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WINEDEFINITION____________________________________Wine is a kind of
fermented alcoholic beverage. It can be defined as an alcoholicbeverage obtained from the
fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes.The fermentation takes place in the district of
origin, according to local traditionsand practice.CLASSIFICATION OF WINE
TYPES_________________ WINES (Characteristic/Nature) TABLE
SPARKLING FORTIFIED VIN DOUX ORGANIC AROMATIZED TONIC WINES WINES
WINES NATURAL WINES WINES WINES (Colour) Body (Degree of
Sweetness) (Alcoholic Content) RED PINK WHITE DRY MEDIUM
MEDIUM SWEET DRY SWEET LIGHT MEDIUM HEAVY LOW DE- NO
BODIED BODIED BODIED ALCOHOL ALCOHOLISED ALCOHOLNATURE AND
CHARACTERISTICSWines are classified in many ways. But most importantly, they are
classified all over theworld by its nature or characteristics. By its nature or characteristics, wines
areclassified into: 1
2. (i) Table Wines: Table wines are also called Still Wines and form the largest category.These
are natural wines and are the result of fermentation of grape juice with little or noaddition of
other substances. These are made without any diversions from naturalprocesses. These wines
may be red, pink or white in colour. Their alcoholic contentvaries between 8 15% by volume,
more usually between 10 13% by volume. Forexample: Medoc, Beaujolais, Hock, Moselle,
Alsace etc(ii) Sparkling Wines: Wines that have a sparkle or effervescence in them are
calledsparkling wines. This effervescence is caused by carbon dioxide (CO 2) gas;
producedduring (second) fermentation, which is trapped and not allowed to escape or
injectedartificially. These wines are usually white or pink in colour, but reds are also
available.For example: Champagne, Marquis de Pompadour etc(iii) Fortified Wines: Table wines
that are strengthened by the addition of alcohol,usually a grape spirit (brandy) are called fortified
wines. Brandy may be added duringfermentation as in Port wine or after fermentation as in
Sherry. These wines are usuallyred or white in colour. These wines are now known as Liqueur
wines or vins de liqueur.Their alcoholic strength varies between 16 22%, by volume. Example:
Port, Sherry,Madeira, Marsala, Malaga etc.(iv) Vin doux Naturel: Vin doux Naturels are sweet
wines that have had theirfermentation muted by the addition of alcohol in order to retain their
natural sweetness.Muting takes place when the alcohol level reaches between 5 % and 8% by
volume.These wines have a final alcoholic strength of 17% by volume.(v) Organic Wines:
Organic wines are also called Green or Environment friendlywines. These wines are made
from grapes grown without the aid of artificialinsecticides, pesticides or fertilizers. These wines
are not adulterated in any way, savefor minimal amounts of Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2) - the
traditional preservative, which iscontrolled at source. For example: Vinho Verde of Portugal.(vi)
Aromatized wines: Wines that are flavoured and fortified are called Aromatizedwines.
Sweetening agent may or may not be added. Examples are Vermouth,Commandaria, Dubonnet,
Punt e Mes etc.(vii) Tonic Wines: Table wines, which have had vitamins and/or health
improversadded to them are called Tonic wines. For example: Wincarnis contains beef
extract.COLOURAll the wines mentioned above can also be classified on the basis of their
colour intoRed, Pink or white. 2
3. (i) Red wines: Red wines are made from black grapes. These wines are fermented incontact
with grape skins from which the wine gets its colour. The grape juice (must)remains with the
skins from 10 to 30 days to extract colour and tannin. The lighter thecolour required, the less
time it spends with the skins. Normally these are dry wines.(ii) White wines: White wines are
usually made from white grapes, but can be madefrom black grapes as well. Here, the grape juice
(must) is usually fermented away fromthe skin but this is not necessary in case of white grapes.
