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FIRST DIVISION

RHODA CASTOR-GARUPA,
herein represented by attorney-in-
a!t, "S# I"$%DA C# $%$CTONA,
Petitioner,


- versus -


$"P%O&$$S' CO"P$NSATION
CO""ISSION and
GOV$RN"$NT S$RVIC$
INSURANC$ S&ST$"
()aya*anDistri!t Hospita+,,
Respondents.
G#R# No# -./01/


Present:

PANGANIBAN, C.J.
Chairperson,
YNARES-SANTIAGO,
AUSTRIA-MARTINE,
CA!!E"O, SR. and
C#ICO-NAARIO, JJ.


Pro$%&'ated:

Apri& (), )**+
,- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,


- E C I S I O N


C#ICO-NAARIO, J.:

.or/ers, 0hose 1apa2i&ities ha3e 2een di$inished, i4 not 1o$p&ete&5
i$paired, as a 1onse6%en1e o4 their ser3i1e, o%'ht to 2e 'i3en 2ene4its the5 deser3e
%nder the &a0. Co$passion 4or the$ is not a do&e-o%t, 2%t a ri'ht.
7(8

Be4ore Us is a petition or re2ie* on certiorari 0hi1h see/s to set aside the
de1ision
7)8
o4 the Co%rt o4 Appea&s in CA-G.R. SP No. +9:++ dated (9 -e1e$2er
)**) dis$issin' petitioner Rhoda Castor-Gar%pa;s petition 4or re3ie0 and
a44ir$in' respondent E$p&o5ees; Co$pensation Co$$ission;s <ECC= de1ision in
ECC Case No. MG-((9*>-:**, and the reso&%tion
7>8
dated () Ma5 )**> den5in'
her $otion 4or re1onsideration.

The ante1edents are as 4o&&o0s:

Petitioner Rhoda Castor-Gar3pa 4oined the 5o2ern6ent ser2i!e on -
7an3ary -898 as Resident Physi!ian at the )aya*anDistri!t Hospita+ 0hi1h
has a 4i4t5-2ed 1apa1it5 &o1ated at a$ora
Street, Ba'a0an Cit5, Ne5ros Orienta+# On ( "an%ar5 -88:, she *as pro6oted to
"edi!a+ Oi!er III#
;<=

So$eti$e in (??@, petitioner started to e>perien!e hi5h b+ood press3re
and started to ta?e 6edi!ines by *ay o se+-6edi!ation *ith the he+p o her
h3sband, Dr# Patro!ino G# Gar3pa#
;.=
In De!e6ber -88/, she started to s3er
ro6 e>tre6e ati53e and +ost her appetite !a3sin5 her to +ose *ei5ht# Fearin5
that petitioner 6i5ht be s3erin5 ro6 a 6ore se2ere disease, her h3sband
bro35ht her to Ceb3 City *here she *as !onined at
the Chon5 H3a Hospita+ ro6 - to / Febr3ary -888# Petitioner *as initia++y
dia5nosed *ith Chroni! Rena+ Fai+3re se!ondary to Intrinsi! Rena+ Disease#
;1=
As a res3+t, she 3nder*ent he6odia+ysis t*i!e a *ee?#
;9=
She *as
transerred to the Nationa+ @idney and Transp+ant Instit3te (N@TI, *here she
*as !onined ro6 8 to -/ "ar!h -888# The dia5nosis *as $nd Sta5e Rena+
Disease se!ondary to Chroni! G+o6er3+onephritis# On -- "ar!h -888, she
3nder*ent a ?idney transp+ant *ith her brother as donor#
;/=

On (+ Septe$2er (???, petitioner i+ed *ith respondent Go2ern6ent
Ser2i!e Ins3ran!e Syste6 (GSIS, a !+ai6 or !o6pensation beneits
3nder Presidentia+ De!ree No# 101, as a6ended, other*ise ?no*n as the
$6p+oyees Co6pensation A!t#
;8=

