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Chapter 4. The Properties of Light


4.1 Introduction
Scattering Transmission, reflection, and refraction
(microscopic) (macroscopic)


4.2 Rayleigh Scattering
Scattering of sunlight
Sunlight in the air Ground-state vibration of Re-emission of light.
nitrogen, oxygen, etc.

Higher freq. of light Larger amplitude of ground-state vibration.
Stronger scattering.

The intensity of the scattered light ~
4

Blue scatters more strongly than red (Blue sky)







Rayleigh scattering : Scattering from particles < /15



A. Scattering and Interference

Rare medium (separation ).
Optical path difference to P >> .
Intensites are added at P

The dense medium (separation ).
Electric fields are added at P.
Less lateral scattering due to interference.


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Forward Propagation
The same optical path length to P
Constructive interference in forwar direction.





B. The Transmission of Light Through Dense Media
Little scatterings in the lateral or the backward directions





A fixed phase difference among wavelets in the lateral direction.
Sumed to zero

More dense, uniform and ordered medium
More complete lateral destructive interference
Forward propagation without diminish

Example
Glass, plastic : amorphous solids Lateral scattering
Quartz, mica : crystals Smaller lateral scattering

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C. Transmission and the Index of Refraction
A primary wave in a dielectric.
Ground-state vibrations of atoms
Spherical wavelets
Interference of wavelets to form secondary wave.

The primary + The secondary wave The transmitted wave

Same speed of c The phase velocity =c , <c, >c.
Refractive index change.

Primary wave Electron oscillator Secondary wave

0 ~ phase shift 90
o
phase lag, natural result
Lorentz model (3.5)

For <<
o
: The secondary lags the primary by 90
o

For
o
, at resonance : 180
o
out of phase. Reduced refracted wave (absorption)
For >>
o
: 270
o
phase lag




Dashed : reduced damping





Accumulated phase lag or lead Speed change of the wave.




Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-4
4.3 Reflection
A beam of light in a dense medium Scattering mostly in the forward direction
A beam of light across an interface Some backward scattering. Reflection

The change of n over a distance > Little reflection
The change of n over a distance < /4 Abrupt interface

Internal and External Reflection
Unpaired atomic oscillators Reflection
Indep. of glass thickness


Beam I : External reflection ( n n
i t
< )
Beam II : Internal reflection ( n n
i t
> ), 180
o
phase shift

Huygenss Principle
Every point on a primary wavefront behaves
as a point source of spherical secondary wavelet.
The secondary wavelets propagate with the same speed
and frequency with the primary wave.
The wave at a later time is the superposition of these wavelets.

Rays
A ray is a line drawn in the direction of light propagation.
In most cases, ray is straight and perpendicular to the wavefront
A plane wave is represented by a single ray.

A. The Law of Reflection
A plane wave into a flat medium ( >> atomic spacing)
Spherical wavelets from the atoms.
Constructive interference only in one direction.



Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-5

Derivation of the law

At t=0, the wavefront is AB
At t=t
1
, the wavefront is CD

Note
v t BD AD
i i 1
= = sin ,
v t AC AD
r r 1
= = sin

sin sin
i
i
r
r
v v
=

Since v v
i r
=

i r
= : Law of reflection (Part I)



4.4 Refraction
The incident rays are bent at an interface
Refraction

A. The Law of Refraction
At t=0 the wavefront is AB
At t t = the wavefront is ED

v t BD AD
i i
= = sin
v t AE AD
t t
= = sin

sin sin
i
i
t
t
v v
=

Since v
c
n
i
i
= , v
c
n
t
t
=
n n
i i t t
sin sin = : Law of refraction, Snells law


A weak electric field
A linear response of the atom
A simple harmonic vibration of the atom
The frequencies of the incident, reflected
and refracted waves are equal.


