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Linear Viscoelasticity of Colloidal Hard Sphere Suspensions near the Glass Transition

1

Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Route 22E, Annandale, New Jersey 08801

2

Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544

(Received 3 April 1995)

The frequency-dependent viscoelastic shear modulus of concentrated suspensions of colloidal hard

spheres is shown to be strongly modified as the volume fraction approaches the glass transition.

The elastic or storage component, G 0 , becomes larger than the viscous or loss component, G 00 . The

frequency dependence of G 0 develops a plateau while that of G 00 develops a minimum. We propose

a physical model to account for these data, using a description of the glasslike behavior based on

mode-coupling theory, and a description of the high-frequency behavior based on hydrodynamic flow

calculations.

Suspensions of solid particles with an interaction po- cles leads to a liquid-glass transition at fg ø 0.56 [5].

tential determined solely by excluded volume, or hard Less monodisperse spheres do not exhibit the ordered

spheres, represent one of the most important classes of solid phase but do form colloidal glasses, albeit with a

colloidal dispersions [1]. Understanding their behavior somewhat different fg [6]. The liquid-glass transition

is an essential first step in understanding more complex in hard sphere colloids has been studied extensively with

suspensions of technological significance. Of particular light scattering [7]. However, a colloidal glass is a solid,

importance are their rheological properties, as they con- even though it exists at volume fractions well below ran-

trol the flow behavior as well as the viscosity and the dom close packing. As a result, the glass transition should

elasticity of the suspension. A key measure of these are have profoundly affected the linear viscoelasticity, but this

the linear viscoelastic moduli which determine the re- has never been investigated.

sponse of the suspension to small oscillatory shears which In this Letter we show that the liquid and glass phase be-

weakly perturb the equilibrium structure. At low frequen- havior of hard spheres dramatically affects their viscoelas-

cies, shear-induced perturbations are relaxed by Brownian ticity; as f approaches the colloidal glass transition, the

motion; this dissipates energy, and the suspension is pre- structure of the suspension results in a strongly frequency

dominantly viscous. However, at higher frequencies, the and volume fraction dependent contribution to both the

perturbations can no longer be relaxed in the period of the storage modulus, G 0 svd, and the loss modulus, G 00 svd. To

oscillation; the change in the equilibrium configuration re- account for this behavior, we present a physical model that

sults in energy storage and hence in an increase in the combines a description of the onset of the glass phase using

elastic component. The characteristic frequency is deter- mode-coupling formalism with the high-frequency contri-

mined by the ratio of the convection rate due to the shear bution of Brownian motion. The observed behavior pre-

to the diffusional relaxation rate, or the Peclet number cludes the simple scaling of the data reported previously,

Ù s , where a is the particle radius, gÙ the shear

Pe a2 gyD and directly probes the effects of the phase behavior.

rate, and Ds the short-time diffusion coefficient which is We used suspensions of uncoated silica spheres in ethy-

dependent on the particle volume fraction, f. The mag- lene glycol, which interact as hard spheres [3]. Their poly-

nitude of the elasticity is set by the temperature, kB T ya3 , dispersity was about 20%, which prevented crystallization;

the only energy density scale in the system. Both the vis- however, they could form a colloidal glass. Their hy-

cosity and the elasticity should diverge as the volume frac- drodynamic radius was measured as a 0.21 mm, using

tion approaches random close packing fc ø 0.64, where dynamic light scattering from a dilute suspension. Mea-

the packing constraints no longer allow for particle mo- surements of G 0 svd and G 00 svd were performed with a

tion. Nevertheless, within this picture, data for the stor- strain controlled rheometer, using a double wall Couette

age and loss moduli for different f and T should all scale geometry, and at T 23 ±C, where the solvent viscosity

onto a unique pair of curves. Exactly this sort of behavior was h0 17 cP. The most concentrated suspension was

has been reported in earlier important studies of the linear prepared by centrifugation and had a volume fraction of

viscoelasticity of hard spheres [2,3]. f ø 0.56, determined with pycnometric and vacuum des-

