounts
FCNR(B) Accounts
Helpline for NRIs
Resident Foreign Currency Deposit Account(RFC)
Remittances Facilities
Remit2India
FOREX Branches
FOREX Market Information
Forex Rates
Card Rates
Treasury Services
USA Patriot Act
Wolfs berg AML Certificate
Service Charges

CARD SERVICES:
Domestic Cards
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VISA Classic Debit Card
MasterCard Classic Debit Card
Vijaya Platinum Card
VISA Gold Credit Card
Verified by VISA Cards
Global Cards
Master Card Global Credit Card
VISA Classic International Card
VISA City Specific Card
VISA Doctors Card
VISA Nurses Card

Debit Cards
VISA Debit Cards
Gift Card
Rupay KC FI Guidelines
New Offers
V Care U Policy

REMIT AND COLLECT
FOREX Remittances
Inland Remittances
Electronic Remittances Services
Inward Outward Collection Remittances

HELP DESK
Branches
NRI branches
ATM Centers
Interest Rates
Service Charges
Customer Relations
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Contact us
Citizen Charter
Ombudsman
Fair Practice Codes
Model Policy Codes
SSI Charter
List of Documents
Download Forms
Mobile Banking
Net Banking
Aadhaar status
VePass Book
BCSBI Codes
HO Personnel Department SC ST & OBC Cell
Cash Deposit KIOSK


















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AREAS OF OPERATION

State/Union Territories Number of Branches
Andaman & Nicobar 2
Andhra Pradesh 146
Arunachal Pradesh 5
Assam 18
Bihar 22
Chandigarh 6
Chhattisgarh 20
Daman and Due 1
Delhi 64
Goa 9
Gujarat 85
Haryana 26
Himachal Pradesh 7
Jammu and Kashmir 3
Jharkhand 10
Karnataka 587
Kerala 108
Madhya Pradesh 42
Maharashtra 134
Manipur 5
Meghalaya 5
Mizoram 3
Nagaland 5
Orissa 12
Pondicherry 2
Punjab 36
Rajasthan 33
Sikkim 1
Tamil Nadu 109
Tripura 2
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Uttar Pradesh 115
Uttaranchal 6
West Bengal 50
































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INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES:

The Vijaya Bank has following infrastructural facilities;
1. CBS Branches
2. ATMs
3. Total Branch Mechanization(TBM)
4. Video Conferencing in HO,RO, CO
5. Internet Facility
6. Data Warehousing and mining
7. Real Time Gross Settlement(RTGS) in CBS Branches
8. Foreign Exchange Business
9. Treasury and Investment
10. Credit and Debit Card
11. Security arrangement
12. Close circuit TV and Time clock facility
13. Communication facility with cash van during cash remittance
14. Installation of hotline with currency chest
15. Strong ad safe room for currency chest
16. The Access Control System at all currency chests has been further strengthened as per
RBI guidelines
17. Burglar Alarm system all branches
18. Automatic fire alarm system in all CBS branches
19. Fire Proof cabinet in all CBS branches

Head Office of the Vijaya Bank is located in the heart of the Garden City Bangalore, MG
Road.
The bank is one of the few banks in the country which uses Finacle Software and has 100%
implementation, which in turn helps the bank to serve its customers more efficiently.





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COMPETITORS INFORMATION:

All banks of India are the competitors for the Vijaya Bank. Following are the list of
competitors;

State Bank of India and its Associate Banks
State Bank of India
State bank of Bikaner and Jaipur
State Bank of Hyderabad
State Bank of Indore
State Bank of Mysore
State Bank of Patiala
State Bank of Saurashtra
State Bank of Travancore

Other Public Sector Banks (Nationalized Banks)
Allahabad bank
Andhra Bank
Bank of Baroda
Bank of India
Bank of Maharashtra
Canara Bank
Central Bank of India
Dena Bank
Indian Bank
Indian Overseas bank
Oriental Bank of Commerce
Punjab and Sind Bank
Punjab National Bank
Syndicate Bank
UCO Bank
Union Bank of India
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United Bank of India

Private Sector Banks:
HDFC Bank
ICICI Bank
Induslnd Bank
Kotak Mahindra Bank
Axis Bank (then UTI Bank)
Yes Bank
Karnataka Bank

Foreign banks:
ABN-AMRO Bank
Abu Dhabi Commercial bank ltd.
American Express bank Ltd.
Barclays bank PLC
BNP Paribas
Citi Bank
DBS Bank Ltd
Deutsche bank AG
HSBC Ltd
Standard Chartered Bank
State Bank of Mauritius

Other Institutional Competitors:
Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)
Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI)
Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank)
Industrial Reconstruction bank of India (IRBI) now (Industrial Investment Bank of
India)
National bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDB)
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Strength
SWOT ANALYSIS:

SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weakness,
Opportunities and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture.












Strengths

1. The factors that have contributed to the success of the Vijaya Bank is its workforce
because the bank has highly educated workforce, young and energetic with in the age
group of 25-45 years, this helps the junior employees to learn from the experience of
the senior employees.
2. The Bank is professionally managed. The Bank is one of the few banks in India which
gives importance to technology in order to serve its customer better. It in one the
Banks to use Finacle Software.
3. The Banks Strength lie in the management capabilities, focused strategy, speedy
decision making.
4. There has been expansion of branches and ATMs during the last few years.
5. The Banks provide good infrastructural facilities to its staff and help them to
concentrate more on their job.
6. The bank also has introduced various schemes catering to various segments in the
society.
7. The Banks also takes pride of providing best customer service.

Opportunities
Weakness
Threats
SWOT
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Weakness

1. The weakness the bank includes that the bank has majority of the branches in the
southern regions
2. The second weakness of the bank is that of its aging workforce
3. The aging workforce may not immediately accept the change and adopt it as
compared to younger generation.
4. There are a few problems with employees union.

Opportunities

1. The growth potential or the opportunities are very huge as the bank had mainly
concentrated on the southern region of the country in its earlier years it has the
opportunity to expand its business to other parts of the country wherein it can
increase its customer base.
2. The Bank also has introduced mobile banking, Internet Banking, besides
launching value additions like SMS alerts & Customer Utility bill payment and
Air Ticket Booking, Movie Ticket Booking, Mobile Recharge, Corporate Fund
Transfer, Temple Donation, fees payment etc, which contributes to value added
service which can retain customers.
3. Further, Bank is also tied up for providing information related to FOREX, Import
Export and also trading.
4. Vijaya Bank is targeting the younger generation and corporate banking so that
they will have a wide scope for getting lions share with a strategic planning.

Threats:

1. As the banks majority business comes from the south any effect to the company
here would have an adverse effect on the performance of the bank.
2. The Bank is relatively smaller when compared to other banks like SBI. ICICI
Bank and few other banks.
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3. Since it is a smaller bank when compared to mightier banks like SBI, Canara
Bank, the bank is always under a threat of being over taken by other banks in the
industry.

MCKENSYS 7S FRAME WORK:

Mckinsey & Companiesm7s framework provides a useful way of studying internal
working of the organization. The model was developed by Tom Peter and Robert Waterman,
consultants of Mckensys & Company. The 7s Model was first published by them in the
article Structure is not organization (1980) and in the book The Art of Japanese
Management (1981) and In search of Excellence. The Mckensy Consulting Firm
identified strategy as only one of the seven elements exhibited by the best managed
companies.
Strategy, Structure and Systems can be considered as hardware of success while
Style, Staff, Skills and Shared Values can be seen as Software.
Companies. In which these soft elements are present, are usually more successful at
the implementation of the strategy.
















Structure
Strategy
Skill
Staff
Systems
Style
Shared
Values
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The functioning of the Vijaya Bank can be better understood with help of the following 7s
The 7s are:
Structure
Skill
Style
System
Strategy
Staff
Shared Values

1. Structure: It prescribes the formal relationship that should exist among various
positions and activities. It is the duty of the top management to design organization
structure for an organization. It is one of the critical tasks. The designing of the super
structure involves issues like division of organization tasks and allocation of
responsibilities between various departments. The hierarchy of superior subordinate
relationship are defined by the organization charts which are formal documents that
indicate the chain of command and the titles that have been assigned to the managers
and other personnels. Organization charts indicates the employees position in the
hierarchy and their relationship with in an organization.

