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All About Horus

An Egyptian Copy of Christ?


claim from "Zeitgeist" video to be examined:
"...the character of Jesus, a literary and astrological hybrid, is most explicitly a plagiarization of the Egyptian Sun-god
Horus..."
All About Horus: An Egyptian Copy of Christ?
Summary of the Osiris-Isis-Horus Myth
The Birth an !light of Horus
The Battle Bet"een Horus an Seth
The Horus #os an !orms
$eitgeist on Horus
$eitgeist%s Bogus Sour&es
Astro-Theology an the Bible
The Celti& or Irish Cross
S&holarly Sour&es on Horus an Egyptian religion
!urther 'in(s
Horus, the Egyptian Falcon-god, is "lord of the sky" and a symbol of divine kingship.
His name "Har" in Egyptian! probably means "the high," "the far-off," "the distant one" and
is connected "ith "Hry" "one ho is abo!e"o!er"!. #he name appears on Egyptian
hieroglyphs in the royal protocol at the very beginning of dynastic civili$ation c. %&&& '(!.
#he roles, local c)lt fo)ndations, and titles or epithets of Hor)s are sometimes correlated
"ith distinct or preferred forms in iconography: for example, the falcon or falcon-headed
man, the "inged disk, the child "ith a sidelock of hair sometimes in his mother*s arms!. Egyptologists therefore often speak of distinct
Hor)ses or Hor)s-gods see #xford Encyclopedia, vol +, "Hor)s" p. ,,-ff. and Hart, $outledge %ictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses,
"Hor)s" p. /&ff!.
0n ancient Egypt several gods are kno"n by this name, b)t the most important "as the son of 1siris and 0sis, identified as king of Egypt. #o
repeat "hat 0 s)mmari$ed else"here: 1siris is the oldest son of 2eb "earth" personified! and 3o)t or 3)t "mother of the gods" and
goddess of the sky!, the h)sband of 0sis, "hose myth "as one of the best kno"n and "hose c)lt "as one of the most "idespread in
pharaonic Egypt. #he mythology of 1siris is not preserved completely from an early date, b)t the essentials are related by 4l)tarch in 1n
0sis and 1siris %e &side et #siride!.
5ith the rise of the f)ll-blo"n 1siris-0sis-Hor)s myth, the living king "as identified as an earthly Hor)s and the dead king his
father6predecessor! as 1siris. 5hen the king died, he became 1siris, and Hor)s is his royal heir and s)ccessor. #he most common
geneology of Hor)s is as the son of 1siris and 0sis, making a tenth on the family tree of the Heliopolitan Ennead. ')t the f)ll pict)re is more
complex: Hathor herself identified "ith 0sis! also appears as the mother of Hor)s. Hor)s the Elder Haroeris! can appear in the
Heliopolitan family tree as a brother of 1siris and son of 2eb and 3)t, th)s an uncle of Hor)s in his more )s)al manifestations. #herefore,
Hor)s and 7eth are sometimes described as nephe and uncle, sometimes as brothers. 0n a battle over the throne of Egypt, Hor)s fo)ght
"ith 7eth, and despite losing an eye, "as s)ccessf)l in avenging the death of his father 1siris, becoming his legitimate s)ccessor.
#he text)al and mythological materials relating to Hor)s are extremely rich, comprising hymns, mort)ary texts, rit)al texts,
dramatic6theological texts, stories, the 1ld (optic and 2reek so-called magical papyri, and the most complete ancient exposition of the
1siris narrative, 4l)tarch*s %e &side et #siride in 8atin translation!. 0n characteristic Egyptian fashion, many of the hymns, mort)ary, and
rit)al texts incorporated s)bstantial narrative material or are taken from narrative, altho)gh they are not comprehensive, consec)tive
myths per se. 0n addition to 4l)tarch*s acco)nt in 2reek, the most s)bstantial so)rces for the 1siris-0sis-Hor)s cycle incl)de the follo"ing
see #xford Encyclopedia, vol +, "Hor)s" p. ,+,ff!:
the 9emphite #heology or 7haba:o 7tone generally dated as late as the 3e" ;ingdom, c. ,<=&-,&/& '(!.
the 'ystery (lay of the Succession.
the (yramid )exts from the late 1ld ;ingdom, c. +</<-+,<& '(!.
the *offin )exts, especially 7pell ,=>.
the 2reat 1siris hymn in the 8o)vre.
the 8ate Egyptian *ontendings of Horus and Seth.
the 9etternich 7tela and other cippus texts.
the 4tolemaic 'yth of Horus at Edf) also kno"n as the )riumph of Horus!.
#hese texts take )s "ith a n)mber of variations and contrasting perspectives, from the conception and birth of Hor)s, thro)gh his childhood
hidden in the marshes, his protection by 0sis, his conflict "ith 7eth and his follo"ers, and his s)ccession as legitimate king. #he "9yth ?or
#ri)mph@ of Hor)s" is preserved in the #emple of Edf), inscribed on the inner faces of the east and "est enclos)re "alls. 4revio)sly no
complete translation of the vario)s texts "hich compose it appeared in any lang)age, tho)gh the act)al texts and reliefs have since been long
p)blished by 3aville, )extes relatifs au 'ythe d+Horus recueillis dans le )emple d+Edfou 2eneva, ,>/&!, then in the magnificent edition of
(hassinat, ,e )emple d+Edfou (airo, ,-+>-,-%=!, and later in scholarly and pop)lar "orks by Aieter ;)rth, e.g. )he )emple of Edfu- a
guide by an ancient Egyptian priest (airo, +&&=!. #he myth comprises five texts see 'lackman 6 8loyd, .ods, (riests, and 'en, p. +<<ff,
in articles by H.5. Fairman!, "hich are:
B. )he ,egend of the /inged %isk. #he chief actors are Hor)s of 'ehdet and 7eth. Ce and #hoth provide a r)nning commentary and
n)mero)s some"hat tedio)s p)ns "hich detract from the flo" and interest of the narrative. #he lang)age is stilted and formal, and
some"hat restricted in vocab)lary and forms of expression.
'. )he story of a fight beteen Horus, son of &sis "ho is assisted by Hor)s of 'ehdet!, and Seth. #his portion follo"s immediately
after B.
(. 0 dramatized !ersion of the exploits of Horus hich as enacted at his festi!al not "orded in the form of a connected story!. Bfter
texts referring to the ten harpoons "ith "hich Hor)s attacked his enemy, come songs by the Coyal (hildren and by the princesses of
Dpper and 8o"er Egypt together "ith the "omen of 9endes 4e and Aep!, and finally t"o versions of the dismemberment of 7eth
and the distrib)tion of the parts of his body among vario)s gods and cities.
A. Seth, son of 1ut, assumes the form of a red hippopotamus and goes to Elephantine. Hor)s, son of 0sis, p)rs)es him and overtakes
him near Edf), and after the ens)ing fight 7eth flees north"ard and Hor)s ass)mes the office of his father.
E. Horus is mentioned as lord of ,oer Egypt, li!ing at 'emphis, and Seth as lord of 2pper Egypt, li!ing in Shas-hetep. Hor)s and
7eth fight, the one in the form of a yo)th, the other as a red donkey. Hor)s finally tri)mphs and c)ts off the leg of 7eth. #his story is
"ritten in a prono)nced 8ate-Egyptian idiom.
Summary of the Osiris-Isis-Horus Myth
0n ancient Egyptian tradition, at least as preserved to )s, the 1siris-0sis-Hor)s myth "as never reco)nted as a coherent "hole. rather, it
served as a so)rce of all)sions for a large n)mber of religio)s texts. 0t "as a se:)ence of scenes that "as )nmistakably rooted in the
mort)ary c)lt. #he only texts that f)rnish )s "ith a contin)o)s narrative are "ritten in 2reek, by Aiodor)s ,st cent)ry '(! and especially
by 4l)tarch c. =E - ,+& BA!. ')t in their care abo)t a single, meaningf)l, stim)lating story these a)thors seem to have strayed from the
Egyptian form of the myth. #he myth has both a prehistory and a starting point. #he prehistory is not narrated in the Egyptian texts, yet it is
necessary for all that follo"s see Fan Bssman, %eath and Sal!ation in 0ncient Egypt, p. +%!.
