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INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS ETHICAL PRACTICES ON

STUDENTS DISCIPLINE IN NANGABO SUB COUNTY,


WAKISO DISTRICT.
BY
DAMIAN KATO ABOOKI
2007/HD04/10594U
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF EDUCATION FOUNDATIONS OF
MAKERERE UNIERSITY
OCTOBER 2010
DECLARATION
I, Damiano Kato Abooki, declare that this is my original work and it has not
been presented to any other institution of higher learning for the award of
any academic qualification.
Signed....................................................
KAT DA!IA" A#KI
$%&'. ". ()* +D,*-./0,12
Date.......................................................
i
APPROAL
This dissertation has been submitted with our appro3al as the super3isors.
Signed4444444444.
Dr. A. !. !ugagga.
Date44444444444..
Signed4444444444
!r. 5. S. 5afula.
Date4444444444...
ii
DEDICATION
I dedicate this work to my late parents6 late 'abriel &tekabagire Amooti and
late !argaret "alongo Atwooki $%.I.72. To my wife "amagga S. 8 and
children6 Kwikiri9a 'odfrey Amooti, !arunga :hristine Atwooki, #yoona
Klaus Araali and Ahumu9a Karen Abooki.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I am highly indebted to my super3isors Dr. A.!. !ugagga and !r. 5. S.
5afula who ga3e away plenty of their time to ad3ise me while carrying out
the research studies. Their criticisms helped me get rid of faults and
weaknesses in the work. I am also grateful to6 !s . !ugabirwe of
;oundations Department, !akerere 1ni3ersity and !r. 'erald <ubega of
!IS% for the guidance.
I am also grateful to the friends of <igornneto 7arish Swit9erland for the
financial support to my studies. Special thanks go to the teachers and
students of "angabo, 5akiso District for their co=operation.
I can>t but thank members of my e?tended family who reali9ed the cause of
my study and supported me. I owe my success to their sacrifices.
i3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I";<1&":& ; T&A:+&%S> &T+I:A< 7%A:TI:&S " ST1D&"TS>
DIS:I7<I"& I" "A"'A# S1# :1"T@, .............................................................-
5AKIS DIST%I:T.......................................................................................................-
D&:<A%ATI"..................................................................................................................i
A77%AA<........................................................................................................................ii
D&DI:ATI"....................................................................................................................iii
A:K"5<&D'!&"T....................................................................................................i3
TA#<& ; :"T&"TS.....................................................................................................3
<IST ; TA#<&S..............................................................................................................i?
<IST ; ;I'1%&S.............................................................................................................?
A#ST%A:T........................................................................................................................?i
bser3ation method was used by the researcher to identify in depth issues
about what teachers and students were doing. Document Analysis instrument
was used to collect rele3ant and related data on the topic under in3estigation.
School documents like school rules and regulations were studied by the
researcher using a document analysis...........................................................?ii
:+A7T&% "&..................................................................................................................-
I"T%D1:TI"...............................................................................................................-
-.. Introduction................................................................................................................-
-.- #ackground to the study............................................................................................-
-.( Statement of the problem...........................................................................................B
-.C 7urpose of the study...................................................................................................0
-., Specific obDecti3es.....................................................................................................0
-./ %esearch questions.....................................................................................................0
-.E Scope of the study....................................................................................................-.
-.) Significance of the study..........................................................................................-.
:+A7T&% T5...............................................................................................................--
<IT&%AT1%& %&AI&5..................................................................................................--
(.. Introduction..............................................................................................................--
(.- Theoretical re3iew...................................................................................................--
(.-.- Aristotle>s "ichomachean &thics.......................................................--
(.-.(. Immanuel Kant>s ethical 3iews ..........................................................-(
(.C %elated literature......................................................................................................-B
3
(.C.- Teachers> code of conduct and students> beha3ior in secondary
schools...........................................................................................................-B
(.C.( Teachers> skills in counseling and guidance to students> discipline....(,
:+A7T&% T+%&&...........................................................................................................C-
%&S&A%:+ !&T+D<'@.......................................................................................C-
C.. Introduction..............................................................................................................C-
C.- %esearch design.......................................................................................................C-
C.( Selection of schools.................................................................................................C(
C.C 7opulation................................................................................................................C(
C., Sample si9e .............................................................................................................C(
C./ Sampling Technique................................................................................................C/
C.E Data :ollection !ethods.........................................................................................C/
C.E.- Fuestionnaire.......................................................................................C/
C.E.( bser3ation..........................................................................................CE
C.E.C Document Analysis .............................................................................CE
C.) Data :ollection Instruments....................................................................................C)
C.).- Self Administered Fuestionnaires $SADs2..........................................C)
C.).( ;ocus 'roup Discussion 'uide............................................................CB
C.).C bser3ation .........................................................................................CB
This is where the researcher physically obser3ed the subDects in their natural
setting and he was non participant. bser3ation method was used by the
researcher to identify issues about what teachers and students were doing.
bser3ation check list or schedule was used as a guide to take note of what
was happening in the schools of "angabo Sub=county $See Appendi? D2...C0
C.)., Document Analysis..............................................................................C0
C.B Aalidity and reliability of instruments ....................................................................C0
3i
C.B.- Aalidity.................................................................................................C0
C.B.( %eliability.............................................................................................,.
C.0 7rocedure of data collection.....................................................................................,-
C.-. Data Analysis and 7resentation.............................................................................,(
C.-- &thical consideration..............................................................................................,C
:+A7T&% ;1%..............................................................................................................,/
A"<@SIS, 7%&S&"TATI" A"D I"T&%7%&TATI" ; ;I"DI"'S....................,/
,.. Introduction..............................................................................................................,/
,.- %esearch question one6 +ow does teachers> code of conduct influence students>
beha3ior in "angabo Sub=county, 5akiso DistrictG......................................................,/
,.C %esearch question three6 +ow does teachers> punctuality influence students> time
management in "angabo Sub=county, 5akiso DistrictG.............................................../(
:+A7T&% ;IA&...............................................................................................................//
DIS:1SSI", :":<1SI"S A"D %&:!!&"DATI"S...................................//
/.. Introduction..............................................................................................................//
/.- Discussion................................................................................................................/E
/.-.- Teachers> code of conduct and students> beha3ior............................./E
/.-.( Teachers> skills of counseling and guidance to students....................E.
/.-.C Teachers> punctuality and students time management........................E-
/.( :onclusions..............................................................................................................EC
/.C %ecommendations....................................................................................................E,
;rom discussions of the findings and conclusions made, the following
recommendations were made6.......................................................................E,
%&;&%&":&S..................................................................................................................EE
A77&"DIH A................................................................................................................)(
A77&"DIH #................................................................................................................)B
;:1S '%17 DIS:1SI" F1&STI"S..............................................................)B
A77&"DIH :................................................................................................................)0
:+&:K <IST ; 5+AT S+1<D #& #S&%A&D................................................)0
A77&"DIH D................................................................................................................B-
AA<IDIT@ ; T&A:+&%S> SAF A"D ; F1&STI""AI%& '1ID& ;%
T&A:+&%S...................................................................................................................B-
A77&"DIH &................................................................................................................BC
D:1!&"T S:+&D1<&...........................................................................................BC
A77&"DIH ;................................................................................................................B,
%&<IA#I<IT@ ;% ST1D&"TS> F1&STI""AI%&..............................................B,
3ii
3iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table C.- "umber of student respondents by gender, school and
7ercentage4444444444444444444. C(
Table C.( "umber of teachers and head teachers> respondents> focus
group discussion by gender, school and percentage for
teachers44444444444444444444. CC
Table ,.- Teachers> code of conduct and students> beha3iors44..4 ,,
Table ,.( Teachers counseling and guidance to students44444.. ,B
i?
LIST OF FIGURES
;igure (.- :onceptual frameworks for the relationship between teachers>
&thical practices and students> discipline4444444 -/
?
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to establish whether the abuse of teachers>
ethical practices by some teachers was linked to failure of teachers to know
that they are obliged as a duty to up bring learners with the most acceptable
discipline and ultimately to the knowledge that they impact on learners
beha3ior.
The following were the obDecti3es of the study6 To find out the Influence of
teachers> code of conduct on students> beha3iour in "angabo, 5akiso
District. Influence of teachers> skills of counseling and guidance to students
in secondary schools. To establish influence of teachers> punctuality on
students> time management in "angabo, 5akiso District. SubDects of the
study were students and teachers.
The instruments used in the research were6 Fuestionnaires Self=
administered questionnaires $SAFs2 were used to obtain information from
the respondents. ;ocus group discussions $;'Ds2 were used to get
information from administrators and teachers. This was because they were
fewer in number and would easily discuss.
?i
bser3ation method was used by the researcher to identify in depth issues
about what teachers and students were doing. Document Analysis
instrument was used to collect rele3ant and related data on the topic
under in3estigation. School documents like school rules and
regulations were studied by the researcher using a document analysis
The researcher ascertained that6 Teachers> ethical practices influence
students> discipline and positi3ely or negati3ely impacted on students>
beha3iour like in ways of dress and speech. Teachers through counseling
and guidance help students make choices in their day to day li3es and
3ocations. Through effecting punctuality at school, teachers teach students
to maintain time discipline in all their school acti3ities.
It was concluded that6 Teachers> ethical practices influence students>
discipline either positi3ely or negati3ely in ways of dress and speech.
:ounseling and guidance is important in schools for it guides students in
their 3ocational li3es. Time management trains students to always be
punctual and budget their time.
The researcher suggested some recommendations to that painful state of
affairs thus6 There is need to pro3ide the Teachers> professional code of
?ii
conduct in all schools such that e3ery teacher gets a copy. :ounseling and
guidance should be on the school syllabus in all schools. 7unctuality to both
teachers and students should be emphasi9ed so as to ha3e all acti3ities at
school run in their time schedules.
?iii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1!0 I"#$%&'(#)%"
There has been both a public and pri3ate outcry that discipline has broken down
in Secondary schools. The teachers> ha3e far reaching influence on their learners.
The influence can either be positi3e or negati3e. <earners are more prone to learn
from the teachers> out of class interactions since as Ssekamwa $-00E2 re3eals,
teachers are supposed to be the learners> mirror and model. According to
$Seburimage, -00B2, discipline plays a key role in the process of education and
that to ha3e an orderly and ideal learning situation, discipline is necessary for
teachers and students.
1!1 B*(+,$%'"& #% #-. /#'&0
Teaching as a profession in 1ganda was attributed to formal education
introduced by missionaries in the -0
th
century, that o3er ran the traditional
informal pre=colonial education that was conducted in most society>s homesteads
which acted as classrooms. Thus, there was no code of conduct as we know it
today, but instead good morals were socially imparted $"sigarira, (..E2.
+owe3er, such an informal education was undermined by the formal education.
-
;ormal education transformed the teaching ser3ice into a real profession. That
meant for one to qualify as a teacher, he had to go for training in teachers>
colleges after -B).>s and since then, it remained a profession with e3en a code of
conduct. It should howe3er be noted that like it was during the colonial days, the
missionary period had no written code of conduct for teachers. That was due to
the fact that the administrators of the time ga3e morals the first priority unlike
today where some are too reluctant. In other words, colonial education lacked a
well written code of ethics for teachers. It was assumed that a good teacher
conducts himself or herself in the best way either according to :hristian or
Islamic principles.
n the other hand howe3er, with the attainment of independence in 1ganda
$-0E(2 there arose a need for the code of ethics for the teachers. Indeed one of the
serious educational problems encountered in 1ganda during the post independent
period, was how to control the professional standards of teachers. That was due
to the fact that in the pre independence days, nothing binding was put into place
to regulate teachers> conduct. In -0EC, the &ducation Act was passed which
empowered the go3ernment to control public education. That brought to an end
the religious ethical frame work that had been guiding teachers> conduct. That led
to the professional crisis among teachers in the -0).s and -0B.s. Teachers>
(
associations were formed to monitor their conduct but efforts to come up with a
code of conduct were futile.
