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Evangeline C. Amor

Associate Professor Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 ecamor@up.edu.ph

Science, Technology and Society LectureAmor Associate Professor Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 ecamor@up.edu.ph

University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 ecamor@up.edu.ph Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 8000 BC (Prehistoric medicine)

History of Medicine • 8000 BC (Prehistoric medicine) Trepanning: an ancient human skull viewed from above.

Trepanning: an ancient human skull viewed from above.

Science, Technology and Society LectureHistory of Medicine • 8000 BC (Prehistoric medicine) Trepanning: an ancient human skull viewed from above.

BC (Prehistoric medicine) Trepanning: an ancient human skull viewed from above. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 2000 BC (Egyptian medicine)

History of Medicine • 2000 BC (Egyptian medicine) Medical papyrus. Egyptian heiroglyphs, like this one, show

Medical papyrus.

of Medicine • 2000 BC (Egyptian medicine) Medical papyrus. Egyptian heiroglyphs, like this one, show medical

Egyptian heiroglyphs, like this one, show medical procedures.

Science, Technology and Society Lectureof Medicine • 2000 BC (Egyptian medicine) Medical papyrus. Egyptian heiroglyphs, like this one, show medical

Medical papyrus. Egyptian heiroglyphs, like this one, show medical procedures. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 450 BC – 300 AD (Greeks and Romans)

Blood gave a person a lively personality and lots of energy. They would enjoy life and the arts. Phlegm made a person feel lethargic or have a dull personality. Black bile caused depression and sadness. Yellow bile influenced a person's temperament. It caused anger and a fiery temper.

bile influenced a person's temperament. It caused anger and a fiery temper. Science, Technology and Society

Science, Technology and Society Lecturecaused depression and sadness. Yellow bile influenced a person's temperament. It caused anger and a fiery

bile influenced a person's temperament. It caused anger and a fiery temper. Science, Technology and Society

Imagine that you are a Greek doctor. For each of these people, decide which of the humours are not in balance.

a. Suffering from depression

b. Really tired and slow all the time

c. Disruptive and always getting into fights

Science, Technology and Society Lecturebalance. a. Suffering from depression b. Really tired and slow all the time c. Disruptive and

b. Really tired and slow all the time c. Disruptive and always getting into fights Science,

History of Medicine

• 450 BC – 300 AD (Greeks and Romans)

History of Medicine • 450 BC – 300 AD (Greeks and Romans) Galen. One of the

Galen. One of the first physicians to use dissections to understand how the body works.

Science, Technology and Society LectureBC – 300 AD (Greeks and Romans) Galen. One of the first physicians to use dissections

One of the first physicians to use dissections to understand how the body works. Science, Technology
 

History of Medicine

500 – 1400 AD (The Middle Ages)

History of Medicine • 500 – 1400 AD (The Middle Ages)   Science, Technology and Society
History of Medicine • 500 – 1400 AD (The Middle Ages)   Science, Technology and Society
History of Medicine • 500 – 1400 AD (The Middle Ages)   Science, Technology and Society
 
Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society Lecture

  Science, Technology and Society Lecture
 

History of Medicine

700 – 1500 AD (Arabic Medicines)

Lecture   History of Medicine • 700 – 1500 AD (Arabic Medicines) Science, Technology and Society
Lecture   History of Medicine • 700 – 1500 AD (Arabic Medicines) Science, Technology and Society
Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 1400 – 1700 AD (The Renaissance)

History of Medicine • 1400 – 1700 AD (The Renaissance) Science, Technology and Society Lecture
History of Medicine • 1400 – 1700 AD (The Renaissance) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society LectureHistory of Medicine • 1400 – 1700 AD (The Renaissance)

History of Medicine • 1400 – 1700 AD (The Renaissance) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 1700 – 1900 AD (18 th and 19 th century)

History of Medicine • 1700 – 1900 AD (18 t h and 19 t h century)
History of Medicine • 1700 – 1900 AD (18 t h and 19 t h century)
History of Medicine • 1700 – 1900 AD (18 t h and 19 t h century)

Science, Technology and Society LectureHistory of Medicine • 1700 – 1900 AD (18 t h and 19 t h century)