#he basic Egyptian myth goes like this: 1siris became r)ler of the land, b)t "as tricked and slain by his Gealo)s brother, 7eth. Bccording to
the 2reek version of the story, #yphon 7eth! had a bea)tif)l coffin made to 1siris* exact meas)rements, and "ith /+ conspirators at a
ban:)et, promised it to the one "ho "o)ld fit it. Each g)est tried it for si$e, and 1siris "as the one to fit exactly. 0mmediately 7eth and the
conspirators nailed the lid sh)t, sealed the coffin in lead, and thre" it into the 3ile. #he coffin "as event)ally borne across the sea to
'yblos, "here 0sis, "ho had been contin)ally searching for her h)sband, finally located it. 7he ret)rns the body to Egypt "here 7eth
discovers it, c)ts the corpse into pieces, and scatters them thro)gho)t the co)ntry. 0sis transforms herself into a kite, and "ith her sister
3ephthys, searches for and finds all the pieces except the male member, "hich she replicates!, reconstit)tes the body, and before
embalming to give 1siris eternal life, she revivifies it, co)ples "ith it, and th)s conceives Hor)s.
"Of the parts of Osiris's body the only one which Isis did not find was the male member, for the reason that this had been at once tossed into the river,
and the lepidotus, the sea-bream, and the pike had fed upon it; and it is from these very fishes the Egyptians are most scrupulous in abstaining !ut Isis
made a replica of the member to take its place, and consecrated the phallus, in honour of which the Egyptians even at the present day celebrate a
festival" "Plutarch, Moralia #, On Isis and Osiris, $%&
Bccording to the principal version of the story cited by 4l)tarch, 0sis had already given birth to her son, b)t according to the Egyptian Hymn
to #siris, she conceived him by the revivified corpse of her h)sband.
1siris* r)le plays a great role in Egyptian texts. #hey almost al"ays speak of him as r)ler of the realm of the dead, an office he ass)med
only as a dead god, and almost never abo)t his earthly kingship, "hich he exercised over gods and men in the "orld above as s)ccessor of
2eb. 1siris* reign came to a violent end as he "as slain by his brother, 7eth. 8ater Hor)s avenges his father 1siris* death and s)cceeds him
"itho)t completely destroying 7eth. #h)s did death come into the "orld, confronting the gods "ith a great problem. #his is the prehistory of
"hich there is no coherent narrative in the Egyptian texts see Fan Bssmann, p. +=!.
The Birth an !light of Horus
#he slaying and dismemberment of 1siris, and his re-Goining and reG)venation by his "ife 0sis, is a common theme of a large corp)s of texts,
"hich do not act)ally describe it b)t rather pres)ppose it as the trigger for vario)s actions "hose aim is to cope "ith this catastrophe. F)st as
it "as 1siris* )ndoing that he "as the first of the divine r)lers to have a brother and th)s a rival for the throne, so his sisters became his
"salvation." 0sis, his sister-"ife, "as the first to take action by traversing the land to collect his scattered body parts.
B Hymn to #siris from Aynasty ,> stela 8o)vre ( +>E! narrates her actions in the form of t"o scenes: ,! 0sis* search and her care for the
body. and +! the conception, birth, and childhood of Hor)s.
Isis the powerful, protectress of her brother, who sought him tirelessly,
who traversed this land in mourning and did not rest until she found him;
who gave him shade with her feathers and air with her wings;
who cried out, the mourning woman of her brother
who summoned dancers for the 'eary of (eart;
who took in his seed and created the heir,
who suckled the child in solitude, no one knew where,
who brought him, when his arm was strong,
into the hall of )eb -- the Ennead re*oiced+
"'elcome, Osiris' son, (orus, stout of heart, *ustified, son of Isis, heir of Osiris"
"Hymn to Osiris, Dynasty 18, stela ,ouvre - .%/; from 0an 1ssmann, p .2-.3&
0sis* activities "ith regard to the corpse of 1siris c)lminate in the posth)mo)s conception of Hor)s. 0n the acco)nts of 2reek historians
Aiodor)s and 4l)tarch, 0sis recovers all the body parts of the slain god except for his virile member, "hich had been s"allo"ed by a fish.
7he "as th)s obliged to replace this member "ith an artificial one that she )ses as an instr)ment for her posth)mo)s insemination to
prod)ce Hor)s. Bltho)gh the Egyptian texts seldom mention this scene, the locus classicus classical passage! is from the (yramid
)exts 7pell %EE!:
Isis comes to you, re*oicing for love of you,
that her seed might issue into her, it being sharp as 4othis
(orus, the sharp one, who comes forth from you
in his name "(orus, who is in 4othis,"
may it be well with you through him
in your name "4pirit in the dndrw-barque"
(orus has protected you in his name "(orus protector of his father"
"Pyramid Texts, Spell 366; from 0an 1ssmann, page .3&
Here is some commentary on the "conception of Hor)s" from vario)s Egyptian scholars:
"...dra"ings on contemporary f)nerary papyri sho" her as a kite hovering above 1siris, who
is revived enough to have an erection and impregnate his wife." 8esko, .reat .oddesses
of Egypt, p. ,E+!
"After having sexual intercourse, in the form of a bird, "ith the dead god she restored to
life, she gave birth to a posth)mo)s son, Hor)s." A)nand 6 Zivie-(oche, .ods and 'en in
Egypt, p. %-!
"#hro)gh her magic 0sis revivified the sexual member of Osiris and became pregnant by
him, event)ally giving birth to their child, Hor)s." Cichard 5ilkinson, *omplete gods and
'ythology, p. >&!
0n short, this "as )O "virgin birth" as is clear also from repeated references to 1siris* "seed." B "mirac)lo)s birth" perhaps beca)se it
involves a dead and then revived h)sband, b)t not a virginal conception sometimes "rongly called an "immac)late conception" -- that has
to do in (atholic theology "ith 9ary*s conception "itho)t 1riginal 7in, not Fes)s* conception! nor a virgin birth as contained in the 'ible
cf. 9atthe" ,:,>-+<. 8)ke ,:+E-%>!.