According to "sigarira $(..E2, The 7ublic Ser3ice Act of -0E0 and the &ducation
Act of -0). still emphasi9ed state controlled education, to ensure the proper
conduct of teachers. The 7ublic Ser3ice :ommission issued one $amendment2
regulations -00E under the section of the 7ublic Ser3ice $teacher2 Act of -0E0 of
1ganda. It was that which ser3ed as the code of ethics at the time. In "angabo
5akiso District like elsewhere, it was this code which was being abused by some
teachers. According to the sur3ey conducted among secondary school teachers in
"angabo 5akiso District, some teachers did not know that teachers> ethical
conduct hard a direct influence on students> discipline and those teachers did not
know that they ha3e a duty to educate the students. <ike Deon; a 'reek word
meaning obligation or duty, teachers> code of conduct is obligatory. &3ery
teacher, by that 3ery fact is bound to follow the inDunctions of this code.
Deontological theory of Kant $Stanford &ncyclopedia of 7hilosophy (..B2I when
one fulfills an obligation, he or she has done right. ;ailure to fulfill an obligation
is itself wrong. ;rom the deontological point of 3iew, therefore, when teachers
follow their moral or ethical code, they become more professional and this has far
reaching influence on their Students> beha3ior. ;or instance, when a teacher
C
treasures and acknowledges the uniqueness and indi3iduality and specific needs
of each student and pro3ide guidance, counseling and encouragement to each to
reali9e his full potential, he has done right as a teacher because he has fulfilled
one of the duties of a teacher $1"AT1, (../2.
Adams $-0BE2 holds that discipline plays a big role in teaching and learning
process. +owe3er, he remarks that school rules are often 3erbose, enumerating
petty wrong doings that will not be tolerated by school authorities and the
accompanying sanctions in detail. They are a top down trickle affair, imposed on
students without students being gi3en a chance to e3aluate them. They stress the
negati3e without attempting to describe the kind of positi3e beha3iour which the
school would like to be emulated. Since rules and regulations are e?ternally set,
students tend to resist them and at worst to break them.
;or the purpose of this research study, the following terms take this meaning6
&thics generally refers to the study of human morality. &thical means principles
of right or wrong, morally well or correct, <ongman $-00/2. :ode of ethics is a
set of rules regulating the morality of a person or a class of persons. :ode of
conduct is a set of rules regulating the beha3ior of a person or a class of persons.
The word discipline means the de3elopment of self worth, self=control, respect
for self and others plus the adherence to school routine set up in terms of its
,
schedules and school regulations. Student discipline is defiant beha3ior,
misbeha3ior and disrupti3e beha3ior, while to others student discipline means the
general conduct of the student self=denial, self control, ordered beha3ior and
obedience to authority. <ongman $-00/2 defines an influence as power to ha3e an
effect on the way someone or something de3elops, beha3es, or thinks without
using direct force or commands. A teacher is a person who regularly instructs a
person in a school to which there is Teachers 7rofessional :ode of :onduct
$1"AT2. 5ith the young children, it is e?pected that the teacher and school
administration play the role of e?ternal authority to impose discipline so that
children can settle down and learn.

+owe3er, discipline should be goal=oriented such that e3en as a teacher plays the
role of e?ternal control, he or she should be inculcating the habits for order and
self discipline. This creates self discipline and enhances performance. The
dependent 3ariable is students> discipline and in this study, students> discipline
will includeI attention, punctual and attendance. The independent 3ariable in this
study will be influence of teachers> ethical practices which includedI teachers>
punctuality, code of dress, Dust and trustworthy of which leads the student to
obser3e a strict discipline so as to allow his or her concentration on studies hence
better performance in "angabo, 5akiso District.
/
According to #andura $-00)2, students can learn a lot from their teachers. The
teachers work under ethical theory which asserts that the rightness or wrongness
of an act is dependent upon the nature of the consequences or outcomes of that
action. That is to say an act is right because the outcomes are good and teachers
ought to work with focus. Is the problem arising from lack of strict rules and
regulations, lack of teachers> counseling and guidance to students> and harsh
punishments or poor managers who are the teachersG There has been howe3er no
attempt to assess how teachers> ethical practices influence students> discipline.
This study is therefore concei3ed to in3estigate the contribution of influence of
teachers> ethical practices on students> discipline. +ence, the agency for the study
appraising the influence of teachers> ethical practices on students> discipline in
"angabo, 5akiso District.
Despite formal education being o3er one hundred years old in 1ganda, with so
many teacher training colleges all emphasi9ing ethics, formation of teachers>
associations and penali9ation of teachers who happen to abuse the code of
conduct, some continued not to li3e up to their professional standards. That was
supported by endless reports on cases of teachers> in3ol3ement in e?amination=
malpractice, corruption, teachers> learners> se?ual relationship, thefts.
E
According to the nion, ;riday, (0=8une, (..0 pg ((, there was a bye=bye
holiday party in "ansana where young students were treated to an optical
nutrition of erotic dancing by karaoke dancers, while se3eral couples of students
were nabbed at !unyonyo <ake shore romancing with the bree9e as they enDoyed
e?plorations of their bodies and sweetly ser3icing each other. 5orst of all, a
couple of students were nabbed swapping sali3aI the boy was sacking the tender
lips of a young girl whose mother thought was at school in KaDansi. Such acts are
depictions of the rotten manners of our future citi9ens. +e called for police and
all concerned authorities to act with ultimate haste to curb down the heinous acts
before the situation runs out of hand. The teachers ha3e a duty to see to it that
they act as managers and control students by working closely with parents to set
better study time tables that will guide students in holidays.
In (.., about (. schools were burnt in strikes and mysterious fires. Schools that
suffered fires includeI $-2 5ampewo S.S, $(2 Kings :ollege #udo, $C2 Seeta
+igh School, $,2 "aalya S.S, $/2 :ity Aiew :ollege. According to Daily !onitor
$Tuesday !arch (, (..02, H=#udo +eadmaster sued o3er another 1ganda
shillings -0( million loan from bank of #aroda and -.) billion from #arclays
bank, 1nfortunately, to some teachers, the moral fiber is either lacking or scanty,
and familiarity with code of conduct is 3ery poor. :onsequently, the obser3ance
)
of the code of conduct is 3ery problematic and is causing a big out cry from the
community of 5akiso District.
1!2 S#*#.1."# %2 #-. 3$%45.1
There arose a pri3ate and public out cry that instead of positi3ely impacting
learners, teachers are constraining students> discipline as a result of their
dysfunctional ethical practices through late coming mistrust, poor dress code,
lack of implementation of rules and regulations, lack of counseling and guidance
to students> and harsh punishments. nion, ;riday, (0=8une, (..0 pg ((, there
was a bye=bye holiday party in "ansana where young students were treated to an
optical nutrition of erotic dancing by karaoke dancers. This is because the
students are e?posed to many dangers like drug taking as some students were
arrested taking opium and others ha3ing it in their suit cases, and where a student
confesses ha3ing infected school mates with +IA* AIDS which was one of the
damning confessions of how +IA positi3e teenagers put colleagues at risk. The
%ed 7epper, 8uly, 0 =(.-. and The Sunrise, 8une, ,= (.-. pg-, which reported
alarming drug abuse in schools.
1nfortunately, there was howe3er no attempt to assess how teachers> ethical
practices influence students> discipline. :onsequently, the study sought to
in3estigate the relationship between teachers> ethical practices and students>
discipline in secondary schools.
B
1!6 P'$3%/. %2 #-. /#'&0
The purpose of the study was to establish the e?tent to which teachers> ethical
practices bare influence on students> discipline in selected secondary schools in
5akiso District.
1!4 S3.()2)( %47.(#)8./
The study had the following obDecti3es6
$i2 To establish the influence of teachers> code of conduct on students
beha3ior in "angabo, 5akiso District.
$ii2 To find out the influence of teachers> skills counseling and guidance to
students> in "angabo, 5akiso District.
$iii2 To find out the influence of teachers> punctuality on students> time
management in "angabo, 5akiso District.
1!5 R./.*$(- 9'./#)%"/
The study had the following research questions6
$i2 +ow does teachers> code of conduct influence students> beha3ior in
"angabo Sub=county, 5akiso DistrictG
$ii2 +ow does counseling and guidance influence students> discipline in
"angabo Sub=county, 5akiso DistrictG
$iii2 +ow does teachers> punctuality influence students> time management in
"angabo Sub=county, 5akiso DistrictG
0
1!: S(%3. %2 #-. /#'&0
The study focused on establishing influence of teachers> ethical practices on
students> discipline that is6 teachers> code of conduct on students> beha3ior,
teachers> counseling and guidance to students and teachers> punctuality on
students> time management in four selected secondary schools in "angabo
5akiso District.
1!7 S),")2)(*"(. %2 #-. /#'&0
The study focused on influence of teachers> ethical practices and students>
beha3ior. The study will benefit the followingI School administration and staff
will benefit from impro3ed discipline of both students and teachers. #oard of
go3ernors will find it easy to sol3e issues pertaining discipline since it will ha3e
impro3ed and e3erybody in3ol3ed administrati3ely. !inistry of &ducation and
Sports will benefit as policy makers for their implementation , 7arents> Teachers>
Association $7TA2, and students, through creation of principles go3erning the
institutions as they will all be in3ol3ed in formulation of the rules and regulations
go3erning the school. ;urther, the findings of the study are likely to prompt more
research in 5akiso District.
-.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REIEW
2!0 I"#$%&'(#)%"
This chapter comprised of the theoretical re3iew, conceptual framework or model
and literature related to the respecti3e obDecti3es.
2!1 T-.%$.#)(*5 $.8).;
2!1!1 A$)/#%#5.</ N)(-%1*(-.*" E#-)(/!
+is ethical opinion in his "ichomachean ethics was good directed $Stanford
&ncyclopedia of 7hilosophy (..B2I +is ethics was dominated by the desire to
attain a common good in the society. <ike 7lato, he belie3ed that the common
good was happiness. According to him, all members in the society needed to be
happy. +ence for happiness to be attained, Aristotle called for the establishment
of principles. It ought to be the responsibility of the administrators to design and
implement such acceptable principles for sake of a common good. +e shared the
3iew that laws and threats of punishment are required to foster morality and
elevate ideas of virtuous conduct. Aristotle did not also a3ail ethics for a specific
discipline. +owe3er he had an idea about the need for a set of principles to
regulate conduct in society. +ence it was Dustifiable to argue that teachers of
--
ethics in modern times implemented his proposals. Thus, the designation of the
teachers> code of conduct, as a way of regulating his conduct in society.
2!1!2! I11*"'.5 K*"#</ .#-)(*5 8).;/
Immanuel Kant $(..B2 was a non=consequentialist 7hilosopher who belie3ed in
reasoning what was being done. +e was of the 3iew that one had to first reason
whether the action being done had a moral element or not before doing it.
Kantian ethics had it that it was the good will other than anything else which was
good. To him, a will was a human ability to act in line with moral principles
regardless of the consequences. Kant ad3ocated for a uni3ersal ethical code to
guide human conduct. That actually sounded impractical but still he based his
philosophy upon the fact that man shared a common feature, which was
humanity. +e summed up his ethics by a3ailing a categorical imperati3e. It
stated that those human beings always and e3erywhere must act in such a way
that they wished their action to become a uni3ersal law. +ence to him reason was
indispensable, if we were to act ethically.
