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Aditi Consultancy Services


#2, ANANDA, 19
th
Cross, 24
th
Main
J P Nagar 5
th
Phase, Bangalore-560078
Phone/Fax: 080-26580711; Mobile: 9449612671
Web Site: http://www.aditiconsultancy.com
2
Aditi Consultancy Services, Bangalore
Type of
Tolerance
Characteristic Symbol
Datum Required
Yes / No
Applicable to Axis
Yes / No
Form
Profile
Orientation
Location
Runout
Exercise
Complete the following table:
3
Type of
Tolerance
Characteristic Symbol
Datum Required
Yes / No
Applicable to Axis
Yes / No
Form
Straightness No Yes
Flatness No No
Circularity No No
Cylindricity No No
Profile
Profile of a Line Yes / No No
Profile of a surface Yes / No No
Orientation
Angularity Yes Yes
Parallelism Yes Yes
Perpendicularity Yes Yes
Location
Position Yes Yes
Concentricity Yes Yes
Symmetry Yes Yes
Runout
Circular Runout Yes No
Total Runout Yes No
Exercise
Complete the following table:
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Mistakes in the drawing
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Correct drawing
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Dimensioning of a Shaft
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RULE 1 (Limits of Size Rule):
Where only a size dimension is given
a) The size dimensions at any cross section must be
within the size tolerance.
b) The surface(s) shall not extend beyond the perfect
form defined by the MMC Size.
c) The form may vary within an envelope between the
MMC and LMC.
Geometric Tolerance Rule
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Straightness of Surface
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Form variation
Form variation
15.89
16.00
8
9
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Limits of Size Rule
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Limits of Size Rule
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Straightness of Surface
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Difference between
axis and surface straightness

The axis is straight, surface elements bent (barrel shaped)
The axis is straight, surface elements bent (hourglass shaped)
Both axis and surface elements are bent(bowed)
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Geometric Tolerance Rule

RULE 2
Geometric tolerances for a feature of size are
understood to be applied regardless of feature
size (RFS).

If MMC or LMC is required, it must be placed in
the feature control frame.
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Straightness of Axis at RFS
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15
20.008
20.003
Precision Cylindrical Fit
(Minimum diameter of hole)
(Maximum diameter of pin)
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Should be less than 20.008
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RFS V/s MMC Modifier
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Straightness of Axis at RFS
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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H
S
B
Minimum Hole Size = Shaft Size + Bend in Axis of the Shaft
i.e. H = S + B
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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H
S
B
Since minimum size of the hole remains the
same, if the shaft size is smaller it can bend
more and still assemble
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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H
S
B
Maximum Shaft Size = Hole Size - Bend in Axis of the Hole
i.e. S = H - B
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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H
S
B
Since maximum size of the shaft remains the same, if the
hole size is bigger it can bend more and still assemble
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Straightness of Axis at MMC
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MMC Virtual Condition
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Virtual condition is the collective effect of size and
geometric tolerances that must be considered in
determining the fit or clearance between mating parts
or features.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
MMC size + Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
MMC size Geometrical Tolerance
A virtual condition will exist only for tolerances that control
size features.
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Straightness of Median Plane on RFS Basis
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Straightness of Median Plane on MMC Basis
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Straightness per unit length
with specified total straightness
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Straightness per unit length
with specified total straightness
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LMC Principle
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Actual Minimum Material Envelope
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LMC Virtual Condition
LMC Virtual condition is the collective effect of LMC size
limit and geometric tolerances. It assures a protected core
of part material within a pin, boss or tab or a protected
case of part material around a hole or slot.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
LMC size limit Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
LMC size limit + Geometrical Tolerance

FLATNESS
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FLATNESS
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Tolerance zone is limited by two parallel
planes a distance t apart
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FLATNESS OF SHEET METAL
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FLATNESS
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FLATNESS AT MMC
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FLATNESS AT MMC
Functional Gauge
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UNIT FLATNESS AT MMC
Functional Gauge
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Indicator reading is the
flatness error of the surface
Flatness Measurement
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Flatness Measurement
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Flatness Measurement
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COORDINATE V/s ROUND TOLERANCE ZONE

20.40
20.28

20.40
20.28
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Round Tolerance Zone
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Position Tolerance of a Hole at MMC
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Functional Gauge for Inspection
Part must slide over 13.88 gauge pin.
Must lie flat on base of gage (Datum A).
Touch Datum B along its length and simultaneously touch Datum C
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Exercise
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Complete the drawings of the following 2 parts for interchangeable assembly.
MMC Virtual Condition
Aditi Consultancy Services, Bangalore
Virtual condition is the collective effect of size and
geometric tolerances that must be considered in
determining the fit or clearance between mating parts
or features.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
MMC size + Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
MMC size Geometrical Tolerance
A virtual condition will exist only for tolerances that control
size features.
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Exercise
Using positional tolerance improve the design of the following part
50

