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J O U R N A L OF M A T E R I A L S SCIENCE 15 (1980) - L E T T E R S

Marshall, J. W. Faust and C. E. Ryan (University of 13. N.W. JEPPS, D. J. SMITH and T. F. PAGE, Acta.
South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina, Crystall. A35 (1979) 916.
1974) p. 222. 14. N. W. JEPPS and K. L. SCRIVENER, Unpublished
5. D. J. SMITH, N. W. JEPPS and T. F. PAGE, jr, work.
Microscopy 114 (1978) 1.
6. D.R.CLARKE,J.Amer. Ceram. Soc. 60(1977)539.
7. N. W. JEPPS and T. F. PAGE, J. Microscopy 116
(1979) 159.
Received 28 February
8. Idem, ibid. 119 (1980) to be published. and accepted 3 March 1980.
9. Idem. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (1980) to be published.
10. N.W. JEPPS, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, T. F. PAGE, G. R. SAWYER*
1979. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science,
11. S. S. SHINOZAKI, J. E. NOAKES and H. SATO, J.
Amer. Ceram. Soc. 61 (1978) 237. University o f Cambridge,
12. M.G.S. NAYLOR (Dept. of Metallurgy and Mater. Pembroke Street,
Sci., Univ. of Cambridge), Private Communication. Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK

*Present address: The British Rail Research and Development Division, The Railway Technical Centre, London Road,
Derby.

A dielectric s t u d / o f cellulose fibres The results are illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3. It is


found that the dielectric constant and loss factors
It appears from the literature that little work has are highest for jute, followed by hemp and ramie.
so far been reported on the dielectric properties of All these fibres possess the same molecular struc-
cellulose fibres. Cellulose is one of the most ture. i.e. cellulose I structure. The difference is
important organic substances and has been sub- mainly due to differences in the amorphous and
jected to thorough analysis by various techniques crystalline fractions in the fibres. Thus we can con-
[1-3]. The directional dependence of the properties clude that the amorphous fraction is the greatest
of fibres is now of wide interest as a means of pro- in jute, followed by hemp and ramie.
ducing desirable properties by inducing preferred The most interesting features of the results are
orientation. A study of the dielectric property is a sharp increase of dielectric constant and a fall of
of importance as it provides a measure of the am- loss factor along the fibre direction, i.e. the longi-
orphous fraction of the material and is sensitive to tudinal direction compared to the transverse direc-
orientation effects, mobility effects and to the tion. This is certainly not due to an increase in
number and interactions of the dipoles partici- amorphous fraction, as in that case the loss factors
pating. In view of this we have extended our pre- would also increase. It is an established fact that
vious work on electrical anisotropy [4] to the case the crystaUinity is greater along the fibre direction
of cellulose fibres. The result of measurements in these fibres, thus we can conclude that dipoles
along both the longitudinal and transverse direc- are arranged in these molecules along the longi-
tions of some natural cellulose fibres are reported. tudinal direction, i.e. the chain direction, and the
Natural cellulose fibres of ramie, hemp and jute higher mobility of the dipoles along the longitudi-
were chosen for this study. A study of its crystal- nal direction compared to the transverse direction,
linity defects, etc., has been reported [5]. These is the cause of anisotropy in the fibres.
fibres were first purified and delignified. The
samples were prepared in the same way as reported
earlier [4]. Dielectric measurements were carried References
out on a precision capacitance bridge GR716 in 1. H. MARK and A. V. TOBOLSKY, "Physical Chem-
the frequency range l0 s Hz by applying a resonance istry of high polymeric systems" (Interscience, New
curve method. York, London, 1950).

1856 0022--2461/80/071856--05502.50/0 9 1980 Chapman and Hall Ltd.


JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 15(1980) .LETTERS

JUTE

(a) LONGITUDINAL
300 1'6
@ DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
@ 01 ELECTRIC LOSS

250 1"4

200 1.2 t

z
~< is0 1'0

o o
u
~00 082
c)
LO
J
IJJ LJ
D

50 0'6

I I 0.4
102 10 3 10 4 10 5

FREQUENCY IN CYCLESISEC

JUTE

(b) TRANSVERSE
60 3./.
e DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
I DIELECTRIC LOSS

50 2'9

I 4O
2,4 f

z
< 30 ~'9
7~
g
o
c)
c~ 20 9 1.z ~:

t~
,_J
t~
123
10
0.9

a , 3.4
102 103 10 4 10 5

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES/SEC

Figure 1 Variations of dielectric constants and dielectric losses of jute with frequency along (a) the longitudinal, and
(b) the transverse directions.

