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Juan Carlos
King of Spain (more)
Reign 22 November 1975 19 June
Enthronement 27 November 1975
Predecessor Alfonso XIII (as king)
Alejandro Rodrguez de Valcrcel
(Acting Head of State)
Successor Felipe VI
Prime Ministers
Spouse Sophia of Greece and Denmark
Elena, Duchess of Lugo
Cristina, Duchess of Palma de
Felipe VI of Spain
Full name
Juan Carlos Alfonso Vctor Mara de Borbn y
Borbn-Dos Sicilias
House of Bourbon
Father Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona
Mother Princess Mara de las Mercedes
of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Born 5 January 1938
Juan Carlos I of Spain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Juan Carlos (Spanish pronunciation: [xwankarlos];
Carlos Alfonso Vctor Mara de Borbn y Borbn-Dos
Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain
from 22 November 1975 to 19 June 2014, when he
abdicated in favour of his son, Felipe VI.
Dictator Francisco Franco took over the government of
Spain from the short-lived Second Spanish Republic by
force in 1939, and ruled as "Regent to the [exiled] King of
Spain". In 1969 he nominated Juan Carlos, grandson of
King Alfonso XIII, to be the next head of state,
passing his father, and expecting him to continue his own
authoritarian regime. Juan Carlos became King on 22
November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first
reigning monarch since 1931. Soon after enthronement, Juan
Carlos introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime
and begin the Spanish transition to democracy. This led to
the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a
referendum, which established a constitutional monarchy.
Juan Carlos also played a major role in 1981 in preventing a
coup which attempted to revert to Francoist government in
the King's name.
During his reign Juan Carlos served as the president of the
Ibero-American States Organization, representing over 700
million people in its 24 member nations of Spain, Portugal,
and their former American colonies. In 2008, he was
considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.
Juan Carlos married Princess Sofa of Greece and Denmark
in 1962, with whom he has three children and eight
grandchildren. King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofa retain the
title and style they enjoyed during his reign.
1 Early life
1.1 Brother's death
1.2 Education
2 Prince of Spain (19691975)
See list
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Rome, Italy
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spanish Royal Family
HM The King
HM The Queen
HRH The Princess of Asturias
HRH Infanta Sofa
HM King Juan Carlos I
HM Queen Sofa
HRH The Duchess of Lugo
HE Don Felipe
HE Doa Victoria
HRH The Duchess of Palma de
HE The Duke of Palma de Mallorca
HE Don Juan
HE Don Pablo
HE Don Miguel
HE Doa Irene
HRH The Duchess of Badajoz
HE Doa Simoneta
HE The Viscount de la Torre
HE Don Bruno
HE Don Luis
HE Don Fernando
3 Restoration of the monarchy
4 Role in contemporary Spanish politics
4.1 2007 Ibero-American Summit
4.2 Botswana hunting trip
5 Family and private life
6 Health
7 Budget of the royal house
8 Abdication
8.1 Reactions
9 Titles, styles, honours and arms
9.1 Arms
10 Ancestors
11 See also
12 Notes
13 References
14 Further reading
15 External links
Early life
Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona,
and Princess Mara Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in
Rome, Italy, where his grandfather, King Alfonso XIII of
Spain, and other members of the Spanish Royal Family lived
in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish
Republic in 1931. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso
Vctor Mara de Borbn y Borbn-Dos Sicilias. He was
given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal
grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
His early life was dictated largely by the political concerns of
his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948
to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to
allow it.
He began his studies in San Sebastin and
finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid.
He then joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955
to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza.
Juan Carlos has two sisters: Infanta Pilar, Duchess of
Badajoz (born 1936), and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of
Soria (born 1939). He also had a younger brother, Alfonso.
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HRH The Duchess of Soria and Hernani
HE The Duke of Soria and Hernani
HE Don Alfonso
HE Doa Mara
HRH The Dowager Duchess of Calabria
HRH The Duke of Calabria
HRH The Duchess of Calabria
Juan Carlos de Borbn, painting by
Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau (2014)
Brother's death
On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan
Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at
the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The
Spanish Embassy in Portugal then issued the following
official communiqu:
Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a
revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired
hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes.
The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the
Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious
service, during which he had received holy communion.
Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso had won a local junior golf
tournament earlier on the day, then went to evening Mass and rushed up
to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter
holidays from military school. It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing
with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General
Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually
been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired.