4.5 Fermats Principle
Hero proposed the principle of shortest path

i r
=
S, P and B are in the plane of incidence

Fermat proposed the principle of least time
Light takes the path that takes the least time

Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-6
Reflection by Fermats principle
The time from S to P

( )
2
2
2 2
i t i t
b a x
SO OP h x
t
v v v v
+
+
= + +

sin sin
i
i
t
t
v v
= : Snells law

dt dx / = 0


Optical Path Length
The transit time from S to P
t
s
v c
n s
i
i
i
m
i i
i
m
=
= =

1 1
1


Optical path length (OPL)

In an inhomogeneous medium
( )
P
S
OPL n s ds =




Modern Fermats Principle
The optical path length of the actual light path is
stationary with respect to variations of the path

df
dx
= 0



Not allowed in the principle of least time

Rays slightly deviate from the stationary path
The same OPL
Constructive interference

Stationary paths in an ellipsoidal mirror










Fermat and Mirages
[Fig. 4.31-33] Bending of rays due to Fermats principle
Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-7

k
r

k
i

i
r

k
i

k
t
4.6 The Electromagnetic Approach
A. Waves at an Interface
An incident plane wave

( )
cos
i oi i i
E E k r t =



The reflected and transmitted waves

( )
cos
r or r r r
E E k r t = +




( )
cos
t ot t t t
E E k r t = +



, ,
i r t
are constant phases

The boundary conditions

( ) ( ) ( )
tangential tangential tangential
i r t
E E E + =



u E
n i

u E
n r

u E
n t




This relation should be satisfied
regardless of

r and t

i r t
= =






k r k r k r
i r r t t
= + = + (1)

From the first two of (1)

( ) i r r
k k r =


:

r is on the interface plane


( ) ( )


k k r r
i r o
= 0 :

r
o
is a point on the interface plane
( ) //


k k u
i r n
: u
n
is the surface normal

k
i
,

k
r
and

u
n
form a plane (Plane of incidence)


k k
i i r r
sin sin =
i r
=



k k
i r
=
From the first and last of (1)

( ) i t t
k k r =



( ) ( )


k k r r
i t o
= 0

( )

i t
k k

The interface plane

k
i
,

k
t
and

u
n
form the plane of incidence


k k
i i t t
sin sin = n n
i i t t
sin sin =
k n c = /

Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-8
1 0.2
0.8
B. The Fresnel Eqs.
Case 1.

E The plane of incidence


The relation among

E H k , , and

( )

// E H k

,
( )

// k E H




At the interface


E E E
oi or ot
+ = (1)

( ) ( ) ( )
tangential tangential tangential
oi or ot
H H H + =



H x
oi i
cos

H x
or r
cos

H x
ot t
cos



Since H E v = /
( )
1 1
cos cos
oi or i ot t
i i t t
E E E
v v
=

(2)


From (1) and (2) with
i r t o
= = = , v c n = /

Amplitude reflection coefficient

cos cos
cos cos
or t t i i
oi t t i i
E n n
r
E n n


=

+


Amplitude transmission coefficient

2 cos
cos cos
ot i i
oi t t i i
E n
t
E n n


=

+


The physical meaning of phase shift
in the reflected wave when n n
t i
> .

Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-9
Case 2. E // The plane of incidence


E
tangential
should be continuous across the interface

( ) ( ) ( )
tangential tangential tangential
oi or ot
E E E + =

(3)

E x
oi i
cos

, E x
or r
cos

, E x
ot t
cos

, :

E is such that

B points outward

H
tangential
should be continuous across the interface

( ) ( ) ( )
tangential tangential tangential
oi or ot
H H H + =

(4)


1

i i
oi
v
E z

r r
or
v
E z

t t
ot
v
E z



From (3) and (4) with
i r
= , v v
i r
= ,
i r t o
= = = , v c n = /

Amplitude reflection coefficient

//
//
cos cos
cos cos
or t i i t
oi t i i t
E n n
r
E n n

=

+


Amplitude transmission coefficient

//
//
2 cos
cos cos
ot i i
oi t i i t
E n
t
E n n

=

+

]

Applying Snells law assuming
i
0, Fresnel Eqs. become
n n
i i t t
sin sin =

( )
( )
sin
sin
t i
t i
r


=
+

( )
( )
//
tan
tan
t i
t i
r

=
+


( )
2sin cos
sin
t i
t i
t


=
+

( ) ( )
//
2sin cos
sin cos
t i
t i t i
t

=
+


Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-10
C. Interpretation of the Fresnel Eqs.

