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A. IP in General http://www.slashdocs.com/imrnny/intellectual-property-digests.

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Article 712, Articles 721-
724, New i!il ode
"Appro!ed #une 1$,1%4%&
Article 712. 'wnership is ac(uired )y occupation and )y
intellectual creation.
'wnership and other real rights o!er property are
ac(uired and transmitted )y law, )y donation, )y testate
and intestate succession, and in conse(uence o* certain
contracts, )y tradition.
+hey may also )e ac(uired )y means o* prescription.
",-%a&
.nderstanding
opyright and /elated
/ights "012'&
http://www.wipo.int/*reepu
)lications/en/intproperty/%
-%/wipo3pu)3%-%.pd*
4ee 256
.nderstanding 1ndustrial
2roperty "012'&
http://www.wipo.int/*reepu
)lications/en/intproperty/$
%7/wipo3pu)3$%7.pd*
4ee 256
4ection 4, 12 ode 48+1'N 4. 5e*initions. 9
4.1. +he term :intellectual property rights: consists o*:
a. opyright and /elated /ights;
). +rademar<s and 4er!ice =ar<s;
c. >eographic 1ndications;
d. 1ndustrial 5esigns;
e. 2atents;
*. ?ayout-5esigns "+opographies& o* 1ntegrated ircuits;
and
g. 2rotection o* .ndisclosed 1n*ormation "n, +/124&.
4.2. +he term :technology trans*er arrangements: re*ers
to contracts or agreements in!ol!ing the trans*er o*
systematic <nowledge *or the manu*acture o* a product,
the application o* a process, or rendering o* a ser!ice
including management contracts; and the trans*er,
assignment or licensing o* all *orms o* intellectual
property rights, including licensing o* computer so*tware
e@cept computer so*tware de!eloped *or mass mar<et.
4.A. +he term :'**ice: re*ers to the 1ntellectual 2roperty
'**ice created )y this Act.
4.4. +he term :12' >aBette: re*ers to the gaBette
pu)lished )y the '**ice under this Act. "n&
8?15A5 . CD', doing
)usiness under the name
and style o* C8
'4=8+14
?AE'/A+'/F,
petitioner, !s. D'N.
'./+ '6 A228A?4,
4.==8/G1??8
>8N8/A?
=8/DAN5141N> and
'=2ANF, and AN>
+1A= /AF, H>./. No.
11777$. =arch 1%, 2--2.I
2etitioner complaint alleges:Jthat petitioner, doing
)usiness under the name and style o* C8 osmetics
?a)oratory, is theregistered owner o* the copyrights
hin hun 4u and '!al 6acial ream ontainer/ase,
asshown )y erti*icates o* opyright /egistration No. --
1A7$ and No. --A,7$;Jthat she also has patent rights on
hin hun 4u K 5e!ice and hin hun 4u *or
medicatedcream a*ter purchasing the same *rom Luintin
heng, the registered owner thereo* in the4upplemental
/egister o* the 2hilippine 2atent '**ice on 6e)ruary 7,
1%$- under /egistrationerti*icate No. 472%;Jthat
respondent 4ummer!ille ad!ertised and sold
petitionerMs cream products under the )randname hin
hun 4u, in similar containers that petitioner uses,
there)y misleading the pu)lic,and resulting in the
decline in the petitionerMs )usiness sales and income;
and, that therespondents should )e enNoined *rom
144.8: 0'N CD' is protected under the
law
.Deld: N'. +rademar<, copyright and
patents are di**erent intellectual property
rights that cannot)e interchanged with
one another. A trademar< is any !isi)le
sign capa)le o* distinguishing thegoods
"trademar<& or ser!ices "ser!ice mar<& o*
an enterprise and shall include a
stamped or mar<ed container o* goods.
1n relation thereto, a trade name means
the name or designationidenti*ying or
distinguishing an enterprise. =eanwhile,
the scope o* a copyright is con*ined
toliterary and artistic wor<s which are
original intellectual creations in the
literary and artisticdomain protected *rom
the moment o* their creation. 2atenta)le
in!entions, on the other hand,re*er to any
allegedly in*ringing on the copyrights and patents o*
thepetitioner.