As they were the only two in the room it is unclear how Alfonso was shot
but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother,
Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware
that the pistol was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan
Carlos, also said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was
loaded, and adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall hitting Alfonso in
the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan
Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and
when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan
Carlos in the arm causing him to fire the pistol.
In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marn, Pontevedra, and another in the Air Force school in
San Javier in Murcia. In 196061 he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at
Complutense University.
He then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela, and began carrying out official
Prince of Spain (19691975)
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Juan Carlos de Borbn in 1971
Royal Standard as Prince of Spain
Juan Carlos I of Spain on a 100
peseta coin from 1988
The dictatorial regime of Francisco Franco came to power during the Spanish Civil War, which pitted democrats,
anarchists, socialists, and communists,
supported in part by the Soviet Union
and by international volunteers,
against conservatives, monarchists,
nationalists, and fascists, supported
by both Hitler and Mussolini, with the
latter group ultimately emerging
successful with the support of
neighbouring Portugal and the major
European Axis powers of Fascist
Italy and Nazi Germany.
fascist government remained
dominant in Spain until the 1960s.
With Franco's increasing age, left-
wing protests increased, while at the same time, the far right factions
demanded the return of a hardline absolute monarchy. At the time, the heir
to the throne of Spain was Juan de Borbn (Count of Barcelona), the son of
the late Alfonso XIII.
However, General Franco viewed him with
extreme suspicion, believing him to be a liberal who was opposed to his regime.
Juan Carlos's cousin Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cdiz, was also briefly
considered as a candidate. Alfonso was known to be an ardent Francoist
and would marry Franco's granddaughter, Doa Mara del Carmen
Martnez-Bordi y Franco in 1972.
Ultimately, Franco decided to skip a generation and name Juan de
Borbn's son, Prince Juan Carlos, as his personal successor. Franco
hoped the young prince could be groomed to take over the nation while
still maintaining the ultraconservative nature of his regime.
In 1969,
Juan Carlos was officially designated heir-apparent and was given the
new title of Prince of Spain (not the traditional Prince of Asturias).
As a condition of being named heir-apparent,
he was required to swear loyalty to Franco's Movimiento Nacional, which he did with little outward hesitation.
His choice was ratified by the Spanish parliament on 22 July 1969.
Juan Carlos met and consulted Franco many times while heir apparent and often took part in official and ceremonial
state functions standing alongside the dictator, much to the anger of hardline republicans and more moderate
liberals, who hoped that Franco's death would bring in an era of reform. During 19691975, Juan Carlos publicly
supported Franco's regime. Although Franco's health worsened during those years, whenever he did appear in
public, from state dinners to military parades, it was in Juan Carlos's company as he continued to praise Franco and
his government for the economic growth and positive changes in Spain.
However, as the years progressed, Juan
Carlos began meeting secretly with political opposition leaders and exiles, who were fighting to bring liberal reform
to the country. He also had secret conversations with his father over the telephone. Franco, for his part, remained
largely oblivious to the prince's actions and denied allegations from his ministers and advisors that Juan Carlos was
in any way disloyal to his vision of the regime.
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Royal trips of King Juan Carlos I from 1975 until 2010.
During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975 Juan Carlos was acting head of state. Near
death, on 30 October 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos.
On 22 November, following Franco's
death, the Cortes Generales proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain. In his speech of 22 November 1975, Juan
Carlos spoke of three factors: the historical tradition, national laws, and the will of the people, and in so doing
referred to a process dating back to the Civil War of 193639.
On 27 November, a Mass of the Holy Spirit
was celebrated in the church of San Jernimo el Real in Madrid to inaugurate his reign. He opted not to call himself
Juan III or Carlos V, but Juan Carlos I.
Restoration of the monarchy
Juan Carlos's accession met with relatively
little parliamentary opposition. Some
members of the Movimiento Nacional
voted against recognising him, and more
against the 1976 Law for Political Reform.
But even most Movimiento members
supported both measures.
Juan Carlos
quickly instituted reforms, to the great
displeasure of Falangist and conservative
(monarchist) elements, especially in the
military, who had expected him to maintain
the authoritarian state. In July 1976, Juan
Carlos dismissed prime minister Carlos Arias Navarro, who had been attempting to continue Francoist policies in
the face of the king's attempts at progress.
He instead appointed Adolfo Surez, a former leader of the
Movimiento Nacional, as prime minister, who would go on to win the following year's election and become the first
democratically elected leader of the new regime.
