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A

Regional
GIS
Analysis
of Energy
Use in the
U.S.
April 6
2014
This is an analysis of energy usage across the different regions in the
United States for the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008. The analysis
includes the total energy use of a regions residential, transportation,
commercial, and industrial energy use.
By Calix Martinez
A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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Table of Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................2
Study Area .........................................................................................................3
GIS Data Review ...............................................................................................4
Listed below are a name and description of the GIS data files Ive gathered
for the analysis. ...............................................................................................4
Energy Consumption Estimated Energy per Capita, 1960-2008 from
National Atlas. ................................................................................................4
1:1,000,000-Scale State Boundaries of the United States from National
Atlas ................................................................................................................5
State per Capita for 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008 from Income Bureau of
Economic Analysis .........................................................................................6
Data Preparation/GIS Workflow .......................................................................6
Analysis .............................................................................................................9
Analysis: Per Capita Income ........................................................................10
Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita ...............................................................14
Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita .....................................................19
Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita ....................................................29
Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita ........................................................34
Results: Total Energy Per Capita .................................................................41
Results: Transportation Energy ....................................................................45
Results: Industrial Energy ............................................................................49
Results: PCI and Energy Use .......................................................................51


A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of income and energy use among the
different regions of the United States. My goals are to identify any trends or patterns among the
regions. Future energy policies and plans would benefit from this analysis as to assist in the
decision making process.
My approach will be to use data retrieved from the Energy Administration, The United
States Bureau of Economic Analysis, and NationalAtlas.gov. Spatial analysis will be done using
geographic information software ArcMap 10.1.

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Study Area

Regions used will be:
o East North Central: WI, IN, OH, IL, MI.
o East South Central: KY, TN, AL, MS.
o Middle Atlantic: NY, PA, NJ.
o Mountain: MT, WY, ID, NV, UT, CO, AZ, NM.
o New England: ME, VT, NH, MA, CT, RI.
o Pacific: HI, WA, OR, CA, AK.
o South Atlantic: DC, DE, WV, MD, VA, NC, GA, SC, FL.
o West North Central: ND, SD, MN, IA, NEW, KS, MO.
o West South Central: OK, TX, AR, LA.
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GIS Data Review
Listed below are a name and description of the GIS data files Ive gathered for the analysis.
1. Energy Consumption Estimated Energy per Capita, 1960-2008 from National
Atlas.
This data set portrays per capita energy consumption estimates for each of the
fifty individual States, for the District of Columbia, and in aggregate for the United
States, for the years 1960 to 2008. The estimates are given in British Thermal Units
(Btu). Included are estimates for four energy-consuming sectors, which include
residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Also included is an estimate of
total energy consumption that combines the four energy-consuming sectors. (National
Atlas of the United States, 2007)
1. The residential sector consists of living quarters for private households.
Common uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water
heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a variety of
other appliances. The residential sector excludes institutional living quarters. The
commercial sector consists of service-providing facilities and equipment for
businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public
organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups. (National Atlas of the
United States, 2007)
2. The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes
sewage treatment facilities. Common uses of energy associated with this sector
include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration,
cooking, and running a wide variety of other equipment. It also includes
generators that produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to
A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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support the activities of the above-mentioned commercial establishments.
(National Atlas of the United States, 2007)
3. The industrial sector consists of all facilities and equipment used for producing,
processing, or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following
types of activity: manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting;
mining, including oil and gas extraction; natural gas distribution; and
construction. Overall energy use in this sector is largely for process heat and
cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility heating, air
conditioning, and lighting. Fossil fuels are also used as raw material inputs to
manufactured products. This sector includes generators that produce electricity
and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the above- mentioned industrial
activities. (National Atlas of the United States, 2007)
4. The transportation sector consists of all vehicles whose primary purpose is
transporting people and/or goods from one physical location to another. Included
are automobiles; trucks; buses; motorcycles; trains, subways, and other rail
vehicles; aircraft; and ships, barges, and other waterborne vehicles. (National
Atlas of the United States, 2007)
2. 1:1,000,000-Scale State Boundaries of the United States from National Atlas
This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and
the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting county polygon
features from the CENSUS 2006 TIGER/Line files produced by the U.S. Census Bureau.
These files were then merged into a single file and county boundaries within States were
removed. (National Atlas of the United States, 2007)
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3. State per Capita for 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008 from Income Bureau of Economic
Analysis
Per capita personal income was computed using Census Bureau midyear population
estimates. Estimates for 2010-2012 reflect county population estimates available as of
March 2013. Note, All state and local area dollar estimates are in current dollars (not
adjusted for inflation). (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
Data Preparation/GIS Workflow
1. The first step was to prepare my data.
a. The Estimated Energy per Capita data were all DBF files, which are tables not
associated with a SHP file. The data was added into my ArcMap 10.1 interface,
and then joined with the State Boundaries.
i. Joining data is typically used to append the fields of one table to those of
another through an attribute or field common to both tables. (ArcGIS10.1
Help)
b. The data was then exported to create five new SHP files.
1. STATE_Total Energy per Capita
2. STATE_Industrial Energy per Capita
3. STATE_Commercial Energy per Capita
4. STATE_Transportation Energy per Capita
5. STATE_Residential Energy per Capita
c. The State Boundaries data needed to be regionalized to create a Region
Boundaries SHP file. Using the SUB_REGION field in the attribute table, each of
the states were Merged by region.
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i. Merge combines selected features of the same layer into one feature. The
features must be from either a line or a polygon layer. (ArcGIS10.1 Help)

