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Best Practices in Investigations and
Prosecution of International Crimes
Program 1920 June 2014
Thursday 19 June
Location: Court Room 600
8:45 Departure to Memorium Nuremberg Trials
Meeting place: Lobby at Grand Hotel

9:009:30 Welcoming Remarks
Dr. Oscar Schneider, former Federal Minister of Germany
Oliver Fixson, Head of Public International Law Division, Federal Foreign Ofce,
Germany
Bettina Ambach, Director, Wayamo Foundation
Michaela Lissowsky, Director, Founding Ofce International Nuremberg
Principles Academy
Introduction: How domestic is the future of International Criminal Law?
Max du Plessis, Associate Professor at University of KwaZulu-Natal, Senior
Research Associate at the International Crime in Africa Programme at the
Institute for Security Studies, practising barrister in South Africa

9:3011:00 The Compendium of Lessons Learned in the Investigation and Prosecution
of International Crimes
David Akerson, Trial Lawyer and Professor at University of Denver, Sturm
College of Law, United States of America
Serge Brammertz, Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the former
Yugoslavia, The Hague
Brenda J. Hollis, Prosecutor, Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone
Elena Martin Salgado, Legal Ofcer of the Ofce of the Prosecutor
(The Hague Branch) of the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals

11:0011:30 Coffee Break

11:3012:45 National Criminal Justice Systems for International and Transnational Crimes:
Colombia, Switzerland and the US
Leonardo Augusto Cabana Fonseca, Court Prosecutor, Criminal Analysis Division,
Ofce of the Attorney General of Colombia
Prosecuting atrocities in peaceful Switzerland
Andreas Mller, Federal Prosecutor, Ofce of the Attorney General of Switzerland,
Competence Centre for International Criminal Law, Bern, Switzerland
The Trials of Charles Taylor Sr. in The Hague and Charles Taylor Jr. in Miami:
Different systems, different crimes, similar results
Stephen Rapp, Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues, Ofce of Global
Criminal Justice, Department of State, United States of America

12:4513:45 Lunch Break

Program 1920 June 2014

13:4515:15 Challenges in Formulating National and International Prosecution and


Investigation Strategies
William Byansi, Principal State Attorney, International Crimes Division
of the Directorate of Public Prosecutions, Kampala, Uganda
Ndegwa Muhoro, Director of Criminal Investigations, Nairobi, Kenya
South Africa: Prosecutorial independence and integrity
a weapon against impunity
Vusi Pikoli, Commissioner of the Khayelitsha Commission and former
National Director of Public Prosecutions
International Criminal Court: New investigative strategy of the Ofce
of the Prosecutor
Michel De Smedt, Head of Investigations, Ofce of the Prosecutor, ICC

15:1515:30 Coffee Break

15:3017:00 Challenges in the Establishment of National Criminal Justice Systems for
International and Transnational Crimes
The Norwegian Challenges
Siri Frigaard, Chief Public Prosecutor and Director of the Norwegian National
Authority for Prosecution of Organized and Other Serious Crime, Norway
Domestic prosecutions of international crimes Rwandas experience
with cases transferred from the ICTR
John Bosco Mutangana, Head of International Crimes Unit, National Public
Prosecution Authority, Republic of Rwanda
Martin Ngoga, Former Prosecutor General, Republic of Rwanda
How to improve cooperation in investigating and prosecuting international
crimes at the national and transnational levels
Matev Pezdirc, European Network for Investigation and Prosecution of
Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes, Eurojust, The Hague,
Netherlands

17:0018:30 Guided Tour through the Memorium Nuremberg Trials

18:30 Dinner at Lederer Kulturbrauerei
Program 1920 June 2014

Friday 20 June
Location: Documentation Centre Nazi Party Rally Grounds
8:45 Departure to Documentation Centre
Meeting place: Lobby at Grand Hotel
9:0010:45 Lessons Learned from International and Organised Crime Units of Canada,
Nigeria and France
Complementarity and the Establishment of a Model Prosecution Ofce
in Lagos State
Adeola Ipaye, Attorney General and Commissioner for Justice of Lagos State, Nigeria
Akingbolahan Adeniran, Senior Special Assistant to the Governor of Lagos
State on Legal Matters, Attorney Generals Chambers, Lagos State Ministry
of Justice, Nigeria
Challenges to Investigations: The Canadian Perspective
Terry M. Beitner, Director and General Counsel, Crimes Against Humanity
and War Crimes Section, Department of Justice, Canada
Aurlia Devos, Vice-procureur Chef de section, Tribunal de Grande Instance
de Paris, Ple crimes contre lhumanit, crimes de dlits de guerre, France