Amplitude Coefficients
At normal incidence,
i
= 0

t i
t i
n n
r r
n n


= =
+



The external reflection ( ) ,
t i i t
n n > >
r

< 0.

//
0 r = when ( ) 90
o
t i
+ = : Brewster angle, Polarization angle of
i p
= .

The internal reflection ( ) ,
i t t i
n n > >
1 r

= when 90
o
t
= : Critical angle of
i c
= in sin
i i t
n n =

//
0 r = when ( ) 90
o
t i
+ = : Brewster angle of
' i p
= .
( 90
o
p p
+ = )




n n
t i
> , n
t
= 15 . n n n
i t i
> = , . 15
Stronger reflection at glacing angle


Reflectance and Transmittance
The power per unit area : S = b e

, poynting vector
In phasor form :
( )
*
1
2
S E H =


The intensity
( )
2
/ W m : Irradiance

2
1
2
o r o
c
I S E
n
= = : Average energy per unit time per unit area


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The cross sectional area of the incident beam = A
i
cos
reflected beam = A
r
cos
transmitted beam = A
t
cos
The reflectance
R
I A
I A
I
I
E
E
r
r r
i i
r
i
or
oi
= =
Reflected power
Incident power
cos
cos

2
2


The transmittance


=



2
2
cos cos cos Transmitted power
Incident power cos cos cos
t t ot t t t t
i i oi i i i i
I A E n n
T t
I A E n n


Energy conservation
I A I A I A
i i r r t t
cos cos cos = +
n E n E n E
i oi i i or i t ot t
2 2 2
cos cos cos = +

2 2
cos
1
cos
or t t ot
oi i i oi
E n E
E n E

= +




R T


Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-12
4.7 Total Internal reflection
The Snells law for n n
i t
>
sin sin
i
t
i
t
n
n
= :
i t
<

At the critical angle,
t
=90
o

sin
c
t
i
n
n
=

For
i c
>
All the incoming energy is reflected back
into the incident medium
Total Internal Reflection

Internal reflection and TIR:
Transition from (a) to (e) without discontinuity.
(Reflection increases while transmission decreases)


TIR in prisms
The critical angle at air-glass interface : 42
o




TIR in terms of scattering



A surface wave when
t
o
= 90
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Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-14
A. The Evanescent Wave
Using Snells law we rewrite Fresnel Eq. as

( )
( )
2
2
2
2
/ sin cos
cos cos
cos cos
/ sin cos
t i i i
t t i i
t t i i
t i i i
n n
n n
r
n n
n n



=
+
+


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
//
2 2
2
/ sin / cos
cos cos
cos cos
/ sin / cos
t i i t i i
t i i t
t i i t
t i i t i i
n n n n
n n
r
n n
n n n n


=
+
+


r r

,
//
become complex when
i c
>
r r r r R

= = =
*
// //
*
1

The transmitted wave:
( ) t
i k r t
t ot
E E e

=

where
t tx ty
k k x k y = +




















k k k
n
n
tx t t t
i
t
i
= sin sin

2
2
cos 1 sin
i
ty t t t i
t
n
k k k
n

=











2
2
sin 1
i
t i
t
n
i k
n

=
Snells law
i c
>

The transmitted wave :
sin
i
t i
t
n
ik x y i t
n
t ot
E E e

=

, Evanescent wave
It advances in x-direction but exponential decay along y-axis
Constant phase (yz-plane) Constant amplitude (xz-plane), Inhomogeneous wave
No net energy flow across the interface.