The Bank has a three tier Organization Structure:
Head Office,
Regional Office &
Branches.

The Head Office hosts various functional departments that are instrumental in policy
formulations and monitoring of performances of the regions and branches. The
Banks 20 Regional Offices exercise immediate supervision and control over the
branches under their jurisdiction.

2. Skill: Skills refer to the fact that, employees have the4 skills needed to carry out the
companys strategies. Skillful employees are the assets of the organization. Skills of
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the employees may be improved by giving them necessary training. The Bank
believes that skillful employees contribute to the success of the Bank.

Development if the Human Resource is an important factor for the development of
any industry. Banking is not an exception to that. It involves various aspects like
continuous training, rewards by way of promotion, appreciations etc. The Banks
HRD policy is guided by the Chinese Proverb If you are planning for one year, grow
rice. If you are planning for twenty years plant trees. If you are planning for centuries,
develop men.

Vijaya Bank has designed various training programmes for different levels, which
includes product training. Forex, Treasury, Assets Management trainings and
exclusive leadership and decision making trainings for the top level.

The bank has well experienced trainers and also sometimes hires trainers from outside
firms for specific training.

Thus, Vijaya Bank provides ongoing opportunities for its employees to groom their
skill set and to upgrade with latest skills to be competent in the industry and serve its
customer better.

3. Style: It is one of the 7s that a top management can use to bring about change in the
organization. According to Mckensys Framework, becomes evident through the
patterns of action taken by the members of the top management team over a period of
time. The McKensys framework considers style as more than a style of
management.

Vijaya Bank follows a Top to down style of management. It also works in a
Participative Style. The decisions are taken by the top management concerning
matters related to an organization.

The decisions relating to department matters are taken by the departmental heads. The
Bank follows a democratic leadership style which allows the employees to take part in
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the decision making process. Employees are free to give any ideas, suggestions etc.
for the betterment of an organization. This will be taken with active consultation with
employees.

4. System: System means formal and informal procedures that govern everyday
activities. The decision making systems within the organization can range from
management institutions to structured computer systems and formal and informal
procedures that govern everyday activities of the bank.

The system of Vijaya Bank includes
Computer System
Training System &
Control System.

5. Strategy: Strategy means actions company plans in response to or anticipation of
challenges in the external environment. The Vijaya Bank. In order to respond to the
changes, has formed the following action plan with specific reference to product,
pricing.

Action plans on products are:
Expansion of Branches and ATM network
Achieve 100% mobile banking
Expand the Corporate Banking
Targeting child banking as they can be future prospects

Action planning on pricing are:
Provide best interest rates on deposits and attract more customers
Provide home loan at a lower rate of interest.

The successful implementation of these strategies or action plans helps the banks to
gain competitive advantage over other banks.

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6. Staff: Staff means that the organization has hired able people, trained them well and
assigned them to the right jobs. Staffs are human resource working in an organization.
They are responsible for carrying various activities in an organization effectively and
efficiently. Vijaya Bank has well trained, devoted and skilled staffs who work very
hard for the success of the bank. The number of people employed by the bank stands
at around 12000 employees, of which 7000 includes the clerical, sub staff and 5000
officers.


7. Shared Values: Shared Values refer to the guiding concepts, values and aspirations
that unite an organization in some common purpose. They guide employees of any
organization towards valued behavior. Important concerns and goals that are shared
by most of the people in a group, that tend to shape group behavior, and that often
persist overtime even with changes in group membership. Shared Values originally
called as super ordinate goals; it is the guiding concepts and principles of the
organization values and aspirations, often unwritten. They are also the things that
influence a group to work together for a common goal. It acts as a guiding concept,
fundamental ideas around which a business is built. So, it must be simple, usually
stated at the abstract level, have a great meaning inside the organization even though
outsiders may not see or understand them.

Vijaya Bank goes for the following values:
Customer Satisfaction
Quick & better Service
Loyal to the Customers
Honesty








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FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Balance Sheet
Particulars 2013 2012
CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES
Total Share Capital 1,695.54 1,695.54
Equity Share Capital 495.54 495.54
Share Application Money 0.00 0.00
Preference Share Capital 1,200.00 1,200.00
Reserves 3,863.11 3,279.15
Revaluation Reserves 0.00 277.53
Net Worth 5,558.65 5,252.22
Deposits 97,017.24 83,055.51
Borrowings 6,391.82 5,418.40
Total Debt 103,409.06 88,473.91
Other Liabilities & Provisions 2,014.05 2,037.88
Total Liabilities 110,981.76 95,764.01
ASSETS
Cash & Balances with RBI 3,917.70 4,542.53
Balance with Banks, Money at Call 2,727.05 1,860.32
Advances 69,765.76 57,903.74
Investments 31,284.97 28,643.80
Gross Block 476.74 1,089.06
Accumulated Depreciation 0.00 602.11
Net Block 476.74 486.95
Capital Work In Progress 0.00 0.00
Other Assets 2,809.54 2,326.66
Total Assets 110,981.76 95,764.00
Contingent Liabilities 16,997.08 13,864.09
Bills for collection 0.00 3,630.44
Book Value (Rs) 87.96 76.17


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Profit & Loss Account
Particulars 2013 2012
INCOME
Interest Earned 9,051.88 7,988.13
Other Income 607.00 527.90
Total Income 9,658.88 8,516.03
EXPENDITURE
Interest expended 7,173.88 6,084.59
Employee Cost 848.59 739.92
Selling and Admin Expenses 0.00 618.75
Depreciation 41.46 39.95
Miscellaneous Expenses 1,009.34 456.04
Preoperative Exp Capitalized 0.00 0.00
Operating Expenses 1,362.97 1,615.03
Provisions & Contingencies 536.42 239.63
Total Expenses 9,073.27 7,939.25
Mar '13 Mar '12


Net Profit for the Year 585.61 576.77
Extraordinary Items 0.00 4.23
Profit brought forward 934.97 911.96
Total 1,520.58 1,492.96
Preference Dividend 119.33 132.49
Equity Dividend 144.94 143.98
Corporate Dividend Tax 0.00 0.00
PER SHARE DATA (ANNUALIZED)
Earning Per Share (Rs) 9.41 8.97
Equity Dividend (%) 25.00 25.00
Book Value (Rs) 87.96 76.17
APPROPRIATIONS
Transfer to Statutory Reserves 297.32 236.54
Transfer to Other Reserves 0.00 -0.02
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Proposed Dividend/Transfer to Govt. 264.27 276.47
Balance c/f to Balance Sheet 958.99 979.97
Total 1,520.58 1,492.96

Key Ratios
Particulars 2013 2012
Current Ratio 0.73 0.03
Quick Ratio 37.98 31.78
Face Value 10.00 10.00
Dividend Per Share 2.50 2.50
Operating Profit Per Share (Rs) 11.23 10.36














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Theoretical Framework
















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Credit:
The word comes from the Latin word credere, meaning trust. When sellers transfer
is wealth to a buyer who has agreed to pay later, there is a clear implication that the payment
will be made at the agreed date. The credit period and the amount of credit depend upon the
degree of trust.

The credit is an essential marketing tool. It bears the cost, the cost of the seller having
to borrow until the customers payment arrives. Ideally, that cost is the price but, as most
customers pay later than agreed, the extra unplanned cost erodes the planned net profit.

Introduction:
Risk is a potential that events, either expected or unexpected, may have an adverse
impact on the banks capital or earnings. Banks are now graduating from being financial
intermediary to risk intermediary and hence there is a need to strike a balance between the
two for achieving optimum trade off between risk and return. Greater the calculated and
informed risk undertaken, higher the likely profits, as the profits is the successful reward for
the risk undertaken in any business activity.

There are mainly there types of risks:
Market Risk
Credit Risk
Operational Risk


Types of Financial Risks:









Financial Risks

Market Risk

Credit Risk
Operational
Risk
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Market Risk:
Market risk is the risk of adverse deviation of the mark to market value of the trading
portfolio, due to market environment, during the period required to liquidate the transactions.

