Question 1

1.
Which circle shows a phosphodiester bond?
Answer

circle c

circle b

circle d

None of the above

circle a
1 points
Question 2
1.
Regulation of expression via RNA Silencing can occur through which of these
methods?
Answer

cleavage of mRNA

prevention of tranlsation

degradation of ribosomes

non-specific interferon response

Both A and B
1 points
Question 3
1.
mRNA regulation in eukaryotes can be achieved at the level of
Answer

Transport

Processing

Translation

Life span (degradation)

All of the above
1 points
Question 4
1.
Which of the following are necessary for DNA replication in vitro?
Answer

Template DNA, four dNTPs, magnesium ions

Template DNA, DNA polymerase, four dNTPs, magnesium ions

Okazaki fragments, helicase, DNA polymerase

DNA can't replicate in vitro

RNA, helicase, DNA polymerase
1 points
Question 5
1.
Cancer is best defined as
Answer

immune dysfunction

regulated differentiation of tissue

viral malignancy

uncontrolled and abnormal cell division

cellular deregulation
1 points
Question 6
1.
Base analogs may cause mutations because
Answer

They insert themselves between adjacent bases on the DNA strand and cause an
extra base to be inserted during DNA replication

None of these answers is correct

They may pair with different DNA bases than the normal base during replication

They modify the chemical structure and properties of the normal base

They remove amino groups from bases, causing them to pair with the wrong
base during replication
1 points
Question 7
1.
Which enzyme "charges" a tRNA molecule with the appropriate amino acid?
Answer

Peptidyl transferase

DNA polymerase

tRNA ligase

RNA polymerase

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
1 points
Question 8
1.
Which of the following best describes a trait exhibiting anticipation?
Answer

The trait skips a generation

The patient is always looking forward

The trait gets less pronounced in descendants

The trait gets more pronounced in descendants

The trait stays the same in the ancestors and descendants
1 points
Question 9
1.
Which of the following best describes the chain of events in RNAi?
Answer

None of these is correct

dsRNA enters the cell, RISC cleaves the RNA, dicer assembles

dsRNA enters cell, dicer cleaves the RNA, RISC assembles

Dicer cleaves RNA, the RNA enters the cell, RISC assembles

ssRNA enters the cell, dicer cleaves the RNA, RISC assembles
1 points
Question 10
1.
Which type of gene is often mutated in cancererous tissue?
Answer

proto-oncogene

tumour suppressor gene

pox gene

A & B

A, B & C
1 points
Question 11
1.
DNA and RNA nucleotide structure is identical except for
Answer

The position of the base in RNA

The position of the phosphate groups in DNA

The absence of a 2'-hydroxyl in DNA

The absence of phosphate groups in RNA

None of the above, the two molecules are identical
1 points
Question 12
1.
Which of the following is a consequence (outcome) of genetic variation?
Answer

incorrect protein

no change to a protein

incorrect splicing

A, B & C

A & C
1 points
Question 13
1.
The human nuclear genome can best be described as
Answer

mostly unique sequences

fully understood functionally

highly repetitive

mostly protein coding genes

mostly polycistronic transcription
1 points
Question 14
1.
One definition for the term epigenetics is...
Answer

a heritable difference that does not result from changes in DNA sequence

inheritance of acquired traits

a non-heritable difference that does not result from changes in DNA sequence

a heritable difference that depends on differences in DNA

random genetic change
1 points
Question 15
1.
A restriction enzyme cuts DNA and leaves the following end: GGCTACWhich of the
following could be the sequence of the other end generated by the enzyme?
Answer

TCGATA

CGTAGC

CCGATG

GGCTAC

None of the above
1 points
Question 16
1.
Cystic Fibrosis in humans is caused by mutations in a single gene, and is inherited as
an autosomal recessive trait. A normal couple has two children. The first child has
Cystic Fibrosis, and the second child is unaffected. What is the probability that the
second child is a carrier for the mutation that causes the disease?
Answer

1/4

1/2

2/3

3/4

1
1 points
Question 17
1.
The concept that genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to protein is
called
Answer
1 points
Question 18
1.
Which of the following lists is in the correct order for a PCR?
Answer

denaturation, annealing, extension

cycle, denaturation, extension

annealing, extention, denaturation

polymerase, cycle, DNA

extension, denaturation, annealing
1 points
Question 19
1.
Which of the following markers can be analysed using PCR?
Answer

minisatellite

SNP

microsatellite

B only

B and C

A, B and C
1 points
Question 20
1.
The enzymatic copying of DNA is termed
Answer

translation

transcription

meiosis

mitosis

replication
1 points
Question 21
1.
The single strand of mRNA that is produced during transcription has the same
sequence (with U instead of T) as the __________ strand of DNA?
Answer

Nontemplate

Lagging

Template

Nonsense

Leading
1 points
Question 22
1.
What is it about nucleic acids that makes copying genetic information
straightforward?
Answer

Hydrogen bonds are easily broken.

The binding of bases to one another is specific.

The sequence of bases encodes information.

