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Rail

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Smart grid thinking
Integrated control and protection
Solar power for night and day
Safe to a T
RED is a go for line differential
protection and control
www.abb.com/ffwd
FAST FORWARD WITH ABB POWER SYSTEMS & PRODUCTS WINTER 2008/9
See page 4
Tight fit GIS substation
project forges ahead
PASS in place at
Reading
02 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
Published by:
ABB Limited
Power Systems Division
Oulton Road,
Stone, Staffordshire
ST15 0RS
Editor:
Karen Strong
Telephone:
01785 825050
www.abb.com/uk
contents Tackling current and
future challenges
Its an indication of the unpredictable times in which we live that
in a few short weeks the proposed topic of this message has
changed from the impact of rising commodity prices to how best
to blunt the impact of economic uncertainty.
In no time at all, the threat of increasing prices for raw materials
has eased as demand scales back. Just as in our domestic lives,
worries about inflation linked to soaring energy costs have been
overtaken, and industry has greater concerns than commodity
cost increases. We know, however, that all these challenges
remain in the background, once recovery begins to assert itself.
No-one can say for certain what the individual challenges facing
our businesses are, or how long it will take for the current anxiety
to diminish and normal life begin again.
ABB has faced its fair share of challenges over the years, and is
as well placed as any to weather the present storm.
If we have learned any lesson from the past, it is to remain
focused and work together.
While there may be a temptation to overreact, the real solution is
to stay cool, calm and collected. At the same time, as the news
is filled with economic woes, reports are filtering through of
concerns in previously neglected areas. One of these, and one
that affects almost all us as either suppliers or consumers, is the
prediction of an impending power supply crisis. By impending we
mean 510 years away. But for the power industry as a whole,
this really means very soon.
Everyone from government to industry needs to take action.
For many of us, that action involves not allowing infrastructure
investment to be delayed or key decisions to be sidetracked.
The economy will recover, hopefully sooner than later. When it
does, it would be inexcusable if society was immediately thrown
into another crisis where business and industry could not function
because of power cuts.
This really would be snatching defeat out of the jaws of future
success. Lets make sure it does not happen and work together
to maintain the momentum of long-term investment.
Issue 20 Winter 2008/9
Trevor Gregory
ABB UK Managing Director
3 Solving short circuit problems
The worlds fastest switching device can detect and
limit a short circuit
4 News
UK and international news
6 Smart grid thinking
Peter Jones, ABB Power UKs Head of Technology
outlines the key elements in ABB smart grids
8 Integrated control and protection
Pre-engineeered, pre-tested and pre-approved equipment
delivers some important advantages for present and
future performance of control and protection systems
9 Solar power for night and day
Solar power plant delivers electricity round the clock
10 Safe to a T
The continuing story of ABBs relentless drive for
substation safety
11 RED is a go for line differential
protection and control
New devices unleash the full potential for
communication and interoperability in substation
automation equipment
12 A new generation of SES
and AVRs
ABBs Unitrol 6000 is the most powerful range
of Static Excitation (SES) and Automatic Voltage
Regulators (AVR) for all kinds of synchronous
generators and motors
Read this issue online:
www.abb.com/ffwd
Circuit-breakers
in medium voltage (MV)
installations cannot provide
any protection against
exceptionally high peak short-
circuit currents, as they are
too slow. By detecting and
limiting a short-circuit current
at the first rise that is in less
than a millisecond ABBs
Is-limiter, regarded as the
worlds fastest switching
device, ensures that the
maximum instantaneous
current occurring remains well
below the level of the peak
short-circuit current.
The Is-limiter has both technical
and economic advantages when
used in transformer or generator
feeders and in switchgear
sectionalizing, or connected in
parallel with reactors. It is ideal for
solving switchgear short-circuit
problems in power stations, heavy
industry and utility applications.
THE IS-LIMITER PRINCIPLE
The Is-limiter consists of an
extremely fast switch, able to carry
a high-rated current but having a
low switching capacity, and a high
rupturing capacity fuse arranged in
parallel. In order to achieve the
desired short opening time, a small
charge is used as the energy store
for opening of the switch (main
conductor). When the main
conductor is opened, the current
continues to flow through the
parallel fuse, where it is limited
within 0.5 milliseconds, and then
finally interrupted at the next
voltage zero passage.
The current flowing through
the Is-limiter is monitored by an
electronic measuring and tripping
device. At the very first rise of a
short-circuit current, this device
decides whether tripping of the
Is-limiter is necessary. The three
phases are operated independently
of one another.
SYSTEM INTERCONNECTIONS
Is-limiters are frequently used in
interconnections between systems
or in bus sections that would not
be adequately short-circuit proof
when connected by a circuit-
breaker. They offer a number of
advantages, including:
Reduction of the series network
impedance. The voltage drops
caused by load surges (for
example during motor starting)
can be significantly reduced.