10:4511:15 Coffee Break

11:1512:45 Lessons Learned from International and Organised Crime Units of Germany,
Kenya and South Africa
Taking the duty to prosecute seriously the question of presence of an
accused as a precursor to investigating international crimes domestically
Max du Plessis, Associate Professor at the University of KwaZulu-Natal
and practising barrister in South Africa
Kioko Kamula, Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions, Kenya
Lillian Obuo, Head of the International Crimes Division of the Ofce of
the Director of Public Prosecutions, Kenya
How to adjudicate the most serious international crimes before a German court?
Christian Ritscher, Senior Public Prosecutor, Attorney Generals Ofce,
Karlsruhe, Germany
Christoph Safferling, Professor for Criminal Law, Criminal Law Procedure,
International Criminal Law and Public International Law at the University
of Marburg, Germany

12:4514:15 Lunch Break

Program 1920 June 2014

14:1515:30 Group Work


How should international and domestic efforts to address atrocities and
transnational crimes interact?
Which parts of the Compendiums best practices could be transferred to
the national level?
Is there an intersection between transnational and international core
crimes? Could there be a combined prosecution strategy?
How to promote and support domestic trials and prosecutions? What is the
role of States and International Courts and Tribunals in capacity building?
Do we need an international organism coordinating complementarity
efforts? What should it look like? What should be the minimum standards
of national International Crimes Divisions?

15:3016:45 Presentation of Group Results in Plenary
Formulation of Recommendations

16:4517:00 Closing Remarks: Priorities Going Forward

19:30 Dinner at WBG-Tower
Meeting place: Lobby at Grand Hotel
Saturday, 21 June 2014

10:0012:00 Visit of the Exhibition at the Documentation Centre Nazi Party Rally
Grounds and the Zeppelin Field
Meeting place: Lobby Grand Hotel, at 9:30

Spare Time

15:0017:15 Visit of Subterranean Nuremberg
(visit the rock-cut beer cellars beneath the Old Town)
Meeting place: Lobby Grand Hotel, at 15:00
17:1518:00 Guided Tour Medieval City of Nuremberg

19:0022:00 Dinner at Goldenes Posthorn
Program 1920 June 2014

Akingbolahan Adeniran Akingbolahan Adeniran currently serves as the Senior Special Assistant to the
Governor of Lagos State on Legal Matters and advises the Attorney-General of
Lagos State on criminal matters. He is a member of a criminal justice sector reform
committee tasked with the reform of the administration of criminal justice in
the State. He regularly appears with the Attorney-General in high-prole prose-
cutions, including an ongoing prosecution of four suspected terrorists. Previously,
Mr. Akingbolahan worked for about nine years as an investigator and a trial lawyer
at the International Criminal Court in The Hague. He has been a resource person
in training seminars on investigative best practices for law enforcement agencies
in Malawi, Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Kenya and Nigeria. He contributed
the Chapter on Article 54: Duties and Powers of the Prosecutor with Respect to
Investigations to the newly published Code of International Criminal Law and
Procedure. He graduated from the University of Lagos and holds an LL.M. from
Harvard Law School.

David Akerson A law professional and trial attorney with a broad portfolio in human rights and
international criminal law, Professor Akersons work experience includes South
African Lawyers for Human Rights, the United Nations International Criminal
Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal
for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Professor Akerson is currently a faculty member
at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law where he teaches courses
in international criminal law and manages an international criminal law clinic.
He also serves as a Senior Consultant to the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.
Prof. Akerson studied law at the Florida State University and was appointed as a
law clerk to United States Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger
Incident. He served as a staff attorney in South Africa for Lawyers for Human
Rights between 1988-1989. He was the Chief of the Information and Evidence
Section in the Ofce of the Prosecutor in the ICTY in 19992000 and then a trial
attorney in the Ofce of the Prosecutor at the ICTY until 2006. He has been at the
University of Denver since 2007.
His recent publications include The Illegality of Fully Autonomous Lethal Drones
and Prosecuting Mass Crimes: A Compendium of Lessons Learned and Suggested
Practices, which is the result of a three year study of prosecutorial practices at the
International Tribunals for Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, Sierra Leone, Cambodia
and Lebanon. A forthcoming article entitled Applying Jus in Bello Proportionality
to Drone Warfare will be published in the Oregon Review of International Law.

