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SEAOC STRUCTURAL/SEISMIC DESIGN MANUAL

BUILDING DESIGN EXAMPLES FOR


STEEL AND CONCRETE
2009 IBC


Volume 3
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Copyright
Copyright 2012 Structural Engineers Association of California. All rights reserved. This
publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written
permission of the Structural Engineers Association of California.
Publisher
Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC)
1400 K Street, Suite 212
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (916) 447-1198; Fax: (916) 444-1501
E-mail: dschinske@seaoc.org; Web address: www.seaoc.org
The Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) is a professional association of
four regional member organizations (Southern California, Northern California, San Diego, and
Central California). SEAOC represents the structural engineering community in California.
This document is published in keeping with SEAOC's stated mission: to advance the structural
engineering profession; to provide the public with structures of dependable performance
through the application of state-of-the-art structural engineering principles; to assist the public
in obtaining professional structural engineering services; to promote natural hazard mitigation;
to provide continuing education and encourage research; to provide structural engineers with
the most current information and tools to improve their practice; and to maintain the honor and
dignity of the profession.
Editor
International Code Council
Disclaimer
Practice documents produced by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC)
and/or its member organizations are published as part of our association's educational program.
While the information presented in this document is believed to be correct, neither SEAOC nor
its member organizations, committees, writers, editors, or individuals who have contributed
to this publication make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any legal liability or
responsibility for the use, application of, and/or reference to opinions, ndings, conclusions, or
recommendations included in this publication. The material presented in this publication should
not be used for any specic application without competent examination and verication of its
accuracy, suitability, and applicability by qualied professionals. Users of information from this
publication assume all liability arising from such use.
First Printing: September 2012
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Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Suggestions for Improvement/Errata Notication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
How to Use This Document. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi
Design Example 1: Steel Concentrically Braced Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1A Special Concentrically Braced Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1B Chevron and Zipper Congurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1C Cross-Bracing and Single-Diagonal Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
1D Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1E Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Design Example 2
Eccentrically Braced Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Design Example 3
Special Moment Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Design Example 4
Special Plate Shear Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Design Example 5
Reinforced Concrete Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Design Example 6
Reinforced Concrete Wall with Coupling Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Design Example 7
Reinforced Concrete Special Moment-Resisting Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
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Preface
This document is the third volume in the three-volume 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design
Manual. It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC)
with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and
use of the seismic requirements in the 2009 International Building Code (IBC), published by the
International Code Council, Inc., and SEAOCs 2005 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements
and Commentary (also called the Blue Book).
The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was developed to ll a void that exists between
the recommendations of the Blue Book, which explains the basis for the code provisions, and
everyday structural engineering design practice. The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual
illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Volume I: Code Application Examples, provides
step-by-step examples for using individual code provisions, such as computing base shear or
building period. Volumes II and III: Building Design Examples, furnish examples of seismic
design of common types of buildings. In Volumes II and III, important aspects of whole buildings
are designed to show, calculation-by-calculation, how the various seismic requirements of the code
are implemented in a realistic design.
The examples in the 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual do not necessarily illustrate the
only appropriate methods of design and analysis. Proper engineering judgment should always be
exercised when applying these examples to real projects. The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design
Manual is not meant to establish a minimum standard of care but, instead, presents reasonable
approaches to solving problems typically encountered in structural/seismic design.
The example problem numbers used in the prior manual2006 IBC Structural/Seismic
Design Manualhave been retained herein to provide easy reference to compare revised code
requirements.
SEAOC and ICC intend to update the IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual with each edition of
the building code.
Jon P. Kiland and Rafael Sabelli
Project Managers
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Acknowledgments
Authors
The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual was written by a group of highly qualied
structural engineers. They were selected by a steering committee set up by the SEAOC Board
of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering
practice and seismic design. The consultants for Volumes I, II, and III are:
Jon P. Kiland, Co-Project Manager Joe Maffei
Rafael Sabelli, Co-Project Manager Kevin Moore
Matt Eatherton Karl Telleen
Stephen Kerr Douglas S. Thompson
John W. Lawson Dan Wendowatz
Reviewers
A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in
this volume. During its development, drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals.
Their help was sought in review of code interpretations, as well as detailed checking of the
numerical computations.
Seismology Committee
Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during
the development of the document. The Seismology Committee has reviewed the document
and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Their assistance is gratefully
acknowledged.
Production and Art