/espondents allege:J4ummer!ille is the e@clusi!e and
authoriBed importer, re-pac<er and distri)utor o* hin
hun4u products manu*actured )y 4hun Fi 6actory o*
+aiwan;Jthat the said +aiwanese manu*acturing
company authoriBed 4ummer!ille to register its
tradename hin hun 4u =edicated ream with the
2hilippine 2atent '**ice and other
appropriatego!ernmental agencies; that C8 osmetics
?a)oratory o* the petitioner o)tained thecopyrights
through misrepresentation and *alsi*ication; and, that the
authority o* Luintin heng,assignee o* the patent
registration certi*icate, to distri)ute and mar<et hin
hun 4u products inthe 2hilippines had already )een
terminated )y the said +aiwanese =anu*acturing
ompany.
technical solution o* a pro)lem in any
*ield o* human acti!ity which is new,
in!ol!esan in!enti!e step and is
industrially applica)le.2etitioner has no
right to support her claim *or the
e@clusi!e use o* the su)Nect trade name
andits container. +he name and
container o* a )eauty cream product are
proper su)Nects o* atrademar< inasmuch
as the same *alls s(uarely within its
de*inition. 1n order to )e entitled
toe@clusi!ely use the same in the sale o*
the )eauty cream product, the user must
su**icientlypro!e that she registered or
used it )e*ore any)ody else did. +he
petitionerMs copyright andpatent
registration o* the name and container
would not guarantee her the right to the
e@clusi!euse o* the same *or the reason
that they are not appropriate su)Nects o*
the said intellectual rights. onse(uently,
a preliminary inNunction order cannot )e
issued *or the reason that thepetitioner
has not pro!en that she has a clear right
o!er the said name and container to
thee@clusion o* others, not ha!ing pro!en
that she has registered a trademar<
thereto or used thesame )e*ore anyone
did.
#84418 >. D1N>,
petitioner, !s. 01??1A=
=. 4A?1NA4, 4/., 8+ A?,
respondents. H>./. No.
1,12%7. #une 2%, 2--7I
2etitionerOs laim: 2etitioner alleges that she is the
registered owner o* the copyrightshin hun 4u and
'!al 6acial ream ontainer/ase, as shown )y
erti*icates o* opyright /egistration No. --1A7$ and
No. --A,7$; that she also has patent rights onhin hun
4u K 5e!ice and hin hun 4u *or medicated cream
a*ter purchasing thesame *rom Luintin heng, the
registered owner thereo* in the 4upplemental /egistero*
the 2hilippine 2atent '**ice on 6e)ruary 7, 1%$- under
/egistration erti*icate No.472%; that respondent
4ummer!ille ad!ertised and sold petitionerPs cream
productsunder the )rand name hin hun 4u, in similar
containers that petitioner uses,there)y misleading the
pu)lic, and resulting in the decline in the petitionerPs
)usinesssales and income; and, that the respondents
should )e enNoined *rom allegedlyin*ringing on the
copyrights and patents o* the petitioner.
/espondentOs laim: /espondent alleges
that 4ummer!ille is the e@clusi!e
andauthoriBed importer, re-pac<er and
distri)utor o* hin hun 4u
productsmanu*actured )y 4hun Fi 6actory
o* +aiwan; that the said +aiwanese
manu*acturingcompany authoriBed
4ummer!ille to register its trade name
hin hun 4u =edicatedream with the
2hilippine 2atent '**ice and other
appropriate go!ernmentalagencies; that
C8 osmetics ?a)oratory o* the
petitioner o)tained the copyrightsthrough
misrepresentation and *alsi*ication; and,
that the authority o* Luintin
heng,assignee o* the patent registration
certi*icate, to distri)ute and mar<et hin
hun 4uproducts in the 2hilippines had
already )een terminated )y the said
+aiwanese=anu*acturing ompany.
1ssue/s: whether ornot the copyright and
patent o!er the name and container o*
a)eauty cream product would entitle the
registrant to the use and ownership o!er
thesame to the e@clusion o* others.