On 20 May 1977, the leader of the only recently legalized Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Felipe
Gonzlez, accompanied by Javier Solana, visited Juan Carlos in the Zarzuela Palace. The event represented a key
endorsement of the monarchy from Spain's political left, who had been historically republican.
Left-wing support
for the monarchy grew when the Communist Party of Spain was legalized shortly thereafter, a move Juan Carlos
had pressed for, despite enormous right-wing military opposition at that time, during the Cold War.
On 15 June 1977, Spain held its first post-Franco democratic elections. In 1978, the government promulgated a
new constitution that acknowledged Juan Carlos as rightful heir of the Spanish dynasty and king; specifically, Title
II, Section 57 asserted Juan Carlos' right to the throne of Spain by dynastic succession in the Bourbon tradition, as
"the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty" rather than as the designated successor of Franco.
Constitution was passed by the democratically elected Constituent Cortes, ratified by the people in a referendum (6
December) and then signed into law by the King before a solemn meeting of the Cortes.
Further legitimacy was restored to Juan Carlos' position on 14 May 1977, when his father (whom many
monarchists had recognized as the legitimate, exiled King of Spain during the Franco era) formally renounced his
claim to the throne and recognized his son as the sole head of the Spanish Royal House, transferring to him the
historical heritage of the Spanish monarchy, thus making Juan Carlos both de facto and de jure king in the eyes of
the traditional monarchists.
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A 5000 Spanish peseta note with the image of King Juan Carlos.
There was an attempted military coup, known as 23-F, on 23 February 1981, when the Cortes were seized by
members of the Guardia Civil in the parliamentary chamber. During the coup, the King, in the uniform of the
Captain-General of the Spanish armed forces, gave a public television broadcast calling for unambiguous support
for the legitimate democratic government. The broadcast is believed to have been a major factor in foiling the coup.
The coup leaders had promised many of their potential supporters that they were acting in the King's name and with
his approval, but were able to demonstrate neither, and the broadcast coming just after midnight on the night of
the coup definitively showed the King's opposition to the coup makers.
When Juan Carlos became king, Communist leader Santiago Carrillo nicknamed him Juan Carlos the Brief,
predicting that the monarchy would soon be swept away with the other remnants of the Franco era.
After the
collapse of the attempted coup, however, in an emotional statement, Carrillo remarked: "Today, we are all
Public support for the monarchy among democrats and leftists before 1981 had been limited;
following the king's handling of the coup it increased significantly.
Role in contemporary Spanish politics
The victory of the PSOE in 1982 under Gonzlez marked the effective end of the King's active involvement in
Spanish politics. Gonzlez would govern for over a decade, and his administration helped consolidate Spanish
democracy and thus maintained the stability of the nation.
On paper, Juan Carlos retained fairly extensive reserve powers. He was the guardian of the constitution, and was
responsible for ensuring that it was obeyed. In practice, since the passage of the Constitution (and especially since
1982) he took a mostly ceremonial and representative role, acting almost entirely on the advice of the government.
However, he commanded great moral authority as an essential symbol of the country's unity.
Under the constitution, the King has
immunity from prosecution in matters
relating to his official duties. This is so
because every act of the King as such (and
not as a citizen) needs to be undersigned
by a government official, thus making the
undersigner responsible instead of the king.
The honour of the Royal Family is
specifically protected from insult by the
Spanish Penal Code. Under this
protection, Basque independentist Arnaldo
and cartoonists from El Jueves
were tried and punished.
The King gives an annual speech to the
nation on Christmas Eve. He is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish armed forces.
In July 2000, Juan Carlos was the target of an enraged protester when former priest Juan Mara Fernndez y
Krohn, who had once attacked Pope John Paul II, breached security and attempted to approach the king.
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The King (left of centre, in grey suit with red necktie) standing with
the leaders of all the other Iberoamerican Nations present at the XVIII
Ibero-American Summit.
When the media asked Juan Carlos in 2005 if he would endorse the bill legalising same-sex marriage that was then
being debated in the Cortes Generales, he answered "Soy el Rey de Espaa y no el de Blgica" ("I am the King
of Spain, not of Belgium") a reference to King Baudouin I of Belgium, who had refused to sign the Belgian law
legalising abortion.
The King gave his Royal Assent to Law 13/2005 on 1 July 2005; the law legalising same-sex
marriage was gazetted in the Boletn Oficial del Estado on 2 July, and came into effect on 3 July.