International Code Council
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Suggestions for Improvement
In keeping with SEAOCs Mission Statement: to advance the structural engineering
profession and to provide structural engineers with the most current information and
tools to improve their practice, SEAOC plans to update this document as structural/seismic
requirements change and new research and better understanding of building performance in
earthquakes becomes available.
Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to the following:
Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC)
Attention: Executive Director
1020 12th Street, Suite 303
Sacramento, California 95814
Telephone: (916) 447-1198; Fax: (916) 444-1501
E-mail: lee@seaoc.org; Web address: www.seaoc.org
Errata Notication
SEAOC has made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this document is
accurate. In the event that corrections or clarications are needed, these will be posted on the
SEAOC web site at http://www.seaoc.org or on the ICC web site at http://www.iccsafe.org.
SEAOC, at its sole discretion, may or may not issue written errata.
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Introduction
The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is intended to help the reader understand and
correctly use the IBC structural/seismic provisions and to provide clear, concise, and graphic
guidance on the application of specic provisions of the code. It primarily addresses the major
structural/seismic provisions of the IBC, with interpretation of specic provisions and examples
highlighting their proper application.
The 2009 IBC has had structural provisions removed from its text and has referenced several
national standards documents for structural design provisions. The primary referenced
document is ASCE/SEI 7-05, which contains the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures. ASCE/SEI 7-05 is referenced for load and deformation design demands on
structural elements, national material design standards (such as ACI, AISC, MSJC and NDS)
are then referenced to take the structural load demands from ASCE/SEI 7-05 and perform
specic material designs.
The complete 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual has three volumes. Volume 1
illustrates the application of specic provisions of ASCE 7 and the IBC.Volumes 2 and 3
provide a series of structural/seismic design examples for buildings illustrating the seismic
design of key parts of common building types such as a large three-story wood frame building,
a tilt-up warehouse, a braced steel frame building, and a concrete shear wall building.
While the 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is based on the 2009 IBC, there are
some provisions of SEAOCs Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue
Book) that are applicable. When differences between the IBC and Blue Book are signicant,
they are brought to the attention of the reader.
The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual is intended for use by practicing structural
engineers and structural designers, building departments, other plan review agencies, and
structural engineering students.
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How to Use This Document
The 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design ManualVolume 3 is based on the 2009 IBC, unless
otherwise indicated. Such indication is to be found in the Code Reference column at page
right. ASCE/SEI 7-05 notation is generally used throughout the document. Code references to
the 2009 IBC are enclosed in parentheses. Occasional references to other codes and standards
are specically identied as such (e.g., ACI 318-08, AISC-360-05, etc.)
Abbreviations used in the Code Reference column are:
Section T Table
F Figure Eq Equation
Generally, each design example is presented in the following format. First, there is an
Overview of the example: a description of the building to be designed. This is followed
by an Outline indicating the tasks or steps to be illustrated in each example. Next, Given
Information provides the basic design information, including plans and sketches given as
the starting point for the design. This is followed by Calculations and Discussion, which
provides the solution to the example. Some examples have a subsequent section designated
Commentary that is intended to provide a better understanding of aspects of the example and/
or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example. Finally,
references and suggested reading are given under References. Some examples also have a
Foreword and/or Factors Inuencing Design section that contains remarks on salient points
about the design.
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Notation
The following notation is used in this document. These are generally consistent with those used
in ASCE/SEI 7-05 and other standards such as ACI and AISC. Some new notations have been
added. The reader is cautioned that the same notation may be used more than once and may
carry entirely different meanings in different situations. For example, E can mean the tabulated
elastic modulus under the AISC denition (steel) or it can mean the earthquake load under
12.4.2 of ASCE/SEI 7-05.
A = total cross-sectional area of member
A
b
= cross-sectional area of a horizontal boundary element (HBE)
A
c
= cross-sectional area of a vertical boundary element (VBE)
A
ch
= cross-sectional area of a structural member measured out-to-out of
transverse reinforcement
A
cv
= gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of
section in the direction of shear force considered
A
cw
= area of concrete section of an individual pier, horizontal wall segment, or
coupling beam resisting shear
A
e
= effective net area
A
f
= ange area
A
g
= gross area of member
A
g
= gross area of concrete section. For a hollow section, A
g
is the area of the
concrete only and does not include the area of the void(s)
A
n
= net area of member
A
nt
= net area subject to tension
A
nv
= net area subject to shear
A
s
= area of nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement
A
sc
= area of the yielding segment of steel core
A
sh
= total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties)
within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension b
c
A
s, min
= minimum area of exural reinforcement
A
st
= area of link stiffener
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A
t
= area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torsion within spacing s
A
tr
= total cross-sectional area of all transverse reinforcement within spacing s
that crosses the potential plane of splitting through the reinforcement being
developed
A
vf
= area of shear-friction reinforcement
A
w
= link web area (excluding ange depth)
A
w
= web area, the overall depth times the web thickness, dt
w
A
w
= effective area of the weld
B = overall width of rectangular HSS member, measured 90 degrees to the plane
of the connection
B
1
, B
2
= factors used in determining M
u
for combined bending and axial forces when
rst-order analysis is employed
C
a
= ratio of required strength to available strength
C
b
= lateral-torsional buckling modication factor for nonuniform moment
