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Annotated Bibliography

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Akanji, AO., Ohaeri, JU. (2011). Metabolic syndrome in severe mental disorders.
Metabolic Syndrome in severe mental disorders, 9(2), 91-96
Main aim of this article is to determine if there is a relationship between metabolic syndrome
and severe mental disorders. The scope of this study extends beyond the previously
conducted studies which focused solely on schizophrenia. Other illnesses such as bipolar
disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and severe depression have been included in the study.
Authors in the article mainly argue that psychotropic drugs which are utilised to treat a
variety of mental disorders are known to adversely affect metabolism in individuals also
causing weight gain.
The article is directly related to the chosen research topic as metabolic syndrome is
commonly diagnosed in individuals suffering from mental disorders. The manner in which
mental illness in an individual correlates with and causes metabolic syndrome has been
explained in the article. Intended audience of this article consists of the general population
who might not be aware of the fact that people suffering from mental illness are also at a
much higher risk of facing metabolism related conditions.
Authors of this article reviewed historical literature available on the subject from Medline
and stated their findings. Since the study lacks a practical experiment base, no tables or
figures were available in the study.
A major strength of this article is that it seeks to bring together a vast variety of research
regarding the co-existence of mental illness and various metabolic conditions. A major
weakness on the other hand consists of the fact that most literature sources consulted are
single experiments whose results have not been duplicated till date.
The article concluded by suggesting that individuals faced with a severe mental disorder are
at least at two to three times higher risk of developing a metabolic syndrome as compared
with normal individuals. This article aids our understanding of the research topic as it drives
attention to the fact that additional attention needs to be paid towards people suffering from
mental health disorders as their mental condition might lead to several co-morbidities that can
also be a serious threat to their quality of life.
Barua, A., Basilio, M., Ghosh, M., Kar, N. (2012). Chronic Co-morbidities associated
with depression in elderly. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 5(2), 145-149
Main objective of the article is to study the chronic co-morbid conditions which tend to exit
along with depression in elderly individuals. Scope of the article is limited to examining co-
morbidities in elderly individuals and depression. This might be attributed to the fact that
depression is among the most common mental health disorders in the world. Authors in this
article mainly argue that elderly individuals throughout the world tend to develop depressive
symptoms owing to a variety of factors. Depression in turn serves to interfere with normal
physical functioning of an individual thereby causing physical co-morbidities.
The article is directly related to the topic as it serves to enlighten the researcher about a
diverse range of physical co-morbidities which might be faced by elderly individuals with a
mental condition. This article is intended at the general population and might help in taking
better care of elderly individuals faced with depression.
A retrospective study based on systematic review of prevalence of depression in the elderly
population was carried out. Mental health surveys in a community health setting were carried
out in different continents such as Australia, Europe, Asia, North and South America and
studies published between 1955 and 2005 were considered. No tables or special aids were
provided in the article.
Biggest strength of this article is that it draws from a large body of evidence which spans
globally. A weakness on the other hand might be noticed in the fact that some articles were
drawn from unreliable sources such as Google and Yahoo searches and not from academic
databases.
The article concluded by suggesting that elderly individuals who are faced with depression
are at a much higher risk for developing chronic co-morbid conditions such as arthritis, visual
impairment, cognitive impairment, and ADL.
Holahan, CJ., Pahl, SA., Cronkite, RC., Holahan, CK, North, RJ, Moos, RH. (2010).
Depression and Vulnerability to incident physical illness across 10 years. J ournal of
Affective Disorders, 123(1-3), 222-229
Main aim of this article is to examine the role of depression in onset of physical illness in
individuals. The scope of this study like its predecessors in the area was not limited to any
specific physical illness but included the topic of physical illness in general. Authors of this
article have based this study on the argument that establishing a firm relationship between
depression and a wide spectrum of physical illness is necessary and central to improving
quality of life of depressed individuals and reducing burden of illness on the society.
Text of this study relates completely and directly to the chosen topic of determining major
co-morbidities that people diagnosed with a mental illness are at a higher risk of. The text
expands on a wide spectrum of physical illness and specifies a range of physical co-
morbidities that might generally be acquired by depressed patients. A few specific physical
co-morbidities which are widely discussed to exist along with depression have also been
referred to in the literature. The article seeks to address medical practitioners and primary
care givers who would be able to utilise this study in order to improve quality of life of
depressed individuals.