B longer passage is from the *offin )exts 7pell ,=>! "hich describes the birth and flight of Hor)s as the Falcon god!, and has f)rther
references to 1siris* "seed":
516I7) 4(18E 14 1 91,-O7 5he lightening flash strikes, the gods are afraid, Isis wakes pregnant with
the seed of her brother Osiris 4he is uplifted, "even she& the widow, and her heart is glad with the seed of
her brother Osiris 4he says+
"O you gods, I am Isis, the sister of Osiris, who wept for the father of the gods, "even& Osiris who *udged the
slaughterings of the 5wo ,ands (is seed is within my womb, I have moulded the shape of the god within the
egg as my son who is at the head of the Ennead 'hat he shall rule is this land, the heritage of his "grand-&
father )eb, what he shall say is concerning his father, what he shall kill is 4eth the enemy of his father Osiris
-ome, you gods, protect him within my womb, for he is known in your hearts (e is your lord, this god who is
in his egg, blue-haired of form, lord of the gods, and great and beautiful are the vanes :feathery part of plume
as distinct from the stem; of the two blue plumes"
"Oh<" says 1tum, "guard your heart, O woman<"
":Isis says+; (ow do you know= (e is the god, lord and heir of the Ennead, who made you within the egg I am Isis, one more spirit-like and august than
the gods; the god is within this womb of mine and he is the seed of Osiris"
5hen says 1tum+ ">ou are pregnant and you are hidden :allusion to pregnant Isis hiding in the marshes of -hemmis;, O girl< >ou will give birth, being
pregnant for the gods, seeing that he is the seed of Osiris ?ay that villain who slew his father not come, lest he break the egg in its early stages, for the
)reat-of-?agic will guard against him"
5hus says Isis+ "(ear this, you gods, which 1tum, ,ord of the ?ansion of the 4acred Images, has said (e has decreed for me protection for my son
within my womb, he has knit together an entourage about him within this womb of mine, for he :1tum; knows that he :(orus; is the heir of Osiris, and a
guard over the 9alcon who is in this womb of mine has been set by 1tum, ,ord of the gods )o up on earth, that I may give you praise :said to the
unborn (orus; 5he retainers of your father Osiris will serve you, I will make your name, for you have reached the hori@on, having passed by the
battlements of the ?ansion of (im whose name is hidden 4trength has gone up within my flesh, power has reached into my flesh, power has
reached" :there is a teAtual omission at this point;
"who conveys the 4unshine-god, and he has prepared his own place, being seated at the head of the gods in the entourage of the Beleaser"
:unidentifiable speaker, probably either Isis or 1tum;
":Isis speaks to her son who has now been born+; O 9alcon, my son (orus, dwell in this land of your father Osiris in this your name of 9alcon who is on
the battlements of the ?ansion of (im whose name is hidden I ask that you shall be always in the suite of Be of the hori@on in the prow of the primeval
bark for ever and ever"
Isis goes down to the Beleaser who brings (orus, for Isis has asked that he may be the Beleaser as the leader of eternity
"4ee (orus, you gods< :(orus proclaims his power; I am (orus, the 9alcon who is on the battlements of the ?ansion of (im whose name is hidden ?y
flight aloft has reached the hori@on, I have overpassed the gods of the sky, I have made my position more prominent than that of the 8rimeval Ones 5he
-ontender :4eth; has not attained my first flight, my place is far from 4eth, the enemy of my father Osiris I have used the roads of eternity to the dawn, I
go up in my flight, and there is no god who can do what I have done I am aggressive against the enemy of my father Osiris, he having been set under
my sandals in this my name of :meaning unknown; I am (orus, born of Isis, whose protection was made within the egg; the fiery blast of your mouths
does not attack me, and what you may say against me does not reach me, I am (orus, more distant of place than men or gods; I
am (orus son of Isis"
"Egyptian Coffin Text, Spell 148, translation found in The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, volume $, p $.3-$.C, by BO
9aulkner; another translation with commentary can be found in Myth and Symbo in Ancient Egypt by B5 Bundle -lark, p .$D-
.$C&
#his text begins "ith the dark days immediately after the death of 1siris, "hen 7eth and his henchmen are tyranni$ing
over the "orld. Hor)s ass)mes control of his o"n destiny. He appears as a falcon and soars )p into the sky beyond the
flight of the original bird-so)l, beyond the stars the "gods of 3)t"! and all the divinities of olden time "hose so)ls
inhabit the constellations. 0n so doing he brings back light and the ass)rance of a ne" day, th)s s)bd)ing 7eth, "ho
personifies the terrors of darkness and death. #he opening section moves "ithin the main 1siris myth, b)t this
disappears "hen 0sis s)ddenly reali$es she "ill give birth, not to a child, b)t to a falcon. 0sis dreams prophetically that the child :)ickening
in her "omb "ill gro" )p to restore the rightf)l order of the "orld. 0n a ne" scene, the birth is abo)t to take place, 0sis comes for"ard to
Bt)m "ho is s)rro)nded by his divine co)rtiers. Finally, Hor)s is born and flys )p of his o"n accord see (lark, 'yth and Symbol in
0ncient Egypt, p. +,%ff!.
#here "ere t"o primary gods called Hor)s: the first "as the original falcon "ho fle" )p at the beginning of time -- the most ancient bird --
and the other "as the son of 0sis and heir to 1siris. #hey are compo)nded in this (offin #ext. 0nstead of being born in the Aelta s"amps and
gro"ing )p in secret, Hor)s is offered a place in the s)n*s boat, b)t he transcends both his earthly fate and that as a s)bordinate to Ce. He
flies )p and across the night sky of the Dnder"orld to land on the edge of the "orld, bringing "ith him the t"ilight that comes G)st before
f)ll day. #he old belief is that Hor)s "as the leader of the decanal stars "hich circled aro)nd the sky in the path of the s)n. #he appearance
of Hor)s G)st before da"n is the mark of a ne" year, and the "orld*s great age begins ane" see (lark, p. +,E-+,/!.
The Battle Bet"een Horus an Seth
Bs early as the 1ld ;ingdom it "as envisaged that Hor)s "rested the kingship of Egypt from the god 7eth: Hor)s takes his father*s ho)se
from his father*s brother 7eth. Hor)s then tri)mphs over his paternal )ncle. Ho"ever there is a conflation of the t"o myths beca)se in the
1siris cycle, #siris and Seth "ere brothers, "hile in an independent tradition Horus and Seth "ere brothers fe)ding for the throne.
3ormally Hor)s is the ascendant, b)t the s)pporters of 7eth "ere never completely s)ppressed indicating perhaps as the meaning of the
myth, that evil "ill al"ays be "ith )s, and "e m)st be vigilant!.
7eth, the embodiment of disorder, "as predominantly seen as a ri!al of Hor)s, a "o)ld-be )s)rper "ho assassinated 1siris and "as
defeated. Ho"ever, 7eth "as also portrayed in a balance "ith Hor)s, so that the pair represented a bipolar, balanced embodiment of
kingship. #h)s, on the side of the throne, Hor)s and 7eth -- symmetrical and e:)al -- tie the papyr)s and lot)s aro)nd thesema-sign sm3 H
")nity". also the end of the #h)tmose 000 4oetical 7tela!. From the 7haba:o 7tone in the 'ritish 9)se)m, a copy of an original doc)ment
from the 4yramid Bge carved in Aynasty IIJ, there is a concise statement of the disp)te bet"een Hor)s and 7eth. #he god 2eb is the
G)dge and makes a preliminary decision to divide Egypt bet"een the protagonists: 7eth "ill be king of Dpper Egypt and Hor)s "ill r)le over
8o"er Egypt, the border being the "Aivision of the #"o 8ands", i.e. the apex of the 3ile Aelta at 9emphis "here 1siris is said to have
dro"ned. 1n reflection 2eb revises this G)dgment a"arding the "hole inheritance of Egypt to Hor)s. 0t is stressed that this res)lt is
amicably accepted -- the reed of 7eth and papyr)s of Hor)s being attached to the door of the god 4tah to symboli$e that they "ere pacified
and )nited.
B f)ller and more scandalo)s description of the trial s)rvives in 4apyr)s (hester 'eatty 0 "ritten in the reign of Camesses J Aynasty II!.
#he s)n-god in this trib)nal is not sympathetic to Hor)s* case to be r)ler of Egypt, dismissing him as a yo)ngster "ith halitosis and
preferring the older claimant 7eth. Hor)s pleads that he is being defra)ded of his la"f)l patrimony. #hen occ)rs a series of episodes
involving Hor)s and 7eth, each trying to o)t"it the other and "in over the co)rt. 0n one contest, the t"o gods are hippopotam)ses "ho
intend to see if they can remain s)bmerged )nder "ater for three months. 0sis ref)ses to take this opport)nity of killing 7eth "ith a harpoon.
Hor)s, enraged, savagely attacks his mother and escapes into the desert. 7eth finds him and c)ts o)t both his eyes. Hathor, )sing ga$elle*s
milk, restores Hor)s* eyes.
1n another occasion 7eth s)ggests a race in boats of stone. Hor)s secretly b)ilds a vessel of pine covered "ith plaster to imitate stone.