diagrams when both ends of the unsupported segment are braced
C
d
= coefcient relating relative brace stiffness and curvature
C
d
= deection amplication factor
C
m
= coefcient assuming no lateral translation of the frame
C
pr
= factor to account for peak connection strength, including strain hardening,
local restraint, additional reinforcement, and other connection conditions
C
r
= parameter used for determining the approximate fundamental period
C
v
= web shear coefcient
D = outside diameter of round HSS member
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural elements and permanent
features on the building
E = earthquake load
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, E = 29,000 ksi (200,000 Mpa)
F
cr
= critical stress
F
e
= elastic critical buckling stress
F
ex
= elastic exural buckling stress about the major axis
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F
EXX
= electrode classication number
F
u
= specied minimum tensile strength
F
w
= nominal strength of the weld metal per unit area
F
y
= specied minimum yield stress of the type of steel to be used, ksi (MPa).
As used in the Specication, yield stress denotes either the minimum
specied yield point (for those steels that have a yield point) or the specied
yield strength (for those steels that do not have a yield point)
F
yb
= F
y
of a beam
F
yc
= F
y
of a column
F
ysc
= specied minimum yield stress of the steel core, or actual yield stress of the
steel core as determined from a coupon test
H = height of story, which may be taken as the distance between the centerline
of oor framing at each of the levels above and below, or the distance
between the top of oor slabs at each of the levels above and below
I = moment of inertia
I
c
= moment of inertia of a vertical boundary element (VBE) taken perpendicular
to the direction of the web plate line
K = effective length factor for prismatic member
K
tr
= transverse reinforcement index
L = live load due to occupancy and moveable equipment
L = distance between VBE centerlines
L = story height, inches
L = length of the member
L = distance between plastic hinges
L
b
= length between points that are either braced against lateral displacement of
compression ange or braced against twist of the cross section
L
cf
= clear distance between VBE anges
L
p
= limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic exural strength, uniform
moment case
L
r
= limiting laterally unbraced length for the limit state of inelastic lateral-
torsional buckling
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M
f
= maximum moment expected at face of column
M
lt
= rst-order moment under LRFD or ASD load combinations caused by
lateral translation of the frame only
M
max
= absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced segment
M
n
= nominal exural strength
M
nt
= rst-order moment using LRFD or ASD load combinations assuming there
is no lateral translation of the frame
M
p
= plastic bending moment
M
pa
= nominal plastic exural strength modied by axial load
M
pe
= plastic moment of beam based on expected yield stress
M
pr
= probable maximum moment at plastic hinge (steel)
M
pr
= probable exural strength of members, with or without axial load,
determined using the properties of the member at the joint faces assuming
a tensile stress in the longitudinal bars of at least 1.25f
y
and a strength
reduction factor, , (concrete)
M
u
= required exural strength
M
1
= smaller moment, calculated from a rst-order analysis, at the ends of that
portion of the member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration
M
2
= larger moment, calculated from a rst-order analysis, at the ends of that
portion of the member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration
N = length of bearing (not less than k for end beam reactions)
P
b
= required strength of lateral brace at ends of the link
P
br
= required brace strength
P
e1
, P
e2
= elastic critical buckling load for braced and unbraced frame, respectively
P
n
= nominal axial strength
P
u
= required axial strength
P
y
= nominal axial yield strength of a member, equal to F
y
A
g
P
ysc
= axial yield strength of steel core
Q
b
= maximum unbalanced vertical load effect applied to a beam by the braces
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Q
1
= axial forces and moments generated by at least 1.25 times the expected
nominal shear strength of the link
R = seismic response modication coefcient
R
n
= nominal strength
R
t
= ratio of the expected tensile strength to the specic minimum tensile
strength F
u
, as related to overstrength in material yield stress R
y
R
u
= required strength
R
v
= panel zone nominal shear strength
R
y
= ratio of the expected yield stress to the specied minimum yield strength, F
y
R
yb
= ratio of expected yield stress to specied minimum yield stress F
y
, for a
beam
R
ye
= ratio of expected yield stress to specied minimum yield stress F
y
, for a
column
S = snow load
S
h
= distance from the face of a column to a plastic hinge, in
U = required strength to resist factored loads or related internal moments and
forces, ACI-318
U = shear lag factor
U
bs
= reduction coefcient, used in calculating block shear rupture
V
c
= nominal shear strength provided by concrete, ACI-318
V
e
= design shear force corresponding to the development of the probable
moment strength of the member
V
gravity
= beam shear force resulting from 1.2D + f
1
L + 0.2S, IBC
V
n
= nominal shear strength of a member
V
p
= nominal shear strength of a link
V
pa
= nominal shear strength of a link modied by the axial load magnitude
V
RBS
= larger of the two values of shear force at the center of the reduced beam
section at each end of a beam
V
RBS
= smaller of the two values of shear force at the center of the reduced beam
section at each end of a beam
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V
s
= nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, ACI-318
V
u
= required shear strength
Z = plastic section modulus of a member
Z
b
= plastic section modulus of the beam
Z
c
= plastic section modulus of the column
Z
e
= effective plastic modulus of a section (or connection) at the location of a
plastic hinge, Z
RBS
Z
x
= plastic section modulus x-axis
Z
RBS
= minimum plastic section modulus at the reduced beam section
a = horizontal distance between a column ange and the start of an RBS cut,
b = width of compression element as dened in the AISC Specication
b = length of an RBS cut
b
bf
= width of beam ange
c = depth of cut at the center of the reduced beam section
d = nominal fastener diameter
d = overall member depth
d
z
= overall panel zone depth between continuity plates
e = EBF link length
f
e
= specied compressive strength of concrete
f
y
= specied yield strength of reinforcement, ACI-318
f
1
= load factor determined by the applicable building code for live loads but not
less than 0.5
h = clear distance between anges less the llet or corner radius for rolled
shapes
h = distance between horizontal boundary elements centerlines
h
o
= distance between ange centroids
k
c
= distance from outer face of a column ange to web toe of llet (design
value) or llet weld
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l = unbraced length of compression or bracing member