Improvement of the current
distribution at the feeder
transformers.
The load-dependent losses of the
feeder transformers are reduced.
Increased reliability of the power
supply. On failure of one feeder
transformer, the load is taken over
by the other feeder transformers
without current interruption.
The cost of a new switchboard
with higher short-circuit capacity
that would otherwise be required
is therefore saved.
A remarkable advantage of the
use of an Is-limiter is that the
voltage in the part of the system
not affected by a short-circuit only
drops for a fraction of a millisecond
so that even sensitive loads (such as
computers) remain protected from
drops in the system voltage.
For this reason the IS-limiter is
ideal for use as a link between an
unprotected and a protected
switchboard or section of a
switchboard.
LINKING PUBLIC AND
PRIVATE NETWORKS
Where a system with its own
power generating facilities is
interconnected with public supply
networks, there is a risk of
exceeding the permissible short-
circuit current in the utility
network. The most appropriate
technical solution and sometimes
the only one is to install an
Is-limiter in the interconnection
with the public utility network
If necessary, the Is-limiter can be
provided with a directional tripping
criterion, so it will trip only on
short-circuits in the public supply
network if a generator is in
operation.
WORKING IN PARALLEL
WITH A REACTOR
The Is-limiter can also be
connected in parallel with a reactor.
If a short-circuit occurs behind the
reactor, the Is-limiter trips and the
current commutates at the first
current rise to the parallel reactor,
which then limits the short-circuit
current to the permissible level.
03 FFWD >> www.abb.com/ffwd
Medium Voltage
Solvingshort-circuit problems with
the worlds fastest switchingdevice
WINTER 2008/9 >> FFWD
PASSin place at Reading
04 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
News
Work continues apace at Reading,
where an ABB and Balfour Beatty
consortium is constructing a new state-
of-the-art indoor gas insulated switchgear
(GIS) distribution substation for Scottish
and Southern Energy (SSE). The confined
building space available on this site,
which is already densely populated with
switchgear, is a major challenge
especially as the existing outdoor
air insulated switchgear (AIS) equipment
must remain in service until the circuits
can be transferred to the new substation.
So the initial work has focused on
releasing the substantial space needed
for the construction of the new indoor
GIS building.
The first enabling phase of the project has been
completed successfully, on time, with the
temporary installation of two of ABBs
innovative PASS MO hybrid switchgear units.
Balfour Beattys new cable system has enabled
the AIS circuits at the far end of the site to be
transferred to the new PASS MO units allowing
the old AIS switchgear to be dismantled and the
space cleared. This has made way for the civils
works for the new indoor substation building
for which the foundations have already been
completed.
The 2008 IET Innovation Awards
ceremony was hosted by TV
presenter Maggie Philbin, best known
for her time with BBCs much loved
Tomorrows World science programme.
Stephen Trotter, General Manager for
Power Systems UK, was on hand to
present the award for the ABB-sponsored
Sustainability category to Liquid Lever
Solutions Ltd for its Moisture-Activated,
Polymer-Tube Kink Valve.
Stephen Trotter said, ABB is delighted to be
able to encourage entrepreneurial spirit within
the engineering sector. We also hope to raise
awareness of the exciting career opportunities
that exist in our industry. We are pleased
to announce that ABB is continuing its
sponsorship of the Sustainability category for
2009. With 15 categories to choose from and
with entries not restricted to the UK, there are
plenty of opportunities for ABB and its
customers to show their capabilities.
The awards scheme was launched in 2006
and the number of entries has risen by more
than 40 per cent in some categories. They
recognize achievement as well as innovation in
engineering. ABBs John Watson, one of the
judges, commented, The Sustainability award
judging panel was again delighted with the
calibre of entries. All of the short-listed entries
were worthy candidates.
Ambitious Alliance projects
With its worldwide rail sector business
topping US $1 billion, ABB will
highlight the breadth of its product offering to
the international rail industry at Railtex 2009.
It will demonstrate how it offers solutions for
everything from the transmission and
distribution of electricity, through maintaining
power quality, trackside and on-board systems
to surge protection and load balancing. The
company plans to introduce at least two new
products; new compact switchgear and a new
relay.
ABB has a strong service record, offering
full maintenance and repair, cable laying and
jointing, transformer servicing, protection and
control systems and substation installation,
alteration and extension.
www.abb.com/railtex
Pushinga track
recordat Railtex
2009
Sustaining
innovation
In the past six months the National
Grid Central Alliance, of which
ABB is a partner, has delivered nine
transformers and reactors to six
substation sites in its area. Each was
challenging in different ways and all
were on tight deadlines.