Speed is required to seperatethe must from the skin in case of black grape, otherwise dyes would
liberate into themust. Normally these wines are dry to very sweet.(iii) Pink wines: Also known as
Ros wines, these can be made in three ways fromred grapes fermented on the skins for upto
48 hours; by mixing red and white winestogether or by pressing grapes so that some colour is
extracted. It may be dry or semi-sweet. These are called Blush wines in USA when made wholly
from red grapes.ALCOHOL CONTENTAll the wines can be classified on the basis of alcohol
content (which is reduced) intofour main types:(i) Low alcohol wines (LABs): These wines
contain a maximum of 1.2% alcohol.(ii) De-alcoholised wines (DABs): These wines contain a
maximum of 0.5% alcohol.(iii) Alcohol free or No alcohol wines (NABs): These wines contain a
maximum of0.05% alcohol.(iv) Reduced alcohol wines (RABs): These wines contain a
maximum of 5.5%alcohol.These wines are made in the normal way and then the alcohol is
removed by one of thefollowing two methods:(a) The hot treatment: This treatment uses the
distillation process. It removes most ofthe flavour as well.(b) The cold treatment: This treatment
uses reverse osmosis or fine filtration process.This removes the alcohol by mechanically
separating or filtering out the molecules ofalcohol and water through membranes made of
cellulose or acetate, leaving behind asyrupy wine concentrate. Then, a little water and must is
added to preserve much of theflavour of the original wine. 3
4. DEGREE OF SWEETNESSWines can also be classified on the basis of degree of
sweetness in them. Generally,White wines are classified on the degree of sweetness. The degree
of sweetness on ascale ranges from Brut (Very dry) to Doux (sweet) with extra sec (dry), sec
(mediumdry), demi-sec (medium sweet) between them.(i) Dry wines: It results when the yeast
consumes all the sugar during fermentation,and none has been added. Such wines will be totally
lacking in sweetness and hencecalled dry.(ii) Sweet wines: It results when sugar remains in the
wine after the yeast has diedduring fermentation or extra sugar has been added.BODY OF
WINEWines are also classified on the basis of its body. Body is the feel of the wine in themouth;
coming from the amount of alcohol, sugar, glycerine (a soluble substanceformed during
fermentation) and extracts from the grapes, such as tannin. Thus, body isalso the weight of wine
felt in the mouth i.e. higher the density or speciic gravity higheris the body and vice-versa. The
body of wine ranges from full bodied wine to lightbodied wine with medium bodied wine in
between them. Generally, Red wines areclassified depending upon body.(i) Light bodied wine: A
light bodied wine is usually referred to as light wine; it is low inone or more of the body
components.(ii) Full bodied wine: A full-bodied wine is typically high in body components. It
clingsto the side of the glass if swished around. When a full-bodied wine is tasted, the mouthis
filled in a sensuous way.FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF WINE_1.
CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE & BIO-CLIMATEClimate: The grapes will provide juice of the
quality necessary for conversion into a drinkable wine where two climatic conditions prevail: 4
Enough sun to ripen the grape and5. The winter is moderate, yet cool enough to give the
vine a chance to rest and restore its strength for the growing and fruiting seasonThis shows that
the grapes and hence the vine needs a good balance of heat, cold andmoisture. Temperature
should average 14 - 16C. The lowest annual averagetemperature necessary for the vine to
flourish is 10C. It is estimated that the vineneeds about 27 inches of rain per year mainly in
winter and spring and atleast 1400hours of sunshine.Micro-climate: A particular beneficial
weather pattern prevailing in a single vineyard ora group of vineyards or within a small region is
called a micro-climate. It could be hills ormountains protecting the vines from heavy winds, or
even a break in the mountainrange allowing the air to freshen and fan the vines in very hot
weather. It could be theangle of the sun, especially the clear brilliant morning sun that strikes one
vineyard morefavourably than another. The rise and fall of the terrain also has an effect, as also
thelocation besides water body for ground moisture and reflected heat. These subtledifferences in
atmospheric conditions, combined with the quality of the soil and the grapevariety used, are the
reasons why some vineyards have such outstanding reputations.Bio-climate: The relationship of
soil and climate in a specific vineyard is called its bio-climate. Knowledge about bio-climate is
used to obtain stable yields of high-qualitygrapes.2. ASPECTVineyards are ideally planted on
south-facing slopes (particularly in the northernhemisphere) where they point the sun and benefit
from maximum sunshine and gooddrainage. Siting is of prime importance to capture the sunlight
for photosynthesis andgood ripening. Some vineyards are sited at a height of 243 m or more
onmountainsides, while many of the great vineyards are located in river valleys and
alonglakesides benefitting from humidity and reflected heat.3. NATURE OF THE SOIL AND
SUBSOILVineyards thrive where other crops struggle. Poor soils rich in minerals are best for
thevine as they provide nutrients such as phosphate, iron, potassium, magnesium andcalcium.