n
= length of clear span measured face-to-face of supports, ACI-318

u
= unsupported length of compression member, ACI-318

w
= length of entire wall or length of segment of wall considered in direction of
shear force, ACI-318
n = number of items; such as strength tests, bars, wires, monostrand anchorage
devices, anchors, or shearhead arms, ACI-318
r = governing radius of gyration
r
y
= radius of gyration about y-axis
s = center-to-center spacing of items; such as longitudinal reinforcement,
transverse reinforcement, prestressing tendons, wires, or anchors, ACI-318
t = thickness of element
t
bf
= thickness of beam ange
t
bw
= thickness of beam web
t
cf
= thickness of column ange
t
cw
= thickness of column web
t
f
= thickness of ange
t
p
= thickness of plate or panel zone including doubler plates
t
w
= thickness of web
w = uniform beam gravity load
w
z
= width of panel zone between column anges
x = parameter used for determining the approximate fundamental period
x = connection eccentricity
= rst-order interstory drift due to the design loads

b
= deformation quantity used to control loading of test specimen (total
brace end rotation for the subassemblage test specimen; total brace axial
deformation for the brace test specimen)

bm
= value of deformation quantity,
b
, corresponding to the design story drift

by
= value of deformation quantity,
b
, at rst signicant yield of test specimen
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H
= rst-order interstory drift due to lateral forces

o
= system overstrength factor
= angle dening the orientation of reinforcement, ACI-318
= angle of web yielding in radians, as measured relative to the vertical

c
= coefcient dening the relative contribution of concrete strength to nominal
wall shear strength, ACI-318
= compression strength adjustment factor