In April SGT2 240MVA 275/132kV
transformer was delivered to the Lister Drive
substation, not far from the centre of Liverpool.
Next was SGT2 240MVA 400/132kV
transformer for Enderby substation near
Leicester. The 135 tonne transformer was
transported from Goole docks on a special
heavy load low slung girder bridge trailer.
Using hydraulic rams, the unit was inched along
the 50 metre long skid-way, then turned
through 90 degrees before being skidded over
the bund wall and lowered by jacks on to its
plinth.
Other successful deliveries were made to:
Bushbury SGT2 & Ocker Hill substations near
Wolverhampton and Tipton in the West
Midlands; Drakelow substation near Burton
upon Trent, SGT8 240MVA 400/132kV
transformer; Frodsham, Cheshire, SGT8 &
SGT9 2x 80MVA 400/26.25kV transformers
and 2x 40MVA reactors, supplying Network
Rails West Coast Main Line. A special Baillie
Bridge was deployed to enable the units to be
delivered on site. The bridge has been stowed
away for future use.
ABB has won a contract from
Fluor to supply the turbine step-up
transformers that will play a key role in
the operation of the Greater Gabbard
wind farm in the North Sea. Greater
Gabbard is being developed by Airtricity
and will be the largest wind farm in the
world, with 140 wind turbines providing
a peak capacity of 504MW, sufficient to
power 415,000 homes. An ABB
transformer will be installed in the
foundation of every turbine tower,
where it will step up the 690V output
from the turbine to the 33kV required
for connection to the inter-turbine array
and offshore substation platforms that
will eventually carry the power back
to land.
The transformers will be installed in a
chamber located in the transition piece,
between the base platform and the tower.
Fluor selected ABBs 690V/33kV liquid
filled, ground mounted, step-up transformers,
rated 4,000kVA, as the optimum solution to
fit the very tight space available, with cooling,
location of auxiliary equipment and overall
size being critical factors.
The flexibility of ABBs transformer design
was vital, as this enabled it to be tailored to
meet the changing demands as the overall
design of the transition piece evolved.
The Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm
is located around two sand banks known as
Inner Gabbard and The Galloper in the
North Sea, off the Suffolk Coast.
Onshore construction activities
commenced in July 2008 at Sizewell.
Construction offshore will commence mid
2009 with completion expected by the end
of 2010.
The worlds largest
offshore windfarm
WINTER 2008/9 >> FFWD 05 FFWD >> www.abb.com/ffwd
News
ITALY
Power refinement
ABB has won a contract worth over
US $22 million from Eni Raffineria di Gela
SpA for the turnkey supply of a new
high-voltage substation, integrated
automation and electrical power systems
and related services for its refinery in Gela,
Italy. ABBs GIS compact circuit breaker will
save space and simplify the installation of
new feeder lines that are planned for the
plant. The company will also provide the
turnkey services including engineering,
supply, erection, commissioning, test
and training for electrical, civil and
instrumentation works.The project will
be completed at the end of July 2009.
AZERBAIJAN
Boost for metals production
Azerbaijans state power utility, AzerEnerji,
has given ABB a US $34 million order for
turnkey substations and power systems to
ensure reliable power for the metal industry
in Gyandja City in the northwest of the
country. The contract includes air- and gas-
insulated substations, gas-insulated
switchgear (GIS), together with breakers,
instrument transformers and surge arresters,
and a MicroSCADA (Supervisory Control
and Data Acquisition) system that will
monitor and control the substations.
JAPAN
An order worth US $8.5 million for flexible
AC transmission systems (FACTS) to be
installed in Asia Special Steel Co Ltd steel
plant in Fukuoka, Japan has been placed
by LSIS, a South Korean contractor and
manufacturer of electrical equipment. The
SVC Light

systems will be used to stabilize


the electric arc furnace voltage feeds as well
as to mitigate electric disturbances in the
steel making process.
CHINA
Power sharing extension
ABB has won orders worth US $8 million
from the State Grid Corporation of China
(SGCC) for valve and control system
components on the Lingbao extension
project on the border of Henan and Shanxi
provinces in central China. The Lingbao II
extension project will expand the existing
asynchronous interconnection at the
Lingbao back-to-back HVDC (high-voltage,
direct current) station by an additional
750MW.
CANADA
Hydro won
Orders worth US $32 million have been
won by ABB from Hydro One Networks,
Inc., in Toronto, Canada high-voltage power
products for the expansion of two existing
550kV-80kA substations in Ontario. ABB
will design, manufacture, test, supply and
provide on-site technical direction for an
expansion of seven gas insulated switchgear
(GIS) circuit breaker positions, including a
gas insulated bus (GIB) for new line exit
connections, and the provision of interfaces
for existing GIS substations, including
interfaces to non-ABB GIS substations.