History of Medicine • 1700 – 1900 AD (18 t h and 19 t h century)

History of Medicine

• 1900 – 2000 AD (The 20 th century)

History of Medicine • 1900 – 2000 AD (The 20 t h century) Science, Technology and
History of Medicine • 1900 – 2000 AD (The 20 t h century) Science, Technology and

Science, Technology and Society LectureHistory of Medicine • 1900 – 2000 AD (The 20 t h century)

History of Medicine • 1900 – 2000 AD (The 20 t h century) Science, Technology and
R A P I S T  Science, Technology and Society Lecture
R A P I S T 
R
A
P
I
S
T

Science, Technology and Society LectureR A P I S T 

R A P I S T  Science, Technology and Society Lecture

History of Medicine

• 2000 – 2100 AD (21 st century medicine)

History of Medicine • 2000 – 2100 AD (21 s t century medicine) Science, Technology and

Science, Technology and Society LectureHistory of Medicine • 2000 – 2100 AD (21 s t century medicine)

History of Medicine • 2000 – 2100 AD (21 s t century medicine) Science, Technology and

Cause of Death (1900)

1 – Pneumonia (all forms) and Influenza 3 – Diarrhea, enteritis & ulcer of the
1
– Pneumonia (all forms) and Influenza
3
– Diarrhea, enteritis & ulcer of the int.
5
– Intracranial lesions of vascular origin
7
– All Accidents
9
– Senility
2 – Tuberculosis (all forms)
4 – Diseases of the Heart
6 – Nephritis
8 – Cancer and tumors
10 - Diphtheria

Science, Technology and Society Lecture2 – Tuberculosis (all forms) 4 – Diseases of the Heart 6 – Nephritis 8 –

Diseases of the Heart 6 – Nephritis 8 – Cancer and tumors 10 - Diphtheria Science,

Cause of Death (1992)

Cause of Death (1992) 1 – Diseases of the heart 2 – Cancer and other malignant

1

– Diseases of the heart

2 – Cancer and other malignant tumors

3

– Stroke

4 – Chronic obstructive lung diseases

5

– All accidents

6 – Pneumonia (all forms)

7

– Diabetes Mellitus

8 – HIV infections including AIDS

9

– Suicide

10 – Homicide (and legal intervention)

Science, Technology and Society LectureDiabetes Mellitus 8 – HIV infections including AIDS 9 – Suicide 10 – Homicide (and legal

including AIDS 9 – Suicide 10 – Homicide (and legal intervention) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Some questions….

• Are all medicines drugs and vice versa?

– Medicines are agents that is used to treat disease or injury

– Drugs are substances used in the treatment or prevention of disease or as a component of medication

• How is the safety of a medicine/drug determined?

Science, Technology and Society Lecturetreatment or prevention of disease or as a component of medication • How is the safety

as a component of medication • How is the safety of a medicine/drug determined? Science, Technology

Clinical trials

• "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality."

• "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease."

• "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones."

• "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them."

• "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused."

• "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect."

• "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man."

Science, Technology and Society Lecturedone with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might

a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on

Folk Medicine = Alternative Medicine

• Every approach to healing that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine

• Unconventional, unorthodox, unproven,

Science, Technology and Society Lectureapproach to healing that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine • Unconventional, unorthodox,

the realm of conventional medicine • Unconventional, unorthodox, unproven, Science, Technology and Society Lecture

5 Domains from NCCAM

Alternative

Ayurveda, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal, African, Middle Eastern, Tibetan, Central and South American cultures, Homeopathy, Naturopathy

Medical

Systems

Mind-Body

cognitive-behavioral approaches, meditation, hypnosis, dance, music, art therapy, prayer, mental healing

 

Interventions

Biological

dietary supplements, herbs, orthomolecular (varying concentrations of chemicals, such as, magnesium, melatonin, and mega-doses of vitamins), individual biological therapies (use of laetrile, shark cartilage, bee pollen).