Datum Reference Frame
Free Movement
Restricted Movement
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51 51
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Datum Referencing
52 52
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Datum Referencing
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Datum Referencing
Position Tolerance of a Hole
Defines a zone in which the center axis or center plane is permitted to
vary from true (theoretically exact) position.
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Hole axes in relation to Positional Tolerancing
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Design a rectangular part that sits on surface A and three
matching holes in it engage with the projecting cylindrical pins
A
X
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Dimensions (Without Datums)
150.1
30
a=150.1 b=150.1 c=150.1
30
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Dimensions (With Datums)
15
30
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O 0.2 A
3X
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Exercise
Number of similar parts shown below are stacked one above the other and
fastened using bolts passing through 4 holes. Central hole is used for locating
and slot is used for aligning them.
Complete the engineering drawing by adding the necessary datum and
geometrical tolerances.
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Position Tolerance
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Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
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Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
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Restrained Features
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Inclined Datum Feature
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Inclined Datum Feature
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LMC Virtual Condition
LMC Virtual condition is the collective effect of LMC size
limit and geometric tolerances. It assures a protected core
of part material within a pin, boss or tab or a protected
case of part material around a hole or slot.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
LMC size limit Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
LMC size limit + Geometrical Tolerance

Boss and Hole at LMC
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Surface Plate, Granite Square, Straight Edge, etc.
Measuring Accessories
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Measuring Accessories
Plunger Type Dial Gauges
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Lever Type Dial Gauges
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Dial Stands
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Slip Gauges
Slip blocks are used as standards for precision length measurement in
the Engineering Industry.
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Slip Blocks
Four Grades of Accuracy
Workshop Grade Grade 2
Inspection Grade Grade 1
Calibration Grade Grade 0
Reference Grade Grade 00 or K
Care of Block Gauges
When not used, Slips should be kept in their Case.
Avoid Excessive Handling - Dont touch lapped faces.
Wipe slips clean before and after they are used.
Use soft linen or cambric cloth to clean slips.
Least Expensive


Most Expensive
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Wringing of Slip Gauges
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Plug Gauges
A Plug Gauge is an precision-sized gauge which is used for size control
of internal diameters/holes.
Go No-Go gauges are double ended. If the Go end is sized to 20mm,
the No-Go end is slightly bigger, i.e. 20.020mm. If the Go end fits in the
machined hole and the No-Go end doesnt then the hole is the an
acceptable size.
The tolerance on the gauges can vary and each gauge is usually specific
to a particular job.
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Ring Gauges
A Ring Gauge is a precision-sized gauge used for size control of external
diameters/bars.
It can be fitted over a bar end and moved along the length to test for
roundness and accuracy of diameter.
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Thread Plug and Ring Gauges
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Screw Pitch Gauges
A screw pitch gauge has a set of teeth which are of a known thread
form. The gauge is used to determine the pitch of a thread on a bolt or
screw of any diameter.
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Feeler
Gauges
Feeler Gauges
Feeler Gauges are manufactured from accurately rolled shims and are
used to measure gap sizes from 0.05mm up to about 1.25mm (0.002 to
0.050 inches). The numbers are marked on the gauge to give the
thickness and thus the gap width.
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Radius
Gauges
Radius Gauges
Radius gauges are usually made of tool steel and cut with an inside and
outside radius of a stated size. The gauges are grouped with other sizes
to make a set.
An accurately machined component can be easily compared with the
profile of a radius gauge.
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Sine Plate
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Sine Bar
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Sine Bar
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Angle Gauges
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Angle Gauges
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Angle Gauges
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Profile Projector
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Electronic Height Gauge
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Electronic Height Gauge
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Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
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CMM PROBES
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CMM
Scanning
Probe Head
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COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
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Cantilever Type CMM Bridge Type CMM
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COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
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High Precision and Multi Sensor
CMM
Gantry Type CMM
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Portable CMM
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LASER scanner with an articulated arm
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Table Rotation
Precision Form Tester
COLUMN
SPINDLE AND
GAUGE
Spindle Rotation
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Aditi Consultancy Services, Bangalore
SURFACE FINISH & FORM MEASURING MACHINE
101
3D Measurement
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Position all 5 the Holes relative to the two Centre Planes and the Bottom
Surface of the part
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Exercise
104
Positional Tolerancing relative to Datum Feature Centre Planes
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Multiple Pattern of Features
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Tolerance Zones for Patterns
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PLTZF & FRTZF
PLTZF
FRTZF
108
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Composite Position Tolerancing
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Composite Position Tolerancing
One possible relationship between the PLTZF and FRTZF
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Composite Position Tolerancing
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One possible relationship between the PLTZF and FRTZF
Composite Position Tolerancing
112
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Composite Position Tolerancing
113
Composite Position Tolerancing
(Circular Pattern of Features)
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AME of 50
+0.25
0
Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
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Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
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Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
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Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
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50.25
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Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
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Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
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Functional Gauge with Datum at MMC
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Bi Directional Position Tolerancing
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Bi Directional Position Tolerancing
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Projected Tolerance Zone
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Projected Tolerance Zone
Fastener and Hole
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When the projected tolerance zone symbol is shown, it means that the
stated tolerance zone is extended beyond the surface of the part, not
within the part.
Projected Tolerance Zone
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Gauge for Projected Tolerance Zone
Profile of a Surface
Profile of surface is a tolerance zone, three-dimensionally extending
along the length and width of the considered feature or features.