;ortunately, most human beha3ior is learned obser3ationally through modeling6
Through obser3ing others, one forms an idea of how new beha3iors are
performed, and on later occasions this coded information ser3es as a guide for
-(
action. Social learning theory e?plains human beha3ior in terms of continuous
reciprocal interaction between cogniti3e, beha3ioral and en3ironmental
influences. The component processes underlying obser3ational learning are6 $-2
Attention, including modeled e3ents $distincti3eness, affecti3e 3alence,
comple?ity, pre3alence, functional 3alue2 and obser3er characteristics $sensory
capacities, arousal le3el, perceptual set, past reinforcement2, $(2 %etention,
including symbolic coding, cogniti3e organi9ation, symbolic rehearsal, motor
rehearsal2, $C2 !otor %eproduction, including physical capabilities, self=
obser3ation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback, and $,2 !oti3ation, including
e?ternal, 3icarious and self reinforcement. The professional interactions of
teachers are go3erned by four fundamental principles as6 autonomy to treat
people with rights that are to be honored and defended, Dustice to share power and
pre3ent the abuse of power, responsible care to do well and minimi9e harm to
others, truth to be honest with others and self.
According to The 'o3ernment of 1ganda $-00/2, Application of the code
of ethics shall take account of the requirements of the law as well as the
obligation of teachers to honor teachers> code of conduct and uphold the
:onstitution. According to Seburimage $-00B2 students should be allowed to
participate effecti3ely in school administration. +e argues that the students will
be able and willing to uphold the school principles, aims and obDecti3es
-C
embedded in their school ethos. This is because student leaders like prefects,
school council and class monitors, will enforce school rules and regulations
which they themsel3es understand, call them their own, because they participated
in formulating them. This could in turn help to set up a good conduci3e
en3ironment for teaching and learning to take place.
-,
2!2 C%"(.3#'*5 2$*1.;%$+
F),'$. 2!1 C%"(.3#'*5 2$*1.;%$+/ 2%$ #-. $.5*#)%"/-)3 4.#;.." #.*(-.$/<
.#-)(*5 3$*(#)(./ *"& /#'&."#/< &)/()35)".!
-/
I"&.3."&."# 8*$)*45./ D.3."&."# 8*$)*45./

= P%/)#)8. $. DE
NT AA%IA#
T.*(-.$/< .#-)(*5 3$*(#)(./
= Autonomy = 8ust
= %esponsible
= Truth
N.,*#)8. R.)"2%$(.1."#
= 7unishment
= :orporal punishment
= Suspension and Dismissal
P%/)#)8. $.)"2%$(.1."#
= 7raises= 'ifts
= Assignments
S#'&."#/< &)/()35)".
= Attention
= !otor %eproduction
= !oti3ation
S#'&."#/< #)1. 1*"*,.1."#
J3e = effecti3eness
J3e =:lass attendance
J3e =7unctuality
C%'"/.55)", *"& ,')&*"(.
= Aocational choice
= 'ood discipline
-E
S%'$(.> K*"#? D*8)& *"& B*"&'$* @1997A!
Source6 Kant, Da3id and #andura $-00)2
The conceptual framework (.- abo3e is drawn from two theories of deontology
and teleology of &manuel Kant, Da3id +ume and Social learning theory by
#andura $-00)2 in teachers> professionalism is hypothesi9ed to influence
Students> discipline in Secondary Schools in "angabo Sub=:ounty, 5akiso
District. The conceptual frame work postulates the presence of promotion of
equality, collegiality of teachers and model, and negati3e reinforcement that
affect students> punctuality, class attendance, and responsible beha3ior in
secondary schools. There are e?pected results of both teachers and students
through good beha3iour, commitment and regularity strengthening teacher
student administration, democratically moti3ated and self reinforcement.

= P%/)#)8. $. DE
NT AA%IA#
=Social
=&conomic
=7olitical
=%eligious
!oral
EB3.(#.& $./'5#/ #% #.*(-.$/
*"& /#'&."#/
'ood beha3iour
:lass e?cellence
:ommitment and regularity=
7unctuality
Strengthening teacher=student
administration
Democratic
!oti3ated and self
reinforcement
-)
2!6 R.5*#.& 5)#.$*#'$.
In this section, the researcher re3iewed and analy9ed some of the works which
ha3e been carried out on discipline related matters. !uch attention was paid on
the relationship between influence of teachers> ethical practices and students>
discipline.
2!6!1 T.*(-.$/< (%&. %2 (%"&'(# *"& /#'&."#/< 4.-*8)%$ )" /.(%"&*$0
/(-%%5/!
In this chapter, the researcher re3iewed and analy9ed some of the works which
ha3e been carried out on teachers> code of conduct and related matters. !uch
attention was put on influence of teachers ethical practices on students>
discipline. The primary professional obligation of registered teachers is to
enforce discipline to those they teach. Teachers nurture the capacities of all
learners to think and act with de3eloping independence, and stri3e to encourage
an informed appreciation of the fundamental 3alues of discipline in society.
Teachers will stri3e to de3elop and maintain professional relationships with
learners based upon the best interests of those learnersI base their professional
practice on continuous professional learning, the best knowledge a3ailable about
curriculum content and pedagogy. Together with their knowledge about those
they teach, teachers will present subDect matter from an informed and balanced
3iewpoint, encourage learners to think critically about significant social issues,
-B
cater for the 3aried learning needs of di3erse learners, promote the physical,
emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual wellbeing of learners and protect the
confidentiality of information about learners obtained in the course of
professional ser3ice, consistent with legal requirements. This is the busiest and
challenging life style.
Daily monitor news paper, 5ednesday, !arch -B, (..0 page B K5est "ile
teachers and students drunkardsL K5est "ile Schools perform poorly because
most teaches in the region drink and smoke on duty with students attending
lessons while high on drugsL said en3ironment State minister 8essica &riyo. She
continued to say that parents no longer control their children many of whom
pocket Sackets of dry gin to class. The situation is terribleI the performance of
students is getting worse.
Alcohol and drugs are a 3ery big problemI students who are not properly
super3ised, are always drinking= e3en the teachers too. Teachers are despised
because they smoke on the school compound which students copy.L She
concluded. This is lack of professional ethics which can lead students to copy
such bad beha3ior. :oupled with the abo3e, the %ed 7epper dated Tuesday,
;ebruary (,, (..0 reports Douglas Sekilime, a student of "tenDeru Secondary
School who was arrested red handed taking ganDa by !ukono 7olice. Drug taking
-0
is one of the problems of student indiscipline as some students were arrested
taking opium and others ha3ing it in their suit cases, and where a student
confesses ha3ing infected school mates with +IA* AIDS which was one of the
damning confessions of how +IA positi3e teenagers put colleagues at risk. The
%ed 7epper of 8uly 0 (.-. and The Sunrise of 8une , (.-. which reported
alarming drug abuse in schools.
According to $%ed 7epper, 5ednesday, -/, April, (..02 eight students and their
teacher from Asam !odel SSS in Kasese town council Kasese District were on
Sunday arrested by locals after nabbing those slaughtering stolen goats from a
neighboring homestead. The students went on rampage and raided 3illages where
they stole goats so as to cerebrate &aster in style. According to the Daily !onitor,
Tuesday, !ay /, (..0, the staff of 5akiso Secondary School for the deaf
petitioned the Inspector 'eneral of 'o3ernment>s $I''2 office requesting it to
in3estigate what they called gross misconduct of their head teacher, when
running the school. The teachers accused her of a high rate of corruption in the
school based on conflict of interest.
In the "ew Aision of 5ednesday, !arch (/, (..0, the "ew Aision &ditor reports
the arrest of a ,B=year old Teacher who was caught defiling a -C=year old girl in
(.
Arapai, Soroti. This act was unprofessional and in the end grossly affects the
discipline of the 3ictim and other students!
According to Ausubel $-0)B2, discipline means control, the absence of
permissi3eness, while self control signifies the internali9ation of e?trinsic
controls. 5ith young children, it is e?pected that the teacher and the school
administrator play the role of e?ternal authority to impose discipline so that
children can settle down and learn. +owe3er, discipline should be goal=oriented
such that e3en as the teacher plays the role of e?ternal control he or she should be
inculcating the habits for order and self discipline. This creates self discipline and
enhances academic achie3ement. 5olwa $-0B)6 (.2 puts it that there must be
discipline in all national institutions including secondary schools if education has
to be an effecti3e agent of character training and formation in society. &ffecti3e
teaching and learning cannot take place in a school if beha3ior of students
interferes with proper school acti3ities. Therefore, teaching as a duty of teachers
to students influences students> discipline since it>s a duty of teachers to ha3e full
control of their class.
:lifford $-00C2 argues that discipline should take precedence o3er other acti3ities
and must be dealt with immediately. +e belie3es and is supported by the
researcher that if one ignores the discipline problem, e3en temporarily, and return
(-
to gi3e instruction while you are in classroom, you reinforce discipline problem.
The lesson will be interrupted and the teaching learning process interfered with.
:lifford $-00C2 recommends that if you encounter a discipline problem in the
course of teaching, you should stop in mid sentence, make a hand gesture to the
student being helped to indicate that you are temporarily stopping to teach and
then proceed to deal with the problem. This is good because the rest of the class
will reali9e the importance of order and paying attention in class. It may ser3e as
a deterrent to any future occurrence of a similar e3ent. This is a simplified case
of discipline but it may be e?tended further to create a bigger problem in the
school once it has been ignored. The way the teacher handles an issue creates an
impact to the students and influences their beha3ior either positi3ely or
negati3ely. In dealing with discipline, it>s a duty of the teacher in class, student
body, and the school administration
The !inistry of &ducation and Sports has deployed spies in schools to look out
for teachers who defile and harass children, the minister, "amirembe #itama9ire
has said. <aunching MKeep the 'irl :hild in SchoolM proDect at St. Ki9ito 7rimary
School in !pigi District. %ecently, #itama9ire e?pressed concern about the
increasing child abuse, defilement and harassment of girls at school and in the
communities. MI appeal to head teachers that this must stop. The girl child is not
going to enDoy school when she is harassed,M she said. #itama9ire said some men
((
e3en had the audacity to challenge young girls by telling them to Mabandon books
because they are ready to start producing children.M 5ithout gi3ing figures,
#itama9ire decried the high rate of irregular attendance in schools, poor
performance and the high drop out rate, especially among girls. The minister
reiterated the ban on corporal punishment and said there was a pamphlet guiding
teachers on how to instill discipline. A total of -(,(C. defilement cases were
reported in (..), most of which were committed in the rural areas, compared to
the -/,CB/ cases in (..E, according to the (..) 7olice report. The MKeep the 'irl
:hild in SchoolM proDect is being e?ecuted by the %otary :lub of !akindye in
partnership with the 1ganda %e3enue Authority 5omenNs ;orum. It is initially
being implemented in -( schools in !pigi, but is e?pected to be rolled out to the
rest of the country, according to the club president, Andrew bara. 1nder the
proDect girls recei3e underwear, !akapads sanitary towels made from papyrus,
soap, and painkillers for managing abdominal cramps. The schools also recei3e
buckets, Derricans and educational materials for senior women teachers, all 3alued
at o3er sh-(m. The items are for one school term, according to the donors
$http6**allafrica.com*2.
2!6!2 T.*(-.$/< /+)55/ )" (%'"/.5)", *"& ,')&*"(. #% /#'&."#/< &)/()35)".!
Teachers ha3e a big role to play in pro3iding counseling and guidance to students
because they spend more time with students and are able to understand
(C
adolescent de3elopment. According to American Association of :olleges for
teacher education $(..(2, Schools and teachers play a crucial role in helping
decrease the beha3iors that put young people at risk of serious health problems
including controlling the taking of drugs among students. !ore important to note
is that teachers play a significant role of organi9ing and encouraging students Doin
associations and clubs that keep them busy. Teachers ha3e been charged with
being patrons of school health clubs which help strengthen the e?isting curricular
acti3ities related to health.
In !o9ambique, teachers ha3e been gi3en a maDor role in awareness and
contributing to attitude and beha3ior change in schools and community. Teachers
are required to work with a broader community of the religious leaders and
nongo3ernmental organi9ations $"'s2 to help raise children with protecti3e
3alues from early age and to deli3er counseling and guidance education
informally or formally $http6*.www.ei=ie.org*aids.htm, 8anuary .B, (..E2.
