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INTELLIGENT URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

KKKA6424






Prepared by :
MOHD ROZAIDI BIN ISMAIL P72431

LECTURER
PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH BIN O.K. RAHMAT












KAJANG
is a town in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. Kajang is the district capital
of Hululangat. It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from Malaysia's capital, Kulalumper
.Kajang town has grown rapidly in the past several decades. New strategies for traffic
control must be developed in order to manage the increase in traffic volume.






ThisstudyshallbeconductedalongthearterialroutesofKajangcity,(consistingof4signaliz
ed intersections)



This problem includes Congestion - slower speed Delays increased queuingQueues
- longer trip timeWastage Cost - loses time and increase fuel consumption.

STUDY OBJECTIVE

The main objective of the Study is to formulate low cost solutions to the existing
urban traffic control system by optimizing traffic flows along a few selected arterial
routes in typical mid-size Malaysian urban environment.




PROBLEM OF STATEMENT


THE SOLUTIONS SHALL INCLUDE

An Operation Manual listing down guidelines to determine the optimum cycle time,
green time split and offset for various traffic conditions and junction configurations.
Low cost solutions such as control methodology to the existing urban traffic control
system and installation of advanced sensors
.

SCOPE OF WORK

The scope of work of this study consists of the followingsSite Visit Traffic Surveys
and Analyses.








































































































































TRAFFICSURVEYSANDANALYSES

Trafficsurveysshallbeconductedat/forappropriatetimes/durations,
soastopresentunbiased
andtypicaltrafficflowsalongtheroutes.Ingeneral,thetypesoftrafficsurvey shallinclude
ClassifiedVolumeCountatallapproachestoandbetweentheintersections,
TravelTimeSurvey alongthearterialroutesandQueueLengthandDelay
Surveysatallapproaches tothe intersections.

Basedonthetrafficdataandothersiteinformationcollected,analysesshallbecarriedoutu
sing appropriatecomputer software:
Determinethebestcontrolmethodologyfortheintersec
tion
Determinetheoptimumcycletime,greentime, split
andoffsettime

































GENERAL
The study consists of seven main activities the main activities are datacollection,
determination of phasing sequences, determination of optimum cycle and green
timesplit, determination of optimum offset and setting up timing setting on site
controllers.
In addition, two activities are conducted to enhance the study output, ie. Proposal of
automaticsystem and development of traffic control expert system.

Data collection (Traffic Surveys)
The data collection at (A.M peak and P.M peak) the timing plan could be computed
based on thetraffic flow pattern throughout the day.Type of traffic count, namely peak
hours junction classified volumetric count. Classifiedvolumetric counts are required
to determine optimum cycle timing and green time spilt plan. Inaddition travel time
survey and queue length and delay survey are determining optimum offset.The survey
has been carried out manually to provide accurate results and overall pictures of
thestudy area.






ADOPTEDPASSENGERCARUNTIL (PCU).FACTORS


Vehicle PCUfactor



CAR 1.0



M/Cycle 0.33



VAN
1.0


LIGHTLORRY
1.5


HEAVYLORRY
2.5


BUS
2.0




TRAVELTIMESURVEY

Weassumetheaveragetravelspeedisabout10/see.Thisspeedwillbeadaptedtodetermini
ng Offsettime.


QUEUELENGTHANDDELAY

InthisstudywedeterminethemaximumnumberofvariedQueuelengthformainflowis12
VariedPerlanewhichisusedasParameteringreentimeattestcomputations








Enumerator for
trafficcounting
Enumerator for
vehicleingueue
counting




Intersection1neartherestaurantsatekajangHJsamurimorning


Direction

1

Weststrai
ghtWestLefttu
rn

2
EastStraight

3

SouthStraight
SouthLeftturn
SouthRightturn

Cars Motors
2701208433
150 57
59 32

102 23
40 8
Meas.
Trucks Period(min) pcu car/hr
17 15 344 1374
189818 15 131524
28 10 225 1349
8 15 86 342
1007
015110438
7 15 57 227










524
1374










1349

438 342227



























Intersection2nearthepolicestationmorning

Direction

1

Weststra
ightWest(righ
t)West(left)

2

Eaststrai
ghtEast(right
)East(left)

3

Northstra
ightNorth(righ
t)
North(left)
car motorbike
bus102330012
210102364835052423424
462 210
0213029540
3361237866 0
492 0 36
lorry (PCU/h)
120 1327
173924352
0 60
10 665
14860 532
12 289
36 730
17840 400
60 654