The study was conducted by following 388 clinically depressed patients over a period of 10
years. Data consisting of health behaviour, medical conditions as diagnosed by physicians
and socio-demographic factors were recorded in a self reported questionnaire at baseline, 1, 4
and 10 years during the period of follow up. Tables were immensely helpful as they clearly
demonstrated the relationship between depression and probability of acquiring physical co-
morbidities.
A major strength of the article is that it draws from a wide variety of research on the topic
and has a broad scope. A major limitation on the other hand consists of the fact that patients
might report several physical conditions as a result of their depression as opposed to their
actual presence.
The article concluded by suggesting that there is a strong co-relation between depression and
existence of chronic physical illness. This article aids our understanding of the topic as it
broadens awareness of the fact that depression is not merely a mental illness but affects
physical wellness as well.
Scott, D., Burke, K., Williams, S., Happell, B., Canoy, D., Ronan, K. (2012). Increased
prevalence of chronic physical health disorders in Australians with diagnosed mental
illness. Australian and New Zealand J ournal of Public Health, 36(5), 483-486
Main aim of this article is to compare the prevalence of chronic physical health disorders in
Australians faced with mental illness and general population. Scope of this study seeks to
include a wide variety of physical health disorders such as abnormal weight gain, pain in
joints and metabolic syndrome. Authors in this article mainly argue that various mental health
conditions and treatments that patients are required to undertake tend to adversely affect
physical health causing metabolic dysfunctions and weight gain.
Like others, this article directly addresses the research topic. An experimental approach has
been adopted to explain common co-morbidities that exist with mental health disorders. The
article intends to address health professionals and tends to alert them towards the coexistence
of chronic physical co-morbidities in individuals faced with mental health conditions.
An online participant survey was conducted with a total of 1716 Australian individuals. 58%
of these participants were females. Self reported body mass index and chronic physical
conditions were utilised as outcome measures of the study. Tables presented in the article
aided understanding as they served to provide clarity. They listed participant demographics
along with the nature of their physical and mental conditions.
A major strength of the article is that it provides experimental evidence to the existence of
chronic physical co-morbidities along with mental health conditions. A major weakness
however might be seen from the fact that self reported physical conditions might be a result
of participant perception.
The article concluded by suggesting that Australian adults faced with mental conditions are at
a much higher risk of developing chronic physical conditions as compared to their
counterparts without any mental illness. The article aids our understanding of the topic as it
serves to provide further clarity and evidence to the fact that co-morbidities exist with mental
illness.
Sowden, GL., Huffman, JC. (2009). The impact of mental illness on cardiac outcomes: A
review for the cardiologist. I nternational J ournal of Cardiology, 132(1), 30-37
Main aim of this article is to determine the impact of mental health on cardiac outputs of
individuals. Scope of this study included examination of mental health conditions such as
depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and schizophrenia along with their pathophysiological
progression, treatment and impact on cardiac outputs. Authors in the article mainly argue that
mental health conditions as identified above are significant cardiac risk factors and patients
identified with these conditions face a significantly higher risk of cardiac morbidity and
mortality as compared to their counterparts in the general population.
The article bears a direct correlation with the research topic as cardiac conditions have often
been determined to co-morbidly exist with mental health conditions. The manner in which
mental health conditions impact and increase the risk of cardiac malfunctioning has also been
highlighted in the article. The article has been designed to address cardiologists who would
be able to follow pathophysiological progression of these conditions along with treatments
offered and their relationship with cardiac outputs. This would enable them to offer better
care to their patients.
This study was conducted with the help of extensive research in Medline and PsycInfo and
locating relevant articles. Owing to lack of practical experimental base of the article, there are
no tables, figures or any other special aids which might aid understanding.
A major strength of this article is that serves to spread awareness about the link between
cardiac outputs and mental health of an individual. A major limitation of the article might be
seen in that it does not serve to outline any intervention which might be helpful in improving
cardiac outputs in mental health patients.
The article concluded by suggesting that mental health conditions such as depression,
anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are high risk factors for cardiac mortality and
morbidity. This article aids our understanding of the topic as it introduces us to another
domain of co-morbidities that exists with mental illness.









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