Operational Risks:
Operational risk is one area of the risk that is faced by all the organizations. More
complex the organization, more exposed it would be to the operational risks. This risk arises
due to the deviation from normal and planned functioning of the systems, procedures,
technology and human failure of omissions and commissions. Result of deviation from
normal functioning is reflected in the revenue of the organization, either by way of additional
expenses or by way of losses of opportunity.

Credit Risk:
Credit Risk is defined as the potential that a bank borrower or a counterparty will fail
to meet its obligation in accordance with the agreed terms, or in other words, it is defined as
the risk that a firms customer and the parties to which it has lent money will fail to make
promised payments is known as Credit Risk.

The exposure to the credit risk is larger in case of financial institutions, such as,
commercial banks. When firms borrow money, they in turn


expose lenders to the credit risk, the risk that a firm will default on its promised payments.
As a consequence, borrowing exposes the firm owners to the risk that a firm will be unable to
pay its debt and thus e forced to bankruptcy.

The progressive deregulation and liberalization of the Indian Financial Sector have
offered banks tremendous business opportunities. At the same time, the increased
competition has brought the exposure to various types of risks. The evolution of the new
financial instruments in the market provides not only new opportunities for earning additional
income, but also exposes the banks to new and greater risks, although some instruments allow
the banks to hedge very risks. In such a scenario, it is essential to identify various risks to
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which banks business are exposed to, and formulate a policy to identify and quantify and
mitigate these risks.
Credit Risk Management at VIJAYA BANK

Credit Risks:
Credit Risk is defined as the possibility of losses associated with diminution in the
credit quality of the borrowers or counterparties. In a banks portfolio, losses stem from the
outright default due to inability or unwillingness of a customer or a counterparty to meet
commitments in relation to lending, trading, settlement and other financial transaction.
Alternatively, losses result from reduction in portfolio value arising from actual or perceived
deterioration in credit quality. The credit risks emanates from a banks dealings with an
individual, corporate, bank, financial institution or a sovereign.

Credit Risk may take the following terms:
In case of direct lending: principal/and or interest amount may not be repaid;
In case of the guarantees or the Letters of Credit: funds may not be forthcoming from
the constituents upon crystallization of the liability;
I case of treasury operations: the payment or series of payments due from the
counterparties under the respective contracts may not be forthcoming of ceases;
In the case of securities trading business: funds/securities settlement may not be
effected;
In the case of cross border exposure: the availability and free transfer of foreign
currency funds may either cease or restrictions may be imposed by the sovereign.

Scope of the Policy:

In nutshell this policy is designed to:
Enhance the risk management capabilities to ensure orderly and healthy credit growth
with in a bank
Maintain overall asset quality
Maintain Credit Risk exposure within acceptable paramaters/prudential exposures
norms prescribed in a banks lending policy.
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Mitigate the reduce the risk associated with advances/lending by
supporting/modifying/co-operating/fine-tuning the systems, procedures and controls.
Manage the asset portfolio in an orderly manner the ensures, that a bank has adequate
capital to hedge these risks.

Organizational set up:
The organizational setup for the Credit Risk Management aspects is depicted as below

Board of Directors

Risk Management Committee of the Board (RMCB)

Credit Risk Management Committees

Risk Management Department

Role of the Board and RMCB:
The Board of Directors is the ultimate authority in the bank to lay down the policies.
The board can, however, form committees to oversee the risk management process,
procedures and systems in the banks. Accordingly, the board has constituted a five member
risk management committee of the Board with chairman and Managing Director as the head
to oversee the policy and the strategy for implementation of Credit Risk Management system.
In addition to the Executive Director, three independent Directors are also its members.

The RMCB shall oversee the risk management in the bank and provide directions on
Credit Risk Management Systems, conduct and review of credit risk in the bank and suggest
modifications in the role and responsibility of the Credit Risk Management Committee.

Credit Risk Management Committee:
The role of the Credit Risk Management Committee, is mainly the implementation of
the Credit Risk Management policy, comply with the directions of the Board and BMCB,
overseeing the various risk management process and systems. Besides, it shall be responsible
for laying down policy and Drawing up an MIS framework for Credit Risk Management and
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also monitor and manage the credit risk exposure of the bank. This committee would report to
the Board/RMCB.

Credit Risk Management Framework:
Credit Risk Management encompasses a host of management techniques, which help
the bank in mitigating the adverse impact of credit risk. The Credit Risk Management
Committee (CMRC) of a bank shall consist of the following members.

1. Chairman and Managing Director Chairman
2. Executive Director Member
3. General Manager-Risk Management Member
4. General Manager-Credit (O) Member
5. General Manager-Credit-R&R Member
6. General Manager-M.I.S Member
7. General Manager, Credit-Priority/Retail Member
8. General Manager, Credit-M.S.&C Member
9. Chief Vigilance Officer Invitee
10. Dy. General Manager-Risk Management Convener
















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Risk Management Department:

The banks will have, at the functional level, a Risk Management Department (RMD)
headed by an Executive in Top Management Cadre. The risk analysts / risk managers,
Regional Risk Monitors / Officers covering credit, market and operational risks will report to
the head of RMD

The RMD shall be responsible for identifying and assessing Bank Wide risks through
the structured Risk Profile Template prescribed by the RBI or otherwise, and getting it vetted
by Quality Assurance Team (specifically constituted for this purpose) and reporting to RBI at
stipulated periodicity (presently on quarterly basis) the aspects pertaining to Credit Risk of
the Bank.

The department shall review and adopt risk management systems, techniques and
methodologies to identify, measure, manage and control the Credit Risk, and to review
portfolio concentrations.

Credit Risk Rating:
Risk rating reflects the underlying credit risk in the existing and or prospective
exposure. The thrust area of the credit risk management is to measure, quantify, control as
well as price the risk appropriately. Accordingly, Bank has implemented CRISIL Risk Rating
software- Risk Assessment Model (RAM) for conducting risk rating of Retail and Non Retail
Loans of the bank with exemptions for exposures fully secured by banks own deposits, gold
& jewellery and staff loans.

RISK ASSESSMENT MODELS (RETAIL & NON RETAIL)
The following modules are provided by CRISIL as part of their Risk Assessment
Model:

Non-Retail Exposures:
A. Simple Model for loans for Rs.2 lakhs and below (Hosted under Retail Scoring
Models)
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B. Rating Model I- For exposure above Rs.2 lakhs and up to RS.1Crore for existing
borrowers
C. Rating Model II For exposure above Rs.2lakhs and up to Rs. 1Crore for new
borrowers.
D. In respect of loans beyond Rs. 1 Crore sector specific models are as follows:
1. Large Corporate With Projects, Without Projects, Green Field Projects
2. Large Trader
3. Bank
4. NBFC
5. SME (Manufacturing)
6. SME (Traders)
7. SME (Services)
8. Real Estate Developers
9. Brokers
10. Infrastructure Projects- Port
11. Infrastructure Projects- Road
12. Infrastructure Projects- Telecom
13. Infrastructure Projects- Power
14. Infrastructure Projects- Airport
15. Micro Financing Institutions
16. Sovereign Ratings
17. Object Finance

Retail Exposures:
Retail Models are designed in respect of following type of retail sector
1. Home loans
2. Vehicle Loans
3. Personal Loans
4. Credit Cards
5. Educational Loans
6. Agriculture- Crop Loans
7. Agriculture- Tractor Loans
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8. Government Sponsored Schemes
9. Self Help Groups
10. Behavioral Models for all the above modules.

The Bank has put in place the credit risk rating framework as detailed below
Sl
No.
Particulars Rating Model To be rated at pre
sanction level by
To be approved by
1. Retail Loans Retail Model of
CRISIL
RACPC/Branches
in the absence of
RACPC
In the CRISIL
rating software by
the authority other
than sanctioning
authority at the pre
sanction level and
to be reviewed by
the reviewing
authority at the time
of review of
sanction
2. Non Retail Loans
above Rs. 2 lakhs
and below Rs. 1
crore
Manual Model of
bank customized by
CRISIL
Official
Processing of the
proposal at the
branches/ ROs
Authority other than
sanctioning
authority at pre
sanction level
3. Non Retail
loans of Rs. 1
crore and above and
up to Rs 7.5 Crore
CRISIL Model
(RAM)
Risk Rating Team
at RO
AGM/DGM, RMD
at pre sanction level
i.e. level 2 in
CRISIL software.
4. Non Retail Loans
above Rs.7.5 Crore
CRISIL Model
(RAM)
Risk Rating Team
at RMD, HO
DGM/GM, RMD at
pre sanction level
i.e. level 2 in
CRISIL Software

Adoption of External Credit Ratings:

External Credit Rating:
In respect of credit risk, RBI has allowed the banks to adopt standardized Approach,
in which the risk weights are allocated for the banks claims on corporate, Public Sector
Entities and Exposures on Asset Finance Companies (AFCs), NBFC-IFC (Infrastructure
Finance Companies) based on the credit ratings carried out by the recognized Credit Rating
Agencies for this purpose.