400 730 654
60
1327
352











532
665
289




















Intersection3nearhotelmetroinnMorning


Direction

1

WestStraight
Westturnright

2

Eaststraight
Eastturnleft

3
South,turnRight
South,turnleft


car motorbike bus lorry
198 54 1
2112 27 0
3
134 32 1
043 23 0
1
87 29 2 3
125 43 1 2
Meas.
Period
(min) (PCU)
15
257
15 142
15
169
1567
15 124
15 173


(PCU/h)
1026
1594
568
674
942
268
496 1186
690



1026
568











690496
674
268





























Intersection4nearmydinKajangMorning
Direction

car

1

Westturnleft
98
Weststraight

112
Westturnright
127

2
Eastturnleft

34
Eaststraight

54
Eastturnright
27

3 67
Southstraight

35
Southturnright
46

4
Northturnleft

25
Northstraight

40
Northturnright
80
LoryBusMotor303434
342040002122632043
101720100035103400
66
2 0 23

(PCU) (PCU/h)

114 455 1572
136 543

143 573


82 328
44 177
693
41 165
58 231
151 762
62 248
91 363








363248151
455
543
573










164
297165231

328
177














Phasingsequencedetermination


2
3
4






1

1
G=
144

G=90
A=3

A=3
Rall
=2
R
all
=2






2

2
G=
77
G=57

A=3

A=3
Ra
ll=2
Rall=2


1G=
93A=3
Rall=2





2G=
55A=3
Rall=2

1G=1
02A=3
Rall2





2G=
29A=3
all=





3

3
G=
69

G=69
A=3

A=3
Rall
=2
Rall=2

3G=
30A=3
all=




3G=
50A=3
all=




direction

Trafficvolume

Saturationflow

T.V.
S.F.

1


1739

5400

0.32194833

2


1486

7200

0.20636833

3


1784

7200

0.24775917


0.7761

direction

Trafficvolume

Saturationflow

T.V.
S.F.

1


1594

5400

0.295185
2

942

5400

0.174444
3

1186

5400

0.21963


0.7


OPTIMUMCYCLETIME

Themaximumcycletimewellbe120seconds.TheWebsteraformulaisgivenas

follows.

1.5L51
y

Where Co=optimumcycletimeinsecond.

L=losttimeinonecyclewhichincludesallreadtimeandstartupdelay.

Y=summationofcriticalflowrationwithsaturationFlowsatallapproaches.

Firstintersection
direction

Trafficvolume

Saturationflow

T.V.
S.F.

1


1898

1800*3=4500

0.351474

2


1007

1800*3=5400

0.186511


0.53798
Takeambertime(safetytime)=3secandredtime=2sec
1.5*(2*3)
1 .54
5
30sec

Secondintersection







Co=
1.5*(3*3) 5
83sec



Thirdintersection







Co=
1.5*(3*3) 5
60sec





Y=
Co=
C o
Y=
10.7761
Y=
10.7




Fourthintersection
direction

Trafficvolume

Saturationflow

T.V.
S.F.

1


1572

3600

0.43662667
2

669

5400

0.12391926

3


693

5400

0.1282563

4


761.836

3600

0.21162111


0.9

1.5*(4*3)
1 0.9
5
231sec

Tomakeituniformwewilltakethelargecycletimeforthefourthintersection=231secanduseforalli
ntersection

Firstintersection
Gt=231{2*(3+2)}=221sec
direction

Trafficvolume

T.V.
S.F.

Gt(Sec)

1


1898

0.351474

144
2

1007

0.186511

77


0.54

221

Secondintersection
Gt=231{3*(3+2)}=216sec
direction

Trafficvolume

T.V.
S.F.

Gt(Sec)

1


1739

0.32194833

90

2


1486

0.20636833

57

3


1784

0.24775917

69


0.7761

216

Thirdintersection
Gt=231{3*(3+2)}=216sec
direction

Trafficvolume

T.V.
S.F.

Gt(Sec)

1


1594

0.295185

93
2

942

0.174444

55
3

1186

0.21963

69


0.7

216









Y=
Co=
Y=
Y=
Y=




Fourthintersection
Gt=231{4*(3+2)}=211sec
direction

Trafficvolume

T.V.
S.F.

