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National Capital Region

Division of City Schools


Las Pias City
District of Las Pias 1
Las Pias Elementary School Central


ACTION RESEARCH
SY 2013 2014


IDENTIFICATION OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE READING DEFICIENCIES
OF THE GRADE FIVE PUPILS IN LAS PIAS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CENTRAL

I. INTRODUCTION
Education is deteriorating and this is the problem of the grade-five teachers.
They find many pupils deficient in the basic tools of learning. There are the non and
slow learners; those who can hardly spell words and those who are not only
handicapped but are very much at a disadvantage in successfully meeting many of the
classwork.
To respond to this, each adviser felt the urgent need to conduct this action
research to gain facts on causes of all these deficiencies and what would be a useful
tool in improving the reading performance of our pupils this school year. The grade-five
has a total enrolment of 464 as of July, whose families came from various places in the
country.
It is hoped that the research and the assistance that would be given to these
pupils would unlock the door to their world of enlightenment and they may learn to love
and enjoy reading. The parents and teachers could help each others defects and
weaknesses and advancement of their children in reading, a venue and answer to
qualify education.

II. THE PROBLEMS
1. What are some of the reading deficiencies of the grade five pupils?
2. What are the causes of these deficiencies in reading?
3. How can we make reading interesting to pupils?
4. What appropriate measures can the school/teachers implement to improve
reading techniques to minimize or eradicate reading difficulties of pupils?

III. METHODS USED AND SOURCES OF DATA
1. Diagnostic tests, Dolch Test, PHIL-INVENTORY TEST (PHIL-IRI-ORAL and
SILENT Reading Test) administered by teachers at the opening of the school
year.
2. Interviews and home visitations were conducted by the teachers most
especially to the lower sections.

IV. EXECUTION OF THE PLAN
To gather information and data needed for the research, oral and silent reading
tests, interview guides were prepared. Questionnaires were also used as basis for
inquiries needed. Interviews and home visitations were also conducted by the
teachers most especially in the lower sections.
These instruments were given at the opening of classes and the
materials/instruments and other data were retrieved before the start of the second
semester.

Table 1
NUMBER OF PUPILS IDENTIFIED BY THE TEACHERS HAVING READING
DIFFICULTIES IN GRADE FIVE

Section Enrolment
Number of Pupils with Reading Difficulties and Poor
Comprehension


ORAL SILENT
Number Percentage Rank Number Percentage
Rank
V - Diamond
57 2 5.70 7 3 8.55
9
V Pearl
53 9 23.85 6 11 29.15
8
V - Ruby
53 11 24.09 5 14 37.10
7
V - Onyx
51 15 38.25 4 18 45.90
5
V - Garnet
50 19 47.50 1 25 50.00
2
V - Sapphire
50 14 35.00 3 16 40.00
6
V - Jade
50 16 40.00 2 23 57.50
3
V - Emerald
50 14 35.00 3 21 52.50
4
V - Amethyst
50 16 40.00 2 26 65.00
1
Total
464 116 26.91 157 36.42


The table above showed that section Garnet ranked the first with the most number
of pupils with reading deficiencies or errors followed by Amethyst, Jade, Sapphire and
Onyx. Section Diamond ranked the least. The table also indicated that 116 out of 464 or
26.91% of the pupils in all sections tested in oral reading have difficulties in reading
while 157 out of 464 or 36.42% have poor or very low comprehension.


Table 2
SOME OF THE POSSIBLE FACTORS OF READING DEFICIENCIES AS IDENTIFIED
BY THE TEACHERS

Causes/Factors Frequency Percentage Rank
1. Physical Factors

2. Emotional Factors

3. Mental Factors

4. Educational Factors


The table showed that emotional factors ranked first. If learners have not been
given the proper attention and guidance of their pre-occupied or working parents in their
reading difficulties, then we would be sure these children have not been fully equipped
with the basic tools. Parental warmth and acceptance are much more conducive to child
learning and positive development. Due to other emotional factors as observed by
teachers where pupils are too shy and lack self-confidence in joining activities inside
and outside the classroom, then these children are left to show the normal activities of
growing learners.
Mental factors ranked the second as teachers revealed from interviews and
home visits that due to poor family relations and broken homes. The sense of insecurity
contributes to mental maladjustments and imbalance tendencies.
Physical factors due to visual speech and hearing defects were also
contributory to childs inability to read properly and comprehend accurately.
Educational factors ranked the least such as ineffective teaching, lack of audio-
visual materials, school facilities in reading and lack of proper assessment of pupils
reading abilities so that proper assistance can be provided.

Table 3
COMMON READING DIFFICULTIES IDENTIFIED BY TEACHERS

Based on the data gathered, the following reading deficiencies/difficulties were
cited.
AJ READING MECHANICS
1. Substitutions and insertions
2. Mispronunciation of words
3. Omission of letter/word
4. Repeating of words and lines
5. Hesitation
6. Reversals
7. Ignoring and inability to follow punctuations
8. Word by word reading
9. Long eye pauses
10. Line skipping
11. Narrow span of recognition
12. No gasper expressions
13. Improper eye movements