Terry Beitner Terry Beitner is a member of the Quebec Bar and the Law Society of Upper Canada.
Terry Beitner left private practice in 1997 to join the Crimes Against Humanity
and War Crimes Section at the Department of Justice Canada as counsel. In 1998, he
was appointed Deputy Director and became Director and General Counsel in 2000.
His practice is focused on International Criminal Law and Administrative Law.
Terry Beitner delivers annual lectures at the Faculty of Law of the University of
Ottawa on selected international criminal law issues. He is also an instructor for
the University of Ottawa Human Rights Research and Education Centre annual
summer program on International Humanitarian Law.

Serge Brammertz Serge Brammertz is the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the
former Yugoslavia. Prior to his appointment to his current position, Mr. Brammertz
was the Commissioner of United Nations International Independent Investigation
Commission into the murder of the former Prime Minister Rak Hariri, a post he
held from January 2006 until the end of 2007. Previously, he was Deputy Prosecutor
of the International Criminal Court, in charge of the Investigations Division of the
Ofce of the Prosecutor when the investigations of crimes committed in Uganda,
the Democratic Republic of Congo and Darfur were initiated.
Mr.Brammertz was also the head of the Federal Prosecution of the Kingdom of Belgium
where he supervised numerous investigations and trials related to cases of organized
crime, terrorism and violations of international humanitarian law.
From 1997 to 2002, as a national magistrate, Serge Brammertz was in charge of
coordinating at the national and international level investigations in the elds of
international drug trafcking and trafcking of human beings. During this period, he
also worked for the European Commission, the Council of Europe and the International
Organisation for Migration as an expert on these and related issues. Mr. Brammertz
was a professor of law at the University of Lige and an author on organized crime and
international cooperation in criminal matters who has published extensively in Euro-
pean and international academic journals. He holds a law degree from the University
of Louvain-la-Neuve, a degree in Criminology from the University of Lige and a PhD
in international law from the Albert Ludwig University in Freiburg, Germany.

George William Byansi George William Byansi is a principal state attorney from Ugandas International
Crimes Division of the Directorate of Public Prosecutions.
He holds an LLB (Hons) from Makerere University Kampala (1998), a post graduate
Diploma in Legal practice from the Law Development Centre Kampala (2009) and
a post graduate diploma in Project Planning and Management from the Uganda
Management Institute, Kampala (2011).
He has worked with the Directorate of Public Prosecutions (which is the national
prosecuting agency) since June 1999. In his prosecuting career, he has been
posted in different eld ofces at the districts over the years handling all criminal
offences in Ugandas penal legislations. In 2008, when the International crimes
Division of the High court was created, he was reassigned to the division.
He has participated in many workshops, trainings and study tours in the area of
international criminal prosecution both within Uganda and abroad, including in
The Institute of International Criminal Investigations based in The Hague and the
Institute for Security Studies in South Africa.
He has practical experience in the investigation and prosecution of crimes of international
character in Uganda and is part of a team of ve attorneys headed by Ms Joan Kagezi.

Leonardo Augusto Cabana Fonseca Court Prosecutor, Criminal Analysis Division, Ofce of the Attorney General
of Colombia
Aurlia Devos Aurlia Devos is the Public Prosecutor in charge of the specialized unit for inter-
national crimes in Paris, France. After three years as a Public Prosecutor, she worked
as a mutual legal assistance in the ministry of Justice, especially for terrorism and
international crimes. She worked in the team of the foreign affairs minister before
joining the court in Paris in 2010 and is currently preparing the creation of the
specialized unit for international crimes.

Siri Frigaard Siri Frigaard is the chief public prosecutor and director of the Norwegian National
Authority for Prosecution of Organized and Other Serious Crime, the national ofce
which is also responsible for the investigation and prosecution of international
crimes such as war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. Prior to her
current appointment, Siri Frigaard was the deputy director of the National Criminal
Investigation Service in Norway. She has been a public prosecutor since 1985, and
deputy chief prosecutor from 1993 as well as acting chief prosecutor of the regional
prosecution Ofce in Oslo.
From 2002-03, Siri Frigaard was the deputy general prosecutor for serious crimes
committed in East Timor and has also served as a special legal advisor to the general
prosecutor of Albania. She has represented Norway on different committees at the
European Council in Strasbourg and is also a member of the advisory board of the
International Center for Transitional Justice.