Gt(Sec)

1


1572

0.43662667

102
2

669

0.12391926

29

3


693

0.1282563

30

4


761.836

0.21162111

50


0.9

211


OFFSETDETERMINATION

Oflestisdeclinedasthedifferencebetweenthegreeninitiationtimesattwoadjacent

IntersectionsTheidealoffsetisdefinedastheoffsetthatwillcausethespecifiedobjectivetobe

bestsatisfiedfortheobjectiveofminimumdelayitistheoffsetthatwillcauseminimumdelay.

t
(ideal)
=
s
(Qh loss)wh
ere

t
(ideal)
=idealoffsetinsecond

L=blocklengthinmeter

S=Vehiclespeedinmpersecond

Q=numberofvehiclesqueuedperlaneinnumberofVehicle

h=dischargeheadwayseconds/vehicle

loss=losstimeassociatedwithvehiclestartingfromrestAtthefirstdownstreamsignal(2sec).


















Figure13ATime-spacediagramforintersections
Y=
L





t
ideal

L
s

( Qh Loss)

Offsettimebetweenthefirstandsecondintersection



t
ideal

140
10

(12*2 2 ) 12sec

Offsettimebetweenthesecondandthirdintersection

t
ideal

418
10

( 7*2 2 ) 26sec

Offsettimebetweenthefirstandthirdintersection

Absoluteoffset=-12+26=14sec

Offsettimebetweenthesecondandthirdintersection

t
ideal

278
10

(8*2 2 ) 10sec
Offsettimebetweenthefirstandfourthintersection

Absoluteoffset=14+10=24sec



Distance(m)

36s
=102s
129s


278m
42s

26s
=93s
138s


Bandwidth

418m
51s



=90s
141s


140

64s
12s

=144s
87s
Time(second)





Cy/Time



=231s






Signalcontrollersetting


Intersection1


2=7
7+2+3
Intersection20
3=19+2+3
12



Cy/Time
=231s
1=90
+2+3

2=5
7+2+3
1
144+2+3



Intersection3

RelativeOffset=-12,AbsoluteOffset=-12



Intersection4

3=
69+2+3
14

4=
50+2+3
14




Cy/Time



=231s



3=2
9+2+3

Cy/Time



=231s


2=5
5+2+3

1=9
3+2+3

2=2
9+2+3

1=102
+2+3

Relative Offset=26, Absolute Offset=26-12=14 Relative Offset=10, Absolute Offset=10+14=24

















PROPOSE AND OPTIMIZE TRAFFIC CONTROL

The optimization operation mentioned above could be carried out automatically if an
intelligent UTC were installed on site. The proposed intelligent UTC in this document is
based on fully distributed system. We propose to implement the ATC and CCTV systems
for Kajang at an estimated cost of RM 66001.6Thousand.
(UTC) systems, including those using SCOOT (Split, Cycle and Off-set Optimization
Technique), have functions to enable priority on receipt of demands from vehicles and
CCTV. The improvements to the CCTV traffic control monitoring system Kajang based
CCTV specialists Secure Engineering.
The benefits that Kajang UTC have seen since installing the Wireless CCTV systems are
numerous. Most importantly, the installation of wireless CCTV kit has proved to be very
cost effective. It has decreased the number of man hours that need to be spent on site
visits for incident reports or traffic counting.
A new transport control centre would be the focus for traffic signals, network
management and passenger transport operations in the pilot area facilitating the following
improvements:
Integration of systems

Development of new systems and services
This will include improving the way the following systems work together:
Traffic signals
New car park information signs
New traffic information message signs
CCTV cameras
Travel information (including real time bus passenger information, incidents on the
network, etc shown in figure below )









Urban Traffic Control (UTC)

Urban Traffic Control (UTC)

The key components of a system are:
Vehicle location equipment;
Communications;
Data processor (local or central); and
Traffic Control Equipment.


The diagram below illustrates a typical arrangement of the key components of a system shown in

Opponentsof a Typical Public Transport Priority Scheme Prepared by Fabemaunsell

Implement Urban Traffic Control (UTC)

A technology that avoids these problems is a loop detector that can identify different
vehicle types by sophisticated signal processing.