1
= factor relating depth of equivalent rectangular compressive stress block to
neutral axis depth, ACI-318

br
= required brace stiffness

total
= link rotation angle

u
= design displacement, ACI-318

t
= net tensile strain in extreme layer of longitudinal tension steel at nominal
strength, excluding strains due to effective prestress, creep, shrinkage, and
temperature, ACI-318
= interstory drift angle, radians
= modication factor related to unit weight of concrete, ACI-318

p
= limiting slenderness parameter for compact element

p
,
ps
= limiting slenderness parameter for compact element
M*
pb
= moment at the intersection of the beam and column centerlines determined
by projecting the beam maximum developed moments from the column
face. Maximum developed moments shall be determined from test results
M*
pc
= moment at beam and column centerline determined by projecting the sum
of the nominal column plastic moment strength, reduced by the axial stress
P
uc
/A
g
, from the top and bottom of the beam
= resistance factor

b
= resistance factor for exure

c
= resistance factor for compression

d
= resistance factor for ductile limit states

n
= resistance factor for non-ductile limit states
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t
= resistance factor for tension

v
= resistance factor for shear

e
= factor used to modify development length based on reinforcement coating,
ACI-318

s
= factor used to modify development length based on reinforcement size,
ACI-318

t
= factor used to modify development length based on reinforcement location,
ACI-318
= strain hardening adjustment factor
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Denitions
Adjusted Brace Strength. Strength of a brace in a buckling-restrained braced frame at
deformations corresponding to 2.0 times the design story drift.
Amplication Factor. Multiplier of the results of rst-order analysis to reect second-order
effects.
Amplied Seismic Load. Horizontal component of earthquake load E multiplied by
o
, where E
and the horizontal component of E are specied in the applicable building code.
Backing. Piece of metal or other material, placed at the weld root to facilitate placement of the
root pass.
Base. The level at which the horizontal seismic ground motions are considered to be imparted to
the structure.
Base Shear. Total design lateral force or shear at the base.
Boundary Elements. Diaphragm and shear wall boundary members to which the diaphragm
transfers forces.
Boundary Members. Portions along wall and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement and/or structural steel members.
Buckling-restrained Braced Frame (BRBF). Diagonally braced frame satisfying the
requirements of Section 16 of AISC 341 in which all members of the bracing system are subjected
primarily to axial forces and in which the limit state of compression buckling of braces is
precluded at forces and deformations corresponding to 2.0 times the design story drift.
Charpy V-Notch Impact Test. Standard dynamic test measuring notch toughness of a specimen.
Complete-joint-penetration Groove Weld (CJP). Groove weld in which weld metal extends
through the joint thickness, except as permitted for HSS connections.
Concrete. Mixture of portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, ne aggregate, coarse
aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures.
Conned Region. The portion of a reinforced concrete component in which the concrete is
conned by closely spaced special transverse reinforcement restraining the concrete in directions
perpendicular to the applied stress.
Continuity Plates. Column stiffeners at the top and bottom of the panel zone; also known as
transverse stiffeners.
Coupling Beam. A beam that is used to connect adjacent concrete wall piers to make them act
together as a unit to resist lateral forces.
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Dead Loads. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including
but not limited to wall, oors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, nishes, cladding,
and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and xed service equipment,
incuding the weight of cranes.
Design Story Drift. Amplied story drift (drift under the design earthquake, including the effects
of inelastic action), determined as specied in the applicable building code.
Design Strength. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength
reduction factor).
Design Wall Thickness. HSS wall thickness assumed in the determination of section properties.
Development Length. Length of embedded reinforcement, including pretensioned strand,
required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical section.
Doubler. Plate added to, and parallel with, a beam or column web to increase resistance to
concentrated forces.
Drift. Lateral deection of structure.
Ductile Limit State. Ductile limit states include member and connection yielding, bearing
deformation at bolt holes, as well as buckling of members that conform to the width-thickness
limitations of Table I-8-1 of the Seismic Provisions. Fracture of a member or of a connection, or
buckling of a connection element, is not a ductile limit state.
Effective Net Area. Net area modied to account for the effect of shear lag.
Embedment Length. Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.
Expected Yield Strength. Yield strength in tension of a member, equal to the expected yield stress
multiplied by A
g
.
Expected Tensile Strength. Tensile strength of a member, equal to the specied minimum tensile
strength, F
u
, multiplied by R
t
.
Expected Yield Stress. Yield stress of the material, equal to the specied minimum yield stress,
F
y
, multiplied by R
y
.
Factored Load. The product of a load factor and the nominal load.
Filler Metal. Metal or alloy to be added in making a welded joint.
Fillet Weld. Weld of generally triangular cross section made between intersecting surfaces of
elements.
Fillet Weld Reinforcement. Fillet welds added to groove welds.