7eth*s boat of %E meters of solid stone, sinks and he t)rns himself into a hippo. Hor)s is prevented from slaying 7eth by the other gods.
7ince the beginning of the +&th cent)ry in Egyptological research, m)ch debate has ens)ed over "hether the str)ggle bet"een Hor)s and
7eth "as primarily historical6geo-political, or cosmic6symbolic. 5hen the f)ll 1siris complex became visible, 7eth appears as the m)rderer
of 1siris and "o)ld-be killer of the child Hor)s. #he symbolism of Hor)s* event)al tri)mph over 7eth e.g. the pharaoh c)tting the throat of
an oryx or spearing a t)rtle! permeates many temple reliefs. 0t also lies behind the gilded "ooden stat)ette of #)tankham)n standing on a
papyr)s boat, lasso in one hand, harpoon in the other: the king is in the act of spearing the hippo 7eth see #xford Encyclopedia, vol +,
"Hor)s" p. ,+&. Hart, $outledge %ictionary, "Hor)s" p. /+-/%!.
0n the battle bet"een Hor)s and 7eth "hich lasts >& years!, despite losing an eye, Hor)s is s)ccessf)l in avenging the death of his father
1siris, becoming his legitimate s)ccessor. #he inG)ry inflicted by 7eth on the eye of Hor)s is all)ded to in the 4yramid #exts "here royal
saliva is prescribed for its c)re. #he restored eye of Hor)s becomes, in sing)lar form, the symbol for a state of so)ndness or perfection -- the
")dGat" eye the hole or sound "eye of Hor)s"!. 0t can also stand for the strength of the monarch. the concept of kingship. protection
against 7eth. royal p)rification agent. offerings at the festival of the "axing moon "ine, etc. 0ts iconography consists of a h)man eye "ith
the cosmetic line emanating from its corner, belo" it are the markings of a falcon*s cheek. Bs an am)let the ")dGat" "as placed in m)mmy
"rappings or "orn on a necklace. 0n the 9iddle ;ingdom, it "as painted on the sides of rectang)lar coffins Hart, p. /%!.
1siris becomes king of the dead! )nder"orld, and Hor)s the king of the living. Bs mentioned, Hor)s is )s)ally represented as a falcon, or
as a sky god "hose o)tstretched "ings filled the heavens. his so)nd eye "as the s)n, and inG)red eye the moon.
The Horus #os an !orms
Hor)s is one of the earliest attested of the maGor ancient Egyptian deities, becoming kno"n as early as the late 4re-dynastic period 3a:ada
000 6 Aynasty &. c. %+&&-%&&& '(!. #he earliest doc)mented chapter in the career of Hor)s "as as Hor)s the falcon, god of 3ekhen
Hierakonpolis! in so)thern Dpper Egypt. 0n this capacity Hor)s "as the patron deity of the Hierakonpolis monarchy that gre" into the
historical pharaonic state, hence the first kno"n national god, the god of kingship. He "as still prominent in the latest temples of the 2reco-
Coman period c. %&& '( - %&&K BA!, especially at 4hilae and Edf) as "ell as 1ld (optic and 2reco-Egyptian rit)al-po"er or magical
texts.
Hor)s the falcon "as predominantly a sky god and a s)n god. as the former his eyes are the s)n and moon, as the latter, he has a s)n disk on
his head and is syncreti$ed "ith the s)n-deity Ce or Ca!, most often as $e-Harakhty. Hor)s the falcon6disk had the epithet "2reat 2od,
8ord of Heaven, Aappled of 4l)mage." #hree main forms of Hor)s are as the (hild, as the 7on of 0sis, and as a s)n-god.
Horus the *hild
0n the 4yramid #exts the god is once called "Hor)s the child "ith his finger in his mo)th." #his aspect refers to his birth and )pbringing in
secret by his mother 0sis. 'orn at ;hemmis in the northeast Aelta, the yo)ng god "as hidden in the papyr)s marshes, hence his epithet Har-
hery-ad4 or "Hor)s "ho is )pon his papyr)s plants." #his appears vis)ally in a "all relief in the temple of 7ety 0 Aynasty I0I! at Bbydos
as a ha"k on a col)mn in the shape of a papyr)s reed.
From the Egyptian Har-pa-khered literally "Hor)s-the-child" the 2reeks created the name of Harpokrates. 0n this form
Hor)s is depicted as a yo)ng v)lnerable-looking child, sitting on the knees of 0sis, "earing the sidelock of yo)th and
sometimes s)cking his fingers. 0n the 8ate Aynastic cippi obGects, Harpokrates acts as an am)letic force "arding off
dangero)s creat)res. Hor)s as a boy "ith the sidelock appears dominating crocodiles, serpents, and other noxio)s
animals on cippi or apotropaic stelae of "Hor)s-on-the-(rocodiles," the common manifestation of the importance of
Hor)s in healing rit)al and pop)lar rit)al practice. #he healing of Hor)s from scorpian stings by 0sis provided the
reason for the prod)ction of the cippi of Hor)s and his role in healing.
#he Harsomtus version of Hor)s can be traced back to the 4yramid #exts as Har-mau or "Hor)s the )niter." #he idea
is the king as )pholder of the )nification of 3orth and 7o)th Egypt. 7ince in temple dogma the divine child of a god
and goddess co)ld be tho)ght a manifestation of the pharaoh, Harsomtus is )sed merely as "filling" in a sacred triad.
He is e.g. the son of the elder Hor)s and Hathor at Edf) temple. 7imilarly at the temple of ;om-1mbo the same co)ple are the parents
of Harsomtus )nder the name of(a-neb-tay or "lord of the #"o 8ands."
Hor)s the child 6 Hor)s son of 0sis and 1siris "as often portrayed as a boy "earing the sidelock and fre:)ently appeared in the arms of his
mother 0sis. 'ron$es representing him, "ith or "itho)t 0sis, "ere )bi:)ito)s in 8ate and 2reco-Coman times. 1n cippi, the head of the child
Hor)s "as often s)rmo)nted by a f)ll-faced 'es-head or mask.
Horus the Son of &sis 5and #siris6
#he Harsiese "Hor)s, the son of 0sis"! form emphasi$es his legitimacy as the offspring of the )nion of 0sis and 1siris. 0n the 4yramid
#exts, Harsiese performs the vital "opening the mo)th" ceremony of the dead king, a rit)al that restored fac)lties to the corpse for their
Bfterlife, and "as carried o)t at the time of the b)rial by the s)ccessor-monarch or Hor)s!. B typical pictorial of this rite being performed
by one pharaoh )pon another can be fo)nd on the "all of the sarcophag)s chamber in the tomb of #)tankham)n Aynasty IJ000!.
Bnother f)nerary priestly title, Hor)s &un-mutef, or "pillar of his mother" is evocative of Hor)s* s)ccess in regaining the throne of his father
1siris, beca)se of 0sis* caref)l )pbringing of her son. Bt f)neral ceremonies the eldest son of the deceased -- or a mort)ary priest -- dressed
in panther skin, played the role of Hor)s &un-mutef b)rning incense and scattering p)rified "ater before the coffin.
#he Har-ned4-itef or "Hor)s the savior of his father" 2reek Harendotes! refers to Hor)s* vindication of his claim to s)cceed 1siris, resc)ing
his father*s former earthly domain from the )s)rper 7eth.
Horus as sun-god
Bs a cosmic deity Hor)s is imagined as a falcon "hose "ings are the sky, right eye is the s)n, left eye the moon. From the reign of ;ing
Aen Aynasty 0!, on an engraved ivory comb, the ha"k*s "ings as an independent entity covey the celestial imagery "hile a ha"k in a boat
s)ggests the Go)rney of the s)n-god himself. #ext)al evidence from the 4yramid Era refers to Hor)s as "lord of the sky" or as a god "of the
east". i.e. the region of s)nrise.