Based

Therapies

Manipulative

chiropractic, osteopathic, manipulation, massage

And Body-

Based Methods

Energy Therapies

Qi gong, Reiki, therapeutic touch, bioelectromagnetic-based therapies (pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating current or direct current fields)

Science, Technology and Society Lecturebioelectromagnetic-based therapies (pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating current or direct current fields)

(pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating current or direct current fields) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Types of CAM

Acupuncture

Imagery

Aromatherapy

Magnets

Biofeedback

Massage

Chiropractic

Prayer

Diets

Reflexology

Exercise

Relaxation

Folk remedies

Self-help/support groups

Herbal/botanical therapy

Spiritual healing (by others)

Homeopathy

Vitamins

Hypnosis

Yoga

Science, Technology and Society Lecturegroups Herbal/botanical therapy Spiritual healing (by others) Homeopathy Vitamins Hypnosis Yoga

Spiritual healing (by others) Homeopathy Vitamins Hypnosis Yoga Science, Technology and Society Lecture
Who uses CAM?
Who uses CAM?

Science, Technology and Society LectureWho uses CAM?

Who uses CAM? Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Why are people using CAM? (Stephen Strauss)

PUSH

Dissatisfaction with health care providers and medical outcomes

Side effects of drugs and treatments

High health costs

Technology

Lack of control in their own health care practices

Time spent with practitioner

Science, Technology and Society Lecturehealth costs – Technology – Lack of control in their own health care practices – Time

of control in their own health care practices – Time spent with practitioner Science, Technology and

PULL Factors

Looking for “cures”

Want to use “natural” products

Patient feels empowered

Focus on spirituality and emotional well- being

Health Care Provider provides the 3 T’s (Dr. Strauss): touch, talk, time

Science, Technology and Society Lectureon spirituality and emotional well- being • Health Care Provider provides the 3 T’s (Dr. Strauss):

• Health Care Provider provides the 3 T’s (Dr. Strauss): touch, talk, time Science, Technology and

The Case For Herbal Medicine

• Tradition: used throughout history

• Natural: perceived as gentler and safer

• Cost: often less expensive than prescription medicine

• Access: patient maintains control & no prescription necessary

• Synergism: a view that multiple ingredients working together yield better results

Science, Technology and Society Lecture& no prescription necessary • Synergism: a view that multiple ingredients working together yield better results

Synergism: a view that multiple ingredients working together yield better results Science, Technology and Society Lecture

The Case Against Herbal Medicine

• Lack of Regulation and Oversight

– Lack of Dosage Standardization

– Potential for adulteration

• Potential for toxicity and drug interactions:

natural is not always safer

• More effective therapy may be delayed

• Many herbs are not superior to prescription medicines

Science, Technology and Society Lectureis not always safer • More effective therapy may be delayed • Many herbs are not

therapy may be delayed • Many herbs are not superior to prescription medicines Science, Technology and

Regulatory Issues

• Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994

– Herbal products are legally food supplements

– Manufacturer may state usage and safety, but not make curative claims

– Manufacturer alone is responsible for product safety

– FDA must prove product unsafe to remove it from the market

• Europe: Herbs regulated as pharmaceuticals

Science, Technology and Society Lecturesafety – FDA must prove product unsafe to remove it from the market • Europe: Herbs

unsafe to remove it from the market • Europe: Herbs regulated as pharmaceuticals Science, Technology and

Herbal medicine in the Philippines

• Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997

• Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) under the DOH

• National Integrated Research Program on Medicinal Plants (NIRPROMP) funded by DOST

• Bureau of Food and Drug (BFAD)

Science, Technology and Society Lecture• National Integrated Research Program on Medicinal Plants (NIRPROMP) funded by DOST • Bureau of Food

on Medicinal Plants (NIRPROMP) funded by DOST • Bureau of Food and Drug (BFAD) Science, Technology
Pharmacology Agriculture Pharmacy (bioassay, (raw material) (formulation) toxicity, mutagenicity) Clinical Trials
Pharmacology
Agriculture
Pharmacy
(bioassay,
(raw material)
(formulation)
toxicity,
mutagenicity)
Clinical Trials
Technology Transfer
(Herbal Drug)
Science, Technology and Society Lecture

• 1996: Herbal products lagundi (Ascof TM ) and sambong (Re-leaf TM ) were introduced to the market by Pascual Laboratories.