Flat Width. Nominal width of a rectangular HSS minus twice the outside corner radius. In
absence of knowledge of the corner radius, the at width may be taken as the total section width
minus three times the thickness.
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Frame.
Braced frame. An essentially vertical truss, or its equivalent, of the concentric or
eccentric type that is provided in a building frame system or dual frame system to resist
shear.
Concentrically braced frame (CBF). A braced frame in which the members are
subjected primarily to axial forces.
Eccentrically braced frame (EBF). A diagonally braced steel frame meeting the
requirements of Section 15 of AISC 341 that has at least one end of each bracing member
connected to a beam a short distance from another beam-to-brace connection or a beam-
to-column connection.
Ordinary concentrically braced frame (OCBF). A diagonally braced steel frame
meeting the requirements of Section 14 of the Seismic Provisions in which all members
of the bracing system are subjected primarily to axial forces. Members and connections
are designed for moderate ductility.
Special concentrically braced frame (SCBF). A diagonally braced frame meeting the
requirements of Section 13 of the Seismic Provisions in which all members of the bracing
system are subjected primarily to axial forces.
Frame System.
Building frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
system providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear
walls or braced frames.
Dual frame system. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame system
providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by a moment-
resisting frame and shear walls or braced frames.
Space frame system. A structural system composed of interconnected members, other
than bearing walls, that is capable of supporting vertical loads and that also may provide
resistance to seismic forces.
Fully Restrained Moment Connection. Connection capable of transferring moment with
negligible rotation between connected members.
Gouge. Relatively smooth surface groove or cavity resulting from plastic deformation or removal
of material
Gravity Frame. Portion of the framing system not included in the lateral load resisting system.
Gravity Load (W). The total dead load and applicable portions of other loads as dened in ASCE/
SEI 7-05, 12.7.2 and 12.14.8.1.
Gusset Plate. Plate element connecting truss members or a strut or brace to a beam or column.
Importance Factor. A factor assigned to each structure according to its occupancy category as
prescribed in ASCE/SEI 7-05, 11.5.1.
Inelastic Analysis. Structural analysis that takes into account inelastic material behavior, including
plastic analysis.
Interstory Drift Angle. Interstory displacement divided by story height, radians.
Joint (concrete). A portion of a column bounded by the highest and lowest surfaces of the other
members framing into it.
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k-area. The region of the web that extends from the tangent point of the web and the ange-
web llet (AISC k dimension) a distance 1
1
/2 inches (38 mm) into the web beyond the k
dimension.
K-braced Frame. A bracing conguration in which braces connect to a column at a location with
no diaphragm or other out-of-plane support.
Limit State. A condition beyond which a structure or member becomes unt for service and is
judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe
(strength limit state).
Link. In EBF, the segment of a beam that is located between the ends of two diagonal braces or
between the end of a diagonal brace and a column. The length of the link is dened as the clear
distance between the ends of two diagonal braces or between the diagonal brace and the column
face.
Link Intermediate Web Stiffeners. Vertical web stifffeners placed within the link in EBF.
Link Rotation Angle. Inelastic angle between the link and the beam outside the link when the
total story drift is equal to the design story drift.
Link Shear Design Strength. Lesser of the available shear strength of the link developed from the
moment or shear strength of the link.
Live Loads. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure
and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load,
earthquake load, ood load, or dead load.
Live Loads (Roof). Those loads produced 1) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and
materials; and 2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people.
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members and
their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached
when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term LRFD is used in the
design of steel and wood structures.
Load Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for
uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that
more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.
Loads. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants
and their possessions, environmental effect, differential movement, and restrained dimensional
changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small
magnitude. Other loads are variable loads (see also Nominal loads).
Loads Effects. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.
Local Buckling. Limit state of buckling of a compression element within a cross section.
Local Crippling. Limit state of local failure of web plate in the immediate vicinity of a
concentrated load or reaction.
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Local Yielding. Yielding that occurs in a local area of an element.
LRFD Load Combination. Load combination in the applicable building code intended for
strength design (load and resistance factor design).
Maximum Considered Earthquake. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code.
Moment Connection. Connection that transmits bending moment between connected members.