d. The STATE_Total, Industrial, Commercial, Transportation, and Residential
Energy per Capita DBF files needed to be regionalized. Using the Dissolve
reprocessing tool, the STATE_TOTAL, Industrial, Commercial, Transportation,
and Residential Energy per Capita DBF files were used as Input Features. The
Output Feature Class for each process was SUB_REGION. The Statistics fields
chosen were Z960-Z008 and the Statistic Type chosen was MEAN.
i. The Dissolve tool is used to create a simplified coverage from one that is
more complex. Although the input coverage may contain information
concerning many feature attributes, the output coverage contains
information only about the dissolve item. The attributes of the features that
become aggregated by dissolve can be summarized or described using a
variety of statistics. The statistic used to summarize attributes is added to
the output feature class as a single field with the following naming
standard of statistic type + underscore + input field name. For example, if
the SUM statistic is used on a field named POP, the output will have a
field named SUM_POP.
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e. Personal income per Capita was manually inputted for each state into the States
SHP file for the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008. Data was obtained from the
Bureau of Economic Statistics.
f. Summary Statistics analysis tool was used in ArcMap 10.1 to find a mean
personal income per capita for each region under analysis. The Input Table
chosen were the State field. The Statistics Fields chosen were Personal Income
per Capita for 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008. The Case field chosen was
SUB_REGION. A DBF file was created and joined with the regions layer.

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Analysis
Multiple regional maps were created using quantitative graduated color symbology and
natural breaks in the data. These maps depict Per Capita Income, Total Energy per Capita,
Residential Energy per Capita, Transportation Energy per Capita, Commercial Energy per
Capita, and Industrial Energy per Capita. Multiple maps for these were created for the years
1980, 1990, 2000, and 2008 to look for any significant changes or trends over time.

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Analysis: Per Capita Income

For 1980, we can see that the East South Central and East North Central region have the
lowest PCI. The Mountain, West North Central, West South Central, South Atlantic, and New
England region all fall within the middle of the PCI range. Regions with the highest PCI are the
Pacific and Middle Atlantic region.

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Analysis: Per Capita Income

For 1990, we can see that West South Central and East South Central region have the
lowest PCI. The Mountain, West North Central, East North Central, South Atlantic, and Pacific
region fall within the middle of the PCI range. The region with the highest PCI is the Middle
Atlantic Region.