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The Bank shall adopt Standardized Approach initially to estimate the capital for credit
risk based on External Credit Assessment, and through this policy, bank has put in place a
framework containing detailed operational guidelines which should be adhered during credit
evaluation and capital calculation process under BASEL II


Eligible Credit Rating Agencies:

In line with the final guidelines of RBI on BASEL II norms, ratings assigned by an
eligible credit rating agencies is the basis for assigning the risk weight of the claim in respect
of certain category of exposures.

In accordance with the principle laid down in the revised framework, the RBI ahs
decided that banks may use the ratings of following domestic credit rating agencies for the
purposes of risk weighting their claims for capital adequacy calculations. Accordingly the
bank shall use the following rating agencies` external credit assessment for the purpose of
risk weighting our claims on Corporate, Public Sector Entities, exposures on Asset Finance
Companies (AFCs) and exposures to NBFC-IFCs (Infrastructure Finance Companies).

Domestic Exposure:
a. Credit Analysis and Research Limited (CARE);
b. CRISIL Limited (CRISIL) ;
c. FITCH India (FITCH) ; and
d. ICRA Limited (ICRA).
e. Brickworks Ratings India Pvt Limited.
f. SMERA (SME Rating Agency of India Ltd)

The RBI has decided that banks may use the ratings of the following international
credit rating agencies for the purpose of risk weighting international (overseas) exposures for
capital adequacy:
Overseas Exposure
a. Fitch
b. Moodys; and
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c. Standard & Poors

Mapping Process:

Revised Framework recommends the development of a mapping process to assign the
ratings used by eligible credit rating agencies to the risk weights available under the
standardized risk weighting framework. The mapping process is required to result in a risk
weight assessment consistent with that of level of credit risk. As suggested by CRISIL ltd in
its rating model validation report, the existing mapping of internal rating with that of external
rating based on predictive ability of capturing probability of default (PD) is mapped as under.

External Ratings Internal Ratings
AAA/AA+ VB1
AA/AA- VB2
AA-/A+ VB3
A/A- VB4
BBB+/BBB VB5
BBB/BBB- VB6
BB+/BB/BB- VB7
B+/B VB8
B-/C VB9
D VB10

While carrying out rating in CRISIL RAM Model, it will be the endeavor to ensure
the mapping of internal rating with the external rating. However, exception can be made
based on banks own experience with the particular borrower, industry etc and judgment of
the rating authorities.






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Long Term Ratings:

On the basis of the above factors as well as the data made available by the rating
agencies, the ratings issued by the domestic credit rating agencies have been mapped to the
appropriate risk weights applicable as per the Standardized Approach under the revised
framework.

The rating risk weight mapping furnished in the table below shall be adopted by our
bank:

Risk Weight Mapping of Long Term Ratings of the chosen domestic rating agencies:

Long Term Ratings of the chosen credit rating
agencies operating in India
Standardized Approach Risk Weights
AAA 20%
AA 30%
A 50%
BBB 100%
BB & Below 150%
Unrated * 100%


Where + or notation is attached to the rating, the corresponding main rating
category risk weight should be used. For example: A+ or A- would be considered to be in the
A rating category and assigned 50% risk weight.

If an issuer has a long term exposure with an external long term rating that warrants a
risk weight of 150%, all unrated claims on the same borrower, whether short term or long
term, shall also receive a 150 % risk weight, unless the bank uses recognized credit risk
mitigation techniques for such claims.



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Short Term Ratings:

For risk weighting purpose, short term ratings are deemed to be issue specific. They
can only be used to derive risk weights for claims arising from the rated facility. They cannot
be generalized to other short term claims. In no event can a short term rating be used to
support risk weight for an unrated long term claim. Short Term assessments may only be used
for short term claims against banks and corporate.

The unrated short term claim on the borrower will attract risk weight of at least one
level higher than the risk weight applicable to the rated short term claim on that borrower. If a
short term rated facility to borrower attracts a 20% or 50% risk weights, unrated short term
claims to the same borrower cannot attract risk weights lower than 30% or 100%
respectively.

Similarly, if an issuer has a short term exposure with an external short term rating that
warrants a risk weight of 150%, all unrated claims on the same borrower, whether long term
or short term, should also receive a 150% risk weight, unless bank has recognized Credit Risk
Mitigation techniques for such claims.

In respect of the issue4 specific short term ratings the following risk weight mapping
shall be adopted by the bank as provided in the table below.

Risk weight Mapping of the Short Term Ratings of the domestic rating agencies:
Short Term Ratings Risk
Weights
CARE CRISIL FITCH ICRA BRICKWORK SMERA
Care A1 Crisil A1 Fitch A1 Icra A1 BWR A1 SERA A1 20%
Care A2 Crisil A2 Fitch A2 Icra A2 BWR A3 SERA A2 30%
Care A3 Crisil A3 Fitch A3 Icra A3 BWR A4 SERA A3 50%
Care A4 Crisil A4 Fitch A4 Icra A4 BWR A5 SERA A4 100%
Care D Crisil D Fitch D Icra D BWR D SERA D 150%
UNRATED 100%

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The above risk weight mapping of both long term and short term ratings of the
domestic rating agencies would be4 reviewed annually by the Reserve Bank.

Credit Risk in the Investments:

As certain magnitude of the credit risk is inherent in the investment portfolio, the
proposals for the investment shall be subjected to same degree of credit risk analysis as any
loan proposal. These proposals shall be subjected to a detailed appraisal and rating
framework that factors in financial and non financial parameters.
As stipulated by the Investment Policy, the entry level rating by external agencies,
limits for the industry, maturity, duration etc shall be ensured in respect of investment
proposals. There should ne a greater interaction between credit and treasury department to
monitor the total exposure taken by the bank and the portfolio reviews cover total exposure,
including investments.


Credit Risk in Off Balance Sheet Exposure:
As a part of the overall credit risk mitigation, the bank adopts adequate framework as
suggested in the investment policy for managing exposure in off balance sheet
products/exposure with respect to directive contracts. The bank shall ensure that the exposure
is within the limit fixed/ allowed with suitable hedging mechanism to avoid related risk in the
process. As regards entertaining other credit related off balance sheet exposures, such as
guarantees, Letters of Credit & other obligation, the proposal shall be subjected to usual
credit risk appraisal, in compliance with various limits stipulated in the Lending Policy.

Credit Risk in Inter Bank Exposure:
In the course of normal business, emanating from trade transactions, money
placements in treasury management, the bank assumes exposures on other banks, thereby
entailing and exposing the bank towards credit risk in inter bank exposure. The bank has
already put in place a system for regular monitoring of exposure limits to banks/ financial
institutions/primary dealers at Integrated Treasury Management Department.


