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2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 1


Bit Life
Concepts and Calculations
2
Range of Bit Life
Application
8 1/2EHP Bearing
Results
Middle East 140 Hours
S. England 60 Hours
Norway 25 Hours
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 3
Factors Affecting Bearing Life
2
4
Factors Affecting Bearing Life
Formation
Parameters
Mud
Reaming
Direction
Vibration
5
Formation
Rock Strength
Heterogeneous or Homogenous
Abrasiveness
6
Mud
Mud Weight
Increase
Mud Chemistry
Encourages
High W.O.B.
Seal Integrity
Reduces R.O.P.
Attacks Seal
Mud Solids
& Sand
Reduced Life.
Seal Erosion
Bearing Erosion
3
7
Reaming
Normal Drilling
Different Loading Environments
How much?
How difficult?
Reaming
Backreaming
8
Direction
Bent Motor Housing or Bent Sub
Bend Angle
Bit to Bend Distance
Percentage Sliding or Rotating
Number of transitions
Hole Angle
Build Rate/Turn Rate
Dog leg severity
9
Vibration
Damages
Cutting Structure
Impact Damage
to Bearing
Accelerated
Bearing Wear
Damages Gauge
Uneven bearing
load
Accelerated
Bearing Wear
Exposes Seal
Reduced Bearing Life
4
10
Parameters
W.O.B.
Direct - loads bearing
Indirect - wears/damages cutting structure
Wear versus W.O.B.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
W.O.B.
11
WOB and RPM
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 12
Measuring Bit Life
5
13
Range of Bit Life
Application
Horizontal
Motor
8 1/2EHP Bearing
Soft Carbonate
Medium Sandstone
Hard Sandstone
Results Hrs Bearing
Middle East 140 Hours E
S. England 60 Hours E
Norway 25 Hours E
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Measures of Bit Life
Hours run
5 8 0 0 0 0
Total revolutions - Krevs
BPR - Billion Pounds
Revolutions
WOB x RPM x Minutes
15
Measures of Bit Life
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
M. East WytchFarm Norway
Run Length - Hours
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
1000000
1200000
1400000
M. East Wytch Farm Norway
Run Length - KRevs
0
5
10
15
20
M. East WytchFarm Norway
Run Length - BPR
6
16
Drilling Hours
Example:
12 TD44 in directional well
Bit life (effective bearings) in this specific
application typically 70 75 hrs
Activity Multiplier
Drilling 1.0
Reaming .5- 2.0
Back-Reaming .5- 3.0
Circulating open hole 0- 0.5
Circulating casing 0.25- 2.0
Previous bit severely undergauge
Ream 8 hours
Drill fifty two hours
Backream 6 hours
One lost cone two failed bearings
In sixty six hours
Good bit - - Bad Bit ??
17
Drilling Hours
12 TD44 in directional well
Bit life (effective bearings) in this specific
application typically 70 75 hrs
Activity Multiplier
Drilling 1.0
Reaming .5- 2.0
Back-Reaming .5- 3.0
Circulating open hole 0- 0.5
Circulating casing 0.25- 2.0
Ream 8 hours = 15 hours
Drill fifty two hours = 52 hour
Backream 6 hours = 16 hours
Good bit - - Bad Practices
Total = 83 hours Total = 83 hours
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 18
Estimating Bit Life
Some Practical Methods
7
19
Estimating Bit Life
Pragmatic
Estimate
Single shot
High Risk
Ideal
Cautious, conservative
Step-by-step
Low Risk
20
Estimating Bit Life
Ideal
Set benchmark performance level
What causes variations in this bit
life?
What is the best measure?
Examine the run and dull bit
Adjust length of next run
Repeat process
21
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
147
1
0
1
3
1
6
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
8
3
1
3
4
Bi t Runs
H
o
u
r
s

R
u
n
All runs, ordered by hours
8
22
All runs, ordered by Total Revolutions
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
147
1
0
1
3
1
6
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
8
3
1
3
4
Bi t Runs
K
R
e
v
s
23
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
High RPM runs: rpm greater than 250
24
Estimating Bit Life
Pragmatic
Purchase a book on Chaos Theory and understand its
application to Bearing Life!