Brenda J. Hollis Brenda J. Hollis is the Prosecutor of the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone.
She led the prosecution of the former Liberian President Charles Taylor, who was
sentenced to 50 years in prison for war crimes, crimes against humanity and other
serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in Sierra Leone
during the countrys armed conict.
Prior to her work with the Special Court, Ms.Hollis worked with the Ofce of the
Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia where
she served in various capacities, including as lead counsel. She has consulted on
many matters related to international law, including assisting victims groups from
Columbia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and providing expertise and
training for international courts and tribunals in Indonesia, Iraq and Cambodia.
In 1998, she retired from the United States Air Force with the rank of Colonel.

Kevin C. Hughes Kevin C. Hughes is Legal Advisor to Prosecutor Serge Brammertz of the United Na-
tions International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Most recently, he
served as Senior Legal Ofcer to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra
Leone throughout the appeals proceedings in Prosecutor v. Charles Ghankay Taylor.
He was previously Senior International Legal Ofcer to the War Crimes Chamber
of the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Legal Ofcer to the SCSL Appeals
Chamber and Legal Ofcer in the ICTY Registry. He received his Juris Doctor degree
from Columbia Law School, and following graduation clerked for the Hon. Arthur J.
Gonzalez of the US Federal Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York.

Adeola Ipaye Adeola Ipaye is the Attorney-General and Commissioner for Justice of the Lagos
State in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Adeola Ipaye, who attained his LLB (Hons) and LLM degrees from the University of
Lagos in 1988 and 1991 respectively joined the University as a Faculty Member in
the Department of Commercial and Industrial Law and went on to become a Senior
Lecturer and Sub Dean.
He joined the Lagos state administration as a Special Assistant on Legal Matter in
2001 and became a Special Advisor to the Governor on Taxation and Revenue,
a position he held from 2007 to 2011.

10
Kioko Kamula Kioko Kamula is currently the Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions in Kenya.
Mr. Kamula was admitted to the Kenyan Bar in 1993 and conducted his private
legal practice from 19932002. He later became an assistant trial attorney for the
United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and was subsequently
appointed as the Director of the National Cohesion and Integration Commission.
Mr. Kamula, who has also lectured at the University of Nairobi, School of Law
obtained his LLM from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Ndegwa Muhoro Ndegwa Muhoro is the Director of Criminal Investigations in Kenya since
2010. He holds an MA in International Studies. Ndegwa Muhoro has years
of experience in police training, including research, curriculum development
and evaluation. He served in various police leadership roles and worked
with UN peacekeeping missions abroad, acting as the Deputy Commissioner
of Police of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone. Recently, Ndegwa
Muhoro was instrumental in designing Kenyas police reform policy.

Andreas Mller Andreas Mller was born in Switzerland where he studied law at the University
of Fribourg. He nished his studies with a masters degree in secular and
canon law. Having passed the bar exam he was accredited as advocate and public
notary. After practicing law in various functions on different levels of jurisdiction
and in several member states of Switzerland, he continued his legal career as
Federal Examining Magistrate (Eidgenssischer Untersuchungsrichter/Juge
dinstruction fdral). A change in the judicial system in Switzerland abolished
the state of Examining Magistrates in 2011 and he joined the ranks of the Ofce
of the Attorney General of Switzerland as a Federal Prosecutor. He is a member
of the Swiss war crimes unit (Competency Centre for International Criminal Law)
prosecuting genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Jean Bosco Mutangana Jean Bosco Mutangana is the Head of the International Crimes Unit of the
National Public Prosecution Authority of the Republic of Rwanda.
Mr. Mutangana holds a Bachelors Degree in Law from the National University of
Rwanda and a Masters Degree from the University of Groningen in the Nether-
lands. Having worked in various prosecution ofces in Rwanda, he became a
national prosecutor in 2004.
Mr. Mutangana was the head of Genocide Fugitives Tracking Unit (GFTU) from
2008 to 2011 and in this position, he coordinated international co-operation with
the INTERPOL Secretariat in Lyon and the Rwandan National Police to carry out
investigations to fulll the objectives of the GFTU.