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Analysis and Interpretation














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An internal ceiling, in tune with the risk rating of the borrower under each of the rating
category is fixed as under:

To the Single Borrowers
Permissible Exposure as % of Capital Funds
SL
no.
Vijaya
Bank
Rating
Grade
Investment
Grade Safety
Level
General
Category
Exceptional
Circumstances
with board
approval
Infrastructure Exceptional
Circumstances
for Govt.
Infrastructure
with Board
Approval
1 VB1 Highest
Safety
15.00% 20.00% 20.00% 25.00%
2 VB2 High Safety 12.50% 17.50% 17.50% 22.50%
3 VB3 High Safety 12.50% 17.50% 17.50% 22.50%
4 VB4 Adequate
Safety
10.0% - 15.00% -
5 VB5 Moderate
Safety
10.00% - 15.00% -
6 VB6 Moderate
Safety
10.00% - 15.00% -
7 VB7 Minimum
Safety
7.50% - 12.50% -
Sub Investment Grade










8 VB8 Inadequate
Safety
9 VB9 High Risk
10 VB10 Default
No additional/Fresh exposures shall normally be granted on
accounts rated below VB8, VB9 & VB10, in respect of new
borrowers as well as existing borrowers. Conscious efforts
are to be made to reduce the existing exposure gradually.
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CASE 1:
Model name : Lager Corporate Model
Company Name : ACB Electricals Limited
Industry Name : Engineering
Assessment Type : Company without Project

Summary Table:
Balance Sheet Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Score 8.66 8.80 8.76 8.80 8.54
Grade VB1 VB1 VB1 VB1 VB1


Rating Summary:
Borrower Rating
Score Previous
Score
Rating From
Score
To
Score
Rating Class
Single Scale
Rating
8.54 8.80 VB1 8.50 10.00 Investment
Grade-
Highest safety

Note: Borrowers rated VB1 are judged highest safety of timely payment.

Band Rating Grade Description
8.5-10.00 VB1 LC I Investment Grade-Highest Safety
7.5-8.5 VB2 LC II Investment Grade-High Safety
6.5-7.5 VB3 LC III Investment Grade-High Safety
5.75-6.5 VB4 LC IV Investment Grade-Adequate Safety
5.00-5.75 VB5 LC V Investment Grade-Moderate Safety
4.25-5.00 VB6 LC VI Investment Grade-Moderate Safety
3.50-4.25 VB7 LC VII Investment Grade-Minimum safety
2.50-3.50 VB8 LC VIII Sub-Investment Grade-Inadequate
Safety
1.50-2.50 VB9 LC IX Sub-Investment Grade-High Risk
0.00-1.50 VB10 LC X Default

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The Company has scored as below in various risk categories:
Company Rating is 8.54
Actually Scored by the company is as under:
Industry Risk 5.81
Management Risk 8.89
Financial Risk 8.83
Business Risk 9.35




Analysis and Interpretation:

In the above summary table, the Company has scored above the minimum prescribed
limit of 8.50 in all the previous years. As a result, the Company has been given a rating of
VB1
In the case of borrower rating, though the companys current score has slipped to 8.54
from the previous score of 8.80, still the company has managed to score above the prescribed
limit of 8.5. And thus, it scored Highest Safety Investment Category in its Rating Class.

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Industry Risk Management
Risk
Financial Risk Business Risk
5.81
8.89
8.83
9.35
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Facility Rating:
%Effective
LGD
EL% Obligor
Rating
Facility
Rating
Combined
Rating
Bank Guarantee other 35.00 0.01 VB1 FR3 CR1
Cash Credit 35.00 0.01 VB1 FR3 CR1

Facility Type Grade
Fund Based FR3
Non Fund Based FR3
Combined FR3


Score Sheet for ACB Electricals Limited:
Risk Parameter
Name
Division Value Score Grade Strength/
Weakness
Type: Company
Industry Risk 5.81 IV
Return on Capital
Employed
10
Business Risk 9.35 I
Operating Efficiency 9.40 S
Bargaining Power
with Suppliers
10 S
Access to cost effective
technology
10 S
Availability of skilled
labour
8 S
Market position 9.30 S
Brand Equity 10 S
Project Management
Skills
8 S
After sales service 10 S

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Analysis & Interpretation:
In this case, the business risk scores 9.35 as against stipulated company rating of 8.54
and thus the company is in a better position. Anything lower than 8.54 would put the
company to the downgrade position.
In case of bargaining power, since the company is the sole buyer from its supplier it
enjoys highest scoring of 9.35 as other buyers cannot have influence over the
company.
Use of the most modern advanced technology, leading to operating costs being
significantly lower than the industry norms
Presence of extremely strong brands in the portfolio leads to sales being driven by the
branded products
As the company has a very good track record of timely, cost bound project but has
suffered slight overruns in a few projects.
Distribution backed by widespread after sales service network. Coverage and quality
of sales support offered by the company regarded as the best in the industry.






0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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Financial Risk:

Risk Parameter Name Division Value Score Grade Strength/
Weakness
Financial Risk 8.83 I
Past Financials 13.89 10 S
Total Outside
Liabilities/Total Net
worth past (Ratio)
1.38 6
Net Cash
Accruals/Total Debt-
Past (Ratio)
0.57 10 S
Current Ratio-(Past) 1.43 9 S
Interest Coverage
Ratio-(Past)
83.91 10 S
DSCR Past Ratio 24.90 10 S
Net worth (past) 2,871,181.00 10 S
ROCE Past % 21.98 10 S



0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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Analysis and Interpretation:
Since the company scores 8.83 above the limit prescribed by the bank, it gets grade I
in the financials satisfying the all requirements.
Past financials has been pretty good of the company and is reflected in its rating of
9.29 and the being the strength of the company.
Total outside Liability to Total Net Worth of a company scored 6.00. It states that that
Net Worth of the company to Total outside Liability is slightly not up to the mark.
Net Cash Accruals to Total Debt scored 10.00 which mentions cash accruals are very
satisfying.
Current ratio, Interest Coverage Ratio, DSCR, Net Worth, ROCE-all past scored 9,
10, 10, 10, 10 respectively adding to the strength of the company.


Management Risks:

Risk Parameter Name Division Value Score Grade Strength/
Weakness
Management Risk 8.89 I
Management 9.66 S
Working Capital
Management
8 S
Corporate Governance 10 S
Experience in the
industry
10 S
Managerial Competence 10 S
Business & Financial
Policy
10 S
Ability to meet the sales
projection
8 S
Ability to meet the profit
projection
6
Past Payment Record 10 S
Past payment & track
record
10 S

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Analysis and Interpretation:
Management Risk scores 8.89 well above the limit.
Companys management being good at the top level has scored a 9.66 rating as
against the rating norms
Working Capital Management has got the rating of 8.00 signifying the efficient
working capital management by the company.
The capability of the company with respect to wealth creation for all stakeholders
while adopting sound corporate governance practices is the highest.
Top Management is very highly experienced in the industry. Senior Management
personnel are considered as among the most knowledgeable in the industry.
Management is highly qualified, and perceived to be of exceptional quality. The
quality of senior personnel provides the company a definite competitive advantage.
Extremely conservative management.. Diversifications, if any, are in related areas,
and have been implemented in a phase wise manner, so as to avoid strain on existing
cash flows. The company avoids high risk investments.
The company has been able to meet the sales target adding to the competitive
advantage.




0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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Facility Gradation:

Score Grade Description
5.00 FR1 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is none or the least
suggesting that at the event of default the loss to bank is least or
none.
20.00 FR2 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is marginally more than
that calculated for FR1 grade suggesting that at the event of default
the loss to the bank will be minimal
35.00 FR3 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is slightly more than
that calculated for FR 2 grade suggesting that at the event of default
the banks losses are marginally higher than the FR2 Grades.
50.00 FR4 The %effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is slightly more than that
calculated for FR3 Grade suggesting that at the event of default the
banks losses are marginally higher than FR3 grades
65.00 FR4 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is significant.
75.00 FR6 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) though slightly lesser
than the facilities rated as FR 7 , the bank is exposed is significant
losses at the event of default
85.00 FR7 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is marginally lesser than
the facilities rated as FR8 suggesting that at the event of losses the
bank is exposed to huge losses.
95.00 FR8 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is the highest suggesting
that at the event of losses the banks losses will be maximum.









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Combined Gradation:

Score Grade Description
0.00 CR1 The Expected Loss is nil or least suggesting that at the event of
default loss to bank is least or none.
0.14 CR 2 The Expected Loss is marginally more than that calculated for CR1
grade suggesting that at the event of default loss to the bank will be
minimal
0.44 CR3 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR 2
grade suggesting that at the event of default the banks losses are
marginally higher than the CR 2 Grade.
1.29 CR4 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR 3
grade suggesting that at the event of default the banks losses are
marginally higher than the CR 3 Grade
2.89 CR 5 The Expected Loss is at the moderate levels
5.27 CR 6 The Expected Loss is higher than that calculated for CR 5 Grades
13.21 CR 7 The Expected Loss is significant.
24.66 CR 8 The Expected Loss is on the higher side
28.64 CR9 The Expected Loss is marginally lesser than the facilities rated as CR
10 suggesting that at the event of default the bank is exposed to huge
losses
100.00 CR 10 The Expected Loss is the highest suggesting that at the event of
default the loss to the bank is maximum.