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Analysis: Per Capita Income

For 2000, we can see that the West South Central, East South Central have the lowest
PCI. The Mountain, West South Central, East South Central, South Atlantic, and Pacific regions
all fall in the middle of the PCI range. The regions with the highest PCI are the Middle Atlantic
and New England regions.

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Analysis: Per Capita Income

For 2008, we can see that the East South Central region has the lowest PCI. The
Mountain, West South Central, West North Central, East North Central, South Atlantic, and
Pacific region all fall within the middle of the PCI range. The Middle Atlantic and New England
regions have the highest PCI.

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Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita
Total Energy consists of the sum of the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation
sector.
The residential sector consists of living quarters for private households. Common uses of energy associated with
this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a
variety of other appliances. The residential sector excludes institutional living quarters. The commercial sector
consists of service-providing facilities and equipment for businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and
other private and public organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups. (National Atlas of the United
States, 2007)
The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes sewage treatment facilities. Common
uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting,
refrigeration, cooking, and running a wide variety of other equipment. It also includes generators that produce
electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the activities of the above-mentioned commercial
establishments. (National Atlas of the United States, 2007)
The industrial sector consists of all facilities and equipment used for producing, processing, or assembling goods.
The industrial sector encompasses the following types of activity: manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, fishing and
hunting; mining, including oil and gas extraction; natural gas distribution; and construction. Overall energy use in
this sector is largely for process heat and cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility
heating, air conditioning, and lighting. Fossil fuels are also used as raw material inputs to manufactured products.
This sector includes generators that produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the above-
mentioned industrial activities. (National Atlas of the United States, 2007)
The transportation sector consists of all vehicles whose primary purpose is transporting people and/or goods from
one physical location to another. Included are automobiles; trucks; buses; motorcycles; trains, subways, and other
rail vehicles; aircraft; and ships, barges, and other waterborne vehicles. (National Atlas of the United States, 2007)

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Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita

In 1980, we can see that the region with the lowest Total Energy Consumption per Capita
was the New England region. The Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, East
South Central, West North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fall within the middle of the
Total Energy per Capita range. The region with the highest Total Energy Use per Capita is the
West South Central region.

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Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita

In 1990, we can see that the regions with the lowest Total Energy Use per Capita are the
Middle Atlantic and New England region. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South
Central, West North Central, West South Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fall within the
middle of the Total Energy Consumption per Capita range. The region with the highest Total
Energy Consumption per Capita is the West South Central region.

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Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita

In 2000, the regions with the lowest Total Energy Consumption per Capita were the
Middle Atlantic and New England regions. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South
Central, West North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fall within the middle of the Total
Energy Consumption per Capita range. The region with the highest Total Energy Consumption
per Capita was the West South Central region.

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Analysis: Total Energy Per Capita

In 2008, the regions with the lowest Total Energy Consumption per Capita were the New
England and Middle Atlantic regions. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South
Central, West North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fall within the middle of the Total
Energy Consumption per Capita range. The region with the highest Total Energy Consumption
per Capita was the West South Central region.
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Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita
The residential sector consists of living quarters for private households. Common uses
of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning,
lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a variety of other appliances. The residential sector
excludes institutional living quarters. The commercial sector consists of service-providing
facilities and equipment for businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private
and public organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups.

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Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita

In 1980, the regions with the lowest Residential Energy Consumption per Capita were the
Pacific and South Atlantic regions. The Mountain, West South Central, East South Central,
Middle Atlantic, and New England regions fell in the middle of the Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The regions with the highest Residential Energy Consumption
per Capita were the West North Central and East North Central regions.

