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Introduction to Polymer Chemistry


411317 Polymer Chemistry (2/2552)
by Dr. WalaipornPrissanaroon-Ouajai
Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, KMUTNB
411317 by Dr. Walaiporn Prissanaroon-Ouajai (IC-KMUTNB)
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POLYMER CHEMISTRY- WHAT IS IT ?
Chemistry of large molecules
1980
411317 by Dr. Walaiporn Prissanaroon-Ouajai (IC-KMUTNB)
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What are polymers ?
Why are polymersimportant ?
Extraordinary range of
physical properties
Many (not all)are cheap
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Polymer contains repeating units
Polymers vs. Macromolecules
A polymer is a macromolecule.but
a macromolecule may not be a polymer
Polypropylene (PP)
n
Macromolecules contain no repeating units
Ex. Protein, DNA
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Packaging/films (PE, PP, PET)
Everyday household stuff
Paint (Polyacrylate, Epoxy)
Adhesives (Epoxy resin, Acrylic resin)
Auto's,aerospace,etc.
Fibres (polyester, nylon)
Electronic applications
Elastomers (Rubber, Butadiene)
Applications
ABS
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Plastics and the Environment ?
FromThe Poison Plasticpublished by
Greenpeace (www.greenpeace.org):
Most common plastics pose serious threats to
human health and the environment.
extreme pollution fromproduction
toxic chemical exposure during use
hazards fromfires (C
x
H
y
+O
2
CO
2
+H
2
O)
their contribution to the
worlds growing waste crisis.
http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/waste_rubbish.htm(!"#$%#&""'()*)
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Ages agoNatural fibers Ex. wool, silk and cotton
1492Columbusdiscovered
South America and found
the use of natural rubber
(Heveabrasiliensis)
Historical background
Uses:
Latex coating
Polyisoprene
Crying trees
Para rubber
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Vulcanizationtransformation of hevearubber
to elastomer (valcanizedrubber)
1839Charles Goodyear
1
st
synthetic plastic made from natural polymer
1843Nelson Goodyear
Ebonite
High % vulcanization (rubber:S=100:32)
S
8
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1848 - Menard Cellulose Nitrate
Synthetic polymers started!!
1
st
artificial thermoplastic
1846Parkesand Hyatt
Celluloid
Cellulose Nitrate +Camphor (as plasticizer)
use in photographic industry
highly flammable compound
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1905- Baekeland Bakelite
1st truly synthetic plastic
not soften by heat
Phenol
Formaldehyde
Phenol-Formaldehyde resin
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1920s - Staudinger Macromolecule hypothesis
Nobel prize - Chemistry 1953
Demonstrations of Both natural & synthetic polymers
Polymer is Giant molecule
not aggregate like colloid or cyclic compound
long chain-like molecule
formulated a polymericstructure for rubber,
based on a repeating isoprene unit
1927 PVC
1931 PMMA & Neoprene
1938 Nylon
1941 LDPE
1943 Silicone
1947 Epoxy resins
1948 ABS
1957 HDPE
Development of commercial polymers
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Classification of polymers
1. By source
1.1 Natural polymers (including macromolecules)
cis-polyisoprene(natural rubber)
glycosidiclinkage
PolysaccharideEx. starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin, chitosan
(C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n-1
where n = 300 and 3000.
-NHCO-CH
2
for chitin
-NH
2
for chitosan
Protein
(Polyamide)
Ex. plastics, synthetic rubbers, synthetic fibers ect.
1.2 Synthetic polymers
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2.1 Condensation polymerization (frombi/polyfunctional monomers)
2. By polymerization reaction (for synthetic polymers)
Dimer
Monomer
Ester bond
[C-(CH
2
)
n
-C-O-(CH
2
)
m
-O]
O O
polyester
Ex. Polyamide, polyurethane, polycarbonate, ect.
Step-growth polymerization
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2.2 Chain-growth polymerization (fromunsaturated hydrocarbons or olefins )
Ex. poly(vinyl alcohol), PTFE, poly(vinyl acetate), PMMA ect.
X X
X
X
X
[CH
2
-CH
2
]
[CH-CH
2
]
n
n
[CH-CH
2
]
Cl
n
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3. By composition
3.1 Homopolymers (contain one type of repeat unit)
[CH
2
-CH
2
] [CH-CH
2
]
OH
n n
3.2 Copolymers
(contain at least 2 repeat units)
Ex. Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene block copolymer (SBS)
Thermoplastic Elastomer
Ex. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS)
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4.1 Linear chain with 2 ends
4.2 Cyclic- chain with no end
4.3 Branchedpolymers have side chains
4.4 Dendritic(or dendrimer) - tree-like molecule
4.5 Network (or crosslinked)
3D structures which each chain is
connected to others
4. By skeletal structure
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Strain () = L
L
0
Deformation .........
