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which consume more reactive power and also the loads they feed

are mostly inductive loads which leads to a poor power factor.

Various compensation techniques are available to bring the

power factor nearer to unity. In this paper, a novel compensator

is proposed, where in-phase and quadrature components of the

supply current are vector-controlled. Implementation of this

compensator in a power electronic system operating with a very

poor power factor (and hence high THD), shows that the system

then draws a leading current. A conventional power electronic

system with one of the traditional static VAR compensators and

the conventional power electronic system incorporated with the

proposed compensator are simulated and the simulation results

are obtained. It is shown that the proposed method offers only

0.7% THD, which also implies that the power factor is improved.

Index TermsTotal Harmonic Distortion, Vector Control,

Compensator, Switching, Power Electronic Converters

I. INTRODUCTION

HE Power Electronics converters have been increasingly

employed in recent years owing to their advanced features

including sinusoidal input current at unity power factor. Power

electronic devices that have rapid and frequent load variations

have become abundant today due to their many process

control Supply side is developed. The in-phase component of

the supply current I

P

is kept constant, whereas the quadrature

component of the supply current I

Q

is controlled from the

output of the speed loop. The vector control is formulated in

d-q axis coordinated frame, the method requires on-line

coordinate transformations that convert the line current in

three related and energy saving benefits. These features are

not necessarily achieved under the operating conditions of

unbalanced input supply and input impedances. Such a

N. Venkateswarlu is with the Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department, Audisankara College of Engineering and Technology, Nellore,

A.P,INDIA-524101 phone: 0-8624-221942; fax: 0-8624-221942; (e-mail:

venki280@ gmail.com).

M. Vel Murugan is with the Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department, Audisankara College of Engineering and Technology, Nellore,

A.P,INDIA-524101; (e-mail: smvelan@yahoo.co.in).

J. Suresh is with with the Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department, Audisankara College of Engineering and Technology, Nellore,

A.P,INDIA-524101; (e-mail: jntu703@ gmail.com).

978-1-4673-0315-6/11/$26.002011 IEEE

generalized unbalanced operating condition is quite common

in power systems, as the electrical energy is generated,

transmitted in the form of alternating current. To meet this

requirement, it is customary to add a power factor correction

circuit. The low power factor is due to the power loads that are

inductive which take lagging currents and hence lagging

power factor [4]. To improve the power factor, device

supplying reactive power are connected in parallel to the

system at desired location. The capacitor draws a leading

current and neutralizes the lagging reactive component of load

current. This raises the power factor of the load. However they

do not regulate the instantaneous power explicitly. So that it is

not suitable for implementation. Various methods of VAR

compensation are synchronous condensers, mechanically

switched capacitors etc.,[7,8].With the advent of power

electronic switches, TSC-Thyristor switched capacitor, has

been used to absorb or inject reactive power[5,6].

This paper proposes a new control scheme in which a vector

control method on the phase rotating frame to two phase

synchronously rotating frame representation and vice versa

[2], [3]. The d-q components of the input voltages and currents

are employed to accurately describe the behavior of the

converter. The proposed vector control scheme [1] allows the

system to draw a leading current. Because the current is

leading, THD is drastically reduced.

Because of the growing concern about harmonic pollution

there is a need to reduce the harmonic contents of the AC line

current of power supplies. Harmonics may disrupt normal

operation of devices. Therefore rapid reactive power changes

demand timely reactive VAR compensation. Even with that,

the THD is not up to the specified standards.

II. CONVENTIONAL METHOD

Fig. 1. A Power Electronics System with No Compensation Technique.

Improvement of Power Factor in Power

Electronic Systems by using a Method of

compensation

N. Venkateswarlu, M. Velmurugan, and J. Suresh

T

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies India

A power electronics system with no compensator is shown

in fig 1.

The three phase supply is fed to the three phase rectifier

which further, through a DC link feeds a three phase inverter.

The load used is inductive or non-linear which will draw

lagging current and hence poor power factor results.

Fig. 2. Phasor Diagram of the System Without Compensator.

The phasor representation of this system is shown in fig 2.It

can be noted that the power factor is very poor.

Fig.3. A Power Electronics System with Static VAR Compensation.

A power electronics system with compensator at the supply

side is shown in fig 3. The three phase supply is fed to the

three phase rectifier which further, through a DC link feeds a

three phase inverter. The load used is inductive or non-linear

which will draw lagging current and hence poor power factor

results. However because of the introduction of the

compensator, the leading current drawn by the same also gets

vectorially added with the load current and so the resultant

current gets shifted towards the voltage phasor, i.e., the

power factor is improved than the conventional system.