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Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita

In 1990, the Middle Atlantic and Pacific regions had the lowest Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita. The Mountain, South Atlantic, New England, West South Central, East
South Central, and East North Central regions all fall in the middle of the Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The West North Central region had the highest Residential
Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita

In 2000, the Pacific region had the lowest Residential Energy Consumption per Capita.
The Mountain, Middle Atlantic, West South Central, South Atlantic, East North Central, and
New England regions all fell in the middle of the Residential Energy Consumption per Capita
range. The West North Central and East South Central regions had the highest Residential
Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Residential Energy per Capita

In 2008, the Pacific region had the lowest Residential Energy Consumption per Capita.
The New England, Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, West South Central, and
mountain region all fell in the middle of the Residential Energy Consumption per Capita range.
The West North Central and East South Central region had the highest Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita.
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Analysis: Transportation Energy Per Capita
The transportation sector consists of all vehicles whose primary purpose is
transporting people and/or goods from one physical location to another. Included are
automobiles; trucks; buses; motorcycles; trains, subways, and other rail vehicles; aircraft; and
ships, barges, and other waterborne vehicles.

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Analysis: Transportation Energy Per Capita

In 1980, the regions with the lowest Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita were
the New England, Middle Atlantic, and East North Central regions. The South Atlantic, East
South Central, West South Central, West North Central, and Mountain region all fell within the
middle of the Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita range. The Pacific region had the
highest Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Transportation Energy Per Capita

In 1990, the Middle Atlantic and New England region had the lowest Transportation
Energy Consumption per Capita. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central,
West North Central, West South Central, and Mountain region all fell in the middle of the
Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita range. The Pacific region had the highest
Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Transportation Energy Per Capita

In 2000, the Middle Atlantic and New England regions had the lowest Transportation
Energy Consumption per Capita. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central,
West North Central, and Mountain region all fell in the middle of the Transportation Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The Pacific and West South Central region had the highest
Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Transportation Energy Per Capita

In 2008, the New England region had the lowest Transportation Energy Consumption per
Capita. The Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West North
Central, and Mountain region fell in the middle of the Transportation Energy Consumption per
Capita range. The Pacific and West South Central region had the highest Transportation Energy
Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita
The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes sewage
treatment facilities. Common uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating,
water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a wide variety of
other equipment. It also includes generators that produce electricity and/or useful thermal output
primarily to support the activities of the above-mentioned commercial establishments.

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Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita

In 1980, the New England region had the lowest Commercial Energy Consumption per
Capita. The Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West North
Central, and Mountain region all fall in the middle of the Commercial Energy Consumption per
Capita range. The Pacific and West South Central region had the highest Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita.


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Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita

In 1990, the East South Central region had the lowest Commercial Energy Consumption
per Capita. The New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, South Atlantic, West North
Central, West South Central, and Pacific region fell in the middle of the Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The Mountain region had the highest Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita

In 2000, the New England region had the lowest Commercial Energy Consumption per
Capita. The Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West North Central, West
South Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fell in the middle of the Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The South Atlantic region had the highest Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita.


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Analysis: Commercial Energy per Capita

In 2008, The New England and Pacific region had the lowest Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita. The Middle Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West
South Central, and Mountain region all fell in the middle of the Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The West North Central and South Atlantic region had the
highest Commercial Energy Consumption per Capita.

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Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita
The industrial sector consists of all facilities and equipment used for producing,
processing, or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following types of
activity: manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting; mining, including oil and gas
extraction; natural gas distribution; and construction. Overall energy use in this sector is largely
for process heat and cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility
heating, air conditioning, and lighting. Fossil fuels are also used as raw material inputs to
manufactured products. This sector includes generators that produce electricity and/or useful
thermal output primarily to support the above- mentioned industrial activities.

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Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita

In 1980, the New England region had the lowest Industrial Energy Consumption per
Capita. The Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West North
Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fell in the middle of the Industrial Energy Consumption
per Capita range. The West South Central region had the highest Industrial Energy Consumption
per Capita.


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Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita

In 1990, the Middle Atlantic and New England region had the lowest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West
North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fell in the middle of the Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The West South Central region had the highest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita.


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Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita

In 2000, the Middle Atlantic and New England region had the lowest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West
North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fell in the middle of the Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The West South Central region had the highest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita.