#he form Harakhti or "Hor)s of the hori$on" refers to the god rising in the east at da"n to bathe in the "field of r)shes." #he 4yramid #exts
mention this aspect of the god linked to the sovereign: the king is said to be born on the eastern sky as Harakhti. Blso since the element -
akhti can be a d)al form of the no)n akhet hori$on!, there is a play on "ords "hen the king is given po"er over the "to horizons" i.e. east
and "est! as Harakhti.
3at)rally the Egyptians had to accept that technically their pharoah, as "son of $e" or Ca! the s)n-god, co)ld not achieve a total
identification "ith this aspect of Hor)s, especially "ith the coalescence of this form "ith the Heliopolitan s)n-god to become as $e-
Harakhty or $a-Harakhti!. #h)s 7en"osret 0 Aynasty I00! "as appointed "shepherd of this land" by Harakhti. 0n la)datory or
propagandist inscriptions the assimilation of the pharaoh to Harakhti is maintained, as for instance in the case of the 7)danese ;ing 4iye
Aynasty IIJ! on his stela commemorating the con:)est of Egypt.
"Hor)s of 'ehdet" or the 'ehdetite "as normally sho"n as a ha"k-"inged s)n disk "ith pendant uraei snakes!. #he location of 'ehdet
"as in the marshy north-east Aelta. 0t is not mentioned in the 4yramid #exts and the anti:)ity of the site as a c)lt centre of Hor)s in
relation to Edf)! cannot yet be ascertained. 0t becomes an )bi:)ito)s motif -- e.g. in temple decorations of ceilings or gate lintels, or the
)pper border or frame of "all-reliefs or the l)nette of stelae.
#he form Har-em-akhet or Harmachis Harmakhis! or "Hor)s in the hori$on" aptly regionali$es Hor)s as s)n-god. 4haraonic inscriptions of
the 3e" ;ingdom reinterpreted the 2reat 7phinx at 2i$a, originally representing ;ing ;hafra g)arding the approach to his pyramid,
as Harmachis looking to"ards the eastern hori$on.
Bside from the s)n disk, Hor)s in vario)s forms also "ore the Ao)ble (ro"n, a stat)s as king of Egypt. the atef a type of cro"n!.
triple atef. and a disk "ith t"o pl)mes, etc. #here are also ancient localities "ith a Hor)s c)lt. #he t"o most important sanct)aries in terms
of historical and archaeological evidence belong to Hor)s of 3ekhen and Hor)s of 9esen.
'y the fifth dynasty +=-> - +%=< '(!, the Hor)s-king also became "son of Ce" the s)n god by personifying mythologically the entire older
genealogy of Hor)s as the goddess Hathor, or "ho)se of Hor)s" "ho "as also the spo)se of Ce and mother of Hor)s. Hor)s "as also
combined, syncreti$ed, and closely associated "ith deities other than Ce, notably b)t not excl)sively! 9in, 7opd), ;hons), and 9ont).
#he 2reeks associated Hor)s "ith Bpollo giving rise to the a)thor of the Hieroglyphica, Horapollo.
5hile Egyptologists often speak of distinct Hor)s-gods, combinations, identifications, and differentiations "ere possible, and they are
complementary rather than antithetical. B G)dicio)s examination of the vario)s "Hor)ses" and the so)rces relating to them s)pports the
possibility that the roles in :)estion are closely interrelated, so they may be )nderstood as different aspects or facets of the same divine
persona see #xford Encyclopedia, vol +, "Hor)s" p. ,,-ff. Hart, $outledge %ictionary, "Hor)s" p. /&ff!.
*$eitgeist* on Horus
"7y this e kno the spirit of truth and the spirit of error." , Fohn =:E, Ao)ay-Cheims!
3o" 0 "ill respond to the transcript section of "Zeitgeist" that talks abo)t Hor)s and Fes)s. 0 have removed the transcript*s references,
altho)gh 0 "ill talk abo)t the film*s so)rces at the end. 9y o"n doc)mentation, information, and so)rces are contained above, "ith a short
bibliography at bottom.
From the transcript of """.Zeitgeist9ovie.com in re.
#his is Hor)s. He is the 7)n 2od of Egypt of aro)nd %&&& '(.
Hor)s is not simply! the s)n god, altho)gh that became one of
his forms. Hor)s in ancient Egypt "as the falcon god "hose
name means the high, far-off, or distant one. Ce or Ca! "as the
s)n god "ho came to be identified "ith the mid-day or noon!
s)n. Hor)s "as also the sky god, "hose good or sound eye "as
the s)n, and inG)red eye the moon.
He is the s)n, anthropomorphi$ed, and his life is a series of
allegorical myths involving the s)n*s movement in the sky.
He is not the s)n, b)t came to be identified "ith the position of
the rising s)n the s)n rises in the east!, in s)ch 2reek forms
as Harakhti H "Hor)s of the hori$on". and Harmachis -khis! H
"Hor)s in the hori$on." 8ater he "as associated "ith the s)n-god
Ce and kno"n as $e-Harakhti. Bt)m "as the god of
the setting s)n.
From the ancient hieroglyphics in Egypt, "e kno" m)ch abo)t
this solar messiah. For instance, Hor)s, being the s)n, or the light,
had an enemy kno"n as 7et and 7et "as the personification of the
darkness or night.
Ba "Be& was the sun god and
creator of the universe
Osiris was the king of the
underworld "the dead&, wife of
Isis, and father of (orus
Isis was the sister and wife of
Osiris, and mother of (orus
4eth was brother and killer of
Osiris
(orus, represented by the 9alcon
symbol, was the son of Osiris and
Isis
Ba-(arakhti "Be-(arakhti& or
simply (arakhti is "(orus of the
two hori@ons"
4ee 0im ,oy's Egyptian )ods page for the
(ierglyphs and names of all the ma*or gods of
Egypt

0t is hieroglyphs, not hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphic is an adGective
e.g. hieroglyphic "ritings!. #he term "messiah" comes from the
Hebre" 'oshiach for "Bnointed 1ne." 0t is a F)daeo-(hristian
concept. it does not go back to ancient Egypt. 7et or 7eth! "as
Hor)s* brother, or in other versions, his )ncle. 0n one tradition of
the Egyptian myth, 7eth "as Hor)s* ri!al and )s)rper of Egypt*s
throne!, in others, his balance a bipolar, balanced embodiment of
Bnd, metaphorically speaking, every morning Hor)s "o)ld "in the battle against 7et - "hile in the evening, 7et "o)ld con:)er Hor)s and
send him into the )nder"orld. 0t is important to note that "dark vs. light" or "good vs. evil" is one of the most )bi:)ito)s mythological
d)alities ever kno"n and is still expressed on many levels to this day.
Hor)s "as never sent to the )nder"orld. #hat "as 1siris "ho "as killed and became lord of the )nder"orld i.e. the dead!, "hile Hor)s "as
king of the living. 0n one version of the myth, Hor)s battles "ith 7eth over an >& year period, the earth-god 2eb in a G)dgment a"ards the
"hole inheritance of Egypt to Hor)s, and Hor)s then becomes r)ler of Egypt. From then on, the dead Egyptian king becomes an "1siris",
and his s)ccessor the living king is a "Hor)s." #hat is the primary meaning of the Hor)s-7eth battle myth. 0n the Egyptian *offin
)exts 7pell ,=>, :)oted above!, Hor)s appears as a falcon "ho soars )p into the sky beyond the flight of the original bird-so)l, beyond the
stars and all the divinities of olden time "hose so)ls inhabit the constellations. 0n so doing he brings back light and the ass)rance of a ne"
day, th)s s)bd)ing 7eth, "ho personifies the terrors of darkness and death.