Systems using this technology learn to recognise the profile of appropriate bus types
while ignoring other vehicle types. Although this technology is more expensive than
those based on Transponders, no equipment is required on the vehicles.
Transponder or loop based systems are often known as Selective Vehicle Detection
(SVD).
The technologies described above are all dependent on equipment located in fixed
positions at the roadside. They are therefore relatively inflexible, and require equipment
to be relocated, or new equipment to be installed, as the network changes or as the
geographical extent of the system expands. The latest systems therefore tend to be based
on GPS technology.
Vehicles equipped with this technology can calculate their position to within a few
metres using data from a network of 24 satellites orbiting above the earth; the calculated
position can then be transmitted by radio to a central


Using GPS in Urban Traffic Control (UTC)





LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE
Contrary to centralized control, the proposed system is based on a fully distributed
system. In this system, all timings are calculated by the local signal controller.
Coordination with adjacent intersections is possible if each controller can provide its
neighbors with some information about its status, its future timing strategy and the time
at which it expects the vehicles to leave its intersection before the controller starts
optimizing the signalized intersection under its control. Since all timing calculations and
Co-ordinations are carried out at the local level, the distributed control is able to respond
almost immediately to sudden fluctuation in traffic flows.
PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE
Physically the system consists of three basic components, namely the sensor (either
inductive loops, smart camera or infra red system) for collecting traffic data, the
controller for controlling traffic flows at an individual intersection and coordinator for
coordinating the timing of an individual controller with its neighbors. Each computer or
microprocessor at the traffic light controller is given an IP (Internet Protocol) address .

Authorities can gain benefits from the integration of systems by:
Integrating public transport priority systems and public transport information systems to
provide real time passenger information.
Sharing communications networks between applications to reduce operating and
infrastructure costs.
Providing information to vehicle operators to allow better management of the vehicle
fleet.
Enabling access control to allow only the priority vehicle to gain entry to restricted
areas such as pedestrianised town centers.






REPORTED BENEFITS
Studies have shown that the benefits of public transport priority systems are more
effective where priority is implemented as part of a package of measures for a whole
corridor or route.
In SPRINT in fixed time UTC, a reduction in delay of between 2 and 6.4 seconds per
priority vehicle per junction was achieved. I Bus Priority in London using SCOOT UTC
resulted in a reduction in delays to buses of between 22% and 33%.ii

EVALUATION
Local Authorities should monitor the performance of systems and evaluate their
effectiveness in accordance with the Guidance on Local Transport Plans produced by the
DfT. Systems should be evaluated on their effect on patronage, on journey time and delay
savings through the network.
If systems are part of an Urban Traffic Management and Control environment,
performance data collected can be stored in the UTMC common database. A
performance evaluation module can then assist in quantifying, monitoring and optimising
the priority system performance. The UTMC 05a Performance Criteria for UTMC
Systems Handbook and Technical Note provides further advice on this.

INTERSECTION OPTIMIZATION
Most of the existing urban traffic control is based on a centralized control. In a
centralized control system, it calculates all timings by a central computer. The local
controller would only implement the timings once it is received from the central
computer. Usually the system would consider the traffic in terms of smoothed flow
profiles; this makes the system slow in responding to rapidly changing traffic demands,
such as during morning peak traffic growth period.
Contrary to centralized control, the proposed system is based on a fully distributed
system. In this system, all timings are calculated by the local signal


controller. Coordination with adjacent intersections is possible if each controller can
provide its neighbors with some information about its status, its future timing strategy
and the time at which it expects the vehicles to leave its intersection before the controller
starts optimizing the signalized intersection under its control. Since all timing
calculations and co-ordinations are carried out at the local level, the distributed control is
able to respond almost immediately to sudden fluctuation in traffic flows. The
architecture of the system for area wide urban traffic control i.

Distributed Control Architecture

PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE

1. Sensor
2. Controller
3. Coordinator
Physically the system consists of three basic components, namely the sensor (inductive
loops, smart camera or infra red system) for collecting traffic data, the controller for
controlling traffic flows at an individual intersection and coordinator for coordinating the
timing of an individual controller with its neighbours.


The Local Area Network (LAN) approach is proposed to link up all controllers as shown
in Figure 23. Each computer or microprocessor at the traffic light controller is given an
IP (Internet Protocol) address. Each computer will share traffic data and timing with its
neighbours for coordination purposes. In case where proactive control is required such as
giving priority to an emergency vehicle, the computer at the control room will override
the timing at each intersection with pre-determined timing that gives priority flows for an
intended route.