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Analysis: Industrial Energy per Capita

In 2008, the Middle Atlantic and New England region had the lowest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita. The South Atlantic, East North Central, East South Central, West
North Central, Mountain, and Pacific region all fell in the middle of the Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita range. The West South Central region had the highest Industrial Energy
Consumption per Capita.


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Results: Per Capita Income
1980 PCI 1990 PCI 2000 PCI 2008 PCI
Pacific 10,744.4 19,783.4 29,707.0 42,228.0
Mountain 9,115.1 16,319.50 25,739.0 37,917.50
New England 9,288.1 20,237.5 32,152.6 45,110.3
West North
Central
8,989.7 16,977.1 27,320.2 40,320.8
Middle Atlantic 10,166.0 21,796.0 33,770.3 47,409.6
East North
Central
9,586.4 18,031.80 28,798.6 37,804.4
South Atlantic 9,146.6 18,583.1 29,181.1 42,519.6
East South
Central
7,357.0 15,282.750 23,613.0 33,064.750
West South
Central
8,495.5 14,980.5 24,121.7 36,866.7
Decreases and increases in PCI are based on a regions movement into one of the 5
natural breaks groups in the data.
The region with the highest Per Capita Income from 1980 to 2008 was the Middle
Atlantic region.
The New England region has increased its PCI from 1980 to 2008.
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The Pacific region had the highest per capita income in 1980. It declined in 1990 and
hasnt changed significantly up till 2008.
The East North Central region has had a decline in PCI from 1980 to 2008
The South Atlantic region has seen growth in PCI from 1980 to 2008.
The West North Central Region has seen some growth in PCI from 1980 to 2008.
The Mountain region has had a decline in PCI from 1980 to 2008.
The West South Central region has seen some growth in PCI from 1980 to 2008.
The East South Central region has the lowest PCI and has seen little change in PCI from
1980 to 2008.

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Results: Total Energy Per Capita

The New England region has the least amount of Total Energy Consumption per Capita.
From 1980 to 2000 there was a rise in consumption and nearly exceeded the Middle Atlantics.
From 2000 to 2008, there was a decline in consumption.
The Middle Atlantic region had a decline in Total Energy Consumption per Capita from 1980
to 1990; this was opposite of the New England regions growth in consumption. From 1990 to
2000, there was some growth in consumption but that leveled off from the year 2000 to 2008.
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
MEAN_Z980 MEAN_Z990 MEAN_Z000 MEAN_Z008
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Year, 1980 to 2008
Total Energy Consumption per Capita
East North Central
East South Central
Middle Atlantic
Mountain
New England
Pacific
South Atlantic
West North Central
West South Central
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The South Atlantic region experienced growth very similar to the New England region. From
1980 to 2000, the South Atlantic region had an increase in Total Energy Consumption per
Capita. In 2000, this stopped and they began to experience a decline in consumption till 2008.
The East North Central region falls within the middle of the Total Energy Consumption per
Capita range. From 1980 to 2008 there was growth and decline in consumption. In 2008, the
regions consumption was slightly less than its 1980 consumption.
The East South Central region experienced a modest rate of growth in consumption from
1980 to 1990. This rate increased from 1990 to 2000. From 2000 to 2008, the region experienced
a slight decline in consumption.
The West North Central region has experienced the most growth in Total Energy
Consumption per Capita among the other regions. Consumption has been increasing at an
aggressive rate from 1980 to 2008.
The West South Central region consumes the most Total Energy per Capita among all the
regions. Overall from 1980 to 2000, it has seen a decline in energy use.
The Mountain region has not had any significant changes in Total Energy Consumption per
Capita from 1980 to 2008.
The Pacific region experienced a large amount of growth from 1980 to 1990. From 1990 to
2008 it has had a decline in Total Energy consumption.