Moment Frame. Framing system that provides resistance to lateral loads and provides stability
to the structural system; members and joints are capable of resisting forces by exure as well as
along their axis.
Net Area. Gross area reduced to account for removed material.
Nominal Load. Magnitude of the load specied by the applicable building code (dead, live, soil,
wind, snow, rain, ood, earthquake).
Nominal Strength. Strength of a structure or component (without the resistance factor or safety
factor applied) to resist the load effects.
Notch Toughness. Energy absorbed at a specied temperature as measured in the Charpy V-Notch
test.
Occupancy Category. Classication assigned to a structure based on its use as specied by the
applicable building code.
Overstrength Factor,
o
. Factored specied by the applicable building code in order to determine
the amplied seismic load, where required by the Seismic Provisions.
Panel Zone. Web area of beam-to-column connection delineated by the extension of beam and
column anges through the connection, transmitting moment through a shear panel.
Partial-joint-penetration Groove Weld (PJP). Groove weld in which the penetration is
intentionally less than the complete thickness of the connected element.
Percent Elongation. Measure of ductility, determined in a tensile test as the maximum elongation
of the gage length divided by the original gage length.
P-Delta Effect. Effect of loads acting on the displaced location of joints or nodes in a structure.
In tiered building structures, this is the effect of loads acting on the laterally displaced location of
oors and roofs.
P- Effect. Effect of loads acting on the deected shape of a member between joints or nodes.
Plastic Hinge. Yielded zone that forms in a structural member when the plastic moment is
attained. The member is assumed to rotate further as if hinged, except that such rotation is
restrained by the plastic moment.
Plastic Hinge Location. Location in a beam column assembly where inelastic energy dissipation
is assumed to occur through the development of plastic exural straining.
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Plastic Moment. Theoretical resisting moment developed within a fully yielded cross section.
Prequalied Connection. Connection that complies with the requirements of the Seismic
Provisions or AISC 358.
Probable Maximum Moment at Plastic Hinge. Expected moment developed at a plastic hinge
location along a member, considering the probable (mean) value of the material strength for the
specied steel and effects of strain hardening.
Protected Zone. Area of members in which limitations apply to fabrication and attachments. See
Section 7.4 of the Seismic Provisions.
Prototype. The connection or brace design that is to be used in the building (SMF, IMF, EBF, and
BRBF).
Quality Assurance. System of shop and eld activities and controls implemented by the owner or
his/her designated representative to provide condence to the owner and the building authority that
quality requirements are implemented.
Quality Assurance Plan. Written description of qualications, procedures, quality inspections,
resources, and records to be used to provide assurance that the structure complies with the
engineers quality requirements, specications, and contract documents.
Quality Control. System of shop and eld controls implemented by the fabricator and erector to
ensure that contract and company fabrication and erection requirements are met.
Reduced Beam Section. Reduction in cross section over a discrete length that promotes a zone of
inelasticity in the member.
Reinforcing Fillet. Fillet weld applied to a groove welded tee joint to obtain a contour to reduce
stress concentrations associated with joint geometry.
Required Strength. Forces, stresses, and deformations produced in a structural component,
determined by either structural analysis, LRFD or ASD load combinations or by the Specication
and Seismic Provisions.
Resistance Factor. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal
strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called strength reduction factor).
Root. Portion of a multi-pass weld deposited in the rst pass of welding.
Root of Joint. Portion of a joint to be welded where the members are closest to each other.
Rotation Capacity. Incremental angular rotation that a given shape can accept prior to excessive
load shedding, dened as the ratio of the inelastic rotation attained to the idealized elastic rotation
at rst yield.
Second-order Analysis. Structural analysis in which equilibrium conditions are formulated on
the deformed structure; second-order effects (both P- and P-, unless specied otherwise) are
included.
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Seismic Design Category. A classication assigned to a structure based on its occupany category
and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.
Seismic-force-resisting System. The part of the structural system that has been considered in the
design to provide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces.
Seismic Forces. The assumed forces related to the response of the structure to earthquake motions,
to be used in the design of the structure and its components.
Seismic Load Resisting System (SLRS). Assembly of structural elements in the building that
resists seismic loads, including struts, collectors, chords, diaphragms and trusses.
Seismic Provisions. Refers to AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/
AISC).
Seismic Response Modication Coefcient, R. Factor that reduces seismic load effects to
strength level as specied by the applicable building code.
Seismic Response Coefcient. Coefcient C
s
, as determined from ASCE/SEI 7-05, 12.8.
Shear Rupture. Limit state of rupture (fracture) due to shear.
Shear Wall. Wall that provides resistance to lateral loads in the plane of the wall and provides
stability for the structural system.
Shear Wall-frame Interactive System. A structural system that uses combinations of shear walls