/uling: 2etitioner has no right to support
her claim *or the e@clusi!e use o* the
su)Necttrade name and its container. +he
name and container o* a )eauty cream
product areproper su)Nects o* a
trademar< inasmuch as the same *alls
s(uarely within itsde*inition. 1n order to
)e entitled to e@clusi!ely use the same in
the sale o* the )eautycream product, the
user must su**iciently pro!e that she
registered or used it )e*oreany)ody else
did. +he petitionerPs copyright and patent
registration o* the name andcontainer
would not guarantee her the right to the
e@clusi!e use o* the same *or thereason
that they are not appropriate su)Nects o*
the said intellectual rights.onse(uently,
a preliminary inNunction order cannot )e
issued *or the reason that thepetitioner
has not pro!en that she has a clear right
o!er the said name and containerto the
e@clusion o* others, not ha!ing pro!en
that she has registered a
trademar<thereto or used the same
)e*ore anyone did.
4ection 14, Article Q11,
4ections 1-, 1A, 17 and
1,, Article Q1G, 2hilippine
onstitution
4ection 14. +he sustained de!elopment o* a reser!oir o*
national talents consisting o* 6ilipino scientists,
entrepreneurs, pro*essionals, managers, high-le!el
technical manpower and s<illed wor<ers and cra*tsmen
in all *ields shall )e promoted )y the 4tate. +he 4tate
shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its
trans*er *or the national )ene*it. +he practice o* all
pro*essions in the 2hilippines shall )e limited to 6ilipino
citiBens, sa!e in cases prescri)ed )y law
4ection 1-. 4cience and technology are
essential *or national de!elopment and
progress. +he 4tate shall gi!e priority to
research and de!elopment, in!ention,
inno!ation, and their utiliBation; and to
science and technology education,
training, and ser!ices. 1t shall support
indigenous, appropriate, and sel*-reliant
scienti*ic and technological capa)ilities,
and their application to the countryPs
producti!e systems and national li*e.
4ection 1A. +he 4tate shall protect and
secure the e@clusi!e rights o* scientists,
in!entors, artists, and other gi*ted citiBens
to their intellectual property and creations,
particularly when )ene*icial to the people,
*or such period as may )e pro!ided )y
law
4ection 17. Arts and letters shall enNoy
the patronage o* the 4tate. +he 4tate
shall conser!e, promote, and populariBe
the nationPs historical and cultural
heritage and resources, as well as
artistic creations.
4ection 1,. All the countryPs artistic and
historic wealth constitutes the cultural
treasure o* the nation and shall )e under
the protection o* the 4tate which may
regulate its disposition.
4ection 2, 12 ode 48+1'N 2. 5eclaration o* 4tate 2olicy. 9 +he 4tate
recogniBes that an e**ecti!e intellectual and industrial
property system is !ital to the de!elopment o* domestic
and creati!e acti!ity, *acilitates trans*er o* technology,
attracts *oreign in!estments, and ensures mar<et access
*or our products. 1t shall protect and secure the
e@clusi!e rights o* scientists, in!entors, artists and other
gi*ted citiBens to their intellectual property and creations,
particularly when )ene*icial to the people, *or such
periods as pro!ided in this Act.
+he use o* intellectual property )ears a social *unction.
+o this end, the 4tate shall promote the di**usion o*
<nowledge and in*ormation *or the promotion o* national
de!elopment and progress and the common good.
1t is also the policy o* the 4tate to streamline
administrati!e procedures o* registering patents,
trademar<s and copyright, to li)eraliBe the registration
on the trans*er o* technology, and to enhance the
en*orcement o* intellectual property rights in the
2hilippines. "n&
/82.E?1 A+ No.
1--77 AN A+
2/'G151N> +D8
6/A=80'/C AN5
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2/'28/+F
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58G8?'2=8N+
6.N585 EF
>'G8/N=8N+ AN5
6'/ '+D8/
2./2'484
4ee 256
/odrigueB N 6,
+'5AFO4 DA??8N>8:
2/'+8+1N>
'2F/1>D+ 1N +D8
1N+8/N8+, 77 Ateneo ?