These minerals and nutrients contribute to the final taste of the wine. Favouredsoils are chalk,
limestone, slate, sand, schist, gravel, pebbles, clay, alluvial andvolcanic. These soils have a good
drainage and moisture retention capability to keep 5
6. the vine roots healthy. Soil is analysed annually and any chemical deficiency iscompensated
for. Drainage is very important, as the vine does not like having wet feet.4. VINE FAMILY,
COMPOSITION OF VINE AND GRAPESPECIESVine: The plant, which bears the grape, is
called a Vine. The vine belongs to theAmpelidaceae family. This family has around 10 genera
but only genus Vitis isimportant for making wines. This genus has a subgenus known as Euvites
and thissubgenus has around 60 species. Some of these species are Vinifera, Labbrusca,Riparia,
Rupestris, Berlandieri etc. Thus, there are five family of species: Vitis Vinifera,Vitis Lambrusca,
Vitis Riparia, Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Berlandieri whose noblegrapes can be used for producing
classic wines. The plant Vitis Viniffera producesgrapes, which are used for the production of
best quality wines throughout the world,with few exceptions. These are in the east coast of
America and Canada where otherspecies are cultivated because they are more suited to the
terrain and climaticconditions. Thus, Vine family is one of the important factors that influence
the quality ofwine.Composition of vine: The vine consists of: Roots: These are for anchorage
and forabsorbing nutrients and moisture from the earth. The root system is large and can reachto
a depth of about 12 metres. Leaves: When sunlight falls on leaves that havechlorophyll, carbon
dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere and combines with water,absorbed through roots, to
make sugar. The sap stores this sugar within the grape.Leaves also shade the grapes in very hot
climate. Flowers: Vine flowers are very smalland self-pollinate between May to June in the
northern hemisphere and from Novemberto December in the southern hemisphere. Flowering
lasts for about ten days. If frostarrives during the flowering, unprotected vines will not bear
grapes. Grapes: Afterpollination, grapes are formed which are small, hard and green initially but
swell out andchange colour as they ripen in August and September. They are usually fully ripe
100days after flowering. A ton of grapes produces 675 litres, equivalent to 960 bottles
ofwine.Grape: The grape must be in harmony with the soil, the location of the vineyard andlocal
climatic conditions. It should be disease resistant, give a good yield and producethe best quality
wine possible. Wine is produced from either varietal grapes, which is aclassic single grape like
Riesling or from hybrids, which are a cross such as Riesling XSilvaner = Miiller -Thurgau.
Grapes behave differently in different soils. Hence, Pinot Noiris a classic in Burgundy and a
disaster in Bordeaux. 6
7. 5. VITICULTUREViticulture denotes the method of cultivation of vine. An overworked
vineyard withoutcompensatory treatment or a neglected vineyard will only produce second-rate
wine, sothe farming of the vineyard is of great importance. It involves: Vine selection;
keeping the vineyard healthy; ploughing to aerate the soil; weeding; fertilising; pruning
to regulate quality; training the vines; spraying to combat diseases; harvesting.6.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GRAPEThe grape is made up of stalk, skin, pips and pulp and
its respective roles are asfollows:Stalk: The stalk imparts tannic acid to wine. It is mostly used in
the making of big,flavoursome heavy bodied red wine and is not used when making white and
lightbodied wines. Tannin acts as a preservative and antioxidant. If over-used, it makesthe wine
astringent and nasty. It is recognized on the palate by its tongue-furringproperties.Skin: The
outer skin or cuticle has a whitish cloudy coat called bloom. This waxysubstance contains wild
yeasts and wine yeasts, which contribute to the fermentationprocess. It also contains other
microorganisms such as bacteria acetobacter that is apotential danger to wine. If uncontrolled, it
turns wine into vinegar. The inside of the skinimparts colour that is extracted during
fermentation.Pips: Crushed pips impart tannic acid, oils and water. They do not contribute
tovinification, if left uncrushed.Pulp: The flesh of the grape provides the juice called must, which
is essential forfermentation. The must contains 78-80% water; 10-25% sugar and 5-6% acids.