As ;arrant $-0B/2 stresses, it is the duty of a teacher to help the students to
de3elop as fully as possible all aspects of their potential which in3ol3es welfare,
guidance and super3ision. To ;arrant $-0B/2, the role of a teacher in the students>
welfare is to pro3ide care, establish trusting and friendly relations, and act as a
liaison between the students and his or her peers and between the children>s
(,
teachers and their parents. 5elfare is concerned with se3eral aspects of physical
wellbeing relating to the health of the students, increase of any of any debilitating
diseases which can cause poor performance in school. +ence concern for the
pupils wellbeing means that the teacher must anticipate and pre3ent trouble as
well as to alle3iate it.
In this regard, teachers ought to help the teenagers make responsible decisions
about health and academic and discipline related issues. Since teachers know
their students well, their teaching e?perience ser3es as a strong foundation for
de3eloping skills that help communicate effecti3ely. Teachers are highly
respected and deeply in3ol3ed not Dust in classroom, but also outside the
classrooms.
2!6!6 I"25'."(. %2 T.*(-.$/< 3'"(#'*5)#0 %" /#'&."#/< #)1. 1*"*,.1."# )"
/.(%"&*$0 /(-%%5/!
According to the 1ganda teachers> code of professional conduct $-0B02, teachers
are e?pected to teach conscientiously with diligence and regularity, teach
obDecti3ely, prepare rele3ant schemes of work, lesson notes and teaching aids
well in ad3ance to ensure effecti3e teaching= learning process. A teacher should
set adequate amount of written and practical e?ercises promptly and carefully,
and de3ote time to his or her duties as is necessary by the nature of his or her
(/
post. To meet such work roles, proper time management has to be a pre requisite
which influences a students> time management effecti3eness. According to :lark
$-00,2, time management effecti3eness is made up of indi3idual and institutional
internal re3iews o3er a gi3en period of time. To :lark, time management
effecti3eness postulates of order, punctuality, and efficiency at doing work.
Stonner et al $-00E2, obser3e that on an assembly line, time management is a
consequential ine3itability of the position one holds, accompanied by knowledge
and skills. There is no time to do any piece of work not allocated to you, for you
will lack time to concentrate on your own work, and nobody should waste time to
think about the organi9ational efficiency for not e3erybody is employed to think,
but through proper time management, progress rules by itself. +is constituencies
of time management were adopted from Taylor>s scientific management best
suited for producti3e linesI the concept applies to learning institutions. Time
management effecti3eness will uphold a sum of the effecti3e indi3idual work,
which all constitute to the schools> general academic performance. +e puts it that
time management effecti3eness is made up of knowledge commitment, rewards
and punishments. %ewards are intended to show appreciation for effecti3e time
management while punishments are threats aimed at changing the poor time
manager to a better one.
(E
;urther, he pro3ides a relati3ely unified analysis of the effect of time
management and work roles. 5hereas most of the writers focus on teachers, he
considers both the teacher and the student. +e relates the performance of work
roles at school in the perception that children should be at school and in class not
only when they ha3e lessons. It instead, it should be de3eloped as a culture
among students to always be punctual and wait for the teacher. To the teachers
time loss means students> loss and for the support staff, their continued efficiency
as a result of proper time management maintains institutional cohesion.
&ffecti3e time management helps in setting priorities, a3oiding chaos, and
encourages doing things at the right time. 5here there is chaos as a result of lack
of proper time budgeting, people often try to work methodically, as a result, the
brain is constantly busy processing a number of small unrelated details. To him,
time management effecti3eness is composed of programs that train teachers and
students. This helps keep in a cordial relationship to an e?tent to which the
training school itself would function as a line community centre, dominated by
punctuality, seriousness, and de3otion, all of which lead to better academic
performance.
According to ;arrant $-0B(2, effecti3e time management deals with time
allocation to proDect intended out comes. +e contends that time management
()
effecti3eness in schools is a concern aimed at ensuring that e3ery teacher has an
organi9ed set of time, e3ery subDect gets its correct allocation of periods in
accordance with time fi?ture, and ensuring that the total number of periods for
each subDect in a week is uniform so as to attain teaching*learning efficiency.
Stonner et al $-00E2 puts it that the degree to which one can properly manage
time can be e?plained partly by financial support, honor paid to the teacher and
his or her status, continued thought and study research gi3en to educational
problems, but o3erall, by indi3idual abilities to get acquainted with the benefits
and need to properly manage time. She further upholds that time management
in3ol3es the ability to predict acti3ities, performance, and how they should be
ascertained and properly planned under efficient time management procedures.
Stonner et al $-00E2 further puts it that proper time management is a composition
of the ways by which a nation and the people who belong to it demonstrate to
themsel3es and the outside world the strength of their con3iction that education is
important and thus should be adequately handled by properly managing their
time. 5ilson $(..-2 quotes a student>s 8effrey S. Driscoll as ha3ing said that
Kthere is no greater personal Doy than when life affords you the opportunity of
meeting someone who stimulates and enhances your e?istence and ultimately
leads you to belie3e in your own success,L keeping time e3eryday by the teacher,
(B
as one of the ethical practices not only sets a good e?ample to the students, but
also moti3ates them to emulate such an e?ample, thus totally transforming their
li3es and future.
Time management is one of the attributes to students for good performance as
e?emplified by6 -. !ugisha of #uddo, one of the best students who got AAA# in
+istory &conomic, 'eography &conomics, Di3inity and :C in 'eneral 7aper,
scoring (, points. KI was always in the right place in the right timeL She claimed
to ha3e been inspired by her parents and her teachers. K5e had good teachers
who encouraged us to read all the time. They also counseled us when e3er there
was need to,L she said. "ew 3ision, Thursday, !arch /, (..0.
(. Andrew Ssemakula, the best student of 'ateway +igh School, who scored (/
points, was quoted as ha3ing said that most of the time he dosed off but he
thanked 'od that the e?tra time paid off.
According to Aision %eporters (B ;ebruary (..0, At ur <ady of 'ood :ounsel,
'aya9a, 5akiso District, +istory and !athematics were the best done subDects in
Arts and Sciences respecti3ely. The +istory class topped the bill with CE
students. &sther !atsetse, the +istory teacher, e?plained the trick behind her
classN success6 MI encourage my students to do a lot of discussion and research on
the questions we had in the numerous tests.L Donald yera, the head of the
(0
academic committee and !athematics teacher, said6 MI offered our students a
3ariety of tutorials and discussions in smaller groups, formed according to their
abilities.L 5e ha3e 3ery many students but co3ering the syllabus in time enables
us to gi3e them many tests, one=on=one sessions and e?pose them to a 3ariety of
questions,M ."ew, 3ision, Thursday, !arch /, (..0.
According to the republic of 1ganda $-0B02, time management entails corporate
quality management. This in3ol3es performance for a continued e?istence of the
school.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
6!0 I"#$%&'(#)%"
This chapter discusses the different aspects of methodology applied in this study.
These include6 research design, area of study, study population, sampling
method, data collection methods and instruments, data quality control, data
analysis and presentation, ethical issues and limitations of the study.
6!1 R./.*$(- &./),"
The study adopted a cross sectional sur3ey because the sample represented a
cross section of the target population. It was appropriate because of the need to
C.
collect data from a relati3ely large number of cases at a particular time. The study
used both quantitati3e and qualitati3e approaches. Fuantitati3e approach was
used for data collected using questionnaires from students and teachers for
quantifiable data. The qualitati3e approach was Dustified because it allowed
studying issues in=depth. The researcher was able to establish the respondents>
3iew points, e?periences and suggestions on the way forward. Fualitati3e
research allows studying a phenomenon in detail $7atton, (...2.
6!2 S.5.(#)%" %2 /(-%%5/
The researcher randomly picked four schools, two pri3ate and the other two
go3ernment schools out of -) secondary schools found in "angabo Sub=county,
5akiso District.
6!6 P%3'5*#)%"
The researcher randomly picked some head teachers, deputy head teachers and
other teachers of secondary schools in 5akiso District. 7atton $(..-2 defines a
population as the complete set of indi3iduals ha3ing some common obser3able
characteristics. In addition some students were randomly selected and a total of ,
head teachers, and ,. teachers plus C.. students. +ence, the population consisted
C,, of students, teachers and head teachers from , secondary schools in 5akiso
District. The number of questionnaires for both students and teachers that were
C-
returned was C... The study was carried out from four selected schools in
"angabo 5akiso District.
6!4 S*135. /)C.
#ailey $-00,2 defines a sample as a subset of predetermined si9e from a
population of interest. The researcher randomly selected some head teachers,
deputy head teachers and students of four Secondary schools in 5akiso District.
1sing KreDcie and !organ>s $-0).2 table of sample si9e determination suggest
minimum samples of, CE and -E0 respecti3ely, which are representati3e enough
for a scientific research, for the larger the sample, the smaller the sampling error.
Sampling is ad3antageous for time sa3ing and less costly. Amin $(..,2
f the target population were , head teachers of the four selected schools since
each school has a head teacher, ,. teachers selected from those who teach S.(,
S.C, S.,, and S E in the selected schools by use of a staff list for full time
teachers, and )/ students from each school by use of random sampling in the
sitting arrangement that makes a total of C.. students. The main reason for this
selection of subDects was because head teachers are makers and implementers of
school rules and regulations. Some teachers also help in the day=to=day smooth
running of the schools without which discipline cannot be maintained. "ames of
the schools ha3e not been disclosed due to confidentiality obtained.
C(
T*45. 6!1> N'14.$ %2 /#'&."# $./3%"&."#/ 40 ,."&.$? /(-%%5 *"& 3.$(."#*,.
M*5./ 2.1*5.
/
N'14.$ %2 $.#'$".&
(%3)./ %2 $./3%"&."#/
3.$ /(-%%5
P.$(."#*,.
@DA
School A CB ,C B- ()
School # -B ,( E. (.
School : C/ C( E) ((
School D ,, ,B 0( C-
T%#*5 165 1:5 600 100
Table C.- abo3e from a student questionnaire indicates that in all the schools the
females $//O2 were more than males $,/O2.
CC
T*45. 6!2> N'14.$ %2 #.*(-.$ *"& -.*& #.*(-.$ $./3%"&."#/ 2%$ 2%('/
,$%'3 &)/('//)%" 40 ,."&.$? /(-%%5 *"& 3.$(."#*,. 2%$ #.*(-.$/
S(-%%5/ M*5./ F.1*5./ N'14.$ %2
&)/('//*"#/ 3.$
/(-%%5
P.$(."#*,.
@DA
School A B C -- (/
School # E / -- (/
School : 0 ( -- (/
School D ) , -- (/
T%#*5 60 14 44 100
6!5 S*135)", T.(-")9'.
%andom sampling was used to select respondents for the study. This is a method
where by each item or element of the population has an equal chance of being
chosen at each draw. Amin, $(../2.
6!: D*#* C%55.(#)%" M.#-%&/
The following data collection methods were used6
6!:!1 Q'./#)%""*)$.
C,
This is a method where questions are set, usually structured and standardi9ed to
obtain information from the respondents. The structure is intended to reduce bias.
Fuestionnaires allow reaching a wider range and distribution of the sample,
pro3ide an opportunity to gi3e frank, anonymous answers and allow greater
economy of effort Amin, $(../2.
6!:!2 O4/.$8*#)%"
The obser3ation method in3ol3es human or mechanical obser3ation of what
people actually do or what e3ents take place. Acti3ities obser3ed included
participation in school acti3ities, methods of instruction. This method was aimed
at in3estigating the en3ironment within which the respondents are operating in
and to confirm data obtained through the questionnaires. The researcher preferred
to be non=participant where he obser3ed the students from a distance to let them
interact freely. It was used because it pro3ides first hand information to the
researcher without relying on informants. Amin, $(../2.