In a &etter dated @ O1to2er (???, respondent GSIS denied the !+ai6 in this
*iseA

P+ease be inor6ed that the sa6e !annot be 5i2en d3e !o3rse on the
5ro3nd that Chroni! Rena+ Fai+3re and
Chroni!G+o6er3+onephritis are not a6on5 those diseases +isted 3nder
BAnne> AC o PD 101, as a6ended#

Se1tion (<2=, R%&e III o4 P- +)+, as a$ended, is e,p&i1it in its re6%ire$ents
4or 1o$pensa2i&it5, to 0it:

BFor the si!?ness and the res3+tin5 disabi+ity to be
!o6pensab+e, the si!?ness 63st be the res3+t o an
o!!3pationa+ disease +isted 3nder BAnne> AC o these
R3+es *ith the !onditions set therein satisied, other*ise,
proo 63st be sho*n that the ris? o !ontra!tin5 the
disease is in!reased by the *or?in5 !onditions#C

A st%d5 o4 Chroni1 G&o$er%&onephritis, the disease that &ed to 5o%r Chroni1
Renta& Aai&%re, re3ea&s that the disease is not a sin'&e entit5 2%t a $B&an'e
o4 di44erent diseases 0hi1h predo$inant&5 a44e1t the '&o$er%&ar t%4ts,
1a%sin' in4&a$$ator5 1han'es and s%2se6%ent s1arrin'. It a44e1ts a&& a'es
2%t is $ore 4re6%ent 2e4ore 4ort5. A44e1ts 2oth se,es 2%t $ore 1o$$on in
$en.

On&5 a 4e0 patients 'i3e a 1&ear-1%t histor5 o4 a1%te nephritis 4o&&o0in'
in4e1tion, so$e 1ases o4 1hroni1 nephritis pro2a2&5 ori'inate in
an inapparent in4e1tion 0ith strepto1o11%s 4o&&o0in' 0hi1h ede$a or
2&ood5 %rine 0as not noti1ed, it see$s &i/e&5 that $ost instan1es represent
so$e disease other than poststrepto1o11a& '&o$er%&onephritis. In other
instan1es e3iden1e 4or an in4e1tio%s ori'in is a2sent and the 2e'innin' o4
the disease 1an 2e dated on&5 25 the &ast nor$a& e,a$ination. Man5
patients pro'ress into the ter$ina& sta'e 0itho%t e3en ha3in' e,perien1ed
ede$a. An o11asiona& patient de3e&ops 1&ear-1%t
a1%te'&o$er%&onephritis 4o&&o0in' respirator5 in4e1tion, s%11eeded 25 a
Cnephroti1 sta'eD 0hi1h 5ie&ds o3er a period o4 5ears to s&o0&5 pro'ressi3e
rena& ins%44i1ien15 and $o%ntin' h5pertension, 2%t it is not %s%a& to o2ser3e
this 4%&& se6%en1e o4 e3ents in one indi3id%a&.

The e,p&osi3e 1o%rse presents 4ati'%e, ane$ia and 2reath&ess
6%i1/&5 appear, h5pertension is pro$inent e3entho%'h the heart $a5 not 2e
initia&&5 en&ar'ed, the %rine 1ontains &ar'e 6%antities o4 proteins and red
2&ood 1e&&s and $a5 2e 'ross&5 2&ood5.

In the s&o0&5 pro'ressi3e 1o%rse, a2nor$a& %rinar5 4indin's $a5 2e
dete1ted in a 1o$p&ete&5 as5$pto$ati1 patient in the 1o%rse o4 a ro%tine
ph5si1a& e,a$ination.