Wireless Communication
Offset implementation
Exchange of traffic data
Incident reporting
Sensor
Video detection system
Traffic count
Measure queue length



CCTV System
1. Incident Detection
2. Classify Vehicles
3. Traffic Counting
4. Measuring Vehicles Speed
5. Other Beneficial Items
Benefits that can stem from a successful CCTV operation. These include:
o Increasing business activity by encouraging regeneration and reducing the fear of
crime.
o Increasing car park takings.
o Cutting vandalism in schools and public areas overlooked by CCTV.
o Reducing the number of false calls to the emergency services.
o Scope for reducing insurance premiums for premises covered by CCTV.
o Ability to monitor the activities of service contractors and identify public hazards.
o Improved deployment of police resources.
o Using public area CCTV to enforce bus lane and parking restrictions.

TRANSPORT RELATED SCHEMES:
CCTV can play an important part in encouraging the use of public transport, in particular,
by improving vehicle and personal security at car parks serving rail stations and City
Centre Park and Ride schemes. Proposals for such schemes, which demonstrate a
strategic approach to local transport problems consistent with the aims of the
Governments integrated transport policy, will be particularly welcomed.
System KAJANG based CCTV


A total of 4 cameras are in operation twenty-four hours a day and the images from these
cameras are relayed to a control room which is managed by the ITIS Group. Operators in
the control room can select images from any of the 4 camera using a pick and point map
based system which is displayed on a single PC screen

MOBILE CCTV
The use of mobile CCTV surveillance cameras has long been an accepted way of
monitoring trouble spots where the risk is anticipated to be temporary and where the cost
of full time monitoring is prohibitive. Examples of the type of situation where mobile
units could be used, would be such as planned street demonstrations, areas experiencing
vandalism, or areas where the Police have reason to believe criminal activity is about to
take place. Etc.
SMART CAMERA SENSOR
The basic component of the vision system used in this project comprises of four video
cameras (for four legs intersection) and a Windows based computer. Data input is
provided by the video camera which produces analogue electrical signals which is then
digitised and stored in the frame memory of the computer for further processing.

public transport priority
Public Transport Priority can be installed in isolation or as part of a package of measures
along a route. It is therefore important that the technology and physical measures are
designed to complement each other..



Parking Information
System can manage the parking areas with monitoring the areas by CCTV camera
actually. CCTV is used for getting information about the areas by saving and analyzing
from movie which are catch in every single time. These data will be analyzed by
computer which is placed in those areas before sending to the central room.


Parking programs
Usually evolve from parking studies that determine:
1. Current parking supply.
2. Current demand
3. Estimates of future parking demand
Parking planning and design in Kajang
Requires a determination of:
1. Number of space needed,
2. Proper location for these spaces
3. Workable layout with acceptable operating controls
In this part, data will be shown in VMS (Variable Message Sign) as string character so
that can be read by the vehicle driver as an information to used in order to find the
parking spaces. The information contains number of spaces, areas of parking .



Bus stop
A bus stop is a designated place where a public transportbus stops for the purpose of
allowing passengers to board or leave a bus. The simplest bus stop can be marked with
just an appropriate locally understood sign, or can feature more complex constructions
and installations. Individual bus stops may simply be placed on the sidewalk next to the
roadway, although they can also be placed to facilitate use of a bus way. More complex
installations can include construction of a bus turnout or a bus bulb, for traffic
management reasons, although use of a bus lane can make these unnecessary. Several bus
stops may be grouped together to facility easy transfer between routes. These may be
arranged in a simple row along the street, or in parallel or diagonal rows of multiple
stops. Groups of bus stops may be integral to Transportation hubs. With extra facilities
such as a waiting room or ticket office, outside groupings of bus stops can be classed as a
rudimentary bus station.






DEFINITION TRAFFIC SIGNALS
All power operated devices for regulating, directing or warning motorists or pedestrians
are classified as traffic signals

Purpose Traffic signals
1. To improve overall safety
2. To reduce travel time through intersection, therefore increase capacity
3. To equalize the quality of service for all or most traffic streams


Effective Traffic control Device

0 Command attentions
0 Convey a clear, simple meaning
0 Command respect to road users
0 Give adequate time for proper response