Watermakes up the bulk. Sugar is formed in the grape by sunlight and is of two kinds:
grapesugar (dextrose and glucose) and fruit juice (levulose and fructose). They are found in 7
8. about equal quantities. Tartaric, malic, tannic and citric acids in the must help topreserve
and keep the wine fresh and brilliant. It gives it a proper balance. Esters areformed when the
acids come in contact with alcohol and it gives the wine its aroma orbouquet. The must
(unfermented grape juice) also has trace elements of nitrogeneouscompounds such as albumen,
peptones, amides, ammonium salts and nitrates, as wellas potassium, phosphoric acid and
calcium, all of which have an influence on theeventual taste of the wine.7. YEAST AND
FERMENTATIONThere are two mam categories of yeast:NATURAL YEASTSThe natural
yeasts, moulds and bacteria that hover and float in the air, eventually setonto ripe grapes. Many
insects including the fruit fly drosophila help in this process ofsettling down of natural yeasts. It
is known that a single grape before fermentation willharbour on its skin (cuticle) 1,00,000 wine
yeasts; 1,00,000 moulds and up to ten millionwild yeast. They adhere to the pruina a waxy
substance formed on the grape skin. Thisdull whitish haze of yeasts and microorganisms is
known as bloom is wine language. 8
9. CULTURED YEASTSThese are pedigree strains of natural yeasts cultivated in a
laboratory. They are efficienctin converting sugar into alcohol as compared to natural yeasts and
are less susceptible tosulphur in the fermenting process. Sometimes, they are selected to do a
specific job orare used in situations where natural yeasts have been washed away by heavy rain
orwhen some of the yeasts have been brushed off in transit. There are up to a thousandvarieties
of cultured yeast, but the name is normally associated with a type of unicellularfungi called
Saccharomyces. Two varieties of Sacharomyces are important in producingalcohol in wines:(i)
Saccbaromyces apiculatus: These are also called wild yeasts or starteryeasts. These yeasts start
the fermentation, but they are feeble fermenters and arekilled when the alcohol concentration
reaches 4% by volume. The wine yeasts takeover the fermentation after this stage. Normally,
wild yeasts are aerobic i.e they workonly in the presence of oxygen and hence there is always a
risk of acetification. Theyimpart an off-flavour and delay the action of the true wine yeasts. As
they have onlylimited tolerance to sulphur dioxide (SO2), a strictly controlled quantity of SO2 is
addedto the grape juice before fermentation. In modern wine-making they are usuallydispensed
with.(ii) Saccharomyces ellipsoideus: This is the true wine yeast. It is much moretolerant to SO2
and is also anaerobic i.e it is able to work in the absence of oxygen.There are many varieties of
the species, each suited to its native wine district or region.Most wine regions have yeasts that
cling to each other and the fermenting vessel, andthis clinging property assists the wine-maker to
clear the wine and make it star bright.Champagne yeasts, on the other hand, do not cling to each
other or the containingvessel, which facilitates the operation known as remuage prior to
disgorging theexhausted yeast to clear the wine. Depending on the amount of sugar in the
grapejuice, wine yeasts are rapid workers fermenting quickly up to 13% alcohol and thenmore
slowly up to 16% alcohol. At that concentration, they are destroyed by the veryalcohol they have
worked so hard to produce. Thus, types of yeast used duringfermentation affects the quality of
wine
.8. VINIFICATIONVinification encompasses the methods of making wine. This includes: the
pressing of the grapes; the treatment and fermentation of the must; ageing & maturing the
wine and occasionally topping it up to keep the air out; 9
racking, fining and filtration to10. make the wine star bright: Racking is running the clear
wine off its lees or sediment from one cask to another. Fining is further clarification of wine
usually before bottling. A fining agent such as isinglass, bentonite clay etc is added and this
attracts the sediment suspended in the wine, causing it to coagulate and fall to the bottom of the
container. Filtration is the final clarification before bottling. It removes any remaining suspended
matter and leaves the wine healthy and star bright in appearance. blending - compensatory or
otherwise; bottling for further maturing or for sale.