(Re-leaf T M ) were introduced to the market by Pascual Laboratories. Science, Technology and Society
(Re-leaf T M ) were introduced to the market by Pascual Laboratories. Science, Technology and Society

Science, Technology and Society Lecturelagundi (Ascof T M ) and sambong (Re-leaf T M ) were introduced to the market

(Re-leaf T M ) were introduced to the market by Pascual Laboratories. Science, Technology and Society
Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society Lecture(Re-leaf T M ) were introduced to the market by Pascual Laboratories. Science, Technology and Society

Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Medicinal Chemistry Research

Plant, Marine, Microbial Origin

Extraction

Fractionation

Isolation

Bioassays

Structure Elucidation

Further Studies

 Isolation  Bioassays  Structure Elucidation  Further Studies Science, Technology and Society Lecture
 Isolation  Bioassays  Structure Elucidation  Further Studies Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society LectureOrigin  Extraction  Fractionation  Isolation  Bioassays  Structure Elucidation  Further Studies

 Isolation  Bioassays  Structure Elucidation  Further Studies Science, Technology and Society Lecture

What plant to study?

Ethnobotanical

Phytochemical

Taxonomic

Random

plant to study?  Ethnobotanical  Phytochemical  Taxonomic  Random Science, Technology and Society Lecture
plant to study?  Ethnobotanical  Phytochemical  Taxonomic  Random Science, Technology and Society Lecture
plant to study?  Ethnobotanical  Phytochemical  Taxonomic  Random Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society LectureWhat plant to study?  Ethnobotanical  Phytochemical  Taxonomic  Random

plant to study?  Ethnobotanical  Phytochemical  Taxonomic  Random Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Where and what to sample?

Accessibility and availability Plant part – root, flower, leaves, stem, bark, fruit

and availability  Plant part – root, flower, leaves, stem, bark, fruit Science, Technology and Society

Science, Technology and Society LectureWhere and what to sample?  Accessibility and availability  Plant part – root, flower, leaves,

and availability  Plant part – root, flower, leaves, stem, bark, fruit Science, Technology and Society

Where and what to sample?

Choose healthy samples – microbial and other infections may change the metabolites produced by the specimen.

and other infections may change the metabolites produced by the specimen. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society Lecture Choose healthy samples – microbial and other infections may change the metabolites produced by the

and other infections may change the metabolites produced by the specimen. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Where and what to sample?

Variations in collection site (altitude, plant age, climate soil type) – may change the concentration levels of secondary metabolites and even the kinds of compounds synthesized.

Science, Technology and Society Lecturesoil type) – may change the concentration levels of secondary metabolites and even the kinds of

levels of secondary metabolites and even the kinds of compounds synthesized. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Where and what to sample?

EO 247 (18 May 1995) : Proper compensation of indigenous people

Prior informed consent Research agreement with the Philippine government (Academic or Commercial)

Science, Technology and Society Lecturepeople  Prior informed consent  Research agreement with the Philippine government (Academic or Commercial)

 Research agreement with the Philippine government (Academic or Commercial) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Identification and Authentication of the sample

Deposit voucher specimen to a herbarium (place, altitude, environment, characteristics, etc.)

specimen to a herbarium (place, altitude, environment, characteristics, etc.) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Science, Technology and Society LectureAuthentication of the sample Deposit voucher specimen to a herbarium (place, altitude, environment, characteristics, etc.)

specimen to a herbarium (place, altitude, environment, characteristics, etc.) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Validation

(Bioassay)

Science, Technology and Society LectureValidation (Bioassay)

Validation (Bioassay) Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Test

ICR strain, 14 – 18 g

Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Test ICR strain, 14 – 18 g % reduction in squirms no.
Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Test ICR strain, 14 – 18 g % reduction in squirms no.