TYPE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE :
1. Signs (traffic signs )
2. Barriers (including movable barriers, channelization )
3. Signals (traffic lights)
PURPOSE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL
1. Regulation (e.g. speed limit, turn prohibition)
2. Warning (alerting &warning drivers &pedestrian regarding roadway condition
3. Guiding (show appropriate routes to reach trip destination through signs &marking)
To be Traffic
1. Properly designed and placed
2. Operated consistently
3. Maintained routinely
4. Uniformity in application
Why Traffic Signal Optimization?
As populations grow and traffic patterns change, signal timings become increasingly
outdated. By measuring current patterns and using the data to optimize signals,
transportation planners can improve traffic flow, reduce congestion and travel delays, and
enhance air quality.
Advantage
Positive guidance to vehicle operators & pedestrians, less room for erroneous judgment
by drivers
Flexibility (allocation of right of way can be responsive to change in traffic flow)
1. Ability to assign priority treatment to some movement or vehicles
2. Feasibility of coordinated control along streets or in area network
3. Provision for continuous flow of a platoon of traffic though proper




Incident Detection
oOperated through video image processing by observing pixels on detection lines drawn
across traffic lanes on monitor to detect incident
oInstallation of loop detector is not required (which would cause traffic disturbance)

Classify Vehicles
O Used to classify vehicles by measuring the pixel in passenger car unit on the screen.
O Differentiate the pixel by using varies colour array would be another possible option.
Traffic Counting
By observing a few pixels for each traffic lane, which are considered as detectors, of
which, the pixel values will surge or shrink drastically every time a vehicle passes the
detectors. A computer programme is then written to count this surge or shrinkage.

Value of red, green and blue pixels at the detector location





Parking Zone Detection

At the same with vehicle counting, parking zone detection is also using virtual detector at
the parking areas. Detector will be placed at the middle of each parking space
horizontally and vertically in order to make sure if there is a vehicles which are using he
spaces or not. System is also detecting the different pixel value in these areas.
After several minutes, system will decide that there is a vehicle which uses the parking
space.














VEHICLE COUNTING

Vehicles can be counted by applying a simple method in smart surveillance system.
CCTV is used in order to catch images from an area which is applied as a surveyed
location. Those images are given by particular frame that are produce by movie which is
catch by CCTV in selected location. These frames will be divided into images by image
processing that will be done by computer it self. Normally, frames contain 25-29 images,
system has a responsibility to save all images temporally and conduct some analyzing in
order to get the valid data that will be used by system itself for optimization this selected
area.
In application, images contain thousands pixels which are placed in 320x240 (unit in
pixel2) layer. Computer will analyze these layers by a simple method which is to put a
virtual detector in these layers.

VEHICLE SPEED MEASUREMENT
Vehicles speed can be determined by using the same method with the counting of
vehicles. But in this part, system has to facilitate another virtual detector in order to
obtain length value. As we know, in measuring speed, we need distance and time value.
In obtaining these factors, system must facilitate all of these factors to determine the
vehicle speed.










MEASURING VEHICLES SPEED
O By comparing pixel values from two frames of pre-fixed time intervals.

VEHICLE LOCATION EQUIPMENT
The location of vehicles on the network can be achieved using a number of technologies,
for example:
Detector Loop;
Roadside beacon;
Vehicle profile recognition via inductive loop detection; and
Some location systems are based on detector loops, cut into the carriageway surface that
interact with a transponder located on a priority vehicle. The loop receives information
from the transponder about the vehicle, which is then passed to the central processing
unit to determine if priority is to be provided.
A roadside beacon performs a similar function to the detector loop receiving information
from a vehicle-mounted transponder.
Both the above technologies require vehicles to be fitted with transponders. Even though
the cost of transponders can be relatively low, bus operators have not always wanted to
equip some or all of their vehicles; in addition, bus operators have been known to move
vehicles from one part of the country to another as requirements change.
This can result in non-equipped vehicles operating on routes that have bus priority, and
means that some buses receive priority while others do not, resulting in poor value for
money for the highway authorities investment.


A technology that avoids these problems is a loop detector that can identify different
vehicle types by sophisticated signal processing.
Systems using this technology learn to recognise the profile of appropriate bus types
while ignoring other vehicle types. Although this technology is more expensive than
those based on Transponders, no equipment is required on the vehicles.




COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Wireless Fidelity or Wi-fi is known as telecommunication facility in order to transfer
data without cable. This facility can be used for system in order to transfer data from
location to central room. As the same of wi-fi, transceiver also can be used in transferring
data by system. Transceiver is a tool which is able to transfer and receive data in FM
(Frequency Modulation) wave. But, transceiver only can facilitate the system in little
capacities where it is only about 16 kbps (kilobit per second).
System has to divide the data of the analysis into two parts, the large file and small file.
The large file will be sent by wi-fi facility, and transceiver will be used for small file
transferring and receiving data. The small data can be converted in binary code and sent
to the central room. These are several data which are can be converted in binary code:
1. Vehicles Counting
2. Vehicles Speed
3. Vehicles Classification
4. Incident Detection
In order to use this capability, system needs a computer in each site at selected areas. The
computer will do all the procedure before sending the data to the central room. And in
this part, system use transceiver as a facility for sending the data.