6!:!6 D%('1."# A"*50/)/
:ontent analysis is a set of procedures for collecting and organi9ing nonstructural
information into a standard format that allows one to make inferences about the
C/
characteristics and meaning of written and otherwise recorded information
$Amin, (../2 A researcher identifies a body of material to analyse and then
creates a system for recording specific aspects of it. The researcher records what
was found in the material and then measures information in the content as
numbers $"euman, -00)2. The study e?amined school documents, dissertations,
newspaper articles as secondary data. Schools records on students were also
analy9ed.
6!7 D*#* C%55.(#)%" I"/#$'1."#/
The researcher obtained responses from teachers and students by use of 3arious
instruments as shown below6
6!7!1 S.52 A&1)")/#.$.& Q'./#)%""*)$./ @SAD/A
Self=administered questionnaires $SAFs2 were used to obtain information from
the respondents. The questionnaires were administered to students because the
students were many. #y using the SAFs, the researcher co3ered a big population
in a short time. The self administered questionnaires had the main title, an
introductory letter and three sectionsI A, # and :. Section A had questions for
purposes of classifying respondents. Section # dealt with independent 3ariable in
the study that is influence of teachers> professional ethics. Section : was on
dependent 3ariable which is students> discipline.
CE
The questionnaire was used because of its obDecti3ity and standardi9ation.
Another ad3antage of using a questionnaire was its easiness for administration.
;urther, the self administered questionnaires were used in order to get
information separately from a large number of respondents under different
categories and the questionnaires ga3e indi3iduals freedom of e?pression through
pri3acy since respondents were able to read, write and answer on their own. The
questionnaire comprised of obDecti3e questions and respondents were asked to
choose the alternati3e that best suited their opinion $See Appendi? #2.
6!7!2 F%('/ G$%'3 D)/('//)%" G')&.
;ocus group discussions $;'Ds2 were used to get information from
administrators and teachers. This was because they were fewer in number and
would easily discuss. The researcher could probe further the discussants in order
to get more information and ideas. This approach enabled the researcher to gather
a lot of information quickly and at reduced costs $See Appendi? :2.
6!7!6 O4/.$8*#)%"
C)
This is where the researcher physically obser3ed the subDects in their natural
setting and he was non participant. bser3ation method was used by the
researcher to identify issues about what teachers and students were doing.
bser3ation check list or schedule was used as a guide to take note of what
was happening in the schools of "angabo Sub=county $See Appendi? D2.
6!7!4 D%('1."# A"*50/)/
This instrument was used to collect rele3ant and related data on the topic under
in3estigation. School documents like school rules and regulations, suspension
letters were studied by the researcher using a document analysis schedule looking
for authenticity, 3alidity and rele3ance of the documents $See Appendi? &2.
6!E *5)&)#0 *"& $.5)*4)5)#0 %2 )"/#$'1."#/
6!E!1 *5)&)#0
Aalidity of an instrument refers to the e?tent to which the instrument measures
what it intends to measure $!ugenda P !ugenda, -0002. The researcher
constructed the questionnaires and inter3iew guides for each of the groups
mentioned abo3e. +e then pre=tested them with colleagues and later with his
superior. Irrele3ant items to the study obDecti3es were eliminated and others
constructed. #efore the questionnaire was gi3en to e?perts, the researcher
prepared a rating scale for each of the items. The questionnaires were presented
CB
to two people who assessed the items while awarding marks basing on the
suitability of a gi3en item to the research study obDecti3es to determine the
3alidity inde? for each of the items. The content 3alidity inde? was used to
quantify the agreements between the two Dudges $See Appendi? ;2.
The formula for content 3alidity inde? is6
:AI Q
N
K
5here :AI Q :ontent Aalidity Inde?
K Q "umber of rele3ant*suitable items
" Q number of items in the instrument.
The :ontent Aalidity Indices were found to be ..B-(/ and ..B., which were
higher than the recommended one at ..). $!ugenda and !ugenda, -0002. Thus,
the 3alidity of the instruments.
6!E!2 R.5)*4)5)#0
%eliability of the instrument refers to the e?tent to which the instrument is
consistent or dependable when measuring a phenomenon $!ugenda and
!ugenda -0002. After ascertaining the 3alidity of the questionnaire and
inter3iew, the researcher preceded to pilot run them and later he established their
reliability. The internal :onsistency method based on the correction among items
C0
was used. Specifically, the :ronbach Alpha :oefficient Inde? was employed $See
Appendi? '2.
The formula for :ronbach Alpha :oefficient is6
:oefficient is6 Q K $- RSD
(
i
2
K S - SD
(
t

5here Q :ronbach coefficient alpha
K Q "umber of items in the test
SD
(
i
Q Aariance of scores on indi3idual item
SD
(
t
Q Aariance of scores in total test
The reliabilities were found to be ..B and ..),, which were higher than the
recommended one at ..). $!ugenda and !ugenda, -0002. Thus the instruments
were reliable.
6!9 P$%(.&'$. %2 &*#* (%55.(#)%"
An introductory letter was obtained from the Dean 7ost 'raduate Studies, School
of &ducation, !akerere 1ni3ersity after appro3al of the proposal $See attached
introductory letter in Appendi? A2. :opies of the letter were presented to the
selected secondary schools of "angabo 5akiso District alongside questionnaires.
The researcher held brief discussions with respondents and e?plained to them the
maDor obDecti3e of research as being purely for study. The researcher used a
research assistant to help him distribute the questionnaires. The respondents filled
,.
the questionnaires on request for cooperation. Afterwards, the researcher and his
assistant gathered the filled questionnaires and took them for analysis. The
researcher inter3iewed the school administrators of each school. +e was also
a3ailed with files containing school rules and regulations, cases and actions taken
in case of indiscipline.
6!10 D*#* A"*50/)/ *"& P$./."#*#)%"
Fuantitati3e data from the SAFs was edited, coded and entered into a computer
using the Statistical 7ackage for Social Sciences $S7SS2 for generation of
summary frequency tables using simple regression analysis. Fualitati3e data
analysis was used for data obtained from focus group discussions and
obser3ations.
The data collected using the self administered questionnaire $SAF2 was coded
and entered into a computer known as the statistical package for social scientists
$S7SS2, which assisted the researcher to analy9e the data. Descripti3e and
inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Descripti3e statistics, which
included frequencies and percentages, were used to determine how teachers
influence students> discipline. In order to analy9e data, all questionnaires were
collected and responses to each item in the questionnaire by the subDects were
recorded. The responses relating to items of the two 3ariables that is influence of
,-
teachers> ethical practices on students> discipline were correlated using simple
linear regression. The data collected during the study was on how teachers>
ethical practices influence students> discipline. The data analysis at uni3ersity
le3el based on relati3e frequency from frequency tables and descripti3e statistics
using simple linear regression analysis to help rate their significances that is
influence of teachers> ethical practices on students> discipline in "angabo,
5akiso District.
6!11 E#-)(*5 (%"/)&.$*#)%"
The study took into account of ethical issues that the researcher first got consent
from all participants and had to e?plain to them the intention of the study. The
researcher promised to handle all information with confidentiality. An
introductory letter was obtained from the Dean 7ost 'raduate Studies, School of
&ducation, !akerere 1ni3ersity and its copies of the letter were presented to the
selected secondary schools. The letter clearly e?plained the intention of the study
to respondents. %espondents recei3ed full disclosure of the nature of the research,
the benefits and risks with an opportunity to ask questions. The researcher
e?plained to respondents the maDor obDecti3e of research as being purely for
study. The researcher requested respondents to gi3e their opinions.
,(
7atents, copyrights and other forms of intellectual property were honored by the
researcher. All quotations and sources consulted were acknowledged by means of
references
,C
CHAPTER FOUR
ANLYSIS? PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4!0 I"#$%&'(#)%"
This study in3estigated the e?tent to which teachers> ethical practices bare
influence on students> discipline in selected secondary schools in 5akiso
District. The data collected was analysed using descripti3e and inferential
statistics. This chapter presents and interprets the findings of the study. It is
di3ided into three maDor sections. The first section presents findings on teachers>
code of conduct in secondary schools thusI
4!1 R./.*$(- 9'./#)%" %".> H%; &%./ #.*(-.$/< (%&. %2 (%"&'(# )"25'."(.
/#'&."#/< 4.-*8)%$ )" N*",*4% S'4=(%'"#0? W*+)/% D)/#$)(#F
To achie3e this obDecti3e, head teachers, teachers and students were asked to
react to se3eral statements that included their social=demographics, education
le3el, and teachers> code of conduct. The study question was about how teachers>
code of conduct influences students> beha3iour in "angabo sub=county, 5akiso
District.
,,
The responses from the +ead teachers, teachers and students were analysed,
presented and interpreted as in the table ,.- below6
T*45. 4!1> T.*(-.$/< (%&. %2 (%"&'(# %" /#'&."#/< 4.-*8)%'$!
M%&.5
U"=
/#*"&*$&)C.&
C%.22)()."#/
S#*"&*$&)C.&
C%.22)()."#/ # S),!
# Std. #eta
$:onstant2 (.E/) .,,- E..() ....
Strict rules and
studentsN discipline
..)C ..). ..E- -..,E .(0E
%oll call and
attendance
.... ..E( .... ...C .00B
Assignments and
re3ision
../) ..)( ..,) .B.. .,(,
Super3ision and
students follow
timetable
..() ../C ..C. ./.B .E-(
Table ,.- summaries teachers> code of conduct on students> discipline.
;indings in table ,.- re3eal that, when there are strict rules at school about late
coming, the students are disciplined through following school rules. Assignments
keep students busy and concentrate on their work. &qually, roll call does not
bring about increase or decrease in attendance. There is a 3ery high significant $p
,/
Q ..(0E2 relationship between strict rules and students> discipline at school while
$b Q ...)C2, the coefficient being positi3e indicates that the two 3ariables relate
positi3ely. The coefficient being ...)C predicts that a unit increase in strict rules
and students> leads to an increase in ).C units increase in discipline. The p=3alue
of ..00B indicates that there is 3ery low significant relationship between roll call
and attendance. The coefficient is neither negati3e nor positi3e indicating that a
one unit increase in roll call and attendance does not lead to an increase or
decrease in discipline. The p=3alue of ..,(, indicates that there is high significant
relationship between assignments and re3ision. And the positi3e coefficient of
.../) predicts that a unit increase in assignments and re3ision leads to an
increase in students> discipline by /.) units. At the same time the p=3alue of
..E-( indicates that there is no significant relationship between super3ision of
students and beha3iour. +owe3er, there is a positi3e coefficient of ...()
predicting that a unit increase in students> super3ision will lead to (.) units
increase in students> beha3iour.
In analy9ing data from focus group discussions, most respondents put it clear that
when a teacher follows ethical code of conduct, there is fairness responsibility,
trust and collegiality among students and teachers as one respondent put it.
Teachers act as role models to students where by the students learn to copy or
emulate their teachers. It also empowers teachers to gi3e good e?ample to the
,E
students. ne of the teachers in response to the research question was of the 3iew
that,
The code of conduct gives teachers moral authority to guide
students. Students easily believe what teachers say to them, teachers
help students live practical lives. hen teachers follow the code of
conduct, they train students to be leaders. This is because students
observe what the teachers do and copy them.
!ode of dress or dress style causes students discipline to both boys
and girls. Students may copy or admire the dress style. "t also
empowers teachers to give good e#ample to the students if a teacher
spea$s with humor, students copy him or her. "f he is harsh students
will either copy the behaviour or not, accept or deny him. Teachers
have to respect each other than bac$ biting each other before
inferiors. There is need to teach students religious values and
virtues that will $eep them %od fearing. The teachers should act
$nowing that their duty of teaching children is %od given. +e
concluded.
The researcher using obser3ation method reali9ed two categories of both teachers
and students6 The first one being that of some teachers taking things for granted
,)
and did not mind much about forming students into responsible people for they
left students do what they wanted. Students tended to associate with them a lot.