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CASE 2
Company Name : PQR Energy Limited
Industry Name : Power Generation- Private
Assessment Type : Company with Project

Summary Table:
Balance Sheet Year 2010 2011 2012
Score 5.25 5.00 4.38
Grade VB7 VB7 VB8

Rating Summary:
Borrower Rating
Score Previous
Score
Rating From
Score
To
Score
Rating Class
Single Scale
Rating
4.38 5.00 VB8 3.75 5.00 Sub-
Investment
Grade-
Inadequate
Safety

Note: Borrowers rated VB8 are judged to carry inadequate safety of timely payment. While
they are less susceptible to default than VB9 grade in the immediate future.

The Company has scored as below in various risk categories:
Project Rating is 4.38
Actually Scored by the company is as under:

Industry Risk 8.00
Business Risk 3.62
Completion Risk- Build
Phase
3.05
Financial Risk- Build Phase 5.01
Stabilization Risk-Build
Phase
2.00
Other Key Risks 5.00
Execution Risks- Build Phase 2.90


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Facility Rating
% Effective
LGD
EL% Obligor
Rating
Facility
Rating
Combined
Rating
Other Term
Loans
58.65 14.47 VB8 FR4 CR7

Facility Type Grade
Fund Based FR4
Combined FR4


Score Sheet for PQR Energy Limited:
Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weaknes
s
Type: Project
Industry Risk 8.00 II
Demand Supply Gap 8.00 S
Impact of Govt.
Regulation
8.00 S

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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Business Risk:
Risk Parameter
Names
Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Business Risk 3.62 VII
Market Position 2.73 W
Counterparty Risk 4 W
Operating Efficiency 4.00 W
Plant Load Factor 4 W
Operation &
Maintenance Risk
4 W



Analysis and Interpretation:
Business Risk parameter scores 3.62 as against 4.38 prescribed by the bank and thus
is in the weaker position as of now
Market Position and counter party risk is at 2.73 & 4 which is again weaker for the
company as a result has scored 2.73 & 4.00 well below the limit.
Operating efficiency, Plant Load Factor, Operation & Maintenance Risk scores 4.00
each signifying its weakness.




0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
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Completion Risk Build Phase
Risk Parameter
Names
Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Completion Risk-
Build Phase
3.05 P3
Key Completion Risk-
Build Phase
3.08 W
Gestation Period 2.00 W
Funding Risk-Build
Phase
3.00 W
Financial Flexibility-
Build Phase
3.00
Clearances 3.00



Analysis and Interpretation:
Completion Risk is well below 4.38 as specified by the bank as the company has
scored 3.05. it highlights the weakness of the company in its management.
Gestation Period has scored just 2.00 less that half of the specified rate
Funding Risks has moderate hurdles being faced/ expected for tie up of the funds.
Financial Flexibility scores 3.00 as it has sponsors with moderate ability to raise
additional funds from various sources including own sources.



0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
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Execution Risk- Build Phase:

Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Execution Risk Build
Phase
2.90 P3
Construction- Build Phase 2.58 W
Contractor
Creditworthiness- Build
Phase
3.00
Safeguards in Contracts-
Build Phase
3.00
Technology Build Phase 3.00
Reputation of Design
Consultant- Build Phase
4.00 S




Analysis and Interpretation:
Execution Risk has scored a 2.90 of the company that tell the bank that the company I
sure to face the hurdles in its execution leading to risk in payments
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
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Even during the construction phase, the company scores 2.58 below the limit
specified by the bank and again revealing the weakness in the construction.
Contractors Creditworthiness being moderate has scored 3.00
The contracts as it is with minimal level of safeguards, scores only 3.00
In terms of technology, even though the company has with it proven technology, it
has some limitations associated with the technology as a result of which it has been
able to score 3.38
While in Reputation of a design consultant, it scores 4.00 and that being the strength
of the company.



Financial Risk- Building Phase:

Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Financial Risk- Building
Phase
5.01 V
Degree of exposure to
Interest Risk/ Currency
Risk Build Phase
2.00 W
Breakeven- Build Phase 8.57 S
DSCR- Build Phase 4.29 S
Internal Rate of Return-
Build Phase
4.29 S
Debt/Equity Ratio- Build
Phase
5.71 S
Sensitivity to Revenue-
Build Phase
5.71 S
Sensitivity to Project
Cost- Build Phase
5.71 S

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Analysis and Interpretation:
Financial Risk has scored 5.01 as it is with moderate safety and securing grade V
Degree of exposure to Interest Risk/ Currency Risk is at mere 2.00 highlighting the
weakness and its instability
Breakeven scored the highest with a rating of 8.57 showing companys ability to
recover the costs
DSCR with a rating of 4.29 is also at the safer level
IRR also has scored a rating of 4.29 showing its position in its returns
Debt to Equity ratio has a well balanced ratio and has scored 5.71 and that being the
strength of the company
Sensitivity to revenue has 5.71 scoring that says that the company in not so sensitive
during building phase.
Sensitivity to project cost is at 5.71 score that tell that the company is pretty well
insulated from sudden hikes in the cost of project in the market.








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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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Risk Gradation:
From
Score
To
Score
Grade Common
Scale
Description
8.00 10.00 P1 VB5 Investment Grade- Moderate Safety
6.25 8.00 P2 VB6 Investment Grade- Moderate Safety
5.00 6.25 P3 VB7 Investment Grade- Minimum Safety
3.75 5.00 P4 VB8 Sub-Investment Grade- Inadequate Safety
2.00 3.75 P5 VB9 Sub-Investment Grade- High Risk
0.00 2.00 P6 VB10 Default




Facility Gradation:
Score Grade Description
5.00 FR1 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) in none or the least
suggesting that at the event of default the loss to the bank is least or
none.
20.00 FR2 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) in marginally more than
that calculated for FR1 Grade suggesting that at the event of default
the loss to the bank is minimal
35.00 FR3 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) in slightly more than that
calculated for FR2 Grade suggesting that at the event of default the
loss to the bank is marginally higher than the FR2 Grades
50.00 FR4 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) in slightly more than that
calculated for FR3 Grade suggesting that at the event of default the
loss to the bank is marginally higher than the FR3 Grades
65.00 FR5 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is significant
75.00 FR6 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) though slightly lesser than
the facilities rated as FR7, the bank is exposed to significant losses at
the event of default
85.00 FR7 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is marginally lesser than
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the facilities rated as FR8 suggesting that at the event of default the
bank is exposed to huge losses.
95.00 FR8 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is the highest suggesting
that at the event of default the loss to the bank is maximum




Combined Gradation:
Score Grade Description
0.00 CR1 The Expected Loss is nil or least suggesting that at the event of
default the loss to the bank is least or none.
0.14 CR2 The Expected Loss is marginally more than that calculated for CR1
grade suggesting that at the event of default the loss to the bank is
minimal
0.44 CR3 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR2 grade
suggesting that at the event of default the loss to the bank is
marginally higher than the CR 2 Grades
1.29 CR4 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR3 grade
suggesting that at the event of default the loss to the bank is
marginally higher than the CR3 Grades
2.89 CR5 The Expected Loss is at moderate levels
5.27 CR6 The Expected Loss is higher than that calculated for CR5 grades.
13.21 CR7 The Expected Loss is significant
24.66 CR8 The Expected Loss is on the Higher side
28.64 CR9 The Expected Loss is marginally lesser than the facilities rated as
CR10 suggesting that at the event of default the bank is exposed to
huge losses
100.00 CR10 The Expected Loss is the highest suggesting that at the event of
default the loss to the bank is maximum



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CASE 3
Model Name : Infrastructure Model- Power
Company Name : JKL Power Limited
Industry Type : Infra Power Generation Central Utilities
Assessment Type : Build Phase
Project Industry Name : Infra Power Generation Central Utilities