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Results: Residential Energy

The New England region falls within the middle of the Residential Energy Consumption per
Capita range. There was a modest rate of growth from 1980 to 2000 followed by a sharp decline
until 2008.
The Middle Atlantic region had a large decline in Residential Energy Consumption from
1980 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2000 there was a large amount of growth in consumption.
Overall, from 1980 to 2008 there was very little change in consumption.
The South Atlantic region has seen an overall growth from 1980 to 2008 in energy
consumption.
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
MEAN_Z980 MEAN_Z990 MEAN_Z000 MEAN_Z008
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Year, 1980 to 2008
Residential Energy Consumption per Capita
East North Central
East South Central
Middle Atlantic
Mountain
New England
Pacific
South Atlantic
West North Central
West South Central
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The East North Central region experienced a large decline in Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita from 1980 to 1990. This was followed by a steady growth until 2008.
Overall, there was very little change in consumption from 1980 to 2008.
The East South Central region has exhibited the largest amount of change in Residential
Energy Consumption per Capita. From 1980 to 2000, there was a large increase in consumption.
From 2000 to 2008, there has been a slight decline.
The West North Central region has growth in Residential Energy Consumption from 1990 to
2008.
The West South Central region has experienced a large amount of growth in Residential
Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2000. There has been a decline in use from 2000 to 2008.
The Mountain region has experienced an overall growth in Residential Energy Consumption
from 1980 to 2008.
The Pacific region has seen a large decline in Residential Energy Consumption from 1980 to
2008.


A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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Results: Transportation Energy

The New England region has experienced growth in Transportation Energy use from 1980 to
2008. This region had the lowest transportation energy consumption among the regions.
The Middle Atlantic region has experienced growth in Transportation Energy Consumption
from 1980 to 2008.
South Atlantic: The South Atlantic region had some growth in consumption till 2000, but
declined until 2008.
The East North Central region experienced growth in consumption till 2000, and then has
had a decline in consumption till 2008.
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
MEAN_Z980 MEAN_Z990 MEAN_Z000 MEAN_Z008
E
n
e
r
g
y

U
s
e

p
e
r

C
a
p
i
t
a

(
B
t
u
)

Year, 1980 to 2008
Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita
East North Central
East South Central
Middle Atlantic
Mountain
New England
Pacific
South Atlantic
West North Central
West South Central
A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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The East South Central region experienced growth in consumption till 2000, and then had a
decline until 2008.
The West North Central region has experienced growth in consumption from 1980 to 2008.
The West South Central region had growth in Transportation Energy Consumption until
2000, and then had a decline in consumption until 2008.
The Mountain region has fluctuated every year, but has overall slightly declined in
transportation energy consumption.
The Pacific region has the highest Transportation Energy Consumption among the regions
and has had a slight increase from 1980 to 2008.


A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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Results: Commercial Energy

The New England region has seen growth in Commercial Energy consumption from 1980
to 2008.
The Middle Atlantic region has seen growth in Commercial Energy consumption from
1980 to 2008.
The South Atlantic region had some growth in Commercial Energy Consumption until 2000.
It had a decline in consumption until 2008.
The East North Central region has had growth in Commercial Energy Consumption from
1980 to 2008.
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
MEAN_Z980 MEAN_Z990 MEAN_Z000 MEAN_Z008
E
n
e
r
g
y

U
s
e

p
e
r

C
a
p
i
t
a

(
B
t
u
)

Year, 1980 to 2008
Commercial Energy Consumption per Capita
East North Central
East South Central
Middle Atlantic
Mountain
New England
Pacific
South Atlantic
West North Central
West South Central
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The East South Central region has had growth in Commercial Energy Consumption until
2000. It then declined in consumption rate until 2008. Overall this region did exhibit growth in
consumption.
The West North central region has seen significant growth in Commercial Energy
consumption from 1980 to 2008.
The West South Central region has the highest Commercial Energy consumption. From 1980
to 2008 it has had a decline in consumption.
The Mountain region has had very little change in commercial energy consumption from
1980 to 2008.
The Pacific region had a large increase in commercial energy consumption until 1990. This
was followed by a decrease in consumption until 2008.