9. LUCK OF THE YEARIn some years, everything in the vineyards and cellars go well,
combining to producea wine of excellence - a vintage wine. In other years, there can be
greatdisappointments brought on by an excess of sun, rain, snow, frost and the dreadedhail,
which will produce either poor or worse wines. So, the wine-grower can neverbe confident, but
must always be vigilant.
10. METHOD OF SHIPPING AND TRANSPORTATIONWell, if the wine is not correctly
balanced i.e if it is too much acidic and less inalcoholic content then it would deteriorate during
transportation. Also, if duringtransportation and shipping it is mishandled or exposed to extremes
of temperaturesit gets roughed up and deteriorates. Problems also arise if the wine is too young
ortoo old when shipped. Hence, now a days mostly all wines travel in refrigerated tanksor bottles
which are transported by rail, tankers or ships at appropriate temperatures.In all cases, wine
should be given an acclimatizing or resting period before beingoffered for sale.11. STORAGE
AND STORAGE TEMPERATURESWines are stored in attractive humidity and temperature-
controlled cabinets that areavailable readily. The wines should be located away from excessive
heat: hot waterpipes, a heating plant or any hot unit such as a freezer! Heat does far more
damage towine than cold.Ideally, wine should be stored in an underground cellar that has a
northerly aspect andis free from vibrations, excessive dampness, draughts and unwanted odours.
The cellarshould be absolutely clean, well ventilated, with only subdued lighting and a constant
10
11. cool temperature of 12.5C (55F) to help the wine develop gradually. Highertemperatures
bring wines to maturity more quickly, which is not preferable.Table wines should be stored on
their sides in bins so that the wine remains in contactwith the cork. This keeps the cork expanded
and prevents air from entering the wine - adisaster that would quickly turn wine to vinegar.
White, sparkling and rose wines arekept in the coolest part of the cellar and in bins nearest the
ground (because warm airrises). Red wines are best stored in the upper bins. Commercial
establishments usuallyhave special refrigerators or cooling cabinets for keeping their sparkling,
white and rosewines at serving temperature. These may be stationed in the dispense bar - a
barlocated between the cellar and the restaurant - to facilitate prompt service.

FAULTS IN WINE________________________________Faults or sickness occasionally
develop in the living wines as they mature in bottles.Sometimes, these faults are very obvious
and at other times there is just a hint orsuspicion of it. But, now a days with improved techniques
and attention being paid tobottling and storage, faults in wine are a rarity. Some of the faults in
wine are as follows:(i) Corked wines: These are wines affected by a diseased cork caused
through bacterialaction or excessive bottle age. The wine tastes and smells foul. It is not the
harmless corkresidue that falls in wine while opening a bottle.(ii) Maderization or oxidation: Due
to bad storage the cork of the wine bottle dries out. Asa result, the wine becomes too much
exposed to air and colour of the wine darkens orbecomes brown and the tastes spoilt. The taste
slightly resembles Madeira, hence thename.(iii) Acetification: This is caused when the wine is
overexposed to air. The vinegar microbe(acetobacters) develops a film on the surface of the
wine, which produces acetic acid. Thewine tastes sour, resembling wine vinegar (vin aigre = sour
wine).(iv) Tartare flake: This is the crystallization of potassium bitartrate at very
coldtemperatures. These crystal-like flakes; soluble in water but not in alcohol, are
sometimesseen in white wine spoiling the appearance of the wine, which is otherwise perfect to
drink.If the wine is stabilized before bottling, this condition will not occur.(v) Excess sulphur
dioxide (S02): Sulphur dioxide is added to wine to preserve and keepit healthy. Once the bottle is
opened, the stink disappears and, after a few minutes, thewine is perfectly drinkable.(vi)
Secondary fermentation: This happens when traces of sugar and yeast are left in winein bottle. It
leaves the wine with an unpleasant, prickly taste. It is ofcourse not the petillant,spritzig
characteristics associated with other styles of healthy and refreshing wines. 11
12. (vii) Foreign contamination: This may be caused when wine has been put into