Since the power factor is improved the THD, i.e., the total

harmonic distortion is reduced as these two have the inverse

relationship. Also the drawback in this way of compensation

is that the capacitance value can be changed in steps only.

Though a dynamic Var compensator be used for PFC, it will

have rotational losses, which will add up with the total losses

COS>COS

1

Fig. 4. Phasor Diagram of the System With Compensator.

III. THE PROPOSED METHOD

Fig. 5. Power Electronics System with the proposed Compensator

The block diagram of a power electronics system is shown in

the figure 5.As seen vector control is implemented on the supply

side, i.e., the three phase currents are converted to two phase

currents using Parks transformation and the control is

implemented on to the rectifier control i.e., the switching of the

rectifier. The rectifier then feeds the three phase inverter which

further feeds the three phase inductive load. The phasor diagrams

for such a circuit are discussed in what follows.The current

components I

p

and I

q

(I

p

-the active component and I

q

-the reactive

component) are regulated by vector control. The orthogonal

spatial orientation between I

p

an I

q

is achieved by unit vectors and

these unit vectors are generated from line voltage vector.

Because VC is used, the appropriate 3phase-2phase and

2phase-3phase transformation are done at appropriate places.

The transformation equations from 3 phase synchronously

rotating frame to 2 phase synchronously rotating frame and

vice versa are given below. The 3phase voltages and 3 phase

currents are sensed and individually (that is voltage and

current) are transformed to 2 phase stationary frame voltages.

This is obvious from the phasor diagram as shown in fig 6.

Fig .6. Phasor diagram of the proposed sch

implementation

From this,

V

d

s

= V

s

Cos

V

q

s

= V

s

sin

Cos = V

d

s

/ V

s

sin = V

q

s

/ V

s

Also in the 2 phase synchronously rotat

i

d

= I

P

i

q

= I

Q

= 0

i

d

s

= I

P

cos

i

q

s

= I

P

sin

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Te

heme during

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

ting frame

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Because of the particular switch

fig, the thyristors in the rectifier u

certain period at regular intervals.

Fig.7. Resultant phasor digram of the prop

This leads to reduced conduction

heat losses. This adds to the im

system. The current component reac

. i

q

*

is the command value is set to

the reactive current component of t

loop control will always try to make

to be zero. Because an additional em

circuit and as a whole effect of vec

the power factor is improved much

power factor or in other words, the

voltage phasor as shown in fig 7.

IV. SIMULINK C

Fig.8. Conventional system with no comp

A conventional power system is sh

phase rectifier is fed by a three phase

the output of the rectifier is fed to

universal bridge is used in the inver

vector generator circuit generates th

signals which is fed as the input to

bridge. A highly inductive load is con

inverter. For this typical system the

waveforms are obtained and also the

discussed in the later sections.

echnologies India

hing, as apparent from the

unit will conduct only for

posed scheme

n losses and hence reduced

mproved efficiency of the

ctive power i.e. i

q

*

, where,

zero and so, what-ever be

the system (I

Q

), the closed

e the total re-active current

mf is also injected into the

ctor con-trol and this emf,

h, i.e. it becomes a leading

e cur-rent phasor leads the

CIRCUITS

pensator

hown in fig. in which a three

e supply. Through a DC link

o a three phase inverter. A

ter mode. A separate space

he space vector modulated

o the gates if the universal

n-nected to the output of the

e input voltage and current

THD is obtained which are

Fig. 9. Conventional system with static VAr Compens

A power system with a static VAr com

supply side is shown in fig. in which a three

fed by a three phase supply. Through a DC l

the rectifier is fed to a three phase inverter. A

is used in the inverter mode. A separate space

circuit generates the space vector modulated

fed as the input to the gates if the universal

inductive load is connected to the output of th

For this system the input voltage and curre

obtained and also the THD is obtained which

the later sections.

Fig. 10. Conventional System with proposed Compen

The proposed novel compensator for a

shown in fig 10. The three phase supply

controlled converter and it is chosen becaus

will have an input current which is rich in

when compared to a fully controlled rectifie

link this semi converter feeds a three phase i

universal bridge is used).

The input voltage and current in three pha

rotating frame are then converted to voltage a

phase synchronously rotating frame. These v

fed to a comparator where the other input to t

the supply voltage itself.