# 1117 "2-1A&
4ee 256
B. Copyright: WHAT
WORKS ARE
PROTECTED; WHAT
WORKS ARE OT
4ection 172-17,, 12
ode
DA2+8/ 11
'riginal 0or<s
48+1'N 172. ?iterary and Artistic 0or<s. 9
172.1. ?iterary and artistic wor<s, hereina*ter re*erred to
as :wor<s:, are original intellectual creations in the
literary and artistic domain protected *rom the moment
o* their creation and shall include in particular:
a. Eoo<s, pamphlets, articles and other writings;
). 2eriodicals and newspapers;
c. ?ectures, sermons, addresses, dissertations prepared
*or oral deli!ery, whether or not reduced in writing or
other material *orm;
d. ?etters;
e. 5ramatic or dramatico-musical compositions;
choreographic wor<s or entertainment in dum) shows;
*. =usical compositions, with or without words;
g. 0or<s o* drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture,
engra!ing, lithography or other wor<s o* art; models or
designs *or wor<s o* art;
h. 'riginal ornamental designs or models *or articles o*
manu*acture, whether or not registra)le as an industrial
design, and other wor<s o* applied art;
i. 1llustrations, maps, plans, s<etches, charts and three-
dimensional wor<s relati!e to geography, topography,
architecture or science;
N. 5rawings or plastic wor<s o* a scienti*ic or technical
character;
<. 2hotographic wor<s including wor<s produced )y a
process analogous to photography; lantern slides;
l. Audio!isual wor<s and cinematographic wor<s and
wor<s produced )y a process analogous to
cinematography or any process *or ma<ing audio-!isual
recordings;
m. 2ictorial illustrations and ad!ertisements;
n. omputer programs; and
o. 'ther literary, scholarly, scienti*ic and artistic wor<s.
172.2. 0or<s are protected )y the sole *act o* their
creation, irrespecti!e o* their mode or *orm o*
e@pression, as well as o* their content, (uality and
purpose. "4ec. 2, 2.5. No. 4%a& cda
DA2+8/ 111
5eri!ati!e 0or<s
48+1'N 17A. 5eri!ati!e 0or<s. 9
17A.1. +he *ollowing deri!ati!e wor<s
shall also )e protected )y copyright:
a. 5ramatiBations, translations,
adaptations, a)ridgments, arrangements,
and other alterations o* literary or artistic
wor<s; and
). ollections o* literary, scholarly or
artistic wor<s, and compilations o* data
and other materials which are original )y
reason o* the selection or coordination or
arrangement o* their contents. "4ec. 2, H2I
and HLI, 2.5. No. 4%&
17A.2. +he wor<s re*erred to in
paragraphs "a& and ")& o* 4u)section
17A.1 shall )e protected as new wor<s:
2ro!ided howe!er, +hat such new wor<
shall not a**ect the *orce o* any su)sisting
copyright upon the original wor<s
employed or any part thereo*, or )e
construed to imply any right to such use
o* the original wor<s, or to secure or
e@tend copyright in such original wor<s.
"4ec. $, 2.5. 4%; Art. 1-, +/124&
48+1'N 174. 2u)lished 8dition o* 0or<.
9 1n addition to the right to pu)lish
granted )y the author, his heirs, or
assigns, the pu)lisher shall ha!e a
copyright consisting merely o* the right o*
reproduction o* the typographical
arrangement o* the pu)lished edition o*
the wor<. "n&
DA2+8/ 1G
0or<s Not 2rotected
48+1'N 177. .nprotected 4u)Nect
=atter. 9 Notwithstanding the pro!isions
o* 4ections 172 and 17A, no protection
shall e@tend, under this law, to any idea,
procedure, system, method or operation,
concept, principle, disco!ery or mere
data as such, e!en i* they are e@pressed,
e@plained, illustrated or em)odied in a
wor<; news o* the day and other
miscellaneous *acts ha!ing the character
o* mere items o* press in*ormation; or
any o**icial te@t o* a legislati!e,
administrati!e or legal nature, as well as
any o**icial translation thereo*. "n&
48+1'N 17,. 0or<s o* the
>o!ernment. 9
17,.1. No copyright shall su)sist in any
wor< o* the >o!ernment o* the
2hilippines. Dowe!er, prior appro!al o*
the go!ernment agency or o**ice wherein
the wor< is created shall )e necessary
*or e@ploitation o* such wor< *or pro*it.