% reduction in squirms

no. of squirms for (acetic acid + solvent control) - no. of squirms for (acetic acid + test sample)

no. of squirms for (acetic acid + solvent control)

X 100

no. of squirms for (acetic acid + solvent control) X 100 after 5 min count squirms

after 5 min

count squirms for 15 min

after 30 min

X 100 after 5 min count squirms for 15 min after 30 min Oral gavage of

Oral gavage of sample

i.p administration of 0.7% acetic acid

Guevara B.Q. and B.V. Recto. 1985. Phytochemical, Microbiological, and Pharmacological Screening of Medicinal Plants. UST, Manila.

Science, Technology and Society Lectureand B.V. Recto. 1985. Phytochemical, Microbiological, and Pharmacological Screening of Medicinal Plants . UST, Manila.

Microbiological, and Pharmacological Screening of Medicinal Plants . UST, Manila. Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Cayenne (Capsicum annuum)

• Active component is capsaicin, which when

applied to the skin acts as

a

local analgesic because

it

desensitizes nerve

endings

• Believed to stimulate production of Substance P

endings • Believed to stimulate production of Substance P http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com Science, Technology and

http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

Science, Technology and Society Lectureit desensitizes nerve endings • Believed to stimulate production of Substance P http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

Believed to stimulate production of Substance P http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Herbal Remedies for Pain http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com • Echinacea ( angustifolia/purpurea ) • Caffeic acid

http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

Echinacea (angustifolia/purpurea)

• Caffeic acid derivatives, polyacetylenes, alkylamides polysaccharides essential oils, flavonoids, and glycoproteins.

• Stimulate immune response and reduce inflammation

Science, Technology and Society Lecturepolysaccharides essential oils, flavonoids, and glycoproteins. • Stimulate immune response and reduce inflammation

and glycoproteins. • Stimulate immune response and reduce inflammation Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Kava (Piper methysticum)

• Analgesic, sedative and euphoriant

• Long term use associated with liver and skin damage

http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

with liver and skin damage http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com http://www.kava.co.uk Science, Technology and Society Lecture

http://www.kava.co.uk

Science, Technology and Society Lectureeuphoriant • Long term use associated with liver and skin damage http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com http://www.kava.co.uk

with liver and skin damage http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com http://www.kava.co.uk Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Herbal Remedies for Pain • Turmeric (C urcuma longa ) • High in antioxidants, has anticancer

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

• High in antioxidants, has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties

• Long term use cause stomach distress

http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

Science, Technology and Society Lecturehas anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties • Long term use cause stomach distress http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com

• Long term use cause stomach distress http://www.herbalremediesinfo.com Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Kataka-taka leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.)

• Used for toothache

http://www.livinginthephilippines.com/

herbalmedicine/herbal_remedies.html

herbalmedicine/herbal_remedies.html

http://www.filipinoherbshealingwonders.filipinovegetarianrecipe.com/

herbs_pics/katakataka.jpg

Science, Technology and Society Lecturehttp://www.filipinoherbshealingwonders.filipinovegetarianrecipe.com/ herbs_pics/katakataka.jpg

herbs_pics/katakataka.jpg Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Pain

Herbal Remedies for Pain • Yerba buena leaves (Mentha cordifolia) • Used for headache, tootache and

Yerba buena leaves (Mentha cordifolia)

• Used for headache, tootache and arthritic pains

• Tablet, capsule, tea- form

http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph/prosea/proseaherbal/yerba_buena_doc.htm

Science, Technology and Society Lectureand arthritic pains • Tablet, capsule, tea- form http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph/prosea/proseaherbal/yerba_buena_doc.htm

tea- form http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph/prosea/proseaherbal/yerba_buena_doc.htm Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Hypoglycemic Assay (post-prandial)

Hypoglycemic Assay (post-prandial) Measure BGL (tail venipuncture method) Feed 40% glucose Test Groups: - Glucose control
Hypoglycemic Assay (post-prandial) Measure BGL (tail venipuncture method) Feed 40% glucose Test Groups: - Glucose control

Measure BGL (tail venipuncture method)

Assay (post-prandial) Measure BGL (tail venipuncture method) Feed 40% glucose Test Groups: - Glucose control group

Feed

40% glucose

Test Groups:

- Glucose control group

- Positive control group (euglocon)

- Negative control group (solvent)

- Plant extracts (methanol)