Lillian Akinyi Okumu Obuo Lillian Obuo is a Senior Principal Prosecution Counsel in the Ofce of the
Directorate of Public Prosecutions- Kenya. She has been a prosecutor for 13 years.
Currently she heads the International Crimes Division and also serves as a deputy
in Extradition, MLA and International Cooperation Division. She acted as the
deputy director of Witness Protection Agency from May, 2011 to March, 2012.
In this position, she was instrumental to the amendment of Witness Protection
Act, 2006 which established an independent agency. She also participated in the
operationalization of the Witness Protection Agency.
11
Max du Plessis Max du Plessis is an associate professor of law at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a
senior research associate at the International Crime in Africa Programme at
the Institute for Security Studies.
In addition to his academic and research work, Mr. du Plessis is a practicing barrister in South
Africa with expertise in international and constitutional law. He has appeared in numerous
cases in the South African Constitutional Court, represented Professor Kenneth Good (who
was expelled from Botswana for criticizing the President) before the African Commission
on Human and Peoples Rights, and has represented NGOs in South Africa in utilizing South
Africas Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act in
pursuing cases against individuals accused of international crimes in Zimbabwe and Gaza.
Most recently he successfully represented the applicants in a High Court review of the South
African Prosecuting and Police ofcials failure to investigate torture as a crime against
humanity in Zimbabwe, a case brought under South Africas ICC implementation legislation.
He has written widely in the eld of international and international criminal law and
spent a month in the International Criminal Court in 2007 as a visiting expert.
He holds the degrees: B.Iuris (University of South Africa), LL.B (University of Natal), LL.M
(Cambridge University), PhD (University of KwaZulu-Natal).

Matev Pezdirc Matev Pezdirc is the Head of the Secretariat to the European Network of contact points
for the investigation and prosecution of genocide, crimes against humanity and war
crimes and since July 2011, has been with Eurojust. Before this time, Mr Pezdirc was the
Head of the Criminal Law Unit at the Department for International Cooperation and
International Legal Assistance of the Ministry of Justice in Slovenia.
Prior to this, he held other positions within the Ministry, served as a Counsellor for
Justice and Home Affairs at the Slovenian Permanent Representation in Brussels, worked
with the High Court in Ljubljana, with the Constitutional Court of the Republic of
Slovenia, and with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in
The Hague. He holds a Masters Degree in Public International Law, with International
Criminal Law Specialization, from Leiden University.

Stephen J. Rapp Stephen J. Rapp of Iowa is Ambassador-at-Large, heading the Ofce of Global Criminal Justice
in the U.S. Department of State. He was appointed by President Obama, conrmed by the
Senate, and assumed his duties on September 8, 2009. Prior to his appointment, Ambassador
Rapp served as Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone beginning in January 2007,
responsible for leading the prosecutions of former Liberian President Charles Taylor and
other persons alleged to bear the greatest responsibility for the atrocities committed during
the civil war in Sierra Leone. During his tenure in Sierra Leone, his ofce won the rst con-
victions in history for recruitment and use of child soldiers and for sexual slavery and forced
marriage as crimes under international humanitarian law. From 2001 to 2007, Mr. Rapp served
as Senior Trial Attorney and Chief of Prosecutions at the International Criminal Tribunal
for Rwanda, personally heading the trial team that achieved convictions of the principals of
RTLM radio and Kangura newspaper the rst in history for leaders of the mass media for
the crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide.
Mr. Rapp was United States Attorney in the Northern District of Iowa from 1993 to 2001,
where his ofce won historic convictions under the rearms provision of the Violence
Against Women Act and the serious violent offender provision of the 1994 Crime Act. Prior
to his tenure as U.S. Attorney, he worked as an attorney in private practice and served as
Staff Director of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency and as an
elected member of the Iowa Legislature.
12
Christian Ritscher Christian Ritscher is a Senior Federal Prosecutor and the acting head of the
War Crimes Unit of the Federal Court of Justice in Germany. He has studied law
in both Munich and Passau, and served from 19921996 as judge and prosecutor
in Aschaffenburg. From 19962000 he was employed by the ofce of the Attorney
General of Germany.From 20002002 Ritscher once again acted as Judge at the
Regional Court of Munich and since 2002 has become involved in the Federal
Attorney Generals procedure regarding terrorism and espionage. Since 2007 he
has been working on matters relating to international criminal law at the federal
level and has been serving as a senior prosecutor in the ofce of the Federal
Attorney General in Karlsruhe, Germany.
Elena Martin Salgado, Elena Martin Salgado is a Spanish lawyer who is currently the Legal Ofcer
of the Ofce of the Prosecutor (The Hague Branch) of the Mechanism for Inter-
national Criminal Tribunals. She previously worked for 12 years at the Inter-
national Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), including as Appeals
Counsel in the Ofce of the Prosecutor, where she was involved in prosecuting
sexual violence and in documenting the ICTYs legacy in this area. She has
also worked as a Legal Ofcer in the Chambers of the ICTY, briey at the Ofce
of the Prosecutor of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and the Chambers of
the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and as a researcher in Kings College London
and the University of Durham (UK). She has written on international criminal
law and on human rights law for academic journals and has co-authored a
book-chapter focusing on the future challenges to prosecuting sexual violence
under international law.