In 3ie0 o4 the 4ore'oin', 0e re'ret to den5 this 1&ai$ 4or 2ene4its
%nder P- +)+, as a$ended. Criteria 4or 1o$pensa2i&it5 %nder said &a0 has
not 2een satis4ied.
7(*8


Petitioner i+ed a +etter or re!onsideration
;--=
b3t respondent GSIS
treated the sa6e as an appea+ and or*arded the re!ords o the !ase to
respondent $CC#
;-0=

The appea& 0as do1/eted as ECC Case No. MG-((9*>-:**. In its de!ision
dated 1 Apri+ 0::-, respondent $CC air6ed respondent GSIS's indin5 o
non-!o6pensabi+ity o petitioner's disease and denied the appea+ed !+ai6# It
stated:

The &a0, as it no0 stands re6%ires the 1&ai$ant to pro3e a positi3e thin' -
that the i&&ness 0as 1a%sed 25 e$p&o5$ent and that the ris/ o4 1ontra1tin' the
disease is in1reased 25 the 0or/in' 1onditions. To sa5 that sin1e the proo4 is not
a3ai&a2&e, there4ore, the tr%st 4%nd has the o2&i'ation to pa5 is 1ontrar5 to the &e'a&
re6%ire$ent that proo4 $%st 2e add%1ed. The e,isten1e o4 other0ise non-e,istent
proo4 1annot 2e pres%$ed.

G&o$er%&onephritis is not an o11%pationa& disease 1onsiderin' her
e$p&o5$ent as a Resident Ph5si1ian. She 63st, thereore, pro2e that her
ai+6ent *as !a3sed by her e6p+oy6ent or that her *or?in5 !onditions
in!reased the ris? o !ontra!tin5 her ai+6ent#

Medi1a& &iterat%re des1ri2es the nat%re o4 G&o$er%&onephritis as 4o&&o0s:

CO4 the $an5 o2ser3ed 4or$s o4 G&o$er%&onephritis, $ost
sho0 e3iden1e o4 deposits o4 anti2od5-anti'en 1o$p&e,es in
the'&o$er%&i, the /idne5;s 4i&terin' %nitsE th%s one 1o$$on 4or$
o4 the disease o11%rs t0o <)= to three <>= 0ee/s a4ter an in4e1tion
o4 the throat or s/in 0ith strepto1o11i <a t5pe o4 'er$=. Most 1ases
are te$porar5, 2%t a 4e0 2e1o$e 1hroni1, &eadin' to /idne5 4ai&%re
and Ure$ia <a serio%s i&&ness 1a%sed 25 the ina2i&it5 o4 the /idne5s
to e&i$inate 0aste prod%1ts o4 $eta2o&is$.D <Ro22ins, Patho&o'i1
Basis o4 -isease, @
th
edition=

As 1an 2e '&eaned 4ro$ the 4ore'oin' $edi1a& 4a1ts, the predisposin'
4a1tor that $i'ht ha3e 'i3en rise to the de3e&op$ent o4 the ai&$ent is not inherent
in her 0or/in' 1onditions. E,1ept 4or the 2are a&&e'ation that the disease 0as
1a%sed 25 her e$p&o5$ent and that the ris/ o4 1ontra1tin' the sa$e 0as in1reased
25 her 0or/in' 1onditions, the appe++ant 6a?es no a++e5ations o essentia+ a!ts
that !a3sed her disease and ho* and *hy her *or?in5 !onditions in!reased
the ris? o !ontra!tin5 said disease, nor *as any e2iden!e s3b6itted by
appe++ant to s3bstantiate and s3pport her !+ai6 or beneits 3nder PD 101, as
a6ended# Spe!ii!a++y, she ai+ed to a++e5e in her !+ai6 as to ho* her
e6p+oy6ent !a3sed her to !ontra!tG+o6er3+onephritis#

As there 0as not e3en a sin'&e a&&e'ation as to these $atters, this
Co$$ission has no 2asis at a&& to r%&e that the appe&&ant 'ot the said disease as a
res%&t o4 or 4ro$ her Fo2, andGor that the ris/ o4 her 1ontra1tin' said disease 0as
in1reased 25 her 0or/in' 1onditions.
7(>8