ALBANIA
ABB has signed a US $20 million contract
with Operatori Sistemit Trasmetimit, the
operator of Albanias electricity transmission
network, for a system to improve the
reliability of the grid by monitoring and
controlling high-voltage transmission.
The ABB Network Manager system will
enhance stability by making it easier to
preserve the balance between generation
and consumption. The project will also align
Albanias network with European standards
and facilitate power trading with
nearby countries.
INTERNATIONAL NEWS
A Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS)
system is to be installed in EDF Energy
Networks distribution network on the Norfolk
coast to level out load peaks and improve
access to wind power.
ABB is working with EDF on the collaborative
research, development and demonstration project.
At its heart will be a SVC Light

with dynamic
energy storage based on high-tech Saft lithium-ion
(Li-ion) batteries.
The new installation will deliver dynamic
voltage control in an 11kV distribution system
while, at the same time, enabling the dynamic
storage of surplus energy from wind
farms, which can then be used to
level out peaks in grid loading.
This will mean that the
wind power can be put
to more efficient use
than would otherwise
be possible.
The system will be
constructed in Hemsby,
Norfolk, and connected to the
distribution network between
Ormesby and Martham and be in
operation by the end of 2009.
Allan Boardman, EDF Energy Networks
planning engineer says: This project will allow
more renewable generation connections to existing
electricity networks, and also demonstrate the value
of energy storage.
The installation will improve the usability of
power from wind farms and avoid the destabilizing
effect it can have on the grid, said Per Eckemark,
Head of ABBs FACTS System Group. It will also
provide a useful reference project for energy storage.
This collaboration clearly demonstrates both
ABBs and EDF Energy Networks determination to
address climate change, by improving
network access to renewable electricity
production. The benefits may
include a reduction in the
amount of carbon produced
by the UK power
industry.
The project is
being financially
supported
through industry
regulator
Ofgems
Innovation Funding
Incentive scheme.
The FACTSof renewable
electricity
Lithuim-ion battery system
06 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
The UKs traditional power
grid is based on large, centralized power
stations that supply end-users via long-
established, transmission and distribution
systems. Over the years it has performed
very well in delivering secure and reliable
power. But times are changing. The UK
Government has introduced a blueprint
for 15 per cent of the UKs energy
requirement to be met from renewable
resources sources by 2020.
These challenging targets will require the existing
transmission and distribution networks to operate
in ways for which they were not originally
designed. Energy will be generated from large
offshore windfarms in the North Sea or the
North of Scotland or from community based
district heating schemes. Small embedded
onshore windfarms and energy storage will be
more common within the distribution system.
Increasingly, we will need an intelligent grid that
can receive power of all qualities from all sources
both centralized and distributed and deliver
reliable supplies, on demand, to consumers of
all kinds. In other words, what we need is a
smart grid.
While there is a great deal of discussion in
the media about smart grids, it is a term that can
mean many different things to different people.
However in ABBs view, a smart grid is an
infrastructure that puts the emphasis firmly on
active rather than passive control. A good analogy
is in the control of traffic on a busy stretch of
motorway. During off-peak periods, cars can
drive freely with no speed restrictions other than
the maximum speed limit. But in the rush-hour
the warning signs on the overhead gantries are
used to impose speed limits on specific lanes.
So by restricting the speed of movement of
individual streams, congestion is avoided,
optimizing the flow of all traffic. More intelligent
control of power flows in the transmission and
distributions systems will allow higher utilisation
even during high demand periods.
ABBs smart grid philosophy comprises four
key elements: HVDC Light; FACTS; WAMS;
and distribution network management:
HVDC LIGHT
HVDC Light is ABBs patented high voltage
direct current technology based on voltage source
converters (VSCs) and extruded DC cables. It is a
well-proven and environmentally-friendly way to
design a power transmission system for a
submarine link, an underground cable system or
network interconnection.
HVDC Light can rapidly control both
active and reactive power independently of each
other, to keep the voltage and frequency stable.
This gives total flexibility in the location of the
converters in the AC system, since the short-
circuit capacity requirements of the connected
AC network are low. An HVDC Light
transmission system can do much more than just
transmit power between two points it can also
improve conditions in the connected
AC networks.
HVDC Light converter station design is
based on a modular concept. For DC voltages up
to 150kV, most of the equipment is installed in
enclosures at the factory. For the highest DC
voltages, the equipment is installed in buildings.
The site areas needed for converter stations is also
minimal. All equipment except the power
transformers is indoors. Well-proven and tested
equipment at the factory make installation and
commissioning quick and efficient. The stations
are designed to be unmanned. They can be
operated remotely or could even be automatic,
based on the needs of the interconnected
AC networks.