'roadly speaking, the story of Hor)s is as follo"s: Hor)s "as born on Aecember +<th
5rong. #he 4ersian6Coman god 9ithras came to be seen as born on that date, as did Fes)s later in the early (h)rch. #he Aecember +<th
date is not fo)nd in the 2ospels or the 3e" #estament. 0t "as a later adoption by the (atholic (h)rch: "0n the first half of the fo)rth cent)ry
BA the "orship of the Sol &n!ictus "as the last great pagan c)lt the (h)rch had to con:)er, and it did so in part "ith the establishment of
(hristmas...Bt the head of the %eposition 'artyrum of the so-called Coman (hronograph of %<= BA the 4hilocalian (alendar! there is
listed the natus *hristus in 7etleem Judaeae *the birth of (hrist in 'ethlehem of F)dea*! as being celebrated on Aecember +<. #he
Aeposition "as originally composed in %%E BA, so (hristmas dates back at least that far." 7ee "7anta or 7atan: Ceply to a F)nny F)ndy"!
#he date of the birth of Hor)s according to some online so)rces is d)ring the Egyptian month of +hoia( "hich corresponds to
o)r )o,ember month!. #he Egyptian calendar had three seasons, each fo)r months and %& days6month. #he season of Bkhet is months in
2reek! #hot, 4haophi, Bthyr, ;hoiak. the season of 4eret or 5inter! is months in 2reek! #ybi, 9ekhir, 4hamenoth, 4harmo)thi. the
season of (hemo) or 7)mmer! is months in 2reek! 4akhon, 4ayni, Epiph, 9esorL. 7ee online so)rces: Egyptian Festival
(alender . Egyptian calendar months and seasons . 2rand Festivals . Festival Cit)als. 5e also kno" "here Hor)s "as s)pposedly born at
;hemmis or (hemmis in the 3ile Aelta of northern Dpper Egypt!.
of the virgin 0sis-9eri.
5rong again. Her name "as simply 0sis in 2reek!. Her tr)e Egyptian name is transliterated simply A-s-e-t or 3st all "oman names in
Egyptian end "ith the "t"!. Her name 0set! means "seat" or "throne" #xford Encyclopedia, vol +, "0sis" p. ,>>! and "the goddess*s name is
"ritten in hieroglyphs "ith a sign that represents a throne, indicating the cr)cial role that she plays in the transmission of the kingship of
Egypt" Hart, $outledge %ictionary, "0sis" p. >&!.
Bnd she definitely "as not a virgin "hen she conceived Hor)s "ith the revivified 1siris, if these "ords mean anything: "?1siris
"as@ re!i!ed enough to ha!e an erection and impregnate his ife" 8esko, p. ,E+!. "0fter ha!ing sexual intercourse..." A)nand 6 Zivie-
(oche, p. %-!. "re!i!ified the sexual member of #siris and became pregnant by him" Cichard 5ilkinson, p. ,=E!. "re!i!e the sexual poers
of #siris" 4inch, p. >&!.
B virgin birth, or more properly, a virginal conception, is by definition non-sex)al.
His birth "as accompanied by a star in the east
3o evidence any stars are mentioned in the birth of Hor)s.
"hich in t)rn, three kings follo"ed to locate and adorn the ne"-born savior
#here are no "three kings" in the birth of Hor)s, and there are no "three kings" in the 'ible either. Cead 9atthe" + for yo)rself:
"3o" "hen Fes)s "as born in 'ethlehem of F)daea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Fer)salem,
saying, *5here is he that is born ;ing of the Fe"sM For "e have seen his star in the east, and are come to "orship him.*" 9atthe" +:,-+
;FJ!
#hey are not called "kings" b)t ""ise men" -- and they are not three in n)mber, "e don*t kno" ho" many there "ere. #hree gifts are later
mentioned gold, frankincense, myrrh! in verse ,,, and these "ere e:)ated "ith the "ise men. 4erhaps "e are thinking of the (hristmas
carol "/e three kings of #rient are...." M 3ice t)ne and lyrics, b)t it*s al"ays best to cross-check "ith the biblical text.
Bt the age of ,+, he "as a prodigal child teacher
#here is a form kno"n as "Horus the *hild" b)t he "asn*t a prodigal teacher. He "as kept hidden a"ay by his mother, )ntil he "as ready to
be r)ler of Egypt. #he yo)ng god "as hidden in the papyr)s marshes, hence his epithet Har-hery-ad4 or "Hor)s "ho is )pon his papyr)s
plants."
and at the age of %& he "as bapti$ed by a fig)re kno"n as Bn)p and th)s began his ministry
3o evidence of any baptism for Hor)s, and no evidence of any "ministry" of Hor)s. Bn)bis or Bn)p or Bnp)! means Coyal (hild, and is
)s)ally depicted as Gackal-headed or a "ild dog-headed man, or a reclining black Gackal. Bn)bis "as the great protector god, g)iding the
so)l thro)gh the )nder"orld. He "as also the 8ord of embalming, and thro)gh this is connected "ith incense and perf)mery. 3o baptism
here. 7ee #he Fackal Headed 2od or Egyptian Bnimal 2ods!.
Hor)s had ,+ disciples he traveled abo)t "ith
Hor)s had )O ,+ disciples he traveled "ith: remember he became ruler of Egypt after a long battle "ith 7eth. 4erhaps yo) co)ld call all the
s)bGects in Egypt his "disciples" "hich means follo"ers!.
#here ere technically the "Follo"ers of Hor)s ?son of 0sis@" called the Shemsu Heru, mentioned in the ,iturgy of 8uneral #fferings and
p)rification ceremony. #hese "ere a gro)p of beings "ho "ere closely connected "ith 1siris, and having "follo"ed" him in this "orld they
passed after him into the 1ther 5orld of the dead!, "here they became his ministrants and messengers. #here "ere also follo"ers a
different gro)p! of Hor)s the Elder called the 'esentiu "ho are ""orkers in metal" or blacksmiths see #he 8it)rgy of F)neral 1fferings,
the fo)rth ceremony, commentary by ')dge!.
performing miracles s)ch as healing the sick and "alking on "ater
#here are some healing "miracles" or magic associated "ith Hor)s, b)t this is "ith Horus the *hild, not Hor)s the Elder or his ad)lt forms.
0n the 8ate Aynastic cippi obGects, Harpokrates Hor)s-the-child! acts as an am)letic force "arding off dangero)s creat)res s)ch as
crocodiles, serpents, and other noxio)s animals, etc. "Hor)s-on-the-(rocodiles" "as a common manifestation of the importance of Hor)s in
healing rit)al. #he healing of Hor)s from scorpian stings by 0sis provided the reason for the prod)ction of the cippi of Hor)s and his role in
healing. #he po"er of this healing seems to come from his mother, 0sis, "ho "as indeed the "goddess of immense magical po"er"
Hart, $outledge %ictionary, "0sis" p. /-ff!.
Hor)s "as kno"n by many gest)ral names s)ch as #he #r)th, #he 8ight, 2od*s Bnnointed 7on, #he 2ood 7hepherd, #he 8amb of 2od, and
many others
5rong, no evidence for these names. #he "forms" of the Hor)s-god are precisely "hat 0 listed above, )nder these categories: Hor)s the
(hild healing 6 magical titles s)ch as "Hor)s-on-the-(rocodiles"!. Hor)s as son of 0sis and 1siris "pillar of his mother". "savior of his
father"!. and Hor)s as a s)n-god "lord of the sky". god "of the east". Hor)s of 6 in "the hori$on". and later associated "ith Ce!.
Bfter being betrayed by #yphon, Hor)s "as cr)cified, b)ried for % days, and th)s, res)rrected.
#yphon is also kno"n as 7eth, his rival brother or )ncle!. Hor)s "as )OT cr)cified, "as )OT b)ried for % days, and th)s,
"as )OT res)rrected. No)r so)rces are "rong. 0n some versions of his battle "ith 7eth, Hor)s had one or both of his eyes inG)red, b)t he
"as not killed. 0t "as his father 1siris "ho "as killed, dismembered, reconstit)ted, and revived by 0sis, his magical mother.