A55rie2ed, petitioner, p3rs3ant to R3+e <D o the Re2ised R3+es o
Co3rt, i+ed her petition or re2ie* *ith the Co3rt o Appea+s raisin5 as the
so+e iss3e the !o6pensabi+ity o !hroni! 5+o6er3+onephritis 3nder Presidentia+
De!ree No# 101, as a6ended#
;-<=
In its de!ision
;-.=
dated -9 De!e6ber 0::0, the
Co3rt o Appea+s dis6issed the petition and air6ed in toto the de!ision o
respondent $CC# The 6otion or re!onsideration
;-1=
i+ed by petitioner *as
denied in a reso+3tion dated -0 "ay 0::D#
;-9=
Hen!e, this instant petition or
re2ie* on certiorari#

Petitioner reiterates the so&e iss%e o4 0hether or not her disease, End Sta'e
Rena& -isease se1ondar5 to Chroni1G&o$er%&onephritis, is 1o$pensa2&e %nder
Presidentia& -e1ree No. +)+, as a$ended. She ar'%es that (-, she *as a+i!ted
*ith the disease d3rin5 her e6p+oy6ent *ith the )aya*an Distri!t Hospita+E
(0, there is s3bstantia+ e2iden!e to s3stain that her e6p+oy6ent in!reased the
ris? o !ontra!tin5 the diseaseE and (D, the +a* reF3ires 6ere+y s3bstantia+
proo o the ris? o !ontra!tion and not proo o the a!t3a+ or dire!t !a3sation
o the disease#

As re6%ired, respondent GSIS 4i&ed its Co$$ent on (* O1to2er )**>
7(:8
to
0hi1h petitioner 4i&ed a rep&5
7(?8
dated (+ -e1e$2er )**@. As re'ards respondent
ECC, the Co%rt dispensed its 4i&in' o4 a rep&5.
7)*8
Petitioner and respondent GSIS
4i&ed their respe1ti3e $e$oranda.
7)(8

Petitioner $aintains that she 0as a44&i1ted 0ith the disease d%rin' her
e$p&o5$ent 0ith the Ba5a0an -istri1t #ospita&. Tho%'h she ad$its that
Chroni1 G&o$er%&onephritis that e3ent%a&&5 &ed to End Sta'e Rena& -isease is not
&isted as an O11%pationa& -isease %nder Anne, CAD o4 the A$ended R%&es on
E$p&o5ees; Co$pensation, she ar'%es that the Co%rt o4 Appea&s and respondent
ECC sho%&d ha3e 1onsidered the nat%re and 1hara1ter o4 the 2a1teri%$ that 1a%sed
her a44&i1tion. In 4a1t, she a&&e'es that the &etter o4 respondent GSIS a&read5
e$phasiHed the attendant ris/ o4 1ontra1tin' the disease in her 0or/in'
en3iron$ent. She sa5s that sin1e the ori'in o4 G&o$er%&onephritis is not 1&ear-1%t
and is hard to deter$ine, the s5$pto$s thereo4 $a5 2e esta2&ished and
re1orded. In her 1ase, the Ph5si1ian;s Certi4i1ation and the E$p&o5er;s
Certi4i1ation 0hi1h she s%2$itted to respondent GSIS 1&ear&5 esta2&ished that she
s%44ered h5pertension as ear&5 as (??@ and disp&a5ed s%dden &oss o4 appetite,
ede$a and 'enera& 4ati'%e in (??: 1onsistent 0ith s5$pto$s o4
1hroni1 '&o$er%&onephritis. A&& these, she 1&ai$s, esta2&ish that she 1ontra1ted the
de2i&itatin' disease d%rin' her e$p&o5$ent 0ith the Ba5a0an -istri1t #ospita&.