FACTS
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
covers a number of technologies that enhance the
security, capacity and flexibility of power
Smart Grids
Peter Jones, Head of Technology for ABB Power UK, outlines the key elements that comprise ABBs
approach to smart grids
Smart grid thinking
1
Potential HVDC Light applications include:
Connecting wind farms
Underground power links
Powering islands
Oil & gas offshore platforms; power
from shore
Asynchronous grid connection
City centre in-feed
transmission systems. FACTS solutions can help
increase the capacity of existing transmission
networks while maintaining or improving the
operating margins necessary for grid stability.
As a result, more power can reach consumers
with a minimal impact on the environment,
after substantially shorter project implementation
times, and at lower investment costs all
compared with the alternative of building new
transmission lines or power generation facilities.
SERIES COMPENSATION
Series compensation (SC) is used primarily to
reduce transfer reactances, most notably in bulk
transmission corridors. The result is a signifcant
increase in the stability of the transmission
system transient and voltage.
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors add
another controllability dimension, as thyristors
are used to dynamically modulate the ohms
provided by the inserted capacitor. This is used
primarily to provide inter-area damping of
prospective low frequency electromechanical
oscillations, but it also makes the whole Series
Compensation scheme very tolerant to
Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR).
DYNAMIC SHUNT COMPENSATION
Dynamic shunt compensation is based on
Static Var Compensator (SVC) or STATCOM
(STATic COMpensator) devices. Both use power
semiconductors to control the exchange of
MVArs with the grid, over a shunt connection.
Thanks to cycle-by-cycle controllability, SVC and
STATCOM can counteract event the most rapid
voltage transients and consequently reduce the
risk of serious voltage depressions and/or
voltage collapse.
Furthermore, SVCs and STATCOMs can,
under steady state conditions, control the grid
voltage profile according to a given optimal
characteristic. The benefits for the grid
owner/operator are that the voltage profile will be
more controlled and the stability limit dictated by
system voltage will be raised. So the grid capacity
can be enhanced while making its behaviour
more robust, flexible and predictable.
Possible FACTS applications includes:
boosting transmission capacity in new and
existing transmission lines
improving long-distance power transfer
relieving transmission bottlenecks quickly
improving power quality
controlling load flows
improving dynamic stability of grids
minimizing the risk of blackouts
facilitating integration of renewable
energy sources.
WAMS
When taking active control of grid power flows
it is essential to monitor them very carefully and
to develop a complete understanding of how the
system will behave under all circumstances.
This is where ABBs wide area monitoring
system (WAMS) technology comes in.
Transmission system engineers have always
wanted to monitor grid operations in real time.
But until recently, lack of computing power,
combined with the substantial difficulties in
collecting, coordinating and synchronizing the
grid data made this impossible.
However, the situation has changed through
new developments in technology such as phasor
measurement units (PMU's). A PMU is an
electronic device installed in the generating
stations and substations located throughout
a power grid. Using global positioning system
(GPS) satellites to provide highly accurate time
stamping, the data supplied by each PMU is
synchronized to the same time base.
By monitoring the data in real time, operators
can use WAMS as an early warning system one
that provides enough time to take the kind of
corrective action needed to first limit the scope
and impact of system disturbances and then
prevent major blackouts from occurring. Utilities
can also use the data to improve grid security
and safely operate their system closer to
maximum capacity during periods of high
electrical demand.
The benefits of WAMS technology for grid
operators include the capability to:
safely optimize the design capacity of their
transmission assets,
eliminate or reduce revenue losses due to
transmission system outages
optimize new equipment investment.
enable more rapid and co ordinated recovery
after outages.
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
MANAGEMENT
While the previous three elements of the smart
grid focus mainly on the transmission network,
the variable nature of the new renewable energy
sources will require some form of distributed
energy storage, such as large batteries, flywheels,
compressed air and so on to help maintain the
security of supply.
In addition, there are calls for the government
to adopt feed-in-tariff schemes that will actively
encourage small scale renewable generation for
example, farmers might use their land and
existing 11kV connections to install a small array
of three 6kW wind turbines.
So, as well as distributed energy storage, we
need to anticipate the contribution of many
diverse renewable energy projects single wind
turbines, wind farms, solar PV on houses, waste
to energy and biomass etc sitting alongside each
other and connecting at multiple points along the
network. This means that we need to change the
way we look at power distribution networks to
accommodate more fluctuations in power quality
and two-way power flow, while becoming more
responsive to changes in consumer demand.
The management of such a complex
system will depend on real-time and secure
communications and highly adaptive control
systems. These will provide utilities and their
customers with real-time information from across
the network on the performance of grid
installations, power flow and consumer demand.