The shape of the molecule is determined by the information it contains.
1 points
Question 23
1.
The genetic code is comma-free, nonoverlapping, and almost universal.
Answer True False
1 points
Question 24
1.
The branch of genetics concerned with analysing the structure and function of genes
is
Answer

Molecular Genetics

Plant Genetics

Transmission Genetics

Applied Genetics

Population Genetics
1 points
Question 25
1.
Eukaryotic protein-coding genes contain both _______ and _______ elements?
Answer

Repressor and enhancer

Enhancer and reader

Repressor and promoter

Enhancer and promoter

Inducer and enhancer
1 points
Question 26
1.
In eukaryotes, where does transcription take place?
Answer

In both the cytoplams and the nucleus

Anywhere in the cell

In the mitochondrion

In the nucleus

In the cytoplasm
1 points
Question 27
1.
Which of the following is the best definition of cloning?
Answer

copying something to produce genetically identical copies

copying DNA

mating two plants to produce multiple offpsring

none of the above

all of the above
1 points
Question 28
1.
Which parts of a eukaryotic gene are transcribed?
Answer

Different parts depending on the gene in question

Only the introns

Exons, introns, promoter and terminator sequences

Both exons and introns

Only the exons
1 points
Question 29
1.
What is the function of a ribosome?
Answer

To unwind the double stranded DNA helix to enable translation

To hold mRNA and tRNAs in the correct positions to enable translation

To make more mRNA

To direct transcription

To attach amino acids onto the appropriate tRNAs
1 points
Question 30
1.
Which of the following is NOT a non-coding RNA?
Answer

miRNA

siRNA

tRNA

mRNA

rRNA
1 points
Question 31
1.
Antibody diversity is based on a large number of genes and gene families.
Answer True False
1 points
Question 32
1.
Spntaneous mutation rates are greatly reduced by
Answer

Performing the Ames test

DNA repair mechanisms

Base-modifying agents

exposure to ionizing radiation

Reverse mutations
1 points
Question 33
1.
Cells in the King Crab have 104 pairs of chromosomes. You have discovered a new
species of crab that looks the same, called the Prince Crab. The Prince CRab only has
100 pairs of chromosomes per cell. From this information you can conclude that:
Answer

The King Crab has a larger genome than the Prince Crab.

The King Crab has mroe genes than the Prince Crab.

The King Crab evolved from the Prince Crab.

All of the above.

There is not enough information to make any of the above conclusions.
1 points
Question 34
1.
Retroviruses are responsible for which of the following conditions?
Answer

Rous sarcoma

AIDS

Feline leukemia

Mouse mammary tumour

All of the above
1 points
Question 35
1.
Which of these sequences could form a hairpin?
Answer

5' ACTTCGGA 3'

5′ ACACACACACAC 3′

5′ GGGGTTTTCCCC 3′

5′ TTTTTTCCCCCC 3′

5′ AAAAAAAAAAAA 3′
1 points
Question 36
1.
How does DNA methylation alter gene expression?
Answer

By preventing access to the DNA by DNA-binding proteins

DNA expression doesn't alter gene expression

Upwards

By allowing access to the DNA by DNA-binding proteins

Via positional effect variation
1 points
Question 37
1.
Operons can be best defined as
Answer

A balance between repressor and inducer molecules

A set of genes under common regulatory control

Operational mutations affecting gene expression

Dominant alleles responsible for enzyme synthesis

A common mode of gene expression in eukaryotes
1 points
Question 38
1.
Which of the following are forms of genetic variation?
Answer

minisatellites

microsatellites

single nucleotide polymorphisms

nonsense mutations

A, B & C

A, B, C & D
1 points
Question 39
1.
Centromeres and telomeres encode special gene products.
Answer True False
1 points
Question 40
1.
Which of the following human cells contains a gene that specifies eye colour?
Answer

Cells in the eye.

Cells in the heart.

Gametes.

Cells in the eye and gametes.

All of the above.
1 points
Question 41
1.
How does the DNA mismatch-repair mechanism in bacteria recognize which is the
correct one (i.e. the template strand) following DNA replication?
Answer

The incorrect base is methylated immediately after DNA replication

The mismatch correction enzyme recognizes the unmethylated state of the newly
synthesized DNA segment

The Uvr protein complex recognizes an adjacent pyrimidine dimer

The mechanism is unknown

The mismatch distorts the shape of only the newly synthesized DNA strand
1 points
Question 42
1.
Chromosomes consist of
Answer

DNA complexed with fatty acids

DNA complexed with protein and RNA

DNA

DNA complexed with RNA

DNA complexed with protein
1 points
Question 43
1.
The MLH1 gene is located on chromosome 3 in humans, and four different alleles
have been identified. The maximum number of alleles a single normal individual can
have is:
Answer

1

2

3

4

5
1 points
Question 44
1.
Which two cell-types can undergo somatic recombination?
Answer

stem cells, T-cell receptors

immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors

B-cells, T-cells

stem cells, pluripotent cells

immunoglobulins, B-cells
1 points
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