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Tolerance zone for the part
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129
Profile of a Surface (In Between)
Profile of surface is a tolerance zone, three-dimensionally extending along the length
and width of the considered feature or features.


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Tolerance zone for the part
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Profile of a Surface with Datums
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Profile of a Surface with Datums
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Profile of a Line
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A geometric tolerance that limits the amount of error for line
elements relative to their true profile
Profile tolerances are often used to control irregular shapes. e.g. contours.
Profile of a Line
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Profile of a Line (In Between)
Profile of a line between two points of the considered feature.

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Profile of a Line (In Between)
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Profile of a Line with Datums
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Profile of a Line with Datums
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Profile of a Line
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Tolerance zone for the part
Unilateral: all outward
from the basic profile.
Unilateral: all inward from the basic profile.
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Checking Profile using Template
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Profile Tolerance Zone
ASME
For profile of a surface or line, the tolerance value represents the
distance between two boundaries equally or unequally disposed about
the true profile or entirely disposed on one side of the profile
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Profile Unilaterally Disposed
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144
Profile of a surface All around
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Profile All-Around Application
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Profile of a surface All Over
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Profile of a surface All Over
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Profile of a Surface
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Profile of a Surface
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Profile of a Surface
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Profile of a Surface (All Around)
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Composite Profile of a Surface
153
Profile - Multiple or Co-Planar Surfaces
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Tangent Plane
A plane contacting the high points of the surface
shall lie within two parallel planes 0.1 apart
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Tangent Plane
0.01
156
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Tangent Plane
157
Angularity
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Angularity
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159
Concentricity
The condition where the median points of all diametrically
opposed elements of a cylinder (or a surface of revolution)
are congruent with the axis of a datum feature.

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Concentricity
Circular tolerance
zone of 0.1 mm
diameter
Median points should
fall with in the
tolerance zone
Concentricity
Circular tolerance
zone of 0.1 mm
diameter
Median points should
fall with in the
tolerance zone
162
Concentricity
163
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Concentricity Between Features
CIRCULAR RUNOUT
A composite control that affects the form, orientation, and location
of circular elements of a part feature relative to a datum axis.
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Run-out
A
Rotating about
datum axis A
Full Indicator Movement (FIM)
should be less than .002
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Datum axis A
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Circular Runout
Circular Runout - Axial
The tolerance zone is limited to any radial position by two circles with a
distance t apart lying in a cylindrical section, the axis of which coincides
with the datum.
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TOTAL RADIAL RUNOUT
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Total Runout - Axial
The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart
and perpendicular to the datum.
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Checking Axial Runout
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CIRCULAR RUNOUT
The tolerance zone is limited by two
coaxial cylinders with a difference in
radii of t, the axes of which coincide
with the datum.
Control affecting the form, orientation, and location of all surface
elements of a diameter (or surface) relative to a datum A composite axis.

Total Run-out Tolerance -- Radial
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CIRCULAR RUNOUT
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Coaxial Features
175
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Co-axiality Control
176 176
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Functional Gauge
177
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Symmetrical Tolerancing
178
Symmetry
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179 179
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Position Tolerance for Symmetry
180
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If you have any queries please contact:


A Raghunath

Aditi Consultancy Services

Email: training@aditiconsultancy.com

Tel / Fax: 91 80 26580711; Mobile: 9449612671


http://www.aditiconsultancy.com