While very basic and appealing, this picture neglects iccation techniques. We lowered f by diluting with pure

an essential feature of hard spheres: their phase behav- ethylene glycol supernatant recovered from the centrifu-

ior. Highly monodisperse particles undergo an entropi- gation. Although samples of higher concentration could

cally driven liquid-solid transition [4], forming structures be obtained by further centrifugation, their very long re-

with long range order at f ø 0.49. When quenched laxation times made them impossible to load in the cell,

from a disordered configuration, crowding of the parti- precluding their study.

VOLUME 75, NUMBER 14 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 2 OCTOBER 1995

loss (open symbols) moduli on the maximum applied strain

for several different volume fractions. The measurements are

performed at a frequency of 1 radys. Note the large increase

with f and the dominance of the storage modulus at high f.

(open points) moduli, as a function of applied stain g

measured at a frequency of v 1 radys, are shown

in Fig. 1 for several different volume fractions. For FIG. 2. The frequency dependences of the (a) storage and

sufficiently small strains, both G 0 and G 00 are independent (b) loss moduli for different volume fractions. All the

of g. We observe a dramatic onset of a dominant storage measurements were performed at sufficiently low strains to be

in the linear regime. The solid lines represent the fit to the

modulus as f is increased over a very small range. At model discussed in the text.

f ø 0.50, the loss modulus is larger than the storage

modulus, and the suspension is primarily viscous. By

contrast, at f ø 0.56, the storage modulus is larger, and fluctuations reflects the localized motion of the individual

the suspension is dominantly elastic. Furthermore, the spheres, entailing the full details of the hydrodynamic

strain where the response becomes g dependent decreases interactions. However, at longer times particles are

with increasing f. In addition, for the larger f, the trapped in cages formed by their neighbors. Below fg ,

apparent loss modulus increases, exceeding the storage the cages slowly break up, making the system ergodic.

modulus at higher g, indicating that the elastic behavior By contrast, above fg , the cages cannot break up, and

is limited to low strains. These results underscore the the system is nonergodic. Changes in the configuration

importance of a sufficiently low strain to ensure a linear of these cages provides a mechanism for energy storage

response. and dissipation, contributing to the moduli; the evolution

The frequency dependence of G 0 svd and G 00 svd for dif- of these cages determines the frequency dependence. This

ferent f is shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), respectively. At sort of particle dynamics is observed in these samples with

the lower f, G 00 svd is dominant, and both moduli in- diffusing wave spectroscopy [8].

crease with frequency. However, as f increases, G 0 svd To describe the cage dynamics, we use the formal-

begins to dominate over an extended range of frequencies; ism of mode-coupling theory [9,10], which describes light

moreover, it develops a plateau where it varies only very scattering data from hard spheres near fg [7]. Within

slowly with frequency, while G 00 svd exhibits a definite mode-coupling theory, the cage dynamics are described

and reproducible minimum. At higher frequencies, both by the b decay. We take advantage of a feature predicted

moduli begin to increase, with G 00 svd rising more sharply, by mode-coupling theory near fg : The temporal auto-

ultimately overtaking G 00 svd. This behavior is dramati- correlation functions of all variables coupled to density

cally different from the scaling form previously reported. fluctuations are identical in form. Thus we assume that

To understand the data, we develop a physical model the stress autocorrelation function has the same functional

that incorporates the relevant features of the scaling form as the density autocorrelation function that accounts

picture, but also includes the consequences of the phase for the light scattering data, and use the generic, asymp-

behavior of the hard spheres. We hypothesize that the totic mode-coupling form for the b regime on the liquid

increase in the elasticity and the plateau behavior of side of fg [7,9],

"µ ∂ 0 µ ∂b 0 #

G 0 svd reflects the effects of the approach to the colloidal t 2a

t

glass transition at fg . The essential physics that must be Ctt std fttC

1 htt cs 2B . (1)

included describes the relaxation of density fluctuations of ts ts

the spheres, which has been probed with light scattering Here the mode-coupling parameters include the nonergod-

c

[7]. At very short times, the relaxation of these density icity parameter, ftt , the critical amplitude and scale, htt