5hile the other category was seen as serious and the students tended to keep
away from them and they were often feared on compound. It was generally
obser3ed by the researcher that some teachers did things that were not matching
their professional ethics. Some teachers put on torn shoes, untidy clothes, and
held a cane in their hand to use for corporal punishment. Those who were decent
were mostly the old teachers and took things lightly.
4!2 R./.*$(- 9'./#)%" 2> H%; &%./ (%'"/.5)", *"& ,')&*"(. )"25'."(.
/#'&."#/< &)/()35)". )" N*",*4% S'4=(%'"#0? W*+)/% D)/#$)(#F
The respondents were asked to gi3e their 3iews on the research question which
was about how counseling and guidance influence students> beha3ior. In order to
answer the questions directed to both the teachers and students in which they
were asked to state how counseling and guidance influence student discipline.
Their responses are presented as shown in table ,.( below6
T*45. 4!2 /'11*$)./ %2 #.*(-.$/< (%'"/.5)", #% /#'&."#/< ,')&*"(.!
M%&.5
U"=/#*"&*$&)C.&
C%.22)()."#/
S#*"&*$&)C.&
C%.22)()."#/ # S),!
# Std. #eta
$:onstant2 C.,.- ./CB E.C-0 ....
Age =..,E .--0 =..(B =.CB) .E00
,B
'ender =.(,C .-CC =.-.B =-.B(- ..).
%eligious affiliation ..)( ..), ../) .0E) .CC,
&ducation le3el .-,. ..0E .-.C -.,,0 .-,B
Strict rules and
studentsN discipline
..CC ..EC ..C. ./(C .E.-
:ounseling, guidance
student discipline
..C/ ../E ..CE .E(- ./C/
'uidance 3s.
3ocational choice
.--) ../( .-CC (.(E, ..(,
Teachers>
effecti3eness 3s
attention
..CB ..E( ..CE .E-C ./,.
The % Square is .../. means that appro?imately /O of the 3ariance of the
impact of teachers> in3ol3ement in guidance is accounted for by the model.
Increase in age would mean a reduction in guidance which implies that the old
students look at themsel3es as mature not in need of guidance. There is high
significant relationship between gender and guidance, at the same time a negati3e
coefficient $=..(,C2 means that there is an in3erse relationship between gender
and guidance. A unit increase in gender predicts (.,C units decrease in guidance.
5hen there is an increase in gender there is reduction in guidance and this has a
bearing on the 3iew that it is difficult to handle people in the same age group.
,0
%eligious affiliation helps in increasing guidance. This e?plains discipline got
from such religious founded schools. The p=3alue of ..CC, indicates that there is
a high significant relationship between religious affiliation and guidance. And the
positi3e coefficient of ...)( predicts that a unit increase in religious affiliation
will lead to an increase in guidance by ).( units. <e3el of education determines
le3el of guidance. The more one is educate the more he can be guided and
counselled.
The p=3alue of ..-,B predicts a 3ery high significant relationship between le3el
of education and guidance. The positi3e coefficient of ..-,. predicts that a unit
increase in le3el of education will lead to an increase in guidance by -, units.
The strict rules and regulations bring about counselling and guidance at a low
le3el. The p=3alue $..E.-2 strict rules and counselling students> and guidance
means that there is no significant relationship. There is a positi3e coefficient of
...CC predicting that a unit increase in strict rules and counselling to students
leads to C.C unit increase guidance.
A unit increase in counselling and guidance predicts --.) units increase in
3ocational choice. That is a positi3e coefficient $..--)2 means that there is a
direct relationship between guidance and choice of 3ocation.
/.
Through focus group discussions the researcher conducted in selected schools,
the teachers> emphasised that teachers> conduct influences students, beha3iour. In
an inter3iew, one of the respondents had this to say,
ell, when a teacher treasures and ac$nowledges the uni&ueness and
individuality and specific needs of each student and provides guidance,
counseling and encouragement to each, full potential is reali'ed. (e has done
right as a teacher because he has fulfilled one of the duties of a teacher. Such
could encourage girl child education other than dropping out of school at an
early age. +e concluded. Teachers counsel students who ha3e psychological
conflicts and this makes students know they are one with teachers and e3entually
become obedient. &qually, the teachers are gi3en autonomy and trusted by both
the go3ernment and parents to educate the children. They ha3e to do it bearing in
mind that it is a duty and should yield desired outcomes of educating the young.
4!6 R./.*$(- 9'./#)%" #-$..> H%; &%./ #.*(-.$/< 3'"(#'*5)#0 )"25'."(.
/#'&."#/< #)1. 1*"*,.1."# )" N*",*4% S'4=(%'"#0? W*+)/% D)/#$)(#F
The researcher asked head teachers, teachers and students to react on the research
question on how teachers> punctuality influence students> time management and
their 3iews were as presented below6
Some students were always complained about not being serious at school for
always being late and absent. Some students of senior one were cool in their
/-
means of doing things and were well disciplined. The researcher obser3ed that
some male teachers spent more time with female students in staff room during
break time. ne teacher in a focus group discussion put up the following
argument,
Teachers $eep time in what they do; and this trains students follow
them and try to do everything in time.
#y showing a good e?ample from teachers by being punctual, students become
responsible and are always in the right place for class and don>t waste time doing
un necessary things. It also trains them to be responsible.
The study found out that some teachers were not serious with keeping time when
coming to school for lessons. !aking roll :all and arresting students who come
late to school. The teachers> responsibility is lost whereby they lea3e students to
do part of their work of carrying out roll call on their behalf. They ha3e to come
to school early and be able to enforce punctuality to students. In3ol3e the
students in formulation of the time tables, formulation of rules and regulations
that in3ol3e time management.

7ositi3ely rewarding students who keep time at school is 3ery good. 'ifts are
organi9ed and gi3en to students who keep time. Another contribution from one
respondent was that teachers ad3ise and allow students to ha3e watches such that
they can easily tell time. This is opposed to the earlier days where a student
/(
would not be allowed to put on a watch and whoe3er risked was punished. 5hen
teachers are serious in time keeping during lessons the students also keep time.
#ut if a teacher is not always punctual, the students always tend to be late. The
teachers work from a time table so fi?ed but a lot has to be co3ered. 'i3ing
students much homework enables teachers to complete the syllabus in time and
hence creating ample time for re3ision.
n being probed further on the question about how teachers are able to co3er the
syllabus in time gi3en the big work load, one of the teachers> responses was6
This is achieved through seminars and discussion groups which
have a wider e#posure of students to bright students and wider
coverage of syllabus. Teachers punish late comers and advice given
to those who tend to be late always. )unishments are administered
to those who constantly come late. Those who $eep time are
rewarded in material terms or indicated on the students report as
e#temporary, +e concluded.
This is in agreement with +oly and !iskel, 'lobler $-00B2, works as quoted by
;arrant, $-00E2 portrays that time management effecti3eness is made up of
knowledge commitment, rewards and punishments. %ewards are intended to
show appreciation for effecti3e time management while punishments are threats
aimed at changing the poor time manager to a better one.
/C
Through seminars, the students are gi3en topics to discuss and the students make
research on them and this encourages pri3ate study. The teachers guide the
students in the discussions and co3er a lot of material in a short time. Students
who are rewarded for keeping time get satisfaction and are always punctual and
those who are punished try to change and be punctual. The researcher used both
participant and non=participant obser3ation systematic watching and recording of
beha3ior and characteristics. During morning hours, some students arri3ed late.
;ew students were kept at the gates for a short time and then allowed to enter
school premises. The researcher obser3ed at most schools that students were told
to go back for ha3ing come late or gi3en slashes to slash the compound. The only
e?cuse students ga3e was that they had been delayed by ta?is. This was reflected
in the rules and regulations of most schools documents the researcher got when
he 3isited the schools.
CHAPTER FIE
DISCUSSION? CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5!0 I"#$%&'(#)%"
This chapter presents the discussion, conclusions and recommendations.
Therefore, it is di3ided into three maDor sections6 the first section presents the
/,
discussion as per study obDecti3es. The second section presents the conclusions,
while the third section presents the recommendations.
5!1 D)/('//)%"
5!1!1 T.*(-.$/< (%&. %2 (%"&'(# *"& /#'&."#/< 4.-*8)%$!
It was established in most schools that teachers> ethical practices influence
students> discipline in ways of dress, speech and ways of implementing rules and
regulations. The staff members work together and cooperate and they look at
teaching as a profession they treasure while to some teachers, they take things for
granted and end up beha3ing unprofessionally. The teachers are found of taking
local brew with their studentsI they side or collude with students for e?amination
malpractice, and fall in lo3e with their students. This could be due to the quality
of teachers who are not trained as professionals and schools rely on licensed
teachers. The study found out that School children are influenced by their
teachers> beha3iour since there is copying what one sees. ;or e?ample some
students were seen imitating teachers ways of speech, walk style, and mannerism
like walking. 5hile to some teachers, the working en3ironment does a lot to
determine on what they do and end up beha3ing unprofessionally. The researcher
ha3ing obser3ed that some schools are located near slams, it is more probable
that the community around has some contribution to students> discipline to some
degree.
//
+owe3er, both students, school administrators parents, and community around
work together and cooperate to bring up students> discipline and they look at
teaching as a profession they treasure. In case of any teacher ha3ing a discipline
problem, the social demographic of both students, teachers were generally of
youth. They ha3e similar interests and this brings them to sociali9e and human
beings are naturally social beings. This is why teachers are found of taking local
brew with their students. The academic performance of students is taken as an
inde? for efficiency of both the school and teachers in schools. The researcher
ha3ing found out from the school documents that some teachers and students
were gi3en pri9es for e?celling in class and national e?aminations, it could be one
of the causes of stiff competition between schools hence causing e?amination
malpractice.
:ompetition is healthy but it should be done bearing in mind that it should not
compromise professional standards of working with in ethical parameters. There
are some teachers who are not trained as professionals and schools rely on them
as unlicensed teachers and this could be because of financial constraints of
schools and partly the go3ernment policy on the bun on recruitment of teachers.
/E
The researcher found out that there were a set of rules that go3erned the students
in the institutions. This is healthy because for any society there are norms set to
be followed and to achie3e, that rules and regulations ha3e to be designed and a
method of implementation followed. This is in conformity with Kantian and
platonic 3iews of creation of a uni3ersal law to go3ern society. +ence, the
standards of teachers> ethical practices and students> discipline required in
schools. The students were seen as naturally e3il, bad, and mischie3ous and
should hence be treated ruthlessly as e3idenced by the researcher when the staff
members of one of the schools called the police to arrest a student who was found
with opium in his suit case at school.
The students were seen as naturally e3il, bad, and mischie3ous and should hence
be treated ruthlessly as e3idenced by the researcher when the staff members of
one of the schools called the police to arrest a student who was found with opium
in his suit case at school.
The researcher agrees with :lifford $-00C2 who argued that discipline should
take precedence o3er other acti3ities and must be dealt with immediately. That is,
at no time should the teacher ignore a discipline problem and turn to gi3e
instruction. +e should instead attend to the discipline problem when it shows up.
It works as a deterrent to any occurrence of any similar e3ent.
/)
"e3ertheless, the researcher supports the go3ernments> stand that the application
of the code of conduct shall take into account of the requirements of the law as
well as the obligation of teachers to honor teachers> code of conduct and uphold
the constitution.
The study found out that there were some students who are e?emplary at school,
at home and the community around. The students often participated in scouting
and 'irl 'uide to do charitable work they called a good turn. The researcher
found out that there were a set of rules that go3erned the students in the
institutions.
If the head teacher must discipline his staff, it should be done Dudiciously to all
who commit an offense. This principle should apply to learners as well. If a staff
shows any fa3oritism, the students will apply it in their administration as well
thus setting a bad e?ample as educationists.
It is a duty of parents, stake holders in the school system such as 7TA and school
boards of 'o3ernors, heads of institutions and teachers, the community around
the school and society to contribute to the moral teaching in connection with
discipline and good beha3iour of the learners, there is need to teach religious
3alues and 3irtues to both students and teachers as a prerequisite towards
influence of teachers> ethical practices on students> discipline.