Characterise the application
Recognise the differences
Adjust projected life on the basis of these differences
Identify a similar application
Lithology
Interval Length
Directional Objectives
Directional Means
Mud System
Other (Drill out, vibration)
Lithology Similar
Interval Length 15%longer
Directional Objectives Greater hole
angle
Directional Means 1.15v1.5deg
bend angle
Mud System Same
Other (Drill out, vibration) Similar
Lithology Similar -0-
Interval Length 15%longer -0-
Directional Objectives Greater hole
angle +10%
- 5%
Directional Means 1.15v 1.5deg
bend angle +10%
Mud System Same -0-
Other (Drill out, vibration) Similar -0-
9
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Bearing Reliability Curves
12 1/4" TC11P - Motor assemblies
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Krevs
R
e
l
i
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
26
Bearing Reliability Curves
12 1/4" TC11P -Reliability - Motor asseemblies
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
BPR
R
e
l
i
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
27
Bearing Reliability Curves
12 1/4" TC11P USA Motor
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Effective
Failed Seals
10
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 28
Cutting Structure Life
29
Uncertainties in Cutting Structure Life
MICE
M Microscopic I Incremental C Catastrophic E Events
30
Vibration
Damages
Cutting Structure
Impact Damage
to Bearing
Accelerated
Bearing Wear
Damages Gauge
Uneven bearing
load
Accelerated
Bearing Wear
Exposes Seal
Reduced Bearing Life
11
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 31
Bit Life Indicators
How to spot a failed bearing
32
Bit Life Indicators
Cutting Structure
Rate of Penetration Drops
Rate of Penetration Stops
Fixed Cutter and Roller Cone Fixed Cutter and Roller Cone
Gauge
Torque increases
Evidence of stabiliser hang up
R.O.P.
33
Bit Life Indicators
Bearing
Rate of Penetration Drops
Torque increases
Steering character changes
MWD/LWD signal quality deteriorates
MWD/LWD Shock levels increase
12
34
Misleading Indicators
Many factors may affect these indicators
Formation
WOB/RPM
Mud weight
Change in hole angle
Cutting Structure
Wear
6400
6600
6800
7000
7200
7400
7600
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
6400
6600
6800
7000
7200
7400
7600
9 10 11 12 13 14
Mud Weight
35
Torque Indicators
Torque increases
Torque becomes erratic
Torque spikes occur
36
Directional Indicators
Qualitatively the steering character of the bit changes in
some way
Qualitative
Subjective
Subtle (Perhaps)
Real
13
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 37
Conclusion
Bit Life Estimates
Attainable Goal - Complex Path
38
Bit Life - Complex Solution
Therefore,
Analyse relevant offset data
carefully
systematically
Monitor indicators attentively as the bit is run
Diligently evaluate all aspects of successive runs
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 39
Questions?
14
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 40
Questions?
A subtitle, date or details may be added here
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 41
Administrative Slides
A subtitle, date or details may be added here
42
Version History
Version 1.0 This presentation was created in its initial form in 2000 by Ian
McMillan for a NExT Drilling Engineering Course
Version 2.0 This was adapted in Q1 2001 for use on D & M Directional Driller
Induction Courses
Version 2.1 Notes text and illustrations were added to it in connection with a BBS
request from Bilal Salman in May 2001
Version 2.2 Additional text and new introduction following peer review May 9 2001
Version 2.3 Minor adjustments to animations, Sept 3 2001
Version 3.0 Reduced to bit life determination only, March 2005
Version 3.a NOV format Feb 2009
15
43
Acknowledgements
Version 2.2
My thanks to Mark J ordan for reviewing this material and to Corin
Lewsey and Pawl Victor for acting as guinea pigs for a test run of the
presentation. All three offered valuable suggestions.
Version 3.0
Review and suggestions by Mark J ordan.
44
Contact Information
If you have any questions concerning this presentation contact:
Ian McMillan
Reed-Hycalog,
Unit 10, Kirkton Avenue,
Pitmedden Industrial Estate,
Aberdeen,
AB21 0BF
Office: +44 (0)1224
Mobile: +44 (0) 7850 924 932
Home: +44 (0) 1467 681 451
e-mail: ian.mcmillan@NOV.com
2008 ReedHycalog, L.P. All Rights Reserved. 45
Format Slides
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16
46
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48
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