Summary Table:
Balance Sheet Year 2011 2012 2013
Score 6.25 6.25 6.25
Grade VB6 VB6 VB6

Rating Summary:
Borrower Rating
Score Previous
Score
Rating Form
Score
To
Score
Rating Class
Single Scale
Rating
6.25 6.25 VB6 6.25 8.00 Investment
Grade-
Moderate
Safety

Note: Borrower rated VB6 are judged to offer moderate safety of timely payment of interest
and principal for the present. There is only a marginal difference in the degree of safety
provided by borrowers rated VB5

The Company has scored as below in rating:
Project Rating is 6.50
Industry Risk 8.00
Business Risk 5.87
Completion Risk- Build Phase 3.45
Financial Risk- Build Phase 5.90
Stabilization Risk- Build Phase 3.00
Execution Risk- Build Phase 3.55


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Facility Rating
% Effective
LGD
EL
%
Obligor
Rating
Facility
Rating
Combined
Rating
Other Term Loans 51.62 2.73 VB6 FR4 CR4
Bank Guarantee
Others
46.46 2.45 VB6 FR3 CR4

Facility Type Grade
Fund Based FR4
Non Fund Based FR3
Combined FR3


Score sheet for JKL Power Limited:
Risk Parameter
Names
Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Industry Risk 8.00 II
Demand Supply Gap 8.00 S
Impact of Govt.
Directives
8.00 S




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2
3
4
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7
8
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Business Risk:

Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakne
ss
Business Risk 5.97 IV
Market Position 6.50
Cost Base of the Project 6.00
Operating Efficiency 5.60
Plant Load Factor 6.00
Plant availability factor 4.00 W
Operation and maintenance
Risk
6.00
Fuel Risk 6.00









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Analysis and Interpretation:
The Business scores 5.87 as it is with minimum safety in the said project.
Market position and Counter Party risk has scored 6.5 and 6.00 which is reasonable in
the above table.
Cost base of the project, since it is moderately competitive but not clearly best cost
among the industry, it scores 6.00
Operating efficiency of the project stands at 5.60 which is not efficient enough that
calls for improved efficiency
Plant Load Factor, since it ranges between 60% -70%, it scores 6.00 and is needed to
improve on this.
Plant availability factor, since it has no other units elsewhere it scores 4.00 and is at
the weakest point.
Operational and Maintenance risk scores 6.00 with reasonable maintenance.
Fuel Risk, as there is a smooth supply of quality fuels it scored 6.00.


Completion Risk Build Phase
Risk Parameter
Names
Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakness
Completion Risk-
Build Phase
3.75 W
Gestation Period-
Build Phase
4.00 S
Clearance- Build
Phase
4.00 S
Funding Risk- Build
Phase
3.00 W
Financial Flexibility-
Build Phase
3.00
Transparency in
bidding process- Build
Phase
3.00


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Analysis and Interpretation:
Completion Risk in the build phase scored mere 3.45 and is the weakest and also
reveals the completion to be hit with uncertainties.
Gestation period- build phase stands at 4.00 as it ranges between 6-12months
Clearances during the build phase- All the critical and the most significant clearances
are obtained. Very few clearances are pending which are in the final stage of being
procured.
Funding Risk scored 3.00 which is at its weakest as it is a new project, there is a bit of
reluctance in lending funds to the company.
Financial Flexibility scored same score of 3.00 as above as the sponsors with
moderate ability to raise additional funds from various sources including own sources.
Transparency in bidding- As it lacks transparency in certain aspects which may lead
to undue favour to same players.









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0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
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Execution Risk- Build Phase

Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakne
ss
Execution Risk 3.80
Construction- Build Phase 3.67 W
Contractor Credit
Worthiness- Build Phase
3.00
Safeguards in the contracts
Build Phase
4.00 S
Technology- Build Phase 3.38 W
Reputation of a Design
Consultant- Build Phase
4.00 S
Contactor Experience- Build
Phase.
4.00 S







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0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
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Analysis and Interpretation:
Execution Risk scored 3.55 and highlights it is a sub investment grade category
Construction Risk scored 3.67 which is also weaker which is alarming
Safeguards in the contracts, as it ensures high level of safeguards, it scored good
ratings.
As there are some limitations associated with the technology it is weak in this project.
Since the Reputation of a design consultant is well established name in the country, it
scored better.
As the contractor has reasonably good experience in the projects of similar nature, it
proves to be strength of the company.

Stabilization Risk- Build Phase:

Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakne
ss
Stabilization Risk- Build
Phase
3.00


Financial Risks-Build Phase:
Risk Parameter Names Division Value Score Grade Strength/Weakne
ss
Financial Risk- Build
Phase
5.90
Degree of exposure to
Interest risk / Currency
Risk
4.00 S
Breakeven Build Phase 10.00 S
DSCR- Build Phase 5.71 S
Internal Rate of Return-
Build Phase
7.14 S
Debt/Equity Ratio- Build
Phase
2.86
Sensitivity to revenue-
Build Phase
5.71 S
Sensitivity to Project Cost-
Build phase
5.71 S
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Analysis and Interpretation:
Financial Risk scored 5.90 which is below the prescribed rating of 6.25 and is slightly
weaker in financial terms.
Degree of exposure to interest risk/ currency risk is the strength of the company as it
scored 4.00
Breakeven scored rating of 10.00 which is quite a good strength.
DSCR ratio got a rating of 5.71
IRR was rated 7.14 being the strength of the project
Debt / Equity ratio is not so strong that reveals that the project debt equity
composition is not appropriate.
Sensitivity to revenue is strong enough of the project and is not vulnerable for the
external factors that would hamper the revenue yielding capability of the project.


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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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Risk Gradation:

From
Score
To Score Grade Common Scale Description
8.00 10.00 P1 VB5 Investment Grade- Moderate
safety
6.25 8.00 P2 VB6 Investment Grade- Moderate
Safety
5.00 6.25 P3 VB7 Investment Grade- Minimum
Safety
3.75 5.00 P4 VB8 Sub-Investment Grade-
Inadequate Safety
2.00 3.75 P5 VB9 Sub-Investment Grade- High
Risk
0.00 2.00 P6 VB10 Default






















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Facility Gradation:

Score Grade Description
5.00 FR1 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is none or the least
suggesting that at the event of the default the loss to the bank is
least or none
20.00 FR2 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is marginally more
than that calculated for FR1 grade suggesting that at the event
of default the loss to the bank will be minimal
35.00 FR3 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is slightly more
than that calculated for FR2 grade suggesting that at the event
of default the banks losses are marginally higher than the FR2
grades
50.00 FR4 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is slightly more
than that calculated for FR3 grade suggesting that at the event
of default the banks losses are marginally higher than the FR3
grades
65.00 FR5 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is significant.
75.00 FR6 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) though slightly
lesser than the facilities rated as FR7, the bank is exposed to
significant losses at the event of default.
85.00 FR7 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is marginally
lesser than the facilities rated as FR8, suggesting that at the
event of default the bank is exposed to huge losses
95.00 FR8 The % effective Loss Given Default (LGD) is highest
suggesting that the loss to the bank is maximum at the event of
default






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Combined Gradation:

Score Grade Description
0.00 CR1 The Expected Loss is nil or least suggesting that at the event of
default the loss to the bank is least or none
0.14 CR2 The Expected Loss is marginally more than that calculated for CR1
grade suggesting that at the event of default loss to the bank will be
minimal
0.44 CR3 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR2
grade suggesting that at the event of default the banks losses are
marginally higher than the CR2 grades.
1.29 CR4 The Expected Loss is slightly more than that calculated for CR3
grade suggesting that at the event of default the banks losses are
marginally higher than the CR3 grades.
2.89 CR5 The Expected Loss is at moderate levels
5.27 CR6 The Expected Loss is higher than that calculated for CR5 grade
13.21 CR7 The expected loss is significant
24.66 CR8 The Expected Loss is on the higher side
28.64 CR9 The Expected Loss is marginally lesser than the facilities rated as
CR10 suggesting that at the event of default the bank is exposed to
huge losses
100.00 CR10 The Expected Loss is the highest suggesting that at the event of
default the loss to the bank is maximum










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APPLICATION OF ALTMAN Z SCORE.