For the large file, system will use wi-fi capability to overcome receiving and transferring
data. The file data which are categorized as large file are movie file (for investigating),
CCTV controller command and so on.


SYSTEM EQUIPMENTS
In order to support the system, equipments are needed to install in the several zones at the
coverage area. System equipments are divided by big four categories, we have already
listed the main equipments and their specifications which are mentioned at the listing
below.















CENTRAL CONTROLLER ROOM


VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGN
In order to inform the data as a visual sign to vehicle driver.The specifications are:
2-line signs offer 12 characters of 320mm text, or 16 characters at 400mm
3-line signs offer 18 characters at 400mm
Aluminum enclosure, fully welded with internal strength and support members
Data which will be sent to VMS will directly appear in VMS as soon as analyzing
finished by the central room. Figure 21 will explain the process of information system
that is received by vehicle drivers
TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTRE
M
P
M
P
M
P
M
P
Smart Camera
Microprocessor
Traffic
Management
Expert System
Travellers
Information
System
Traffic
Control
System
Traffic Incident
Detection &
respn System
Traffic
Surveillance
System
Pavement
Maintenance
System
Disaster
Detection &
responce
System
Public
Transpo
rt Inf.
GPS
Wide Area Wireless
Fixed-point to fixed-point communications
Intelligent Urban Traffic Management System







Camera

In order to take the images from the coverage area The specifications are
Tamper Resistant Housing.
Automatic Heater & Blower for Extreme Temperature.

Estimating the required bandwidth is much easier than actually getting it!
1. Find the average image size (usually given in Kilobytes) produced by your
transmission method. Image size is comprised of:


a. Compression type (JPEG, MPEG4, etc)
b. Resolution 352X240(1CIF), 704X480 (4CIF), 1280X1024 (16CIF)
c. Percent of motion
2. Multiply by 8 to get bits
3. Multiply by the desired number of images per second (30 ips is real time)
For example,
If our image size is 8KB and we are interested in 30 ips
8 x 8 x 30 = 1,920Kbps (1.9Mbps)
8 x 8 x 15 = 960Kbps
8 x 8 x 7 = 448Kbps
Remember this is PER CAMERA PER SECOND.
Some types of CCTV



THE BENEFITS OF USING (UTC) INCLUDE:
Making travel more efficient (safer, less polluting, cheaper, better informed travel);
Helping to achieve Best Value within network management as a result of greater
Information gathering and improved decision making;
Simplifying public transport use by providing accurate real time information about
services;
Reducing the effects of pollution from vehicles by better traffic management;


Reducing the number of accidents by providing drivers with more information about
Conditions on the roads they are using;
Helping drivers find the best route to their destination, and changing that route if
Major incidents occur on it;
Improving the security of public transport passengers and staff by providing extra
Communications,
CCTV and better information;
FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS
We estimate the cost of this project to be RM 66001.6Thousand in money-of-the-day -
prices, broken down as follows -

1-Traffic Control System and Equipment
2- ATC controllers and Detectors
3- Computer hardware and software, including installation
4-(CCTV) roadside equipment including cameras
5- Controller box (IPC, electric measurer, steel housing)
6-Control room

TOTAL (RM) = 66001.6






RM Thousand
20000
30000.7
10000.9
4000
1000
1000





Initial and maintenance works to optimize existing traffic controllers consume a great deal
of time and energy. If this operation can be automated intelligently, the traffic flows
could be optimized in real time automatically. For this reason, the study
teamrecommends that:

Upgrade the existing controllers to controllers with microprocessors
Install advanced sensors
Install communication system to facilitate data exchanges between traffic
controllers which are necessary in optimizing traffic flows.






The system could not be coordinated to optimize a group of traffic
controllers because its actions are unpredictable. Multi-plan timing system
could be set based on computed timing that gives

It is undeniable that setting up a ITS system in this Kajang town area would
be a very wise decision as it will help to lessen the congestion in Kajang
and also will benefits the town here as has smoother traffic flow.