Michel De Smedt Michel De Smedt is the Director of Investigation Division at the Ofce of the
Prosecutor in the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Prior to his work at the ICC, his career started as a commissioned ofcer of the
Belgian Gendarmerie in the eld of public order maintenance. He then became
an ofcer at judicial sub-directorate at headquarters of the Gendarmerie.
Subsequently he became the head of strategic planning and audit where he
developed strategies for the Belgian Gendarmerie as a whole and particularly
in relation to serious and organized crimes. In parallel, Mr. De Smedt was also
the project manager for Belgium for the police reform in South Africa between
1994 and 2001.
He moved on to become a partner in consulting rm for three years where he
purely focused on public sector reform.
He joined the ICC in 2004 as the Head of the Analysis Section and subsequently
became the Director of Investigation Division.
Mr. De Smedt holds a Master Degree in Criminology; a second Master Degree
in Business Administration. He attended Military Ofcers Training and Junior
and Senior Police Ofcers Training at the Belgian Gendarmerie.
13
Legal Ofcer, OTP-MICT
(The Hague Branch)
Vusi Pikoli Vusi Pikoli is currently the commissioner of the Khayelitsha Commission in South
Africa and was formerly the countrys National Director of Public Prosecutions.
Mr. Pikoli holds a law degree from the National University of Lesotho and a Masters
degree from the University of Zimbabwe.
After starting his career as a legal advisor for the African National Congress in
Zimbabwe, he became a Special Advisor to the South African Ministry of Justice
in 1994. In this position, he led a delegation to Chile to study from the experience
of the Chilean Truth Commission.
In 1997, he was chosen to be the Deputy Director-General of the Department
of Justice and Constitutional Development and was appointed the Director-
General of the department in 1999. Mr. Pikoli became the National Director of
Public Prosecutions in 2005 and held that position until 2007. He is a member
of the Foundation for Human Rights and is also a trustee of the Equal Education
Law Centre Trust.

Christoph Safferling Christoph Safferling (Dr. jur., LL.M.) is Professor for Criminal Law, Criminal Law
Procedure, International Criminal Law and Public International Law at the Univer-
sity of Marburg, Germany. He is also the co-director of the International Research
and Documentation Center for War Crimes Trials, and the Whitney R. Harris
International Law Fellow of the Jackson Center. Since 2012, he is a member of the
independent commission of scientists to reappraise the Nazi-history of the
German Federal Ministry of Justice.
His main elds of research are: international criminal procedural law and the
subjective elements of the crime. Alongside several articles in the eld of criminal
law, international law and human rights law he has published International
Criminal Procedure (Oxford University Press, 2012), The Nuremberg Trials: Inter-
national Criminal Law since 1945 (Saur 2006, Vorsatz und Schuld (Mohr Siebeck,
2008 and Internationales Strafrecht (Springer 2011). Mr. Safferling is co-editor
of the German Law Journal and the Revista Internationale di Drotto Penale.
He studied Law in Munich and London and received his doctoral degree at the
University of Munich in 1999.

1
International Nuremberg Principles Academy
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Email foundingofce@stadt.nuernberg.de
www.international-nuremberg-principles-academy.de

Michaela Lissowsky
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Bettina Ambach
Phone + 17 01 20
Founding Ofce







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