previouslyused bottles that have not been hygienically cleaned or sterilized. Faulty
bottlingmachinery may also cause glass to splinter and get into the wine. Wines may also
beadversely affected if they are stored in a badly kept cellar at incorrect temperatures orstored
next to strong odours such as petrol, vinegar or fish.(viii) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S): The wine
tastes and smells of rotten eggs. Discard itimmediately.(ix) Sediment, lees, crust or dregs:
Organic matter discarded by the wine as it maturesin cask or bottle is called sediment, lees, crust
or dregs. It is removed by racking, fining orin the case of bottled wine, by decanting.(x)
Cloudiness: It is caused by suspended matter in the wine, disguising its true colour. Itmay be due
to extremes in storage temperatures.(xi) Weeping: This is the seeping of wine from the cork. It is
caused when a small corkis used or faulty cork is used or when a secondary fermentation pushes
the cork used.(xii) Wine that does not travel: This was very common in olden days. It is
becauseeither the wine is not correctly balanced or the wine might have been roughed upbecause
of bad handling or might have undergone too many extremes of temperatureon the journey. Now
a days all wines travel happily in refrigerated tanks. Problems doarise when the wine is too
young or too old when shipped. Wines should generally begiven an acclimatizing or resting
period before being offered for sale.

ENEMIES OF VINE_______________________________(i) Oidium Tuckerii: It is a powdery
mildew that covers the grapes consequentlysplitting and rotting them. This is avoided by treating
the vines with sulphur spray beforeand after blossoming. (ii) Phylloxera Vastatrix: It is a louse-
like, almost invisible aphid that attacks the roots of the vine vitis vinifera as it is not resistant to
it. It arrived in Europe in the mid 1800s by accident, transported on American vines imported
into various European countries from the eastern states of America. It ravaged many of the
vineyards of Europe at that time. The cure that was found was to graft the European vine (vitis
vinifera) scion (shoot cut for grafting) to resistant American root stocks (vitis rupestris). This
practise became standard throughout the world wherever Vitis vinifera is grown. However, there
are some pockets of vineyards resistant to Phyloxera either due to geographical isolation or that
the vines are planted on sandy soil that the louse finds impossible to penetrate. 12
13. (iii) Grey Root Or Pourriture Gris : In warm damp weather, this fungus attacks the
leavesand fruit of the vine. It is recognized by a grey mould. As a result of this fungus,
anunpleasant flavour is imparted to the wine. To avoid this, anti-rot sprays are used.(iv) Noble
Rot Or Pourriture Noble (Botrytis Cinerea): This is the same fungus in itsbeneficent form, which
may occur when humid conditions are followed by hot weather. Thefungus punctures the grape
skin, the water content evaporates and the grape shrivels,thus concentrating the sugar inside. This
process gives the luscious flavours characteristicof Sauterness, German Trockenbeerenauslese
and Hungarian Tokay Aszu.(v) Coulure: This happens when there is a soil deficiency or too
much rain or uneventemperature. The flowers on the vine are infertile, resulting in a dis-
appointing yield ofgrapes. This condition of berries not developing is known as millerandage. To
avoid thiscondition treat the soil with good fertilizers.(vi) Chlorosis: Too much limestone in the
soil causes yellowing and even death of theplant. This is called chlorosis. It can remedied by
treating the soil with iron sulphate.(vii) Pyralis, Endemis and Cochylis: These are tiny butterfly
moths (pests) that piercethe grapes and destroy the crops within hours. To avoid this happening,
sprayinsecticides.(viii) Frost: Frost (especially during spring), stunts the formation of the buds
that greatlyreduces the yield. Treatment: fire heat, spraying with water.(ix) Hail: Hail is a danger,
especially just before the vintage when the grape skins arevery thin and vulnerable. In this
condition, it can easily puncture the skin and ruin thecrop. Prayer that it doesnt happen is only
the remedy.WINE LABEL INFORMATION______________________The European
Community has strict regulations that govern what is printed on a bottlelabel. These regulations
also apply to wine entering EC. A lot of useful information isgiven on the label of a wine-bottle.