Negative control group (solvent) - Plant extracts (methanol) Measure BGL (after 15 min) Feed sample Measure

Measure BGL (after 15 min) Feed sample

Measure BGL (15-min interval)

(methanol) Measure BGL (after 15 min) Feed sample Measure BGL (15-min interval) Science, Technology and Society

Science, Technology and Society Lecturecontrol group (solvent) - Plant extracts (methanol) Measure BGL (after 15 min) Feed sample Measure BGL

(methanol) Measure BGL (after 15 min) Feed sample Measure BGL (15-min interval) Science, Technology and Society
Infant Mortality: Ten (10) Leading Causes Number & Rate/1000 Livebirths & Percentage Distribution Philippines,
Infant Mortality: Ten (10) Leading Causes
Number & Rate/1000 Livebirths & Percentage Distribution
Philippines, 2003
Diarrhea statistics
Number
Rate
Percent
Cause
1. Other perinatal conditions
9,695
5.8
42.4
2. Pneumonia
2,314
1.4
10.1
3. Bacterial sepsis of newborn
1,439
0.9
6.3
4. Congenital malformation of the
1,127
0.7
4.9
heart
5. Diarrhea and gastroenteritis of
984
0.6
4.3
presumed infectious origin
6. Congenital Pneumonia
783
0.5
3.4
Image courtesy of www.sandylevel.org/
/
img_photos_sept_02/
7. Other congenital malformation
550
0.3
2.0
8. Respiratory distress of newborn
462
0.3
2.0
9. Neonatal aspiration syndromes
440
0.3
1.9
Source: The 2003 Philippine Health Statistics
10. Disorders related to short
gestation and low birth weight
* percent share from total infant deaths, all causes, Philippines
433
0.3
1.9
Last Update: January 11, 2007 www.doh.gov.ph
MORBIDITY Source: 2003 FHSIS Annual Report **rate/100,000 of sex-specific pop. TEN LEADING CAUSES OF MORBIDITY
MORBIDITY
Source: 2003 FHSIS Annual Report
**rate/100,000 of sex-specific pop.
TEN LEADING CAUSES OF MORBIDITY
No. & Rate/100,000 Population
PHILIPPINES, 2003
* Total population of regions with reports only
Last Update: January 11, 2007 (www.doh.gov.ph)
MALE
FEMALE
BOTH SEXES
CAUSE
Rate**
Rate**
Number
Rate*
1. Acute Lower RTI and Pneumonia
770.9
748.2
674,386
861.2
2. Diarrheas
695.0
655.0
615,692
786.2
3. Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis
639.6
677.0
604,107
771.4
4. Influenza
455.4
503.1
431,216
550.6
5. Hypertension
325.4
420.7
325,390
415.5
6. TB Respiratory
126.4
84.0
92,079
117.9
7. Heart Diseases
28.8
29.2
30,398
38.8
8. Malaria
41.1
30.4
28,549
36.5
9. Chickenpox
30.3
30.4
26,137
33.4
10. Measles
30.2
30.4
25,535
32.6

Science, Technology and Society Lecture38.8 8. Malaria 41.1 30.4 28,549 36.5 9. Chickenpox 30.3 30.4 26,137 33.4 10. Measles 30.2

9. Chickenpox 30.3 30.4 26,137 33.4 10. Measles 30.2 30.4 25,535 32.6 Science, Technology and Society

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Cymbopogon nardus

• Anti-inflammatory, analgesic.

• Used for treatment of headache, stomach ache, diarrhea, rheumatism. irregular menses, post partum edema.

• Main source of citronella oil.

post partum edema. • Main source of citronella oil. http://www.rimbundahan.org Science, Technology and Society

http://www.rimbundahan.org

Science, Technology and Society Lecture, rheumatism. irregular menses, post partum edema. • Main source of citronella oil. http://www.rimbundahan.org

post partum edema. • Main source of citronella oil. http://www.rimbundahan.org Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea http://www.rimbundahan.org • Cinnamomum verum ( cinnamon ) • Roots treat rheumatism and

http://www.rimbundahan.org

Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)

• Roots treat rheumatism and fever. Tree bark used in many medicinal powders and tinctures, tonics for diarrhea and colic.