and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their rigidities, considering interaction
between shear walls and frames on all levels.
Shear Yielding. Yielding that occurs due to shear.
Simple Connection. Connection that transmits negligible bending moment between connected
members.
Site Class. A classication assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their
engineering properties as dened in ASCE/SEI 7-05, 11.4.2.
Site Coefcients. The values of F
a
and F
v
indicated in ASCE/SEI 7-05, Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2,
respectively.
Special Plate Shear Wall (SPSW). Plate shear wall systems that meets the requirments of the
Seismic Provisions.
Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall. A cast-in-place wall complying with the requirements
of ASCE/SEI 7-05 in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural
walls.
Special Transverse Reinforcement. Reinforcement composed of spirals, closed stirrups or hoops,
and supplementary cross-ties provided to restrain the concrete and qualify the portion of the
component, where used, as a conned region.
Specication. Refers to the AISC Specication for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360).
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Specied Minimum Tensile Strength. Lower limit of tensile strength specied for a material as
dened by ASTM.
Specied Minimum Yield Stress. Lower limit of yield stress specied for a material as dened by
ASTM.
Splice. Connection between two structural elements joined at their ends to form a single, longer
element.
Steel Core. Axial-force-resisting element of braces in BRBF. The steel core contains a yielding
segment and connections to transfer its axial force to adjoining elements; it may also contain
projectons beyond the casing and transition segments between the projections and yielding
segment.
Stiffener. Structural element, usually an angle or plate, attached to a member to distribute load,
transfer shear or prevent buckling.
Stiffness. Resistance to deformation of a member or structure, measured by the ratio of the applied
force (or moment) to the corresponding displacement (or rotation).
Story Drift Ratio. The story drift divided by the story height.
Strength Design. A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed forces
produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength (also called
load and resistance factor design.) The term strength design is used in the design of concrete and
masonry structural elements.
Strength, Nominal. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as
determined by computations using specied material strengths and dimensions and formulas
derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by eld tests or laboratory tests
of scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and eld
conditions.
Strength Required. Strength of a member, cross section, or connection required to resist
factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these
provisions.
Structural Analysis. Determination of load effects on members and connections based on
principles of structural mechanics.
Tensile Rupture. Limit state of rupture (fracture) due to tension.
Tensile Yielding. Yielding that occurs due to tension.
Toe of Fillet. Junction of a llet weld face and base metal. Tangent point of a rolled section llet.
Torsional Force Distribution. The distribution of horizontal seismic forces through a rigid
diaphragm when the center of mass of the structure at the level under consideration does not
coincide with the center of rigidity (sometimes referred to as a diaphragm rotation).
Toughness. The ability of a material to absorb energy without losing signicant strength.
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V-Braced Frame. Concentrically braced frame (SCBF, OCBF or BRBF) in which a pair of
diagonal braces located either above or below a beam is connected to a single point within the
clear beam span. Where the diagonal braces are below the beam, the system is also referred to as
an inverted-V-braced frame.
Wall, Load-bearing. Any wall meeting either of the following classications:
1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot
(1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot
(2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Wall, Nonload-bearing. Any wall that is not a load-bearing wall.
Web Buckling. Limit state of lateral instability of a web.
Web Compression Buckling. Limit state of out-of-plane compression buckling of the web due to
a concentrated compression force.
Weld Metal. Portion of a fusion weld that has been completely melted during welding. Weld
metal has elements of ller metal and base metal melted in the weld thermal cycle.
Weld Tab. Piece of metal afxed to the end of a welded joint to facilitate the initiation and
termination of weld passes outside the structural joint.
X-braced Frame. Concentrically braced frame (OCBF or SCBF) in which a pair of diagonal
braces crosses near the mid-length of the braces.
Yield Strength. Stress at which a material exhibits a specied limiting deviation from the
proportionality of stress to strain as dened by ASTM.
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References
The following codes and standards are referenced in this document. Other reference documents
are indicated at the end of each design example.
ACI-318, American Concrete Institute, Building Code Regulations for Reinforced Concrete,
Farmington Hills, Michigan, 2008.
AISC-360, American Institute of Steel Construction, Specicaiton for Structural Steel
Buildings, Chicago, Illinois, March 9, 2005.
AISC-341, Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, March 9, 2005.
IBC, International Code Council, International Building Code. Washington, DC, 2009.
SEAOC Blue Book, Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary. Structural
Engineers Association of California, Sacramento, California, 1999.
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