According to a poll in the newspaper El Mundo in November 2005, 77.5% of Spaniards thought Juan Carlos was
"good or very good", 15.4% "not so good", and only 7.1% "bad or very bad". Even so, the issue of the monarchy
re-emerged on 28 September 2007 as photos of the king were burnt in public in Catalonia by small groups of
protesters wanting the restoration of the Republic.
2007 Ibero-American Summit
In November 2007, at the Ibero-American
Summit in Santiago de Chile, during a
heated exchange, Juan Carlos interrupted
Venezuelan President Hugo Chvez,
saying, "Por qu no te callas?" ("Why
don't you shut up?"). Chvez had been
interrupting the Spanish Prime Minister,
Jos Luis Rodrguez Zapatero, while the
latter was defending his predecessor and
political opponent, Jos Mara Aznar, after
Chvez had referred to Aznar as a fascist
and "less human than snakes". The King
shortly afterwards left the hall when
President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua
accused Spain of intervention in his country's elections and complained about some Spanish energy companies
working in Nicaragua.
This was an unprecedented diplomatic incident and a rare display of public anger by the
Botswana hunting trip
In April 2012, Juan Carlos faced criticism for making an elephant-hunting trip in Botswana.
only found out about the trip after the King injured himself and a special aircraft was sent to bring him home.
Spanish officials stated that the expenses of the trip were not paid by taxpayers or by the palace, but by Mohamed
Eyad Kayali, a businessman of Syrian origin. Cayo Lara Moya of the United Left party said the king's trip
"demonstrated a lack of ethics and respect toward many people in this country who are suffering a lot"
Tomas Gomez of the Socialist party said Juan Carlos should choose between "public responsibilities or an
In April 2012, Spain's unemployment was at 23 percent and nearly 50 percent for young
El Pas estimated the total cost of a hunting trip at 44,000 euros (USD 57,850), about twice the
average annual salary in Spain.
A petition called for the king to resign from his position as honorary president of
the Spanish branch of the World Wide Fund for Nature.
The WWF itself responded by asking for an interview
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King Juan Carlos, Queen Sofa and
then Prime Minister Jos Luis
Rodrguez Zapatero at the XV Ibero-
American Summit (Salamanca, 2005).
with the King to resolve the situation.
In July 2012, WWF-Spain held a meeting in Madrid and decided with
226 votes to 13 to remove the king from the honorary presidency.
He later apologised for the hunting
Family and private life
Juan Carlos was married in Athens at the Church of Saint Dennis on 14 May 1962, to Princess Sophia of Greece
and Denmark, daughter of King Paul of Greece. She converted from her Greek Orthodox religion to Roman
Catholicism. Also in 1962, a Roman Catholic wedding was performed in the Pauline Chapel the Basilica of Santa
Maria Maggiore in Rome.
They have two daughters and one son.
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (born 20 December 1963)
Infanta Cristina, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (born 13 June
Felipe, Prince of Asturias (born 30 January 1968), later King
Felipe VI
In 1972, Juan Carlos, a keen sailor, competed in the Dragon class event
at the Olympic Games, finishing 15th. In their summer holidays, the whole
family meets in Marivent Palace (Palma de Mallorca) and the Fortuna
yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions. The king has manned
the Bribn series of yachts. In winter, the family often go skiing in
Baqueira-Beret and Candanch (Pyrenees).
Juan Carlos also hunts bears; in October 2004, he angered environmental activists by killing nine bears, one of
which was a pregnant female, in central Romania.
It was alleged by the Russian regional authorities that in
August 2006 Juan Carlos shot a drunken tame bear (Mitrofan the Bear) during a private hunting trip to Russia; the
Office of the Spanish Monarchy denied this claim.
Juan Carlos and Sofa are fluent in several languages, speaking Spanish, English, and French. The King also speaks
fluent Portuguese and Italian, and the Queen speaks German and her native Greek.
Juan Carlos is also an amateur radio operator and holds the call sign EA0JC. His custom of incognito motorbike
riding has raised urban legends of people finding him on lonely roads. For example, one story says that a biker out
of petrol stranded on a hot sunny day was assisted by a fellow motorcyclist, who returned with a small container of
petrol. The good Samaritan, on removing his helmet, turned out to be Juan Carlos.
Juan Carlos is a member of the World Scout Foundation
and of the Sons of the American Revolution.
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Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy
announcing the pending abdication of
Juan Carlos on 2 June 2014
A benign 17-19mm tumour was removed under general anaesthetic from King Juan Carlos right lung in an
operation carried out in the "Hospital Clnic" of Barcelona in May 2010. The operation followed an annual check-
up, and Juan Carlos was not expected to need any further treatment.