Science, Technology and Society LectureRoots treat rheumatism and fever. Tree bark used in many medicinal powders and tinctures, tonics for

used in many medicinal powders and tinctures, tonics for diarrhea and colic. Science, Technology and Society

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Piper betel

• Leaves are eaten with gambir for treating diarrhea. Mild stimulant, applied in poultices for stomach pains, coughs and asthma. Leaf sap applied to soothe oral sores and ulcers.

asthma. Leaf sap applied to soothe oral sores and ulcers. http://www.rimbundahan.org Science, Technology and Society

http://www.rimbundahan.org

Science, Technology and Society Lecturefor stomach pains, coughs and asthma. Leaf sap applied to soothe oral sores and ulcers. http://www.rimbundahan.org

Leaf sap applied to soothe oral sores and ulcers. http://www.rimbundahan.org Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea http://www.rimbundahan.org • C urcuma longa ( Turmeric ) • One of the

http://www.rimbundahan.org

• Curcuma longa (Turmeric)

• One of the oldest spice plants known, dried rhizomes ground for curries, dyes, used to relieve flatulence and diarrhea

• High in antioxidants, has anticancer and anti- inflammatory properties Long term use cause stomach distress

Science, Technology and Society Lecturediarrhea • High in antioxidants, has anticancer and anti- inflammatory properties Long term use cause stomach

anticancer and anti- inflammatory properties Long term use cause stomach distress Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Geranium maculatum

• Common astringent, sore throat and canker sores, Anti- inflammatory, used for diarrhea, hemorrhoids, ulcers, douche, excessive menstruation.

douche, excessive m e n s t r u a t i o n . http://www.herbies-herbs.com

http://www.herbies-herbs.com

Science, Technology and Society Lecturefor diarrhea , hemorrhoids, ulcers, douche, excessive m e n s t r u a t

excessive m e n s t r u a t i o n . http://www.herbies-herbs.com Science,

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea

Herbal Remedies for Diarrhea www.cls.zju.edu.cn • Drimys piperita (sapal) • Used for symptomatic relief of diarrhea

www.cls.zju.edu.cn

Drimys piperita (sapal)

• Used for symptomatic relief of diarrhea

• 15-Nonacosanol and bis(tridecyl)phthalate as active constituents

L.P Pladio and I.M. Villaseñor. PJS 133 (1), 2004.

Science, Technology and Society Lecture• 15-Nonacosanol and bis(tridecyl)phthalate as active constituents L.P Pladio and I.M. Villaseñor. PJS 133 (1), 2004.

as active constituents L.P Pladio and I.M. Villaseñor. PJS 133 (1), 2004. Science, Technology and Society

Charcoal Tracing Method

ICR strain, 17 – 20 g

Charcoal Tracing Method ICR strain, 17 – 20 g after 1 hr Measure distance traveled by
Charcoal Tracing Method ICR strain, 17 – 20 g after 1 hr Measure distance traveled by

after 1 hr

Charcoal Tracing Method ICR strain, 17 – 20 g after 1 hr Measure distance traveled by
Charcoal Tracing Method ICR strain, 17 – 20 g after 1 hr Measure distance traveled by

Measure distance traveled by charcoal meal from pylorus to caecum

after 20 min

by charcoal meal from pylorus to caecum after 20 min Noel, M. and Villaseñor, I. Bioassay

Noel, M. and Villaseñor, I. Bioassay and Phytochemical Techniques. NRCP, 1996

Science, Technology and Society Lecturemeal from pylorus to caecum after 20 min Noel, M. and Villaseñor, I. Bioassay and Phytochemical

Noel, M. and Villaseñor, I. Bioassay and Phytochemical Techniques. NRCP, 1996 Science, Technology and Society Lecture

Oral gavage

of sample

Oral gavage of charcoal meal

Oral gavage of sample Oral gavage of charcoal meal

AArree HHeerrbbaall MMeeddiicciinneess SSaaffee??

Science, Technology and Society LectureA A r r e e H H e e r r b b a a

H H e e r r b b a a l l M M e e