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR)
Dense medium Rare medium Dense medium (Energy transfer)

TIR Evanescent wave


[Fig. 4.55] FTIR
[Fig. 4.56] Beamsplitter using FTIR
Low-index space controls the transmittance
Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-15


4.8 Optical Properties of Metals
Free electrons in metals

J E =
Conductivity
Unbound Current density

A perfect conductor : =
Electrons follow the electric field exactly
(No restoring force, no natural freq., no absorption, only reemission)

In real metals :
Collision of electrons with lattice or imperfections
Energy loss by heat

Waves in a metal
The Maxwells eqs. in metals
=


E
B
t

, = +

H
E
t
E

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

E
x
E
y
E
z
E
t
E
t
+ + = +
( )
2 2
o o o
n i E

2 2
o o
o
n i E

+





Damping ( )
2
2
c R I
n n in = +

The plane wave solution

I R
n y i n y i t
ik r i t
c c
o o
E E e E e

+

=





o o c
k n y =



The irradiance
( ) ( ) 0
y
I y I e

= , 2 2 = =
I
n f
c

: attenuation coefficient
For y =
1

the irradiance drops by a factor of e


1
: skin depth,


Example Skin depth of Copper
For UV ( ) 100
o
nm = 06 . nm
For IR ( ) 10,000
o
nm = 6nm

Little penetration High reflection of light

Metals reflect almost all the incident light (85%~95%) regardless of wavelengths
Colorless (Silvery gray)
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The Dispersion Equation
Vibration of a bound electron due to the electric field
( ) ( )
2 2
/
o
q m
x t E t
i
=

: q > 0 , x measures from - to +

No restoring force in metals :
o
= 0
( ) x t is always 180
o
out of phase with ( ) E t
The reradiated wave cancels the incoming wave

The Dispersion Relation
Neglect bound charges and neglect assuming high frequency
( )
2
2
2
2
1 1
p
o
Nq
n
m

=



:
p
= plasma frequency

For <
p
, n becomes complex. Exponential decay of the wave
for >
p
, n becomes real. Small absorption. The conductor becomes transparent

Ionosphere : Distribution of free electrons
n < 1 and real for >
p


Reflection from a metal
At normal incidence on a metal

( )
( )
* 2
2
2
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
R I
c c
c c
R I
n n
n n
R
n n
n n
+
=

+ +
+ +
:
c R I
n n in = +

If n
I
= 0 Dielectric material
If n
I
> 0 R becomes larger
If n n
I R
>> n
c
purely imaginary, R=1



Reflectance from an absorbing medium n
I
and R depend on


[p130] Visor of space suit
Thin gold coating 70% reflection
(Reduction of IR transmission still transmitting VIS)
Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-17
4.9 The Interaction of Light and Matter
Reflection of all visible frequency White color
70%~80% reflection Shiny gray of metal

Thomas Young : Colors can be generated by mixing three beams of light
well separated in frequency

Three primary colors combine to produce white light : No unique set

The common primary colors : R, G, B


Two complementary colors combine to produce white color

M G W
C R W
Y B W
+ =
+ =
+ =
,
,



A saturated color contains no white light (deep and intense)
An example of an unsaturated color
( ) ( ) M Y R B R G W R + = + + + = + : Pink

The characteristic color comes from selective absorption

Example:
(1) Yellow stained glass
White light Resonance in blue Yellow is seen at the opposite side
Red + Green
Strong absorption in blue

(2) H O
2
has resonance in IR and red
No red at ~30m underwater

(3) Blue ink looks blue in either reflection or transmission
Dried blue ink on a glass slide looks red.
Very strong absorption of red.
Strong absorber is a strong reflector due to large n
I
.

Resonance of materials
Most atoms and molecules Resonances in UV and IR
Pigment molecules. Resonances in VIS
Organic dye molecules Resonance in VIS


Subtractive coloration
Blue light Yellow filter Black at the other side

It removes blue
Hecht by YHLEE;100510; 4-18