They will allow intelligent automated devices to
react to imbalances in the system and also
improve asset management by enabling improved
predictive maintenance programmes and faster
emergency response times.
The incorporation of enterprise-wide
information systems and customer response
management tools will improve utility operations,
enabling better customer relations and the
provision of tailored services.
SUMMARY
Smart grids will grow through evolution rather
than revolution. We expect to see a gradual
transformation of the systems that have served
us for many years into a more intelligent, more
effective and environmentally sensitive network
to provide for the UKs future needs. ABB has
the expertise and experience to provide
integrated, adaptable solutions now, and the
vision and technical know-how to meet the
coming challenges.
In future articles we will look at the individual
elements of the smart grid in more detail.
WINTER 2008/9 >> FFWD 07 FFWD >> www.abb.com/ffwd
Smart Grids
2 3
1. Smart Grid infrastructure
2. WAMS
3. FACTS installation
COMPONENTS INCLUDE:
08 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
Integrated control & protection
Andy Osiecki outlines
two important new developments in
ABBs approach to integrated control
and protection equipment.
IEC 61850 PLANT SIMULATOR FOR
FUTURE-PROOF TESTING
In 2004 ABB introduced standard bay
solutions based on an integrated control
and protection philosophy for substation
automation systems. This approach, which
uses pre-engineered, pre-tested and pre-
approved equipment, offers a number of
important customer advantages, including:
the ability to condense the same functionality
into a much smaller footprint; reduction in
on-site work and shorter delivery and
commissioning times.
The need to provide a full audit trail
demonstrating that the factory-assembled
equipment will function exactly as designed
places a major emphasis on rigour,
repeatability and traceability within the testing
regime. That is why we developed our own
dedicated, fully automated, computer-based
test installation, or System Verification
Simulator (SVS).
The SVS has now moved forward to
embrace the intelligent testing concepts
made possible by the IEC 61850 substation
communication protocol that is a key feature
of our new generation of Intelligent Electronic
Devices (IEDs). The combination of an IEC
61850 plant simulator, SCADA control system
and secondary injection test set provides a very
powerful integrated testing platform for all bay
protection types. Once all the test information
needed is made available in IEC 61850
format, it is very easy to create repeatable test
sequences for all conceivable testing scenarios,
with the test signals time-stamped and readily
available for reporting and analysis.
Eventually, the IEC 61850 standard will be
adopted throughout the substation industry.
So with our plant simulator already in place,
ABBs integrated control and protection
testing capabilities are effectively
future-proof .
PUTTING CUBICLE SAFETY ON A NEW
PLATFORM
Achieving high levels of health and safety by
design is integral to every ABB activity. Even
the seemingly humble equipment cabinet
hasnt escaped our attention. Feedback from
installation staff on site showed that the way
the cabinets were delivered bolted on to
wooden pallets made it difficult to transfer
them to the substation floor, especially as they
weigh up to 400kg each.
After some thought and clever design,
the wooden pallet has been replaced by a
permanently mounted steel plinth.
This provides easy access from all four sides,
making it ideal for mechanical handling and
eliminating the need to transport and recycle
pallets. It is a very simple idea and it is being
rolled out throughout the supply chain.
Another, simple but effective solution helps
remove the risk of cabinets toppling when they
have to be positioned over a cable entry. The
cabinet has to be moved with its door open,
and when full with heavy equipment it can be
rather unsteady. So we are now providing a set
of temporary stabilizers that bolt to the front
of the cabinet to prevent it toppling forward.
When the cabinet is secured in place, the
stabilizers are simply removed and stored for
future use.
The safety by design approach is also
making a valuable contribution to the issue
of working at height encountered when
assembly staff have to reach up inside to the
top of a 2.2m high cabinet. Now, instead of
using an external platform and leaning into
the cabinets, or standing on a narrow
elephants foot step inside it, a robust
aluminium step has been designed that fits
across the internal cross brace about 0.5m
above the floor. This provides a safe and
comfortable working platform to work on.
We have also introduced a second step that fits
at the front of the cabinet to make the step up
or down even easier.
Newdevelopments in standard
bay solutions
Equipment cabinets are now safer and easier to move into position
Europes first large-scale
solar energy plant the 100 MW Andasol
1 and 2 in the Sierra Nevada of southern
Spain is opening up a new era in
renewable emissions-free power
generation. The innovative process
is controlled by ABBs Extended
Automation System 800xA.
Andasol 1 has started its test run and will
be connected to the Spanish grid after the
successful completion of this trial period -
Andasol 2 will go into operation in 2009. The
power plants are located in one of the sunniest
parts of Spain, the desert-like heights of the
Sierra Nevada in Andalusia. Andasol 1 is the
first parabolic trough power plant in Europe,
and the largest solar power plant in the world.