#hese attrib)tes of Hor)s, "hether original or not, seem to permeate in many c)lt)res of the "orld, for many other gods are fo)nd to have
the same general mythological str)ct)re
3o, they do not. #hey are )ni:)e to Fes)s (hrist cr)cifixion, b)rial, bodily res)rrection!. 0 have demolished these claims in my long,
detailed, doc)mented article "Evidence for Fes)s and 4arallel 4agan *(r)cified 7aviors* Examined."
Attis of 4hyrigia, born of the virgin 3ana on Aecember +<th, cr)cified, placed in a tomb and after % days, "as res)rrected.
5rong. 7ee my section on Bttis for the facts.
+rishna of 0ndia, born of the virgin Aevaki "ith a star in the east signaling his coming, performed miracles "ith his disciples, and )pon his
death "as res)rrected.
#here is some magic and a res)rrection6ascension associated "ith ;rishna. 1ther"ise, "rong.
-ionysus of 2reece, born of a virgin on Aecember +<th, "as a traveling teacher "ho performed miracles s)ch as t)rning "ater into "ine,
he "as referred to as the ";ing of ;ings," "2od*s 1nly 'egotten 7on," "#he Blpha and 1mega," and many others, and )pon his death, he
"as res)rrected.
Bgain, "rong. 7ee my section on Aionysos for the facts.
Mithra of 4ersia, born of a virgin on Aecember +<th, he had ,+ disciples and performed miracles, and )pon his death "as b)ried for % days
and th)s res)rrected, he "as also referred to as "#he #r)th," "#he 8ight," and many others. 0nterestingly, the sacred day of "orship of
9ithra "as 7)nday.
5rong. 7ee my section on 9ithras for the facts.
#he fact of the matter is there are n)mero)s saviors, from different periods, from all over the "orld, "hich s)bscribe to these general
characteristics.
#he fact of the matter is, yo)r "so)rces" are lying to yo). 2et some better so)rces. 2o to a )niversity library. Ao some research. 0t*s not
really that hard.
#he :)estion remains: "hy these attrib)tes, "hy the virgin birth on Aecember +<th, "hy dead for three days and the inevitable res)rrection,
"hy ,+ disciples or follo"ersM
3o :)estions remain. #hese are )ni:)e to Fes)s (hrist. 7ee my article, especially the last section "(hristianity vs. 4agan *9ystery*
Celigions."
F)rthermore, the character of Fes)s, a literary and astrological hybrid, is most explicitly a plagiari$ation of the Egyptian 7)n-god Hor)s.
#otally "rong and demolished above. 5e*ll get to some of the "astrology" material belo".
For example, inscribed abo)t %<&& years, on the "alls of the #emple of 8)xor in Egypt are images of the en)nciation, the immac)late
conception, the birth, and the adoration of Hor)s. #he images begin "ith #ha" anno)ncing to the virgin 0sis that she "ill conceive Hor)s,
then 3ef the holy ghost impregnating the virgin, and then the virgin birth and the adoration. #his is exactly the story of Fes)s* miracle
conception.
#he "en)nciation" sho)ld be the "Bnn)nciation" 9arch +< is the feast day in (atholic lit)rgical calendars!, and "immac)late conception"
refers to the (atholic teaching abo)t 9ary*s conception "itho)t 1riginal 7in Aecember > is the feast day!, not to a virginal conception. F)st
to be clear: 9ary*s on conception and birth from her mother "as normal in the biological sense. it "as Jesus"ho "as virginally conceived
and virgin born 9atthe" ,:,>-+<. 8)ke ,:+E-%>!.
7keptic and historian Cichard (arrier makes a co)ple points abo)t the Egyptian 8)xor birth inscription "hich 0 "ill s)mmari$e:
the 8)xor inscription does not depict impregnation by a spirit, b)t involves very real sex
the "oman involved is not 0sis e.g. Hor)s* mother! b)t the mythical O)een of Egypt in an archetypal sense
4anel =: often cited as key! describes the god Bm)n G)mping into bed "ith the h)man O)een on her "edding night
Bm)n*s b)ddy #hoth stands by the bed to "atch, and after Bm)n "does everything he "ished "ith her" she and Bm)n engage in
some divine pillo" talk
Bm)n tells her that she is impregnated and "ill bear his son, Bmenophis or "Bm)n is loved ?or satisfied@"!
Bm)n, not #hoth, anno)nces the conception. and ;neph only forms the fet)s and the so)l and )nites them, he does not impregnate
the O)een
4anel >: the ankh to)ched to the O)een*s nose, does not depict an impregnation since she is already pregnant and "sho"ing"
Cather, it is the birth that is anno)nced, not the conception. ;neph proceeds to impart the god*s so)l into the divine fet)s )sing the
ankh
4anel -: depicts the birth
the adoration scene only involves important state officials or perhaps lesser divinities!, not kings or "magi"
the cycle depicted at 8)xor does not match )p in the same se:)ence "ith the (hristian narrative: the ann)nciation follo"s the
conception in the Egyptian cycle b)t in the same panel!
the act)al 8)xor se:)ence is conception and ann)nciation in panel =, gestation and :)ickening in panel > also a second speech of
ass)rance!, birth in panel -, and then in panels - on"ard an adoration, and a confirmation
this type of se:)ence is fo)nd thro)gho)t 2reek and Coman mythology, so (hristians need not have gotten the idea from Egypt
0n fact, the literary similarities bet"een the Egyptian religion and the (hristian religion are staggering.
#hey are not, since there are virt)ally )O similarities. B blogger (onsigliere! posting on an atheist site concl)des in his analysis "Ending
the 9yth of Hor)s" :
"....& find the comparison beteen Horus and Jesus to consist of the folloing- they ere of royal descent, they allegedly orked miracles
and there ere murder plots against them."
0 conc)r "ith these, altho)gh the healing miracles are associated "ith Hor)s-the-(hild. Hor)s "as like Fes)s! a "son of 2od" since he "as
son of 0sis and 1siris, and he "as like Fes)s! a lord and a king, as Fes)s "as ";ing of ;ings" and "8ord of 8ords" book of Cevelation!.
$eitgeist%s Bogus Sour&es
#he "so)rces" )sed for Zeitgeist are o)tdated, )nreliable, non-academic, non-scholarly, spec)lative, and6or conspiracy-laden tomes "ritten
by folks "ho are not trained in biblical scholarship, historical Fes)s st)dies, Egyptology, or related fields, and6or rely on other non-scholarly,
o)tdated, pse)do-historical books, and are therefore filled "ith errors:
o A&harya S, Suns of .od and )he *hrist *onspiracy.
and he has presented seminars for ch)rches, colleges, and biblical meetings not only in the Dnited 7tates b)t also in E)rope, Bsia, Bfrica,
and B)stralia. 5itherington "rites for many ch)rch and scholarly p)blications, is a reg)lar contrib)tor to *hristianity )oday and
'eliefnet.com, and has been feat)red "idely in the national media.
The Celti& or Irish Cross
"This is not a symbol of Christianity, it is a pagan adaptation of the cross of the zodiac." -- from
Zeitgeist movie ?pict)re of the cross similar to the right@
See Christian Crosses
.esponse: #his is simply the (eltic cross, characteristic symbol of (eltic (hristianity, forming a
maGor part of (eltic art. 0t is also referred to as the high cross, 0rish (ross, or the (ross of Iona an
isle in 7cotland!.
#here are many representations of the (hristian cross:
,. the 'atin &ross from the +nd-%rd cent)ry BA!.
+. the #ree( &ross.
%. the cross of (alvary or #rae Cross.
=. the Celti& &ross disting)ished by the circle and intricate designs.
<. the .ussian Orthoo/ &ross consists of three bars, the lo"est bar slanted, the top bar
represents "03C0" sign placed over Fes)s* head.