/B
5!1!2 T.*(-.$/< /+)55/ %2 (%'"/.5)", *"& ,')&*"(. #% /#'&."#/
The study found out that at some schools counseling and guidance was
none?istent. Instead, the researcher found out that the connotation teachers and
students had on counseling e?ercise was that of being canned by student council
or disciplinary committee. There was no staff member appointed for counseling
and guidance and no special room set apart for it. The director of studies of one
of the schools told the researcher that he is responsible for drawing time tables
and allocating lessons for the teachers. ne of the head teachers said that
whene3er there is need for counseling he calls in a counselor for it was e?pensi3e
for the school to employ her since the go3ernment put a cut off number for the
staff members employed by it. @et from another school, there is a tendency of
calling parents to handle discipline related problems like missing a class and
delaying to report promptly on the reporting day when the school is opening. To
some teachers, counseling meant reporting the student to the parent on schools>
3isitation day.
Statistically from the social demography, it has been found out that the maDority
students are females and this has a direct influence on their discipline where they
could need more protection through counseling for as girls, they are faced with
social, political and economic troubles that destabili9e their psychologically.
/0
&qually, the maDority falls between fifteen and se3enteen years making /EO these
are a difficult group to handle and they could be a3ailed with counseling and
guidance ser3ices and protection, for they are still Du3eniles.
The researcher agrees with ;arrant $-0B/2, about the 3iew that it is a duty of a
teacher to help students to de3elop as fully as possible all aspects of their
potential which in3ol3es welfare, guidance and super3ision. This is because the
students are e?posed to many dangers like drug taking as some students were
arrested taking opium and others ha3ing it in their suit cases, and where a student
confesses ha3ing infected school mates with +IA* AIDS which was one of the
damning confessions of how +IA positi3e teenagers put colleagues at risk in The
%ed 7epper of 8uly 0 (.-., and The Sunrise of 8une , (.-. which reported
alarming drug abuse in schools.
5!1!6 T.*(-.$/< 3'"(#'*5)#0 *"& /#'&."#/ #)1. 1*"*,.1."#
The study found some schools without a duty %ota and this brought a collusion of
who was to teach. It was established that some teachers finish their work load in
time to allow students re3ise their work. The researcher found out that some
teachers come late at school and this is because the teachers ha3e different places
they teach from in order to boost their income students generally handle morning
roll calls for the students. :lass monitors and head prefects super3ise the
E.
e?ercise. The researcher further found out that student leaders canned late comers
and this caused conflicts between student leaders and students. +owe3er, the
researcher agrees with Sebulimage $-00B2 when he said that students should be
allowed to participate effecti3ely in school administration.
7unishments, to the law breakers in3ol3ed suspension, corporal punishment and
slashing all meant to instill pain and fear as e3idenced by e?istence of school
rules and regulations that go3ern schools. Though some teachers finish their work
load in time to allow students re3ise their work, it is better to help the students
make proper use of their time to a3oid loitering that would make them idle and
disorderly which would breed indiscipline. Teachers should not teach in more
than two schools since they ha3e to prepare lesson plan and schemes of work. #y
being limited to two schools, they will be able to concentrate and co3er the
syllabus.
The researcher supports the 3iews of Stonner et al $-00E2 that time management
is a consequential inability of the position one holds, accompanied by knowledge
and skills, and :lark $-00,2 when he says that time management effecti3eness
postulates order, punctuality and efficiency at doing work. The researcher is in
agreement with Drucher $-00.2, who was quoted by Stonner $-00E2 that effecti3e
time management helps in setting priorities, a3oiding chaos, and encourages
E-
doing things at the right time. 5here there is chaos as a result of lack of proper
time budgeting, people often try to work methodically, as a result, the brain is
constantly busy processing a number of small unrelated details.
&qually, from The 'o3ernment of 1ganda $-00/2 teachers> code of professional
conduct e?pects teachers to teach conscientiously with diligence and regularity,
teach obDecti3ely, and prepare rele3ant schemes of work, lesson notes and
teaching aids well in ad3ance to ensure effecti3e teaching= learning process. A
teacher should set adequate amount of written and practical e?ercises promptly
and carefully, and de3ote time to his or her duties as is necessary by the nature of
his or her post. To meet such work roles, proper time management has to be a pre
requisite which influences a students> time management effecti3eness. The
common 3iews about time management from ;arrant, the 'o3ernment of 1ganda
are supported by the researcher that time management is 3ery important in the
teaching learning process if order has to be maintained.
5!2 C%"(5'/)%"/
The researcher drew some conclusions from the study following the specific
obDecti3es6
;rom the discussions of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn6
E(
-. Teachers> ethical practices influence students> discipline in ways of dress,
speech and ways of implementing rules and regulations. The staff members
ha3e an upper hand in influencing students> beha3ior.
(. :ounseling and guidance is 3ery important to the students of 5akiso
District and the whole country since issues affecting the students and
teachers of 5akiso District are similar to those other areas across the
country.
C. 7unctuality in schools was found to be 3ery important for head teachers,
teachers and students. ;or anybody to be orderly he or she should be able
to manage his or her time.
5!6 R.(%11."&*#)%"/
;rom discussions of the findings and conclusions made, the following
recommendations were made6
-. The schools should enforce the rules and regulations. All teachers should
be gi3en a code of rules or conduct go3erning their work when they
register as teachers. The staff should recogni9e where authority lies,
respect their superiors and uphold the code of conduct, rules and
regulations as laid down by the !inistry of &ducation and Sports. The
!inistry of &ducation and Sports should endea3or to pro3ide adequate
EC
funds for the purpose of organi9ing policies and matters affecting school
affairs. Through such courses and seminars, the teaching staff could
impro3e on their managerial ability.
(. The go3ernment should raise some funds to help in counseling students for
3ocational purposes. The need for counselors at school is 3ery crucial for
the students are guided in their choice of subDects and 3ocational direction.
C. Schools should ha3e duty %ota to be able to follow what the teachers are
doing so as to finish the syllabus in time. Schools should pro3ide
accommodation to teacher near the school such that it is easy for them to
keep time and participate in administration during prep time.
5!4 A$.*/ 2%$ 2'$#-.$ $./.*$(-
;urther research regarding the teachers> code of conduct and students> discipline
is still required. Areas of interest include6
-. Teachers> disciplinary approaches to students> discipline.
(. 'o3ernment policy on student discipline in schools.
C. A critique of the Teachers> :ode of :onduct.
E,
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Ahimbisibwe, 8., Student arrested taking 'anDa. In %ed 7epper, Tuesday,
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Allan, D. 8. $-00E2. The philosophy of +ristotle. <ondon6 ?ford 1ni3ersity
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nd
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http6**www.ship.edu*Tcgboeree*bandura.html
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%inehart P 5inston.
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:liffs, "86 7rentice=+all.
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;reeman.
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EE
#haskaracharyulu $(..)2. -ducation and society. "ew Delhi6 Disco3ery
7ublishing +ouse.
#ogdan, %. :., #iklen S. K. $(..,2. 2ualitative .esearch for -ducation, +n
"ntroduction to theory and methods. #oston6 Ally and #acon.
:arl, 5. $-0)-2. -ducation and social problems.
:hianu, &. $(..-2. !orporal punishment in primary and secondary schools. The
<egal 7osition. Asaba6 7ublishers &nsless #ooks.
:lark %. ; $-0E)2. K+dult -ducationL, pamphlet "o.-,Kampala6 !akerere Adult
Studies :entre.
:lifford, :. $-00C2. !aintaining discipline in schools. <ondon6 #ritish 8ournal of
Social and :linical 7sychology, E, (,-=(,B.
&dward Anyoli, ;ormer #ode head teacher loses school to bank, in the "ew
Aision, !onday, !ay, (/, (..0, pg -=(.
;arrant, 8. S. $-0B.2. )rinciples and )ractice of -ducation. <ongman 'roup, 1K
<td.
+alima Shaban, I spent e?tra hours to study. In "ew Aision, Thursday, !arch /
(..0, pg -..
+all.
Imague9or, !. A. $-00)2. +nalysis of cases of violation of students .ights in
Secondary Schools in -do state. !.&d. Thesis, 1ni3ersity of #enin,
"igeria.
E)
8ohn, A. $-0B,2. Teaching as a moral craft. "ew @ork6 <ongman.
KreDcie, %. A. P !organ, D. 5. $-0).2. Determining sample si'e for research
activities, -ducational and psychological measurement. Sage 7ublications.
<ongman acti3e study dictionary &ducation for all
htt6**us.oneworldnet*article*3iew*-CBE/C*.*
<ongman. $-00/2. Dictionary 3f !ontemporary -nglish New -dition. <ondon
<ongman 'roup <td.
!atsimoto, D. $(...2. !ulture and )sychology $(
nd
ed.2. 1SA6 5adsworth
Thomas <earning.
!iti 8oseph, Staff report head teacher to I'' o3er misconduct, in Daily !onitor
Tuesday, !ay /, (..0, pg E.
!ugenda, D. P !ugenda, . $-0002. .esearch methods. A:TS press "airobi.
"akpodia, &. D. $(.-.2. Teachers Disciplinary +pproaches to Students
Discipline )roblems.
"ational :ommission for 1"&S:.
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Discipline 7roblems in "igerian Secondary Schools. "nternational N%3
4ournal, Aol. / $E2, pp. -,,=-/-
"ew Aision &ditor, Teacher held o3er defilement. In the "ew Aision,
5ednesday, !arch (/, (..0, pg. 0.
EB
"sigarira, 7. $(..E2. 7hilosophical ;oundations of the Teachers> :ode of
:onduct, Kampala
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!onduct. Kampala !akerere
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Sage.
%ukare, +. $-0))2. The 0inal .eport on the Namutamba )ilot )ro5ect. Kampala6
The 1ganda "ational commission for 1"&S:.
Seburimage D. !. $-00B2. Students Discipline and academic performance.
Kampala !akerere.
Seifert, T. +., Aornberg, 8. A. $(..(2. The New School /eader for the 67
st
!entury. ?ford6 Scarecrow 7ress.
Sekamwa, 8. :. $-00E2. )rofessional ethics for teachers. Kampala6 Kisubi !aria
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Stonner 8. A. ;., ;reeman %. &. P 'ilbert, D. %. $(..-2. *anagement. "ew
Delhi6 7rentice +all of India, 7ri3ate <td.
The Daily !onitor Tuesday, !ay /, (..0, pg E.
The Daily !onitor !arch E, (..0.
The Daily !onitor !arch -B, (..0.
E0
The "ew Aision, April -, (..0.
The "ew Aision, Thursday, !arch / (..0, pg.-..
The "ew Aision, 5ednesday (/, (..0, pg E.
The %ed 7epper, Tuesday, ;ebruary (, (..0, pg. /.
The %ed 7epper, 8uly 0 (.-., pg. -
The Sunrise of 8une , (.-., pg - P )
The %epublic of 1ganda $(..C2. .eport of the National "nspection )rogramme.
Kampala6 &ducation Standards Agency $&SA2.
1"AT1, $(..)2. Declaration on professional ethics. Kampala.
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1npublished !.&d thesis, !akerere 1ni3ersity, Kampala, 1ganda.
).
APPENDIG A
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY
SCHOOLS ABOUT INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS< ETHICAL
PRACTICES ON STUDENTS< DISCIPLINE IN WAKISO DISTRICT!
&ast African Institute of +igher &ducation
Studies and De3elopment
School of &ducation
!akerere 1ni3ersity
Dear Sir*madam,
)-
I am carrying out a research on teachers> professional ethics and students
discipline in "angabo 5akiso District. The research is a partial fulfillment of a
master>s degree program. @ou ha3e been chosen randomly and your participation
is entirely 3oluntary. I request you to answer the following questions as honestly
as possible. There is no need of disclosing your name. All information gi3en will
be treated with utmost confidentiality and only used for purposes of this study.