Andasol 1 and 2 will each generate 50 MW
of emissions-free electricity using innovative
technology that captures and concentrates
sunlight in two vast solar fields of trough-
shaped parabolic mirrors. The technology
converts the solar radiation into heat, which
is pumped to adjacent power plants where it
generates electric power from steam turbines.
Both power plants will be controlled by
ABBs Extended Automation System 800xA
and ABB Power Generation Portal software.
The power generated at the plants will be
delivered to the local grid via ABB power
transformers and substation equipment.
Andasol 1 and 2 will produce about
350 GWh of electricity per year, enough
to power 100,000 Spanish households, and
displace about 300,000 tonnes of greenhouse
gas emissions a year.
Each power plant has its own 50 hectare
solar field containing 624 parabolic troughs
arranged in 156 loops. The fields produce up
to twice the thermal energy that can be
absorbed by the plants steam turbines. The
excess energy is stored in liquid salt tanks for
up to seven hours, thereby ensuring a
continuous and stable supply of electric power
to the grid even in the middle of the night.
With the Andasol power plants, the German
developer Solar Millennium AG has taken the
first steps in a market set for enormous growth -
by 2020, a variety of studies and/or institutions
predict a worldwide installed solar thermal
capacity of at least 20,000 MW.
ABB has unrivalled expertise in supplying
distributed control systems for power generation
technologies - from conventional coal- or gas-
fired plants to renewable technologies like solar
energy. System 800xA is the only distributed
control system compatible with all leading
communication protocols, and Power
Generation Portal is one of the most widely
used information platforms in the world with
an installed base of more than 1,000 systems.
SUMMER/AUTUMN 2008 >> FFWD 09 FFWD >> www.abb.com/ffwd
Solar Power
Automatedsolar power plant
produces electricity day andnight
Photos Solar Millenium AG
010 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
Health & Safety
People working in substations face a number
of Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) risks.
These include: working at height, working with
electricity and lifting operations, and managing
the safety of contractors.
To keep everyones eye firmly on the topic,
Claudio Facchin, head of ABB Power Systems
Substation business unit is sponsoring an
Energizing Safety initiative to increase still
further the companys substation safety
performance.
Claudio Facchin says, By their very nature
substations are home to a good many risks. This
fact means that we must have a formal process
and a culture of safety on every one of our
substation projects.
The Energizing Safety initiative is a pre-
emptive, strategic tool to keep our people safe
without weakening our ability to successfully
meet our customer commitments.
ABB is developing a formal project
management process for all its local businesses.
This embraces its expertise in project site
management and risk reduction.
Right from the pre-bid stage, through to
completion, health and safety should be
embedded in each phase of the project.
Checklists (including a Contractor Code of
Practice for construction site), procedures and
audit tools are being introduced.
As a first step, the ABB Group Sustainability
Affairs team organized a UK training session in
September. Twenty participants, including safety,
operational and construction managers from
eight different regions took part. Marc Slater,
Group OHS advisor, led the workshop together
with Bob Narvaez, health and safety manager for
Power Systems in North America, and Jim
Miller, construction manager from the UK.
After some brief introductory lectures, the
training became hands-on: the group visited an
ABB construction site and had the opportunity
to put the theory into practice. The following
days were spent in a construction college, where
everyone built their knowledge of vital topics
such as the safe handling of ladders, scaffolds
and towers. They also learned the specific OHS
risks to be considered for excavations, trenching
and heavy equipment.
The purpose of this training was to create
a number of OHS champions capable of visiting
and auditing project sites identifying potential
dangers and unsafe practices, as well as being
competent in managing these risks with the
project managers responsible for each location.
Safe toa T
ABB is unwilling to rest on its
laurels despite an excellent health &
safety record across its businesses,
the industries it serves and a very large
number of customer sites. The latest
drive in the companys Power Systems
business has focused on employees
working at power substations.
By their very nature, substations are home to a
good many risks. This fact means that we must
have a formal process and a culture of safety on
every one of our substation projects.
011 FFWD >> www.abb.com/ffwd
Substation Automation
RED615, part of ABBs 615 product
series, is a phase-segregated two-end
line differential protection and control
intelligent electronic device (IED) that
is perfectly harmonized for utility and
industrial power systems, including
looped and meshed distribution
networks with or without decentralized
power generation. Re-engineered from
the ground up, the new 615 series has
been designed to unleash the full
potential of the IEC 61850 standard for
communication and interoperability of
substation automation equipment with
minimal disruption.
RED615 provides high speed, longitudinal
differential protection for overhead line
and cable feeders in distribution networks.