1857
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 15 ( 1 9 8 0 ) .LETTERS

HEMP
1/0 1 1"9

(a) LONGITUDINAL
120 1-7
| DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
9 DIELECTRIC LOSS

100 1"5

l 80

6c
u~
z
o
8
_u
ac 40 3"9 ~
L) c)
klJ w

w
o
2C 0-7

I I 0"5
102 103 104 105
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES/SEC. ~ '
16
HEMP

(b) TRANSVERSE
14 2"z,
GI DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
LOSS

12 2"0

tlo

z g
~- 1"2 ~

g ~
o o

~: 0.8

z, 0"4

i i
102 103 10 4 10 5
FREOUENCY IN CYCLES/ SEC

Figure 2 Variations of dielectric constants and dielectric losses of hemp with frequency along (a) longitudinal, and
(b) the transverse directions.

1858
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 15(1980) ,LETTERS

7O
RAMIE

(a) LOGITUDINAL
60 ,O ~ - 1"2
| DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

I o. I

Z ~
30 o.6"~
o
O d
u

20 0-4
~) LIJ
IJJ d
.u W
s
10 0"2

I I
102 103 104 105

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES/SEC,

14 1'7
RAMIE

9 (b) TRANSVERSE
12 1"5
O DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
9 DIELECTRIC LOSS

10 1'3

zm s 0.9

o s
_o u

U 4 017 t~
ILl
w
o

2 0-5

I I
102 103 10 z 105

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES/SEC.

Figure 3 Variations of dielectric constants and dielectric losses of ramie with frequency along (a) the longitudinal, and
(b) the transverse directions.

1859
IOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 15(1980) ~

2. p.H. HERMANS, "Physics and Chemistry of Cellulose Received 6 November


fibres" (Elsevier, New York, 1949). and accepted 16 November 1979.
3. E. OTT, M. SPURLIN and W.GRAFFLIN, "Cellulose
and Cellulose derivatives" (Interscience, New York, A. K. DUTTA
London, 1954). P. S. MUKHERJEE
4. P.S. MUKHERJEE, A. K. DE and S. BATTACHERJEE G. B. MITRA
J. Mater. Sci. 13 (1978) 1329. School o f Research in X-rays and Structure o f
5. P.S. MUKHERJEE and G. B. MITRA. Matter, Department o f Physics,
Indian Institute o f Technology,
Kharagpur, India, 721302

Coating structure of metal-coated carbon were then treated in glacial acetic acid to activate
fibres the fibre surface.
These surface activated fibres were immersed in
Applications o f coated fibres in preparation of metal salt solutions o f known amount and concen-
metal matrix composites are growing at an increas- tration. Displacing agents Zn for Cu coating and
ing rate. To obtain a good composite the fibre Mg for Co and Ni coating were added in the form
should be wetted by the matrix to ensure good of granules to displace the respective metals from
bonding. A coating on carbon fibre can promote their salt solutions by the cementation p r o c e s s .
this wetting by the matrix material and also helps Coated fibres were tested individually in a uni-
in preventing surface damage during composite versal testing machine (Instron). In each batch, 25
fabrication. Details o f the coating of Cu, Ni and to 30 fibres were tested and average strength was
Co on to carbon fibres b y the cementation process computed. The present note reports the effect of
were described earlier [ 1 , 2 ] . A tow of 1000 fila- the concentration o f glacial acetic acid during
ments, 20 cm long carbon fibres (PAN base) were coating on the structure of the coating formed on
heat treated in vacuum ( 1 0 - S T o r r ) a t 700~ for heat-treated carbon fibre as determined by scan-
15rain to remove any coupling agents and ning electron microscopy, and its effect on the
adsorbed layer o f gases. Heat-treated carbon fibres strength o f the coated fibre.

Figure l Isolated dendritic copper coating on non-heat- Figure2 Isolated massive crystallite copper coating on
treated unactivated carbon fibre, X 4800. carbon fibre, acetic acid concentration 2vo1%, X 4800.

1860 0022-2461/80/071860-04502.40/0 9 1980 Chapman and Hall Ltd.