In April 2012, the King underwent surgery for a triple fracture of the hip at the San Jose Hospital, Madrid,
following a fall on a private elephant-hunting trip to Botswana.
He also underwent a hip operation in September
2013 at Madrid's Quirn hospital.
Budget of the royal house
After the King's son-in-law Iaki Urdangarn was accused of corruption (the "Urdangarn affair"), the King in 2011
for the first time detailed the yearly royal budget of 8.3 million euros, excluding expenses such as the electricity bill,
paid by the State.
Spanish news media speculated about the king's future in early 2014,
following criticism and family scandal; the king's chief of staff in a briefing
denied that the 'abdication option' was being considered.
On 2 June
2014 the King announced that he would abdicate the throne in favour of
the Prince of Asturias.
Royal officials described the King's choice as a
personal decision which he had been contemplating since his 76th
birthday at the start of the year.
The king said "[I] don't want my son
to grow old waiting like Prince Charles."
He signed the abdication
instrument and, on June 18, signed the organic law passed by
several hours before his abdication took effect.
Felipe was enthroned on 19 June 2014.
Juan Carlos thus became the fourth European monarch to abdicate in just over a year, following Pope Benedict
XVI (28 February 2013), Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (30 April 2013), and King Albert II of Belgium (21
July 2013).
The Spanish constitution at the time of the abdication did not grant an abdicated monarch the legal immunity of a
head of state,
but the government was planning to make changes to allow this.
The Spanish press gave the announcement a broadly positive reception, but described the moment as an
"institutional crisis" and "a very important moment in the history of democratic Spain".
Around Spain and in other
major cities including London, the news was met by republican celebration and protests, calling for the end of the
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Republican demonstration in the
Puerta del Sol on the day that Juan
Carlos announced his decision to
Catalan leader Artur Mas said that the news of the King's abdication would not slow down the process of
independence for Catalonia.
Iigo Urkullu, the President of the Basque government, concluded that the King's
reign was "full of light yet also darkness" and said that his successor Felipe should remember that "the Basque
Question has not been resolved".
Other regional leaders had more positive evaluations of Juan Carlos at his
decision to abdicate; Alberto Nez Feijo of Galicia called him "the King of Democracy" who "guaranteed the
continuation of constitutional monarchy"
and Alberto Fabra of the Valencian Community said that Spaniards are
proud of their king who had been "at the forefront of protecting our
interests inside and outside of our borders".
British Prime Minister David Cameron stated "I would like to use this
opportunity to make a tribute to King Juan Carlos, who has done so
much during his reign to aid the successful Spanish transition to
democracy, and has been a great friend of the United Kingdom".
President of the European Commission, Jos Manuel Barroso, said that
Juan Carlos was a "believer in Europeanism and modernity...without
whom one could not understand modern Spain".
The Spanish public also gave a broadly positive opinion not only of the
abdication but of his reign as a whole. According to a poll taken by El
Mundo, 65 per cent believed the kings reign was either good or very
good, up from 41.3 per cent. Overall, 55.7 per cent of those polled in
the 35 June survey by Sigma Dos supported the institution of the monarchy in Spain, up from 49.9 per cent when
the same question was posed six months ago. 57.5 per cent believed the prince could restore the royal familys lost
prestige. An overwhelming majority of Spaniards believed the new king, Felipe VI, would make a good monarch
and more than three-quarters believed King Juan Carlos had been right to hand over the throne to his son.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
The current Spanish constitution refers to the monarchy as "the Crown of Spain" and the constitutional title of the
monarch is simply Rey/Reina de Espaa (King/Queen of Spain). The constitution allows for the use of other
historic titles pertaining to the Spanish monarchy, without specifying them.
King Juan Carlos retains the title and style he enjoyed during his reign.
See also
History of Spain
Politics of Spain
Line of succession to the Spanish throne
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List of titles and honours of Juan Carlos I of Spain
List of honours of the Spanish Royal Family by country
List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown
a. ^ In other languages of Spain, the name of the King Juan Carlos is adapted as:
Aragonese: Chuan-Carlos I (IPA: [twan kalos])..
Asturian: Xuan Carlos I (IPA: [uan kalos])
Basque: Jon Karlos Ia (IPA: [jo karlos]).
Catalan: Joan Carles I (IPA: [ua kars] or [(d)ua kales]).