2771

VOLUME 75, NUMBER 14 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 2 OCTOBER 1995

and cs , and the b-scaling time, ts . Mode-coupling the- where G is the gamma function. The plateau modulus,

ory places significant constraints on the behavior of these GP G0 ftt c , contributes only to G 0 svd and represents

c

parameters; it predicts that ftt and htt are f independent, the overall magnitude of the near-glass elasticity. More-

while cs , s and ts , s 1ys2a d , where the separation

0

1y2 over, as expected from the mode-coupling description, the

parameter is s sfg 2 fdyfg . It also predicts a0 storage modulus has an inflection point at the plateau

0.301, b 0 0.545, and B 0.963 for hard spheres [9]. value, while the loss modulus has a minimum; the fre-

The near-glass contribution to the complex shear modulus quency of these is set by 1yts . The viscoelastic ampli-

is given by Ggp svd G0 fivCtt p

svdg, where Ctt p

svd is the tude, Gs G0 htt cs , determines the degree of variation

unilateral complex Fourier transform of the stress autocor- of G 0 svd about its plateau value and the magnitude of

relation function, and G0 is the thermodynamic derivative G 00 svd at the minimum. To compare this model with

of the stress with respect to the strain, which sets the scale our data, we simultaneously fit both G 0 svd and G 00 svd

of the stress relaxation. The real and imaginary parts of by Eqs. (3) and (4) for each volume fraction, using GP ,

Ggp svd contribute to the storage and loss moduli, respec- Gs , ts , Ds , and h` as fitting parameters. As shown by

tively. the solid lines in Fig. 2, excellent agreement is obtained

The high-frequency behavior is not described within for virtually all of the data; in particular, this model cap-

mode-coupling formalism. Instead, we incorporate the tures correctly the plateau behavior observed in G 0 svd.

effects of energy storage due to Brownian motion by using Although our model provides an excellent description

the form calculated for a diffusional boundary layer; this of the form of the data, it does possess many fitting

ignores lubrication effects, which will ultimately cause G 0 parameters. Thus an additional critical test of its validity

to reach a constant plateau as v increases [11]. Since is the f dependence of these parameters; the physics

our highest normalized frequencies are large, va2 yDs , of the diffusional boundary layer and mode-coupling

101 –102 , we consider only the high-frequency asymptotic theory places severe constraints on their behavior. The

form predicted by flow calculations [11] and by kinetic high-frequency behavior is dominated by h` and Ds ; in

theory [12], fact, the data cannot be adequately fit without including

0 3 kB T 2 their contribution. However, their f dependence is

GD svd f gs2a, fdfvtD g1y2 , (2)

5p a3 known independently from theoretical predictions and

where tD a yDs is the diffusional time determined

2

experimental measurements of the viscosity and self-

by the f-dependent short-time diffusion coefficient. For diffusion coefficients. In Fig. 3(a), we plot h0 yh` (open

these high volume fractions, we approximate the ra- points) and Ds yD0 (solid points) as functions of f,

dial pair distribution function at contact by gs2a, fd

0.78ys0.64 2 fd, consistent with computer simulations

that indicate a divergence at random close packing [1,13].

0

Physically, GD svd reflects the additional driving force for

diffusional motion that arises from the hard sphere inter-

action potential, which prevents the particles from touch-

ing when the shear makes them approach their neighbors.

Because of causality, the Kramers-Kronig relations re-

00

quire a similar contribution to the loss modulus, GD svd

0

GD svd. We must also include the contribution of the

high-frequency suspension viscosity, GS00 svd h` v.