Petitioner ar'%es that there is s%2stantia& e3iden1e that sho0s that her
e$p&o5$ent in1reased the ris/ o4 1ontra1tin' the disease. She sa5s that respondent
ECC 4o%nd the 1a%se o4 '&o$er%&onephritis to 2e the 2a1teri%$ strepto1o11%s,
0hi&e respondent GSIS de1&ared that 1hroni1 '&o$er%&onephritis is not a sin'&e
entit5 2%t a $B&an'e o4 di44erent diseases 0hi1h predo$inant&5 a44e1t
the '&o$er%&ar t%4ts. She e,p&ains that i4 respondents GSIS and ECC, as 0e&& as
the Co%rt o4 Appea&s, on&5 re3ie0ed the nat%re and 1hara1ter o4 the 2a1teri%$
strepto1o11%s, the5 1o%&d ha3e easi&5 4o%nd o%t that sa$e 1an 2e easi&5 1ontra1ted
25 $ere inha&ation, 25 dire1t 1onta1t 25 hands, 25 aeroso& drop&ets and 25
se1retions 4ro$ patients and 1arriers. She adds that as a pra1ti1in' r%ra& do1tor 4or
a&$ost )* 5ears, it is ine3ita2&e that her d%t5 e,poses her to dire1t 1onta1t 0ith
patients. Th%s, she 1&ai$s that the in1rease in ris/ or pro2a2i&it5 o4 1ontra1tin' the
disease is neither a $ere a&&e'ation nor a prod%1t o4 1onFe1t%re 0hen one 0or/s in
a hospita& 0here a $B&an'e o4 diseases a2o%nd.

In pro2in5 ris? o !ontra!tion, petitioner asserts that on+y s3bstantia+ or
reasonab+e proo, not a!t3a+ or dire!t !a3sation o the disease bet*een the
*or? and the ai+6ent, is reF3ired sin!e probabi+ity and not !ertainty is the
to3!hstone#

The Co%rt o4 Appea&s de1&ared that sin1e 1hroni1 '&o$er%&onephritis is not
an o11%pationa& disease, there is a need to pro3e the ris/ o4 1ontra1tin' the
disease. It posed the 6%estion: .as petitioner s%11ess4%& in pro3in' that the disease
she 1ontra1ted 0as 0or/ re&ated or 1onne1tedI

The Co3rt o Appea+s r3+ed that petitioner ai+ed to de6onstrate ho*
her *or?in5 !onditions !a3sed her disease and that she did not atte6pt to
sho* any e2iden!e that *o3+d s3pport her !+ai6 or beneits# It added that
sin!e petitioner ai+ed to introd3!e e2iden!e that *o3+d s3pport her position,
she !annot re+y on the BIn!reased Ris? Theory#C

.e 4ind $erit in the petition.

Under Se!tion -(b, o R3+e III o the A6ended R3+es on $6p+oyees'
Co6pensation, or the si!?ness and the res3+tin5 disabi+ity or death to be
!o6pensab+e, the si!?ness 63st be the res3+t o an o!!3pationa+ disease +isted
3nder Anne> BAC o these R3+es *ith the !onditions set therein satisiedE
other*ise, proo 63st be sho*n that the ris? o !ontra!tin5 the disease is
in!reased by the *or?in5 !onditions# Petitioner *as dia5nosed as ha2in5 $nd
Sta5e Rena+ Disease se!ondary to Chroni! G+o6er3+onephritis# Ad6itted+y,
said disease is not one o those en36erated as an O!!3pationa+ Disease 3nder
Anne> BAC o the $CC R3+es# This a!t, ho*e2er, *i++ not pre2ent petitioner's
!+ai6 ro6 bein5 5ranted as +on5 as she !an sho* that the ris? o !ontra!tin5
said ai+6ent *as in!reased by her *or?in5 !onditions#

Respondent GSIS stated that petitioner;s Chroni1 G&o$er%&onephritis, the
disease that &ed to her Chroni1 Renta& Aai&%re, is not a sin'&e entit5 2%t a $B&an'e
o4 di44erent diseases 0hi1h predo$inant&5 a44e1t the '&o$er%&ar t%4ts, 0hi&e
respondent ECC 4o%nd the 1a%se o4 '&o$er%&onephritis to 2e the 2a1teri%$
strepto1o11%s. Aro$ s%1h 4indin's o4 2oth respondents, it is apparent
that'&o$er%&onephritis 0as 1a%sed 25 an in4e1tion. The 1&assi1 1&ini1a&
presentation o4 poststrepto1o11a& '&o$er%&onephritis is 4%&&-2&o0n nephriti1
s5ndro$e 0ith o&i'%ri1 a1%te rena& 4ai&%re. Ph5si1a& e,a$ination
re3ea&s h5per3o&e$ia, ede$a and h5pertension.
7))8