4uch agency or o**ice may, among other
things, impose as a condition the
payment o* royalties. No prior appro!al
or conditions shall )e re(uired *or the
use *or any purpose o* statutes, rules
and regulations, and speeches, lectures,
sermons, addresses, and dissertations,
pronounced, read or rendered in courts
o* Nustice, )e*ore administrati!e
agencies, in deli)erati!e assem)lies and
in meetings o* pu)lic character. "4ec. %,
*irst par., 2.5. No. 4%&
17,.2. +he author o* speeches, lectures,
sermons, addresses, and dissertations
mentioned in the preceding paragraphs
shall ha!e the e@clusi!e right o* ma<ing a
collection o* his wor<s. "n&
17,.A. Notwithstanding the *oregoing
pro!isions, the >o!ernment is not
precluded *rom recei!ing and holding
copyrights trans*erred to it )y
assignment, )e(uest or otherwise; nor
shall pu)lication or repu)lication )y the
>o!ernment in a pu)lic document o* any
wor< in which copyright is su)sisting )e
ta<en to cause any a)ridgment or
annulment o* the copyright or to
authoriBe any use or appropriation o*
such wor< without the consent o* the
copyright owner. "4ec. %, third par., 2.5.
No. 4%&
6/AN14' >.
#'AL.1N, #/., and E#
2/'5.+1'N4, 1N.
!s.D'N'/AE?8
6/ANC?1N 5/1?'N,
>AE/18? R'4A,
01??1A= 842'4'
68?128 =851NA, #/.,
and A48F
6/AN14', H>./. No.
1-$%4,. #anuary 2$,
1%%%.I
2e titionerMs laim:2etitioner E# 2roductions, 1nc.
"E#21& is the holder/grantee o* erti*icate o* opyright
No. =%22,dated #anuary 2$, 1%71, o* / hoda and =e, a
dating game show aired *rom 1%7- to 1%77 claimsthat
there is an in*ringement on the copyright o* the show
:/D'5A AN5 =8: )oth in contentand in the e@ecution
o* the !ideo presentation are esta)lished )ecause
respondentPs :1+P4 A5A+8: is practically an e@act copy
o* complainantPs :/D'5A AN5 =8: )ecause o*
su)stantialsimilarities. As may H)eI gleaned *rom the
e!idence on record, the su)stance o* the
tele!isionproductions complainantPs :/D'5A AN5 =8:
and RosaPs :1+P4 A 5A+8: is that two matchesare made
)etween a male and a *emale, )oth single, and the two
couples are treated to a nightor two o* dining and/or
dancing at the e@pense o* the show. +he maNor
concepts o* )oth showsis the same. Any di**erence
appear mere !ariations o* the minor concepts./e
spondentMs laim:Eoth pu)lic and pri!ate respondents
maintain that petitioners *ailed to esta)lish the e@istence
o* pro)a)le cause due to their *ailure to present the
copyrighted master !ideotape o* / hoda and =e. +hey
contend that petitioner E#21Ps copyright co!ers only a
speci*ic episode o* / hoda and =eand that the *ormats
or concepts o* dating game shows are not co!ered )y
copyrightprotection under 2.5. No. 4%.
1ssu e:0hether the *ormat and mechanics
o* a +G show may )e su)Nect o* a
copyright.4../uling:+o )egin with the
*ormat o* a show is not copyrighta)le.
4ection 2 o* 2.5. No. 4%, otherwise<nown
as the 58/88 'N 1N+8??8+.A?
2/'28/+F, enumerates the classes o*
wor<entitled to copyright protection, does
not include the *ormat or mechanics o* a
tele!ision show.6or this reason, the
protection a**orded )y the law cannot )e
e@tended to co!er them. +hecopyright
does not e@tend to an idea, procedure,
process, system, method o*
operation,concept, principle, or disco!ery,
regardless o* the *orm in which it is
descri)ed, e@plained,illustrated, or
em)odied in such wor<.