E. the papal &ross is the official symbol of the papacy, the three bars of the cross most likely
represent the three realms of the 4ope*s a)thority.
/. the baptismal &ross has eight points, symboli$ing regeneration, formed by combining the 2reek cross "ith the 2reek letter chi I!,
the first letter of "(hrist" in 2reek.
>. the bue &ross, its trefoils represent the #rinity.
-. the &on0ueror%s or ,i&tor%s &ross is another 2reek cross.
,&. the triumphant &ross "ith orb represents (hrist*s reign over the "orld.
,,. an in,erte &ross is the cross of 7t. 4eter "ho according to tradition "as cr)cified )pside do"n beca)se he felt )n"orthy to die the
same "ay as (hrist.
123 143

153 163 173 183 193 1:3 1;3 12<3 1223
Ao all of these too come from Egyptian mythology or paganismM 0f so, then "hat*s the astrological or $odiac connection "ith theseM
From """=CeltArts=&om article on *Is the Celti& Cross a >agan Symbol?*
"Bll the historical examples of act)al *(eltic (rosses* are from indisp)tably (hristian contexts. #he Bberlemno 7tone in Bng)s, the great
High (rosses at (lonmacnoise, 9onasterboise, ;ells, 0ona and many other medieval monastic sites are all clearly made in (hristian times,
)nder (hristian patronage and according to conventional (hristian iconography." article by 7tephen 5alker!
#he most ancient (eltic or 0rish crosses date from the 9th &entury A- for"ard. Even admitting a "pagan connection" in the symbols, this
adoption by the (h)rch "o)ld have nothing to do "ith the (atholic (hristianity fo)nded by Fes)s (hrist and His apostles in the first
&entury, and the (hristian faith passed on + #hess +:,<. + #imothy +:+. F)de %! to their immediate s)ccessor bishops of the (h)rch. #he
cross is a later (hristian symbol representing the firstcentury crucifixion of !esus, an historical and saving event described in detail in all
fo)r 2ospels, mentioned by the Bcts of the Bpostles Bcts +:+%,%E. =:,&. <:%&. ,&:%-. ,%:+-!, and the earliest "ritings of 7t. 4a)l , (or
,:,%-+%. +:+->. ,<:,ff. 2al +:+&. %:,,,%. E:,+-,=. 4hil +:>. (ol ,:+&. +:,=-,<. , #hess +:,=-,E. Heb E:E. ,+:+. etc!. #his has nothing to do
"ith astrology "astro-theology"! or the $odiac.
SO?.CES
S&holarly Boo(s on Egyptian #os an Egyptian .eligion:
)he $outledge %ictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses by 2eorge Hart Co)tledge, +&&<!
%ictionary of 0ncient Egypt edited by #oby 5ilkinson #hames P H)dson, +&&<!
.ods and 'en in Egypt, 3999 7*E to 3:; *E by F. A)nand and (. Zivie-(oche (ornell Dniv 4ress, +&&=!
)he *omplete gods and goddesses of 0ncient Egypt by Cichard H. 5ilkinson #hames P H)dson, +&&%!
Handbook of Egyptian 'ythology by 2eraldine 4inch 7anta 'arbara, (B: B'(-(801, +&&+!
)he 0ncient .ods Speak- 0 .uide to Egyptian $eligion edited by Aonald '. Cedford 1xford Dniv 4ress, +&&+!
)he Encyclopedia of 0ncient Egypt edited by 9argaret ')nson 1xford: Facts of File, ,--,, +&&+ revised!
)he #xford Encyclopedia of 0ncient Egypt edited by Aonald '. Cedford 1xford Dniversity 4ress, +&&,!
)he gods of Egypt by (la)de #ra)necker, trans by Aavid 8orton (ornell Dniversity 4ress, +&&,!
%eath and Sal!ation in 0ncient Egypt by Fan Bssmann, trans by Aavid 8orton (ornell Dniv 4ress, +&&,!
)he .reat .oddesses of Egypt by 'arbara 7. 8esko Dniv of 1; 4ress, ,---!
.ods, (riests, and 'en- Studies in the $eligion of (haraonic Egypt by Byl"ard 9. 'lackman, compiled6edited by Blan '. 8loyd
;egan 4a)l 0ntl, ,-->!
Egyptian $eligion by 7iegfried 9oren$, trans by Bnn E. ;eep (ornell Dniv 4ress, ,--+, orig ,-E&!
)he .ods and Symbols of 0ncient Egypt- an illustrated history by 9anfred 8)rker, trans by 'arbard ()mming #hames and
H)dson, ,->&!
'yth and Symbol in 0ncient Egypt by C.#. C)ndle (lark #hames P H)dson, paperback ,-/>, ,--%!
)he 0ncient Egyptian *offin )exts in % vol)mes, edited by C.1. Fa)lkner Bris and 4hillips, ,-/%, ,-/>!
)he gods of the Egyptians by E. B. 5allis ')dge Aover 4)blications, ,-E-!, + vol)mes
)on-S&holarly@ >seuo-histori&al@ ?nreliable Boo(s on *>agan >arallel* Conspira&y Theories of .eligion:
o 7ible myths and their parallels in other religions, being a comparison of the #ld and 1e )estament myths and miracles ith those
of heathen nations of anti<uity, considering also their origin and meaning by #homas 5illiam Aoane Dniversity 'ooks, ,-/,, orig
,>>+!
o )he /orld+s Sixteen *rucified Sa!iors, or *hristianity 7efore *hrist by ;ersey 2raves #r)th 7eeker (ompany, ,-E& sixth edition,
also Bdvent)res Dnlimited 4ress, +&&,, orig ,>/<!
o )he )o 7abylons by Blexander Hislop 8oi$ea)x 'rothers, ,-<-, orig ,-,E!
o )he Jesus 'ysteries- /as the +#riginal Jesus+ a (agan .od= by #imothy Freke and 4eter 2andy #hree Civers 4ress, ,---!
o )he *hrist *onspiracy- )he .reatest Story E!er Sold by Bcharya 7 Bdvent)res Dnlimited 4ress, ,---!
o )he (agan *hrist by #om Harp)r 5alker and (ompany, +&&=!
SEE A'SO
From site """.Bncient-Egypt.org by an amate)r Egyptologist on *Horus* framed "eb page!
From Encyclopedia 'ythica on *Horus*
Encyclopedia of $eligion edited by 9ircea Eliade ,->/! 6 8indsay Fones +nd edition +&&<! article on *Horus*
From #ektonics.org on "5alk 8ike Bn Egyptian": (omparing 1siris, Hor)s, Fes)s
From 'en 5itherington*s 'log "#he Zeitgeist of the *Zeitgeist* 9ovie"
"Ending the 9yth of Hor)s" by a blogger "(onsigliere" posting on an atheist site ,6,&6+&&<!
";ersey 2raves and the 5orld*s 7ixteen (r)cified 7aviors" by skeptic and historian Cichard (arrier +&&%!
Cichard (arrier on the Egyptian 8)xor inscription +&&=!
"#he 8eading Celigion 5riter in (anada...Aoes He ;no" 5hat He*s #alking Bbo)tM" by 5. 5ard 2as:)e >6-6+&&=!
on #om Harp)r*s book )he (agan *hrist also here and here
0ncient Egypt- )he ,ight of the /orld by 2erald 9assey orig 8ondon, ,-&/!
chapter "#he Fes)s 8egend #raced in Egypt for ,&,&&& Nears" 4AF!
)he Historical Jesus and 'ythical *hrist by 2erald 9assey c. ,-&&!
Blso: The Tea&hing Company on Egyptology, => college lect)res by Bob Brier of 8ong 0sland Dniversity, Sample >arts
2@4@5 94%!
by >hilAaB -- &omplete Easter Sunay CMar&h 45D 4<<: -- He is .isenE