For the in!reased ris? theory to app+y in !o6pensation !ases, the
!+ai6ant 63st add3!e reasonab+e proo bet*een his *or? and the !a3se o the
disease, or that the ris? o !ontra!tin5 the disease *as in!reased by the
!+ai6ant's *or?in5 !onditions#
;0D=
Stri!t r3+es o e2iden!e are not app+i!ab+e in
!+ai6s or !o6pensation#
;0<=
The de5ree o proo reF3ired 3nder Presidentia+
De!ree No# 101 is 6ere+y s3bstantia+ e2iden!e, *hi!h 6eans Bs3!h re+e2ant
e2iden!e as a reasonab+e 6ind 6i5ht a!!ept as adeF3ate to s3pport a
!on!+3sion#C Ghat the +a* reF3ires is a reasonab+e *or?-!onne!tion and not a
dire!t !a3sa+ re+ation#
;0.=
It is s3i!ient that the hypothesis on *hi!h the
*or?6en's !+ai6 is based is probab+e sin!e probabi+ity, not !ertainty, is the
to3!hstone#
;01=

Inas$%1h as petitioner;s disease 0as not &isted as an o11%pationa& disease, it
is in1%$2ent %pon her to add%1e s%2stantia& proo4 that 0o%&d sho0 that the nat%re
o4 her e$p&o5$ent or 0or/in' 1onditions in1reased the ris/ o4 End Sta'e Rena&
-isease or Chroni1 G&o$er%&onephritis. The e3iden1e presented 25 petitioner
sho0s that her Chroni1 G&o$er%&onephritis that &ed to End Sta'e Rena& -isease
0as 1a%sed 25 a strepto1o11a& in4e1tion. She atta1hed the Ph5si1ian;s Certi4i1ation
and the E$p&o5er;s Certi4i1ation 0hi1h 1&ear&5 esta2&ished that she s%44ered
h5pertension as ear&5 as (??@ and disp&a5ed s%dden &oss o4 appetite, ede$a and
'enera& 4ati'%e in (??: 1onsistent 0ith s5$pto$s o4 1hroni1 '&o$er%&onephritis.

Petitioner is a pra!ti!in5 do!tor in a p3b+i! r3ra+ hospita+ ro6 -
7an3ary -898 3nti+ she 3nder*ent a ?idney transp+ant on -- "ar!h -888# As
a do!tor *ho *as in dire!t !onta!t *ith patients, she *as 6ore e>posed to a++
?inds o 5er6s and ba!teria, th3s in!reasin5 the ris? o
!ontra!tin5 5+o6er3+onephritis# Gi2en the nat3re o her *or?, and
!onsiderin5 3rther that resident physi!ians *or? or e>tended ho3rs, the
+i?e+ihood o petitioner bein5 ine!ted by the strepto!o!!3s ba!teri36 is,
*itho3t a do3bt, in!reased# Ge th3s ind that the probabi+ity o petitioner
!ontra!tin5 !hroni! 5+o6er3+onephritis in her *or?station has been
s3bstantiated#