Stress .......
Strain .-.....
5. By application
In case solidSee mechanical properties-.............
Strain
Stress
Flexible plastics
Fiber
Rigid plastics
Elastomer
Emulsion
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6.1 Thermoplastics - Soft (and melt) and formable when heated
- Rigid when cooled
- Can be re-heated and re-formed into different shapes
6. By thermal behavior
Recycled plastics
6.2 Thermosetting plastics- Initially form a X-linked solidwith by heating
- Soft (not melt) when 2
nd
heated but cannot re-shaped
Melamine-formaldehyde resins
Epoxy resins
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Biodegradable polymers
Conducting polymers
Specific classes of polymers
PLA
PHB
PCL
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Nomenclature of Polymers
Source-based name: base on name of monomer
Structure-based name: base on structure of repeat unit
Poly + name of monomer Note:use ( ) if monomer has a multi-worded name
Poly(nameof structure of repeat unit)
CH
2
=CH
2
CH=CH
2
OH
CH=CH
2
CH
3
Monomer Polymer Source-based name Structure-based name
In UK called polythene
411317 by Dr. Walaiporn Prissanaroon-Ouajai (IC-KMUTNB)
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IUPAC recommendation for source-based names of polymers
1. Homopolymer
Poly+nameof monomer
For multi-worded monomer name
Poly(nameof monomer)
or
Polyethylene
(PE)
Polypropylene
(PP)
Polystyrene
(PS)
Poly(vinyl chloride)
(PVC)
Polytetrafluoroethylene
(Teflon)
1.1) Addition polymers
Most common polymer.Used in bags,
wire insulation,and squeeze bottles
Fibers,indoor-outdoor carpets,bottles
Styrofoam,molded objects such as
tableware (forks,knives and spoons),
trays,videocassette cases.
Clear food wrap,bottles,floor covering,
synthetic leather,water and drain pipe
Nonstick surfaces,plumbing tape,
chemical resistant containers and films
(or ethylene)
(or propylene)
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1.1) Addition polymers (continued)
Polyacrylonitrile
(Acrilan,Orlon,Creslan)
Polychlorprene
(neoprene rubber)
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA)
Polyisoprene
Natural rubber
Styrene butadiene
rubber (SBR)
Poly(methyl methacrylate)
(Lucite, Plexiglas)
Glass replacement,paints,and
household products
Fibers used in knit shirts,sweaters,
blankets,and carpets
Adhesives (Elmers glue),paints,
textile coatings,and chewing gum
Rubber bands,gloves,tires,conveyor
belts,and household materials
Oil and gasoline resistant rubber
Non-bounce rubber used in tires
(or isoprene)
(or chloroprene)
(2-chloro-1,3-butadiene)
(copolymer)
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1.2) Condensation polymers
Polyamides
(nylon)
Polyesters
(Dacron,Mylar,Fortrel)
Polyesters
(Glyptal resin)
Polyesters
(Casting resin)
Fibers,molded objects
Linear polyesters,fibers,
recording tape
Cross-linked polyester,paints
Cross-linked with styrene and
benzoyl peroxide,fiberglass
boat resin,casting resin
(fromcondensation polymerization)
(Thermoset)
(Thermoset)
(Thermoplastic)
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Phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite)
Cellulose acetate
Silicones
Polyurethanes
Mixed with fillers,molded electrical
cases,adhesives,laminates,
varnishes
Photographic film
Water-repellent coatings,
temperature-resistant fluids and
rubber
Foams,rigid and flexible,fibers
Note :Same repeat units and names can exhibit different
chemical and physical characteristics,e.g.MWor MWD.
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2. Copolymer
Poly(nameof monomer A-co-name of monomer B)
Poly(propene-co-methacrylonitrile)
Polyacrylonitrile-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene
Poly[(acrylic acid)-ran-(ethyl acrylate)]
Polyisoprene-graft-poly(methacrylic acid)
Ex.
Copoly(propene/methacrylonitrile)
Block-copoly(acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene)
Ran-copoly(acrylic acid/ethyl acrylate)
Graft-copoly(isoprene/methacrylic acid)
Alternative Format
(Random)
411317 by Dr. Walaiporn Prissanaroon-Ouajai (IC-KMUTNB)