A Regional GIS Analysis of Energy Use in the U.S. by Calix Martinez
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Results: Industrial Energy

The New England region has the lowest Industrial Energy consumption among all the
regions. From 1980 to 2008 it has experienced an overall decline in consumption.
The Middle Atlantic region has experienced an overall decline in industrial energy
consumption.
The South Atlantic region has experienced an overall decline in industrial energy
consumption from 1980 to 2008.
The East North Central region has experienced an overall decline in industrial energy
consumption from 1980 to 2008.
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
MEAN_Z980 MEAN_Z990 MEAN_Z000 MEAN_Z008
E
n
e
r
g
y

U
s
e

p
e
r

C
a
p
i
t
a

(
B
t
u
)

Year, 1980 to 2008
Industrial Energy Consumption per Capita
East North Central
East South Central
Middle Atlantic
Mountain
New England
Pacific
South Atlantic
West North Central
West South Central
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The East South Central region had experienced little change in industrial energy consumption
from 1980 to 2008.
The West North Central region is the only region to experience significant growth from 1980
to 2008.
The West South Central region has the highest industrial energy consumption. It has
experienced an overall decline from 1980 to 2008.
The Mountain region has experienced a modest decline in industrial energy consumption
from 1980 to 2008.
The Pacific region experienced some growth in industrial energy consumption from 1980 to
1990. It has had a decline in consumption until 2008.

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Results: PCI and Energy Use
Statistical regression analysis using Arcmap 10.1 was run. The dependent variable chosen was
energy use across the four sectors and the independent variable chosen was PCI. The results were
inconclusive and not significant. I believe this to be caused by the gaps between the years 1980,
1990, 2000, and 2008 of the PCI data used. However, a visual analysis was done looking at
trends among the higher and lower percentile regions. These are not conclusion, only
speculations that should be further looked into.
1. The New England and Middle Atlantic regions have the highest Per Capita Income
among the other regions.
a. These two regions have the smallest area among the other regions.
b. Both have the least amount of Residential Energy Consumption per Capita.
c. Both have the least amount of Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita,
possible due to size of the regions.
d. Both are in the bottom half of the Commercial Energy Consumption per Capita
among the other regions.
e. Both are in the bottom half of the Industrial Energy Consumption per Capita
among the other regions.
2. The East South Central and West South Central regions have the lowest Per Capita
Income among the other regions.
a. The West South Central region has highest Total Energy Consumption per Capita.
b. The East South Central region has one of the highest Residential Energy
Consumption per Capita.
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c. Both regions are near the highest in Transportation and Commercial Energy
Consumption per Capita, possible due to size.
d. West South Central region has highest Industrial Energy Consumption per Capita
and the East South Central region is second highest, possible due to size and
location.
3. The South Atlantic has seen growth from 1980 to 2008 in its Per Capita Income relative
to the other regions.
a. The South Atlantic has seen little change in Total Energy Consumption per
Capita.
b. Residential Energy Consumption per Capita is increasing.
c. Transportation Energy Consumption per Capita has not changed much.
d. Commercial Energy Consumption per Capita has not changed much.
e. Industrial Energy Consumption per Capita is on the decline.
Although I used the mean of all the States for each region for their PCI and energy
consumption, I would speculate that the size of the region seems to play a role in its energy use;
especially when looking at specific sectors of energy use. When we look at this data and
compare the PCI to energy use there do not seem to be any definite trends, further research and
more data is necessary before drawing any conclusions on how they relate to each other.

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Bibliography
ArcGIS10.1 Help. (n.d.). ArcGIS 10.1. ESRI.
Bureau of Economic Analysis. (n.d.). Regional Economic Accounts. Retrieved from Bureau of Economic
Analysis: http://bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/spi/sqpi_newsrelease.htm
National Atlas of the United States. (2007, December 20). 1:1,000,000-Scale State Boundaries of the
United States. Rolla, MO, United States of America. Retrieved from
http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp-1m.html
National Atlas of the United States. (2007, October 20). Energy Consumption Estimated Energy per
Capita, 1960-2008. Reston, VA, United States of America. Retrieved from
http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html