Presidentia+ De!ree No# 101, as a6ended, is said to ha2e abandoned the
pres36ption o !o6pensabi+ity and the theory o a55ra2ation pre2a+ent 3nder
the Gor?6en's Co6pensation A!t# Despite s3!h abandon6ent, ho*e2er, the
present +a* has not !eased to be an e6p+oyees' !o6pensation +a* or a so!ia+
+e5is+ationE hen!e, the +ibera+ity o the +a* in a2or o the *or?in5 6an and
*o6an sti++ pre2ai+s, and the oi!ia+ a5en!y !har5ed by +a* to i6p+e6ent the
!onstit3tiona+ 53arantee o so!ia+ 43sti!e sho3+d adopt a +ibera+ attit3de in
a2or o the e6p+oyee in de!idin5 !+ai6s or !o6pensabi+ity, espe!ia++y in +i5ht
o the !o6passionate po+i!y to*ards +abor *hi!h the -8/9 Constit3tion 2i2iies
and enhan!es#
;09=

.#EREAORE, the petition 4or re3ie0 is GRANTE-. The de1ision o4 the
Co%rt o4 Appea&s dated (9 -e1e$2er )**) is REJERSE- and SET
ASI-E. Respondent Go3ern$ent Ser3i1e Ins%ran1e S5ste$ is here25 ordered to
pa5 petitioner Rhoda Castor-Gar%pa the 1o$pensation 2ene4its d%e her %nder
Presidentia& -e1ree No. +)+, as a$ended.



SO ORD$R$D#


"INITA V# CHICO-NAHARIO
Asso1iate "%sti1e



.E CONCUR:



ART$"IO V# PANGANI)AN
Chie4 "%sti1e
Chairperson



CONSU$%O &NAR$S-SANTIAGO "A# A%ICIA AUSTRIA-"ARTIN$H
Asso1iate "%sti1e Asso1iate "%sti1e



RO"$O 7# CA%%$7O, SR#
Asso1iate "%sti1e



C E R T I A I C A T I O N

P%rs%ant to Arti1&e JIII, Se1tion (> o4 the Constit%tion, it is here25 1erti4ied
that the 1on1&%sions in the a2o3e -e1ision 0ere rea1hed in 1ons%&tation 2e4ore the
1ase 0as assi'ned to the 0riter o4 the opinion o4 the Co%rt;s -i3ision.



ART$"IO V# PANGANI)AN
Chie4 "%sti1e



7(8
Republic of the Philippines v. Mariano, @@: Phi&. ??, (*? <)**>=.
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CA rollo, pp. (*9-((@E Penned 25 Asso1iate "%sti1e Andres B. Re5es, "r. 0ith Asso1iate "%sti1es
-e&i&ah Jida&&on-Ma'to&is and Re'a&ado E. Maa$2on', 1on1%rrin'.
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Id., p. (@+.
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Id., pp. @:-@?.
7K8
Re1ords, pp. 9, (*, () and (>.
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CA rollo, p. >>.
798
Id., pp. K>-+>.
7:8
Re1ords, pp. 9-?E CA rollo, p. >@.
7?8
Id., pp. (*-(@.
7(*8
Id., pp. (K-(+.
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CA rollo, p. >9.
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Re1ords, p. )>.
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Id., pp. K-+.
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CA rollo, pp. (*-+>.
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Id., pp. (*9-((@.
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Id., pp. ((9-(>>.
7(98
Id., p. (@+.
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Rollo, pp. (>+-(K(.
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Id., pp. (+@-(:+.
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Id., p. (K>.
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Id., pp. )(+-)@>, )@@-)+).
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#arrison;s PRINCIP!ES OA INTERNA! ME-ICINE, pp. (+:*-(+:(, (+
th
Ed. <)**K=.
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Gau Sheng Phils., Inc. v. Joaquin, G.R. No. (@@++K, : Septe$2er )**@, @>9 SCRA +*:, +(:.
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Bonilla v. Court of Appeals, >?K Phi&. (+), (+: <)***=.
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Salalia v. !plo"ees# Copensation Coission, G.R. No. (@+>+*, )* Ma5 )**@, @): SCRA 9(K, 9))-
9)>.
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$ibo v. !plo"ees# Copensation Coission, @>@ Phi&. 9*>, 9*9 <)**)=.
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Salalia v. !plo"ees# Copensation Coission, s%pra note )K, p. 9)>.