Galician: Xon Carlos I (IPA: [oa kalos]).
1. ^ "His Majesty the King Juan Carlos" (http://www.casareal.es/sm_rey/index-iden-idweb.html). The Royal
Household of His Majesty the King!.
2. ^ The English-language version of the Official Royal Family website is rendered as Borbon, while in Spanish it is
3. ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May One Day Ascend a Throne,"
res=F10C14F83D591A7493C6A8178AD95F458785F9&scp=1&sq=akihito%20%20and%20Windsor&st=cse) New
York Times. 14 November 1971.
4. ^ "Juan Carlos most popular leader in Ibero-America (Spanish)"
(http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/07/09/internacional/1215635605.html). Elmundo.es. Retrieved 2 June
5. ^


"Spain will have two kings and two queens"
queens.html). Retrieved 14 June 2014.
6. ^

"BBC News - Profile: Spain's Juan Carlos" (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-27661983).
Bbc.co.uk. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
7. ^ Quoted in Paul Preston, Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy (New York: W. W.
Norton, 2004), 101.
8. ^ "Royal Foibles" (http://royalfoibles.com/tag/king-juan-carlos-l-of-spain/). Retrieved 5 June 2014.
9. ^ "Juan Carlos lays to rest a haunting Spanish tragedy" (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/juan-
carlos-lays-to-rest-a-haunting-spanish-tragedy-1557621.html). Retrieved 5 June 2014.
10. ^ Preston, 102.
11. ^ A Royal Mystery (http://www.snopes.com/history/world/juancarlos.asp) at Snopes.com.
12. ^ Su Majestad el Rey Don Juan Carlos (http://www.casareal.es/sm_rey/index-ides-idweb.html), Pgina oficial de la
Casa de Su Majestad el Re. Retrieved 16 September 2011 (Spanish)
13. ^ "Chapter 26: A History of Spain and Portugal vol. 2" (http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/payne26.htm). Libro.uca.edu.
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13. ^ "Chapter 26: A History of Spain and Portugal vol. 2" (http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/payne26.htm). Libro.uca.edu.
Retrieved 10 June 2014.
14. ^





Bernecker, Walther (January 1998). "Monarchy and Democracy: The Political Role of King Juan Carlos
in the Spanish Transicin". Journal of Contemporary History 33 (1): 6584.
15. ^ "The reign in Spain of King Juan Carlos" (http://www.thewhig.com/2014/01/10/the-reign-in-spain-of-king-juan-
carlos). TheWhig.com. The Kingston Whig-Standard. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
16. ^ Powell, Charles (1996). Juan Carlos of Spain. St Anthony's Series. Oxford, UK: MacMillan Press. pp. 15, 9,
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6/24/2014 Juan Carlos I of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Carlos_I_of_Spain 16/17
Further reading
Paul Preston, Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy, W W Norton & Co Inc,
June 2004. ISBN 0-393-05804-2.
Ronald Hilton, SPAIN: King Juan Carlos
External links
(Spanish) Biography of Juan Carlos I at CIDOB Foundation
Official website of the Spanish Royal Family (http://www.casareal.es/en)
Juan Carlos I family tree (http://public.genoom.com/trees/familia-real/juan-carlos)
Juan Carlos I abdicates (2 June 2014) (http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/2155465/0/mariano-rajoy/anuncia-
Juan Carlos I of Spain
House of Bourbon
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 5 January 1938
Title last held by
Alfonso XIII
King of Spain
Succeeded by
Felipe VI
Preceded by
Alejandro Rodrguez de
as President of the Regency
Head of State of Spain
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Juan_Carlos_I_of_Spain&oldid=614152469"
Categories: 1938 births 20th-century Roman Catholics 21st-century Roman Catholics
Claimant Kings of Jerusalem Fellows of Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge Francoist Spain
House of Bourbon (Spain) Living people People from Rome Roman Catholic monarchs
Sailors at the 1972 Summer Olympics Dragon Spanish infantes Regents of Spain Spanish monarchs
Spanish yacht racers Monarchs who abdicated
This page was last modified on 23 June 2014 at 22:22.
77. ^ "Coat of arms of His Majesty the King Juan Carlos"
(http://www.casareal.es/EN/FamiliaReal/rey/Paginas/rey_armas.aspx). Spanish Royal Household Website. 2014-06-
19. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
6/24/2014 Juan Carlos I of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Carlos_I_of_Spain 17/17
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