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#2, ANANDA, 19
th
Cross, 24
th
Main
J P Nagar 5
th
Phase, Bangalore-560078
Phone/Fax: 080-26580711; Mobile: 9449612671
2
Type of
Tolerance
Characteristic Symbol
Datum Required
Yes / No
Applicable to Axis
Yes / No
Form
Profile
Orientation
Location
Runout
Exercise
Complete the following table:
3
Type of
Tolerance
Characteristic Symbol
Datum Required
Yes / No
Applicable to Axis
Yes / No
Form
Straightness No Yes
Flatness No No
Circularity No No
Cylindricity No No
Profile
Profile of a Line Yes / No No
Profile of a surface Yes / No No
Orientation
Angularity Yes Yes
Parallelism Yes Yes
Perpendicularity Yes Yes
Location
Position Yes Yes
Concentricity Yes Yes
Symmetry Yes Yes
Runout
Circular Runout Yes No
Total Runout Yes No
Exercise
Complete the following table:
Mistakes in the drawing
Correct drawing
6
I
Dimensioning of a Shaft

RULE 1 (Limits of Size Rule):
Where only a size dimension is given
a) The size dimensions at any cross section must be
within the size tolerance.
b) The surface(s) shall not extend beyond the perfect
form defined by the MMC Size.
c) The form may vary within an envelope between the
MMC and LMC.
Geometric Tolerance Rule
7
Straightness of Surface
Form variation
Form variation
15.89
16.00
8
9
Limits of Size Rule
10
Limits of Size Rule
11
Straightness of Surface
Difference between
axis and surface straightness

The axis is straight, surface elements bent (barrel shaped)
The axis is straight, surface elements bent (hourglass shaped)
Both axis and surface elements are bent(bowed)
12
Geometric Tolerance Rule

RULE 2
Geometric tolerances for a feature of size are
understood to be applied regardless of feature
size (RFS).

If MMC or LMC is required, it must be placed in
the feature control frame.
13
Straightness of Axis at RFS
14
15
20.008
20.003
Precision Cylindrical Fit
(Minimum diameter of hole)
(Maximum diameter of pin)
Should be less than 20.008
16
RFS V/s MMC Modifier
17
Straightness of Axis at RFS
18
Straightness of Axis at MMC
Straightness of Axis at MMC
H
S
B
Minimum Hole Size = Shaft Size + Bend in Axis of the Shaft
i.e. H = S + B
19
Straightness of Axis at MMC
H
S
B
Since minimum size of the hole remains the
same, if the shaft size is smaller it can bend
more and still assemble
20
21
Straightness of Axis at MMC
Straightness of Axis at MMC
H
S
B
Maximum Shaft Size = Hole Size - Bend in Axis of the Hole
i.e. S = H - B
22
Straightness of Axis at MMC
H
S
B
Since maximum size of the shaft remains the same, if the
hole size is bigger it can bend more and still assemble
23
Straightness of Axis at MMC
24
MMC Virtual Condition
Virtual condition is the collective effect of size and
geometric tolerances that must be considered in
determining the fit or clearance between mating parts
or features.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
MMC size + Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
MMC size Geometrical Tolerance
A virtual condition will exist only for tolerances that control
size features.
25
26
Straightness of Median Plane on RFS Basis
27
Straightness of Median Plane on MMC Basis
28
Straightness per unit length
with specified total straightness
29
Straightness per unit length
with specified total straightness
30
LMC Principle
31
Actual Minimum Material Envelope
32
LMC Virtual Condition
LMC Virtual condition is the collective effect of LMC size
limit and geometric tolerances. It assures a protected core
of part material within a pin, boss or tab or a protected
case of part material around a hole or slot.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
LMC size limit Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
LMC size limit + Geometrical Tolerance

FLATNESS
33
34
FLATNESS
Tolerance zone is limited by two parallel
planes a distance t apart
FLATNESS OF SHEET METAL
35
FLATNESS
36
FLATNESS AT MMC
37
FLATNESS AT MMC
Functional Gauge
38
UNIT FLATNESS AT MMC
Functional Gauge
39
flatness error of the surface
Flatness Measurement
40
Flatness Measurement
41
Flatness Measurement
42
43
COORDINATE V/s ROUND TOLERANCE ZONE