The error signal then decides the conduction

the semi converter. It is this feedback w

triggering of the appropriate switches. Of cours

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Te

sator

mpensator at the

phase rectifier is

link the output of

A universal bridge

e vector generator

d signals which is

bridge. A highly

he inverter.

nt waveforms are

h are discussed in

nsator

power system is

is fed to a semi

e then the circuit

n harmonics, than

er. Through a DC

inverter (again an

ase synchronously

and current in two

voltages are then

the comparator is

of the switches in

which decides the

se the phase delay

is the same as done in the traditional c

The inverter is given with SVM pu

connected to the inverter is a highly

of the causes for poor power factor.

V. TABULAT

S.No Circuit

1)

Conventional system wit

compensator

2)

Conventional system with

VAR compensator

3)

Conventional system with

proposed novel compens

Table.1. Percentage THD obtained with

VI. WAVEFORMS AND O

The waveforms of the above si

in the following figures. The val

the above circuits are tabulated in

The input voltage and cur

conventional system is shown in

that the input current is non-s

harmonics whose THD value i

obtained with this system is show

The input voltage and cur

conventional system with static V

in fig 13.Even here the input cur

is rich in harmonics and its THD

fig 14.

In the figure15, is shown the inpu

waveforms of the conventional sys

proposed compensator. The THD

where the THD value is only 0.7%

input current is leading with respect

echnologies India

circuit.

ulses for its gates. The load

inductive load which is one

TION

% THD Values

th no

10.85

static

9.60

h the

sator

6.7

different Simulink circuits

OBSERVATIONS

imulink circuits are shown

ues of THD obtained with

n table 1.

rrent waveforms of the

n fig11 .It can be observed

sinusoidal and is rich in

is 95.85%.Also the THD

wn in fig 12.

rrent waveforms of the

Var compensator is shown

rrent is non-sinusoidal and

value is 93.60%, shown in

ut voltage and input current

stem incorporated with the

is also shown in fig. 16

% and this is because the

to the input voltage.

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies India

Fig.11. Input Voltage and Current waveforms of the conventional

system with no compensator

Fig 12 THD of the system without Compensator

Fig. 13. Input Voltage and Current waveforms of the Conventional system

with static VAr

Fig 14 THD of the conventional system with Static VAr Compensator

Fig 15 Input Voltage and Input Current waveforms of the system with

proposed compensator

Fig 16 THD of the proposed system with novel compensator.

2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies India

VII. CONCLUSIONS

A novel compensating technique for the improvement of

power factor in non-linear electrical systems such as power

electronic systems is presented in this paper. Vector control is

implemented at the supply side of the system. .The reactive

component of the supply current is set to zero which is then

compared with the actual reactive component of current that is

drawn by the system. With the closed loop control the system

starts drawing a leading current which implies that the power

factor is improved and so the Total Harmonic Distortion is

reduced. A conventional system, a conventional power system

with static Var Compensator, and a typical power system with

the proposed technique are simulated using MATLAB/

SIMULINK and the waveforms of input voltage and input

current and the THD for each of them are obtained and

compared. It is observed that with the proposed method, the

entire system starts drawing a leading current inspite of the

non-linear loads connected to the system(the system itself is a

non-linear one).The THD value is also found to be reduced to

a great extent.

REFERENCES

[1] Bimal K.Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC drives PHI

publications 2005.

[2] Yongsug Suh, Valentin Tijeras, and Thomos A.Li A Control method in

dq Synchronous Frame for PWM Boost Rectifier under Generalized

Unbalanced Operating conditions, IEEE PESC

Conference,Queensland, Australia, June 23-27, 2002.

[3] H Enjeti, P.N.Zioga. P.D.Lindsay.J.F. Rashid, M.H A new PWM speed

control system for high Performance AC motor drive IEEE

Transactions on Industrial electronics, 1997.

[4] Holtz.J; Springob L, Reduced harmonics PWM controlled line-

side converts for electric drives,IEEE transactions on Industry

applications. Volume 29, No.4, July 1993. PP 814-819.

[5] Akagi,.H.Kanazawa,Y.Nabae, Instantaneous Reactive Power

Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without Energy Storage

Components, IEEE Trans on Ind. Appl. IA-20 No. 3 (May/June 1984).

[6] Akagi,H.Kanazawa,Y.abae,A.,Generalized Theory of the

Instantaneous Reactive Power in Three-Phase Circuits, IPEC,

Tokyo83, pp. 1375 1386.

Bowes, S. R.Clements, R. R., Computer Aided Design of PWM

Inverter Systems, IEE. Proc.129, Pt. B No1 (Jan1982).

[7] Patel, H. S.Hoft, R. G. Generalized Technique of Harmonic

Elimination and Voltage Control in Thyristor Inverters Part I-Harmonic

Elimination, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Appl. IA-9(May/ June 1973), 310

317.

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