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Future and Challenge of

Nuclear Energy

Lecture 1
Introduction:
Dawn of Nuclear Age


Global Collaborative Summer
Program in Sustainable Developments
towards a Green Planet
Kyung Hee University - Global Campus
July 2010
YOON IL CHANG


Course Outline
Future and Challenge of nuclear Energy
How does nuclear energy fit into the theme,
Sustainable Developments towards a Green Planet?
Course Syllabus
Understanding the role of nuclear energy
Technical challenges, such as reactor safety and
public acceptance
Environmental impacts associated with radioactive
waste management
Future prospects of nuclear energy and next-
generation reactor and fuel cycle concepts
Goal and Approach
2
Molecules and Atoms
Molecule is composed of atoms:
H
2
O (water)
CH
4
(methane)
O
2
(oxygen)
Xe (xenon) inert gas
U (uranium) metal
Atom is composed
Neucleus
Electrons
Element is name given for each atom
Periodic table

Structure of Atom
Nucleus
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Atomic number (protons)
Atomic mass (protons and neutrons)
Isotopes (same atomic number but different atomic mass)
Examples
Hydrogen: 1 proton, 1 electron
Deuterium: 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron
Uranium-235: 92 protons (electrons), 143 neutrons
Uranium-238: 92 protons (electrons), 146 neutrons

5
Discovery of Nuclear Energy
In 1895, Roentgen discovered X-rays.
In 1902, Rutherford discovered alpha and beta
radioactivity.
In 1932, Chadwick discovered neutron.
In 1934, Enrico Fermi discovered fission of uranium,
but not recognized it.
In 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discovered
fission. Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch explained the
fission energy based on Einsteins equivalence
between mass and energy:
E = mc
2
Heat
Nuclear Energy Comes from Fission
Neutrons
Neutron Reaction with Matters
When neutrons collide with other nuclei, one of the
following reactions occurs.
Absorption
Capture
Fission
Scattering
Elastic scattering
Inelastic scattering
Fissile and Fertile Isotopes
Fissile isotopes are likely to fission upon capturing neutrons
U-235 + n 2 fission products + 2-3 neutrons + energy
Fertile isotopes are likely to capture neutrons
U-238 + n U-239 Np-239 Pu-239
Natural uranium composition:
U-235: 0.711%
U-238: 99.289%

Atomic Bomb Efforts
With the breakout of World War II in 1939, the initial
efforts to use the atomic power was in the development
of atomic bombs.
The Manhattan project was established in the U.S.,
composed mostly of the European scientists in exile.
A team led by Enrico Fermi was assembled at the
University of Chicago to achieve a controlled chain
reaction
A parallel effort for uranium enrichment at Oak
Ridge
Atomic bomb design efforts led by Oppenheimer at
Los Alamos
References: Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, 1986;
Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb, 1995
Two Approaches
Enriched Uranium
Fully enriched (>93% U-235)
Low enrichment (<20% U-235)
Typical power reactor (3-5% U-235)
Heavy water reactor uses natural uranium (0.711%
U-235)
Plutonium converted from U-238
Requires a reactor
11
Enrico Fermi Team Achieved Controlled
Chain Reaction on December 2, 1942

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Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1): Worlds First Reactor




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Early History at Argonne
Enrico Fermi and his team achieved controlled chain
reaction in Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1): December 2, 1942.
CP-1 was dismantled and reassembled at Argonne
Forest site as CP-2 in March 1943.
Worlds first heavy water moderated reactor, CP-3 was
constructed in 1944.
Argonne designated as Center for Reactor Development
in 1947, and contributed to all successful reactor types
Fast reactor conceived by Fermi (April 1944) and the
next in series CP-4 was renamed Experimental Breeder
Reactor-1 (EBR-I): First nuclear electricity in 1951


21
National Level Development
Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1946.
Split into Energy Research and Development
Administration (ERDA) and Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (NRC) in 1974.
ERDA was merged with other energy related
agencies into Department of Energy in 1977.
In preparation for commercial reactor development,
several research and test reactors and facilities have
been constructed at National Reactor Testing Station
in Idaho.
Joint Committee on Atomic Energy oversaw the
nuclear related legislations and appropriations in
Congress.
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Atoms for Peace Movement
President Eisenhower delivered Atoms for Peace
speech before the General Assembly of the United
Nations on December 8, 1953.
Proposed creation of International Atomic Energy
Agency
A special purpose would be to provide abundant
electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the
world. Thus the contributing powers would be
dedicating some of their strength to serve the needs
rather the fears of mankind.
Atoms for Peace Movement
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was
established in 1957 as an independent international
organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of
nuclear energy.
IAEA organized International Conferences on Peaceful
Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva, Switzerland.
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Effects of Atoms for Peace Movement on Korea
Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was
established in 1959.
TRIGA reactor was installed at KAERI
Nuclear Engineering Department was established at
Han Yang University in 1958, and at Seoul National
University in 1959.