20.40
20.28

20.40
20.28
44
Round Tolerance Zone
45
Position Tolerance of a Hole at MMC
46
Functional Gauge for Inspection
Part must slide over 13.88 gauge pin.
Must lie flat on base of gage (Datum A).
Touch Datum B along its length and simultaneously touch Datum C
47
Exercise
Complete the drawings of the following 2 parts for interchangeable assembly.
MMC Virtual Condition
Virtual condition is the collective effect of size and
geometric tolerances that must be considered in
determining the fit or clearance between mating parts
or features.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
MMC size + Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
MMC size Geometrical Tolerance
A virtual condition will exist only for tolerances that control
size features.
48
49
Exercise
Using positional tolerance improve the design of the following part
50

Datum Reference Frame
Free Movement
Restricted Movement
51 51
Datum Referencing
52 52
Datum Referencing
53 53
Datum Referencing
Position Tolerance of a Hole
Defines a zone in which the center axis or center plane is permitted to
vary from true (theoretically exact) position.
54
Hole axes in relation to Positional Tolerancing
55
Design a rectangular part that sits on surface A and three
matching holes in it engage with the projecting cylindrical pins
A
X
56
Dimensions (Without Datums)
150.1
30
a=150.1 b=150.1 c=150.1
30
57
58
Dimensions (With Datums)
15
30
O 0.2 A
3X
59
Exercise
Number of similar parts shown below are stacked one above the other and
fastened using bolts passing through 4 holes. Central hole is used for locating
and slot is used for aligning them.
Complete the engineering drawing by adding the necessary datum and
geometrical tolerances.
60
Position Tolerance
61
Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
62
Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
63
Restrained Features
64
Inclined Datum Feature
65
Inclined Datum Feature
66
LMC Virtual Condition
LMC Virtual condition is the collective effect of LMC size
limit and geometric tolerances. It assures a protected core
of part material within a pin, boss or tab or a protected
case of part material around a hole or slot.

To calculate virtual condition:
External features:
LMC size limit Geometrical Tolerance
Internal features:
LMC size limit + Geometrical Tolerance

Boss and Hole at LMC
67
Surface Plate, Granite Square, Straight Edge, etc.
Measuring Accessories
Measuring Accessories
Plunger Type Dial Gauges
70
Lever Type Dial Gauges
Dial Stands
72
Slip Gauges
Slip blocks are used as standards for precision length measurement in
the Engineering Industry.
73
Slip Blocks
Care of Block Gauges
When not used, Slips should be kept in their Case.
Avoid Excessive Handling - Dont touch lapped faces.
Wipe slips clean before and after they are used.
Use soft linen or cambric cloth to clean slips.
Least Expensive

Most Expensive
74
Wringing of Slip Gauges
75
Plug Gauges
A Plug Gauge is an precision-sized gauge which is used for size control
of internal diameters/holes.
Go No-Go gauges are double ended. If the Go end is sized to 20mm,
the No-Go end is slightly bigger, i.e. 20.020mm. If the Go end fits in the
machined hole and the No-Go end doesnt then the hole is the an
acceptable size.
The tolerance on the gauges can vary and each gauge is usually specific
to a particular job.
76
Ring Gauges
A Ring Gauge is a precision-sized gauge used for size control of external
diameters/bars.
It can be fitted over a bar end and moved along the length to test for
roundness and accuracy of diameter.
77
78