The language used will normally be that of thecountry of origin, the wine belongs to. The
information includes: (i) The country where the wine was made, (ii) Alcoholic strength in
percentage by volume (% vol), (iii) Contents in litres, cl, or ml, (iv) Name and address or
trademark of supplier 13
14. It may also include: (v) The year the grapes were harvested, called the vintage, (vi) The
region where the wine was made, (vii) The quality category of the wine, (viii) Details of
bottlerHOW WINES ARE NAMED________________________Every wine label carries a
name to identify the product inside the bottle. These winesare generally named in four ways: (i)
by the predominant variety of grapes used(varietal); (ii) by broad general type (generic); (iii) by
brand name; and (iv) by theplace of origin.(i) Varietal Names: Here, the name of the single
grape, which predominates, isthe name of the wine. This grape gives the wine its predominant
flavour andaroma. E.g. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, and Zinfandel.Within
the European Economic Community at least 85% of varietal wine mustcome from the grape
named and some countries like France have raised thisrequirement to 100%.The names of
varietal wines once learned are quickly recognized and thebetter-known varietals almost sell
themselves. Varietals range in price frommoderate to high, depending to some extent on the wine
quality. Taste thembefore buying, because they vary greatly from one producer to another and
onevintage to another (This is true of all wines). The name and fame of the grapealone do not
guarantee the quality of the wine. 14
15. (ii) Generic Names: These wines are of a general style or type, such asBurgundy or
Chablis. Their names are borrowed from European wines thatcome from well-known wine
districts. But in reality, their resemblance to theseEuropean wines is slight to nonexistent and the
name does not indicate thetrue character or quality of wine. Law requires all generics to include
the placeof origin on the label (such as California, Washington State, Napa Valley etc).This
distinguishes them clearly from the European wines whose names theyhave borrowed.The best
of the generics are pleasant, uncomplicated, affordable wines that areoften served as house
wines. Generics frequently come in large-size bottles (1-4 litres) and are sometimes called jug
wines. Nowadays these wines oftencome in bag-in-a-box form, in which a sturdy cardboard box
contains a plasticbag holding 10 to 15 gallons of wine. The wine is drawn off through a spigot
inthe side of the box, and the bag shrinks as wine is withdrawn, so the wineremaining in the bag
is unspoiled by contact with air.Generics are not so popular today because of mass awareness
and wineries havebegun to use the names Red Table Wines and White Table Wines instead of
the oldgeneric names.(iii) Brand Names: A brand name (also called a proprietary name or a
monopole inFrance) is one belonging exclusively to a vineyard or a shipper who produces
and/orbottles the wine and takes responsibility for its quality. It may be anything from
aninexpensive blend to a very fine wine with a prestigious pedigree.A brand name distinguishes
a wine from others of the same class or type. Brand namesare also used deliberately for high-
quality wines that do not meet the 75 percent varietalrequirement because better wine with more
skillful blending of the dominant grape withothers can be made. Examples of these are Reviera,
Bosca etc.A brand name alone does not tell anything about the wine. The reputation of
theproducer and the taste of the wine are better keys to choice.(iv) Place-of-Origin Names: II is
more common to use a place of origin as a name onthe label. The place of origin is usually a
rigidly delimited and controlled area thatproduces superior wines of a certain character deriving
from its special soil, climate,grapes, and production methods. Wines from such an area must
meet stringentgovernment regulations and standards in order to use the name. The defined area
maybe large (a district, a region) or small (a commune, a parish, a village, a vineyard).Generally,
the smaller the subdivision - the more rigorous the standards and the morefamous the
wine.Along with the area name on the label is a phrase meaning "controlled name oforigin"
Appellation Controlee in France, Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOCfor short) in Italy.
Other countries have similar requirements for using the name of adelimited area. Generally a
wine from a controlled area has a certain claim to quality,and the best wine-growing areas have
the best claim. But the name is not a guarantee,and all wines from the same area are not the
same. 15