Definition of 'Altman Z-Score'

The output of a credit-strength test that gauges a publicly traded manufacturing company's
likelihood of bankruptcy. The Altman Z-score is based on five financial ratios that can be
calculated from data found on a company's annual 10K report. The Altman Z-score is
calculated as follows:

Z-Score = 1.2A + 1.4B + 3.3C + 0.6D + 1.0E
Where,
A = Working Capital/Total Assets
B = Retained Earnings/Total Assets
C = Earnings Before Interest & Tax/Total Assets
D = Market Value of Equity/Total Liabilities
E = Sales/Total Assets

A score below 1.8 means the company is probably headed for bankruptcy, while the
companies with scores with above 3.00 are not likely to go bankrupt.

NYU Stern Finance Professor, Edward Altman, developed the Altman Z-score formula in
1967. In 2012, he released an updated version called the Altman Z-score Plus, that can be
used to evaluate both public and private companies, both manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing companies and both U.S. and non-U.S. companies. Investors can use
Altman Z-scores to help determine whether they should buy or sell a particular stock if
they're concerned about the underlying company's financial strength. The Altman Z-score
Plus can be used to evaluate corporate credit risk






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CASE 1: ACB Electricals Limited:
Rs in Lacs
Working Capital : 19403.00
Total Assets : 31,859.30
Retained Earnings : 29,954.58
Earnings Before Interest & Tax : 10,615.95
Market Value of Equity : 489.52.00
Total Liabilities : 31,859.30
Sales : 48,915.84

A. Working Capital/ Total Assets = 0.61
B. Retained Earnings/Total Assets = 0.94
C. EBIT/Total Assets = 0.33
D. Market Value of Equity/Total Liabilities = 0.06
E. Sales/Total Assets = 1.54


Z-Score = 1.2A + 1.4B + 3.3C + 0.6D + 1.0E
= 1.2(0.61) +1.4(0.94) +3.3(0.33) +0.6(0.06) +1.0(1.54)
= 4.713

Interpretation: Since the company has scored above 3.00 i.e. 4.713, the company is doing
pretty well and not likely to go bankrupt.











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Findings
The bank has a credit risk management policy in place
The bank uses credit rating system to assess the credit risk as a part of loam lending
mechanism
They use standardize approach for credit risk management currently and are fine
tuning to upgrade to advanced approaches as per RBI guidelines.
They also have implemented an integrated risk management system as per RBI
guidelines
They mitigate credit risk exposure through diversifications, collaterals and guarantees.
The credit risk exposure of the bank has decreased considerably in the past years as a
result of sound risk management policy
The risk weights associated with banks products are in line with RBI guidelines
They have regular trainings for their credit risk management teams on the policies and
the guidelines.
They rely in the ratings provided by the agencies like CRISIL/CARE/ICRA as per
RBI guidelines.
The bank follows a sound credit risk management and credit risk mitigation policy
which is proven by the decreasing credit risk exposure of the bank. The bank has
adhered to RBI guidelines and has implemented BASEL II norms and an integrated
risk management system and risk rating software.

The credit risk policies and strategies of the bank have improved and the bank is in a
better position

The study shows that compliance with BASEL II norms has helped the bank to
improve their profitability through better credit risk management systems

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Recommendations
They can invest in securitization as securitization exposures are nil.
They have to start preparing for BASEL III norms which might come into effect in
the near future
They can further decrease their credit risk exposures with better credit risk
management policies and advanced approaches as per RBI guidelines
Banks should include credit risk component in yearly forecast based on multiple
market scenarios























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CONCLUSION

The project undertaken has helped a lot in gaining knowledge of the Credit Policy and Credit
Risk Management in the Nationalized Bank with special reference to VIJAYA BANK. The
Credit Policy of the bank has become very vital in the smooth operation of banking activities.
Credit Policy of the bank provides the framework to determine;
Whether or not to extend credit to customer and
How mush credit to extend.
The project has certainly enriched the knowledge about the effective management of Credit
Policy in the bank.

Credit Policy and Credit Risk Management is a vast subject and it is very difficult to cover all
the aspects with a short period of time. However, every effort has been made to cover most of
the important aspects, which have direct bearing on improving financial performance of the
bank.

To sum up, it would not be out of way to mention here that the VIJAYA BANK has given
special inputs on Credit Policy and Credit Risk Management. In pursuance of the instructions
and guidelines issued by the RBI, VIJAYA BANK is granting and expanding credit to all
sectors.

The concerted efforts put in by the Management and the Staff of the VIJAYA BANK has
helped the bank in achieving remarkable progress in almost all the important parameters.










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Bibliography:

www.investopedia.com
www.moneycontrol.com
www.vijayabank.com
http://www.garp.org
http://indianresearchjournals.com
www.wikipedia.com


Books Referred:
John C Hul Pearson Education





















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ANNEXURE:
Balance Sheet of ACB Electricals Limited
Particulars 2013 2012
SOURCES OF FUNDS
Total Share Capital 489.52 489.52
Equity Share Capital 489.52 489.52
Share Application Money 0.00 0.00
Preference Share Capital 0.00 0.00
Reserves 29,954.58 24,883.69
Revaluation Reserves 0.00 0.00
Networth 30,444.10 25,373.21
Secured Loans 1,286.00 0.00
Unsecured Loans 129.20 123.43
Total Debt 1,415.20 123.43
Total Liabilities 31,859.30 25,496.64
APPLICATION OF FUNDS
Gross Block 10,585.56 9,542.79
Less: Accum. Depreciation 6,127.07 5,245.98
Net Block 4,458.49 4,296.81
Capital Work in Progress 1,171.59 1,347.61
Investments 429.17 461.67
Inventories 11,763.82 13,444.50
Sundry Debtors 29,234.49 26,336.13
Cash and Bank Balance 7,732.05 6,671.98
Total Current Assets 48,730.36 46,452.61
Loans and Advances 15,338.84 14,217.32
Fixed Deposits 0.00 0.00
Total CA, Loans & Advances 64,069.20 60,669.93
Deffered Credit 0.00 0.00
Current Liabilities 29,327.02 33,638.01
Provisions 8,942.13 7,641.37
Total CL & Provisions 38,269.15 41,279.38
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Net Current Assets 25,800.05 19,390.55
Miscellaneous Expenses 0.00 0.00
Total Assets 31,859.30 25,496.64


Contingent Liabilities 3,441.04 6,500.34
Book Value (Rs) 124.38 103.67


Profit and Loss Account:
Particulars 2013 2012
INCOME
Sales Turnover 48,915.84 48,355.22
Excise Duty 0.00 0.00
Net Sales 48,915.84 48,355.22
Other Income 1,132.90 1,272.19
Stock Adjustments -121.20 829.65
Total Income 49,927.54 50,457.06
EXPENDITURE
Raw Materials 28,171.38 25,266.60
Power & Fuel Cost 562.18 515.10
Employee Cost 5,824.00 5,529.77
Other Manufacturing Expenses 0.00 3,865.84
Selling and Admin Expenses 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous Expenses 4,754.03 4,037.08
Preoperative Exp Capitalised 0.00 0.00
Total Expenses 39,311.59 39,214.39
Operating Profit 9,483.05 9,970.48
PBDIT 10,615.95 11,242.67
Interest 127.61 53.07
PBDT 10,488.34 11,189.60
Depreciation 957.18 803.24
Other Written Off 0.00 0.00
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Profit Before Tax 9,531.16 10,386.36
Extra-ordinary items -0.45 -19.13
PBT (Post Extra-ord Items) 9,530.71 10,367.23
Tax 2,837.61 3,279.97
Reported Net Profit 6,693.10 7,087.26
Minority Interest -0.27 -0.18
Share Of P/L Of Associates 0.00 0.00
Net P/L After Minority Interest & Share Of Associates 6,689.68 7,106.41
Total Value Addition 11,140.21 13,947.79
Preference Dividend 0.00 0.00
Equity Dividend 804.11 1,582.65
Corporate Dividend Tax 136.66 256.74
PER SHARE DATA (ANNUALISED)
Shares in issue (lakhs) 24,476.00 24,476.00
Earning Per Share (Rs) 27.35 28.96
Equity Dividend (%) 0.00 0.00
Book Value (Rs) 124.75 103.79