Two RED615s interconnected over a
communication link form an absolutely
selective unit protection scheme. Protection
of ring-type and meshed distribution networks
generally requires unit protection solutions,
also applied in radial networks containing
distributed power generation.
Typical RED615 applications include two
or multiple parallel lines between substations
and meshed cable networks in urban and
suburban areas. Line differential protection
is also applied to industrial power systems
and special objects, such as power systems
for road and rail tunnels and cable networks
for wind farms.
STANDARDIZED COMMUNICATION
RED615 features native support for the new
IEC 61850 standard for communication in
substations. The relay also supports the
industry-standard Modbus protocol 3.0.
The in-depth implementation of the IEC
61850 substation communication standard in
RED615 also includes horizontal peer-to-peer
communication over a substation-wide
Ethernet LAN using the GOOSE-services
defined by the standard.
PROTECTION COMMUNICATION
SUPERVISION
The communication channel between
each end of the protected line is constantly
supervised. Should the communication
channel be interrupted or suffer interference,
the fast-acting line differential protection
functions will be restrained immediately.
The automatic restraint affects all functions
that rely on the continuous availability of
the protection communication channel.
The channel supervision includes recognition
of missing or delayed telegrams carrying
sampled analogue measurement values or
binary information.
The sensitivity of the supervision function
and the reset delay are user-selectable.
Prolonged interference and a total interruption
of the communication channel will trigger an
alarm message, which can be used to alert the
network operator and to release a back-up
protection scheme.
PRE-EMPTIVE MONITORING
To secure the operational availability of the
protection, RED615 incorporates a range
of monitoring and watchdog functions to
supervise the hardware and software, the
communication system and the circuit-breaker
trip circuit.
Hardware supervision also incorporates
the current transformers (CTs). CT faults
may cause undesired operation of the line
differential protection and the phase unbalance
protection. Therefore, a fast-acting CT
supervision system blocks the operation of the
line differential protection function and the
phase unbalance protection function on
detection of any CT signal anomaly.
RAPID SET-UP
RED615 features a unique plug-in design
that speeds up installation and testing. And
since RED615 is adapted specifically for the
protection of overhead lines and cable feeders,
it can be rapidly set up and commissioned,
once it has been given the application-specific
settings. If the settings need adjustment, the
flexibility of the RED615 allows the standard
signal configuration to be altered by the signal
matrix tool (SMT) included in the PCM600
IED setting and configuration tool.
Connectivity packages containing detailed
descriptions of ABBs protection IEDs, with
data signals, parameters and addresses, enable
the IEDs to be automatically configured via
the MicroSCADA Pro system, the COM600
Station Automation series devices or the
PCM600 IED setting and configuration tool.
REDis a gofor line differential
protection andcontrol
WINTER 2008/9 >> FFWD
012 FFWD >> WINTER 2008/9
Power Generation
UNITROL 6000 is ABB's latest
and most powerful generation of Static
Excitation Systems (SES) and Automatic
Voltage Regulators (AVR) designed to
deliver high performance control for all
kinds of synchronous generators and
motors. Available for output currents
up to 10,000A (DC) and ceiling voltages
up to 2000V (DC), the new range makes
a highly efficient contribution to
network stability.
The UNITROL 6000 product range uses
the AC 800PEC controller, which has been
developed as an extension of the 800Ax
control platform to meet the particular high-
speed control requirements of power
electronics applications such as MV Drives,
Frequency Converters and High Current
Rectifiers. The compatibility of the 800Ax
application software tool with the AC 800PEC
platform is an additional important advantage.
For maximum flexibility, UNITROL 6000
is based on reusable thyristor bridge modules.
Depending on output current and requested
availability, the modules can be connected in
parallel. In case of three or more parallel
modules, the current sharing among the
modules is actively optimized.
The architecture of the main controller
depends on availability requirements. While
two identical control channels are state-of-the-
art for larger generators, high-end applications
may require an additional independent back-
up controller, which can be implemented in
the UNITROL 6000 system. The connection
between the various controllers is by fibre-
optic serial communication. This ensures
electrical isolation and highest possible
EMC immunity.
UNITROL 6000 the newgeneration
of Static Excitation Systems (SES) and
Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR)
CONTACTS
You can find more information
on the stories in this issue at:
www.abb.com/ffwd or call us
as follows
Rail 01785 825050
Power Generation 01785 825050
Substations 01785 825050
HV Switchgear 01925 741457
MV Switchgear 01925 741433
Automation 01785 825050
Protection & Control 01785 825050
Service 0845 6011946
Power Quality 0151 3578400
Transformers 01925 741469
Asset Management 01785 825050
Wind Power 01785 825050
General Enquires 01785 825050