Screw Pitch Gauges
A screw pitch gauge has a set of teeth which are of a known thread
form. The gauge is used to determine the pitch of a thread on a bolt or
screw of any diameter.
79
Feeler
Gauges
Feeler Gauges
Feeler Gauges are manufactured from accurately rolled shims and are
used to measure gap sizes from 0.05mm up to about 1.25mm (0.002 to
0.050 inches). The numbers are marked on the gauge to give the
thickness and thus the gap width.
80
Gauges
Radius gauges are usually made of tool steel and cut with an inside and
outside radius of a stated size. The gauges are grouped with other sizes
to make a set.
An accurately machined component can be easily compared with the
81
Sine Plate
82
Sine Bar
83
Sine Bar
84
Angle Gauges
85
Angle Gauges
86
Angle Gauges
87
Profile Projector
88
Electronic Height Gauge
89
Electronic Height Gauge
90
91
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
92
CMM PROBES
93
CMM
Scanning
94
95
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
Cantilever Type CMM Bridge Type CMM
96
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
High Precision and Multi Sensor
CMM
Gantry Type CMM
97
Portable CMM
98
LASER scanner with an articulated arm
99
Table Rotation
Precision Form Tester
COLUMN
SPINDLE AND
GAUGE
Spindle Rotation
SURFACE FINISH & FORM MEASURING MACHINE
101
3D Measurement
102
103
Position all 5 the Holes relative to the two Centre Planes and the Bottom
Surface of the part
Exercise
104
Positional Tolerancing relative to Datum Feature Centre Planes
105
Multiple Pattern of Features
106
Tolerance Zones for Patterns
107
PLTZF & FRTZF
PLTZF
FRTZF
108
Composite Position Tolerancing
109
Composite Position Tolerancing
One possible relationship between the PLTZF and FRTZF
110
Composite Position Tolerancing
111
One possible relationship between the PLTZF and FRTZF
Composite Position Tolerancing
112
Composite Position Tolerancing
113
Composite Position Tolerancing
(Circular Pattern of Features)
114
AME of 50
+0.25
0
Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
115
Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
116
Functional Gage with Datum at RFS
117
Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
50.25
118
Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
119
Functional Gage with Datum at MMC
120
Functional Gauge with Datum at MMC
121
Bi Directional Position Tolerancing
122
Bi Directional Position Tolerancing
123
Projected Tolerance Zone
124
Projected Tolerance Zone
Fastener and Hole
125
When the projected tolerance zone symbol is shown, it means that the
stated tolerance zone is extended beyond the surface of the part, not
within the part.
Projected Tolerance Zone
126
Gauge for Projected Tolerance Zone
Profile of a Surface
Profile of surface is a tolerance zone, three-dimensionally extending
along the length and width of the considered feature or features.

Tolerance zone for the part
129
Profile of a Surface (In Between)
Profile of surface is a tolerance zone, three-dimensionally extending along the length
and width of the considered feature or features.

130
Tolerance zone for the part
131
Profile of a Surface with Datums
Profile of a Surface with Datums
Profile of a Line
A geometric tolerance that limits the amount of error for line
elements relative to their true profile
Profile tolerances are often used to control irregular shapes. e.g. contours.
Profile of a Line
Profile of a Line (In Between)
Profile of a line between two points of the considered feature.

Profile of a Line (In Between)
Profile of a Line with Datums
Profile of a Line with Datums
Profile of a Line
Tolerance zone for the part
Unilateral: all outward
from the basic profile.
Unilateral: all inward from the basic profile.
141
Checking Profile using Template
142
Profile Tolerance Zone
ASME
For profile of a surface or line, the tolerance value represents the
distance between two boundaries equally or unequally disposed about
the true profile or entirely disposed on one side of the profile
143
Profile Unilaterally Disposed
144
Profile of a surface All around
145
Profile All-Around Application
146
Profile of a surface All Over
147
Profile of a surface All Over
148
Profile of a Surface
149
Profile of a Surface
150
Profile of a Surface
151
Profile of a Surface (All Around)
152
Composite Profile of a Surface
153
Profile - Multiple or Co-Planar Surfaces
154
Tangent Plane
A plane contacting the high points of the surface
shall lie within two parallel planes 0.1 apart
155
Tangent Plane
0.01
156
Tangent Plane
157
Angularity
158
Angularity
159
Concentricity
The condition where the median points of all diametrically
opposed elements of a cylinder (or a surface of revolution)
are congruent with the axis of a datum feature.

Concentricity
Circular tolerance
zone of 0.1 mm
diameter
Median points should
fall with in the
tolerance zone
Concentricity
Circular tolerance
zone of 0.1 mm
diameter
Median points should
fall with in the
tolerance zone
162
Concentricity
163
Concentricity Between Features
CIRCULAR RUNOUT
A composite control that affects the form, orientation, and location
of circular elements of a part feature relative to a datum axis.
Run-out
A
datum axis A
Full Indicator Movement (FIM)
should be less than .002
Datum axis A
Circular Runout
Circular Runout - Axial
The tolerance zone is limited to any radial position by two circles with a
distance t apart lying in a cylindrical section, the axis of which coincides
with the datum.
Total Runout - Axial
The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart
and perpendicular to the datum.
Checking Axial Runout
CIRCULAR RUNOUT
The tolerance zone is limited by two
coaxial cylinders with a difference in
radii of t, the axes of which coincide
with the datum.
Control affecting the form, orientation, and location of all surface
elements of a diameter (or surface) relative to a datum A composite axis.

CIRCULAR RUNOUT
174
Coaxial Features
175
Co-axiality Control
176 176
Functional Gauge
177
Symmetrical Tolerancing
178
Symmetry
179 179
Position Tolerance for Symmetry
180

A Raghunath

Tel / Fax: 91 80 26580711; Mobile: 9449612671

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