61?121N' 4'18+F '6
'=2'48/4,
A.+D'/4 AN5
2.E?14D8/4, 1N., !s.
E8N#A=1N +AN H>./.
No. ?-A,4-2. =arch 1,,
1%$7.I
1. >./. No. ?-A,4-2. =arch 1,, 1%$7.I 61?121N'
4'18+F '6 '=2'48/4, A.+D'/4 AN5
2.E?14D8/4, 1N., plainti**- appellant, !s. E8N#A=1N
+AN, de*endant-appellee.2lainti**-appellant:Jis the
owner o* certain musical compositions among which are
the songs entitled: :5ahil 4a1yo:, :4apag<at 1<aw Ay
A<in,: :4apag<at Cami Ay +ao ?amang: and :+he
Nearness '* Fou.:J*iled a complaint with the lower court
*or in*ringement o* copyright against de*endant-
appellee*or allowing the playing in de*endant-appelleePs
restaurant o* said songs copyrighted in thename o* the
*ormer.5e*endant-appellee,Jcountered that the
complaint states no cause o* action. 0hile not denying
the playing o* saidcopyrighted compositions in his
esta)lishment, appellee maintains that the mere singing
andplaying o* songs and popular tunes e!en i* they are
copyrighted do not constitute anin*ringement under the
pro!isions o* 4ection A o* the opyright ?aw.
144.8: whether or not the playing and
signing o* musical compositions which
ha!e )eencopyrighted under the
pro!isions o* the opyright ?aw "Act
A1A4& inside the esta)lishment o* the
de*endant-appellee constitute a pu)lic
per*ormance *or pro*it within the meaning
andcontemplation o* the opyright ?aw o*
the 2hilippines; and assuming that there
were indeedpu)lic per*ormances *or pro*it,
whether or not appellee can )e held lia)le
there*or.
Deld: N'. 1t has )een held that :+he
playing o* music in dine and dance
esta)lishment whichwas paid *or )y the
pu)lic in purchases o* *ood and drin<
constituted :per*ormance *or pro*it:within
a opyright ?aw.: +hus, it has )een
e@plained that while it is possi)le in
suchesta)lishments *or the patrons to
purchase their *ood and drin<s and at the
same time dance tothe music o* the
orchestra, the music is *urnished and
used )y the orchestra *or the purpose o*
inducing the pu)lic to patroniBe the
esta)lishment and pay *or the
entertainment in the purchaseo* *ood and
drin<s. +he de*endant conducts his place
o* )usiness *or pro*it, and it is pu)lic;
andthe music is per*ormed *or
pro*it.Ne!ertheless, appellee cannot )e
said to ha!e in*ringed upon the opyright
?aw. AppelleePsallegation that the
composers o* the contested musical
compositions wai!ed their right in *a!or
o* the general pu)lic when they allowed
their intellectual creations to )ecome
property o* thepu)lic domain )e*ore
applying *or the corresponding copyrights
*or the same is correct.+he 4upreme
ourt has ruled that :2aragraph AA o*
2atent '**ice Administrati!e 'rder No.
A"as amended, dated 4eptem)er 1$,
1%47& entitled P/ules o* 2ractice in the
2hilippines 2atent'**ice relating to the
/egistration o* opyright laimsP
promulgated pursuant to /epu)lic
Act1,7, pro!ides among other things that
an intellectual creation should )e
copyrighted thirty "A-&days a*ter its
pu)lication, i* made in =anila, or within
the ",-& days i* made elsewhere, *ailure
o* which renders such creation pu)lic
property.: 1ndeed, i* the general pu)lic
has made use o* theo)Nect sought to )e
copyrighted *or thirty "A-& days prior to
the copyright application the lawdeems
the o)Nect to ha!e )een donated to the
pu)lic domain and the same can no
longer )ecopyrighted..nder the
circumstances, it is clear that the musical
compositions in (uestion hadlong
)ecome pu)lic property, and are
there*ore )eyond the protection o* the
opyright ?aw.