The e?ercise should last two hours and I shall collect the self administered
questionnaires my self.
Am great full for your cooperation.
4444444444444
DAMIANO KATO ABOOKI
RESEARCHER
CLASSIFICATION OF QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS
SECTION A> BACKGROUND INFORMATION
I request you to classify your responses by gi3ing the following facts
A1 Age6 1. -(= -, 2. -/=-) 6! -B=(. 4! (-= And abo3e.
A2 'ender6 1! !ale 2! ;emale
A6 %eligious affiliation6 1! :atholic 2! 7rotestant 6! !oslem
4! Ad3entist 5! rthodo?
A4 :lasses6 1! S( 2! SC 6! S, 4! SE
)(
SECTION B> TEACHERS< ETHICAL PRATICES
@T)(+ #-. *33$%3$)*#. *"/;.$ %2 0%'$ (-%)(.A!
B15hen teachers emphasi9e punctuality at school through rules and regulations
late coming is reduced.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B2. Strict rules and regulations can help Students to constantly keep discipline at
School.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B6. :onstant roll calls promote class attendance in schools.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B4. :hecking assignments by teachers enhances students> re3ision of their class
work on time.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B5. Teachers> close super3ision of night preps enhances students> obser3ation of
pri3ate study timetables.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral 4! Agree







)C
5! Strongly agrees
B:! Adherence to counseling and guidance impro3es on the students> discipline
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agree
B7! Students> discipline is possible through obedience, punishment and
suspension
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
BE! :onstant counseling on beha3ioral change and guidance stops students>
indiscipline.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B9! Suspension and dismissal of the students is one of the disciplinary measures
against students who miss classes.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
B10! :ounseling and guidance is highly practiced in this school to help students
feel that they are part of the community.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees.







),
SECTION C> STUDENTS< DISCIPLINE
@T)(+ #-. *33$%3$)*#. *"/;.$ %2 0%'$ (-%)(.A!
C1!5hen teachers carry out their duty of teaching properlyI there is high
attention in class.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C2! Students> regard for academic performance is highly considered when
students are being promoted to the ne?t class.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C6. The students are moti3ated by the responsible, de3oted, trustworthy teachers
at this school.
1! Strongly disagree 2!Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C4. Students are disciplined at this school because they ha3e been counseled and
guided by their teachers.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C5. #eing obedient is an indicator of being disciplined at school
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral 4! Agree






)/
5! Strongly agrees
C:! Adherence to counseling and guidance impro3es on the students> discipline
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agree
C7! 7re3ention of indiscipline to students is possible through counseling and
guidance
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
CE! :onstant publication on counseling sensiti9es the students on the general
discipline.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C9! Suspension and dismissal to the students is one of the disciplinary measures
against students who miss classes.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees
C10! :ounseling and guidance is highly practiced in this school to help students
feel that they are part of the community.
1! Strongly disagree 2! Disagree 6! "eutral
4! Agree 5! Strongly agrees.






E
)E
T-*"+ 0%' 8.$0 1'(- 2%$ 0%'$ 3$.()%'/ #)1. )" #-)/ $./.*$(-
APPENDIG B
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSION QUESTIONS
$i2 +ow does teachers> code of conduct influence students> beha3iorG
$ii2 +ow does counseling and guidance influence students> discipline in
secondary schoolsG
$iii2 +ow does teachers> punctuality influence students> time
managementG
QN 1 5ays in which teachers> code of conduct influence students> beha3iorG
QN 2 In what ways do teachers in this school enhance academic performanceG
))
QN6! +ow do the teachers in 3iew of their code of conduct, maintain the students
discipline at schoolG
QN4. In your 3iew what influence has teachers> in3ol3ement in counseling and
guidance on students> disciplineG
QN5! 5hat are teachers> ethical practices that influence the students> time
managementG
APPENDIG C
CHECK LIST OF WHAT SHOULD BE OBSERED
There was taking keen interest in what the students and teachers were doing at
school. This was after seeking permission from the school authority.
Teachers> ethical practices
= Autonomous
8ust teachers
= #eing responsible
= Trustworthiness of teachers
= 'ood dress code
= 7olite in speech
EB)/#."(. %2 $'5./ *"& $.,'5*#)%"/
= 7unishment
)B
= :orporal punishment
= Suspension and Dismissal
S#'&."#/< &)/()35)".
= Attention
= !otor %eproduction
= !oti3ation
T.*(-.$/< *"& S#'&."#/< #)1. 1*"*,.1."#
J3e S effecti3eness at work and assignments
J3e =:lass attendance
J3e S7unctuality for acti3ities
EB3.(#.& $./'5#/ #% #.*(-.$/ *"& /#'&."#/
= 'ood beha3iour S:lass e?cellence
:ommitment and regularity=
= 7unctuality
= Strengthening teacher Sstudent administration.=Democratic
= !oti3ated and self reinforcement
DA!IA" KAT A#KI
)0
APPENDIG D
ALIDITY OF TEACHERS< SAQ AND OF QUESTIONNAIRE GUIDE
FOR TEACHERS
Table C.- "umber of student respondents by gender by school and percentage.
Schools !ales females "umber of returned
copies of
respondents per
school
7er cent age
O
A CB ,C B- ()
# -B ,( E. (.
: C/ C( E) ((
D ,, ,B 0( C-
Total -C/ -E/ C.. -..
*5)&)#0 2%$ /#'&."#/< 9'./#)%""*)$.
%aters %ele3ant items Irrele3ant items Total
- (- C (,
( -0 E (,
Total ,. 0 ,B
B.
%ater -6 :AI Q
N
K
(,
(-
Q ..B)/
%ater (6 :AI Q
N
K
(,
-0
Q ..)0-
So, ..B)/ J ..)0- Q
(
E(/ . -
Q ..B.
+ence :AI Q ..B.
Table C.( "umber of focus group discussion by gender by school by percentage
for teachers.
Schools !ales females "umber of
discussants per
school
7er cent age
O
A B C -- (/
# E / -- (/
: 0 ( -- (/
D ) , -- (/
Total C. -, ,, -..
*5)&)#0 2%$ #.*(-.$/ 9'./#)%""*)$. ,')&..
%aters %ele3ant items Irrele3ant items Total
- E ( B
( ) - B
B-
Total -C C -E
%ater -6 :AI Q
N
K
B
E
Q ..)/
%ater (6 :AI Q
N
K
B
)
Q ..B)/
So, ..)/ J ..B)/ Q
(
E(/ . -
Q ..B-(/
APPENDIG E
DOCUMENT SCHEDULE
INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS< ETHICAL PRACTICES ON STUDENTS<
DISCIPLINE IN WAKISO DISTRICT!
B(
SCHOOLHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
SOURCEHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
I//'./ #% %4/.$8. O4/.$8*#)%"
A$$*",.1."#
A((.//)4)5)#0 %2 #-. &%('1."#
A'#-."#)()#0
C%"#."#
C'$$."#
*5)&)#0
R.5.8*"(.
U/.$/
APPENDIG F
RELIABILITY FOR STUDENTS< QUESTIONNAIRE
I#.1 M.*" S#&! D.8 C*/./
-. %ules -./... .)C-- C...
(. 7unctual -.,EE) .)C.C C...
C. %oll calls (.(EE) .0,,, C...
,. :ounseling -.,CCC .B/B, C...
/. 7unishment -.0CCC .0,,, C...
E. Suspension -./CCC .BE., C...
). Dismissal (.(CCC .0)-, C...
BC
B. Teaching -./CCC .)C.C C...
0. Attention -.CCCC .)/B- C...
-.. Trust -./... .)C-- C...
--. !oti3ation -.,EE) .E(BB C...
-(. 7olite -.,CCC .E)B0 C...
-C. Autonomous -.-... .,.(E C...
-,. 8ust (.C... .BCE) C...
-/. %esponsible -.0... .C./- C...
S#*#)/#)(/ 2%$ /(*5.> M.*" 8*$)*"(. S#&! D.8 N% %2 8*$)*45./
24!9666 65!09E9 5!9244 15
I#.1=#%#*5 /#*#)/#)(/
S(*5. M.*" S(*5. *$)*"(. C%$$.5*#)%" A53-*
-. %ules (C.,CCC (0.B,.( ./0-/ .)B-C
(. 7unctual (C.,EE) (0.B,C) ./0-B .)B-C
C. %oll calls ((.EEE) (0.-(E, .,0B, .)B-C
,. :ounseling (C./... CC.-//( .-((- .B-),
/. 7unishment (C..... C..B()E .C((( .B.C(
E. Suspension (C.,... CC.BC,/ ../(, .B(()
). Dismissal ((.)... (0.C(.) .,/0/ .)0--
B. Teaching (C.,... (0.,B0) .EC00 .))))
B,
0. Attention (C.E... (0.(-CB .E,B. .))E,
-.. Trust (C.,CCC (0.B,.( ./0-/ .)B-C
--= !oti3ation (C.,EE) C-.(0(. .,B,0 .)0.(
-(. 7olite (C./... C..C()E ./)E, .)BC,
-C. Autonomous (C.BCCC C(.,BB/ ./CC/ .)0C.
-,. 8ust ((.ECCC C-.)/)/ .(B.- .B.,)
-/. %esponsible (C..CCC C,.E/,. ..0)0 .B.BE
R.5)*4)5)#0 C%.22)()."#/
"o. of cases Q C. "o. of items Q -/ Alpha Q .B./.
R.5)*4)5)#0 2%$ /#'&."#/< 9'./#)%""*)$.
I#.1 M.*" S#&! D. C*/./
-. %ules -./... .)C-- C...
(. 7unctual -.,... .E),) C...
C. %oll calls -.,... .)(,. C...
,. :ounseling -.,CCC .B/B, C...
/. 7unishment -.0CCC .0,,, C...
E. Suspension -./... .BE-. C...
). Dismissal (.(CCC .0)-, C...
B. Teaching -./CCC .)C.C C...
0. Attention -.CCCC .)/B- C...
B/
-.. Trust -./... .)C-- C...
--. !oti3ation -.,EE) .E(BB C...
-(. 7olite -.,CCC .E)B0 C...
-C. Autonomous -.-... .,.(E C...
-,. 8ust (.C... .BCE) C...
-/. %esponsible -.0... .C./- C...
S#*#)/#)(/ 2%$ /(*5.> M.*" 8*$)*"(. S#&! D.8 N% %2 8*$)*45./
26!9::7 2:!99E9 5!19:0 15
I#.1=#%#*5 /#*#)/#)(/
S(*5. M.*" S(*5. *$)*"(. C%$$.5*#)%" A53-*
-. %ule ((.,EE) ((.E)-C ./,,B .).B0
(. 7unctual ((./EE) (C.ECCC .,,C) .)(.C
C. %oll calls ((./EE) ().0)B( .-0EC .))BC
,. :ounseling ((./CCC (/.CE.0 .-.,( .)/E/
/. 7unishment ((..CCC ((.0(00 .C/-C .)(00
E. Suspension ((.,EE) (/.,(00 ..0/C .)/)E
). Dismissal (-.)CCC ((./,)- .CB.C .)(E,
BE
B. Teaching ((.,CCC ((.(/,. .E--( .).(.
0. Attention ((.ECCC (-.0E,, .E()E .E00-
-.. Trust ((.,EE) ((.E)-C ./,,B .).B0
--= !oti3ation ((./... (C.EC)0 .,B/. .)-)E
-(. 7olite ((./CCC ((.E.(C .E.0) .).,C
-C. Autonomous ((.BEE) (,.)(., ./(C/ .)(C/
-,. 8ust (-.EEE) (,.((00 .(/-( .),..
-/. %esponsible ((..EE) (E.E-E- ..0(. .),/E
R.5)*4)5)#0 C%.22)()."#/
N%! %2 (*/./ I 60!0 N%! %2 )#.1/ I 15 A53-* I !742E
B)