To obtain the complete elastic modulus, we sum the

individual contributions; this implicitly assumes that the

individual stress autocorrelation functions are statistically

independent, reflecting their significantly different fre-

quencies. We obtain∑ µ 0∂

0 0 pa 0

G svd GP 1 Gs Gs1 2 a d cos svts da

µ ∂ 2 ∏

0 pb 0 2b 0 0

2 BGs1 1 b d cos svts d 1 GD svd ,

2

∑ µ 0∂ (3)

FIG. 3. The f dependence of the parameters obtained by

00 0 pa 0

the fit to the model. (a) h0 yh` (open circles) and Ds yD0

G svd Gs Gs1 2 a d sin svts da

µ 2 ∂ ∏ (solid squares); the solid line is a published prediction of the

0 pb 0 2b 0 viscosity [15]. (b) sGs yGP d2 (solid diamonds) and st0 yts d2a

0

1 BGs1 1 b d sin svts d (open diamonds), where t0 2p sec, with fits to the linear

2

dependence expected from mode-coupling theory, giving fg ø

00

1 GD svd 1 h` v, (4) 0.58. (c) The plateau modulus GP .

2772

VOLUME 75, NUMBER 14 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 2 OCTOBER 1995

where D0 kB T y6ph0 a. They are nearly identical, as is approached. Moreover, they show that a single param-

expected over this range of f [14]; moreover, they are eter, Pe, is not sufficient to scale the data for all f and

0 00

consistent with independent measurements and computer T . The temperature dependence of GD and GD should

simulations for h0 yh` [15], as shown by the solid line. depend primarily on that of h` which controls Ds and

Thus we conclude that the contributions of the diffusional hence that time scale, consistent with the simple scaling.

boundary layer and the suspension viscosity included in By contrast, the contribution of the near-glass structure

our model correctly describe the high-frequency behavior depends on the relaxation of cages having much larger

of the data. length scales, and this could conceivably have a very

The remaining three parameters reflect the contribution different temperature dependence. This may account for

of the mode-coupling theory to the viscoelastic modulus why the behavior reported here was not observed in pre-

and thus should be subject to the constraints of its pre- vious experiments [2,3], which investigated the viscoelas-

dictions. At the lowest volume fraction, the contribution tic behavior at higher frequencies or lower temperatures.

of the near-glass modulus is negligible. However, at the Finally, while our physical model provides an excellent

higher volume fractions, we find that both GP and Gs in- account of the data, it is nonetheless a phenomenological

crease dramatically with f. Nevertheless, mode-coupling model, since the mode-coupling contribution is based on

theory predicts that the f dependence of their ratio is de- an analogy to the density correlation function. Thus these

termined by sGs yGP d2 , cs2 , s, and thus should go data do not constitute a test of mode-coupling theory.

linearly to zero as f approaches fg . This is indeed ob- Nevertheless, the success of our model will, we hope, pro-

served, as shown in Fig. 3(b), where we plot the f de- vide the impetus for more microscopic calculations of the

pendence of sG0 yGP d2 with solid points. Furthermore, shear viscoelasticity predicted by mode-coupling theory

0

mode-coupling theory predicts that ts22a , s below the for hard sphere suspensions. This would then provide an

glass transition. Thus in Fig. 3(b), we plot with open important additional test of the validity of the theory.

0

points the f dependence of st0 yts d22a , where we have We have benefited from discussions with Herman

taken t0 2p sec for convenience; again, the predicted Cummins, Wolfgang Götze, Bill Russel, Rudy Klein, and

linear decrease is observed. These data are consistent Scott Milner. This work was supported in part by NASA.

with fg ø 0.58, as shown by the solid lines which are

fits with the value of fg constrained to be the same for

each parameter. We emphasize, however, that uncertainty

in the fitting parameters, and in our knowledge of the ex- [1] W. B. Russel, D. A. Saville, and W. R. Schowalter, Col-

act volume fraction, preclude a precise determination of loidal Dispersions (Cambridge University, Cambridge,

fg and comparison to other systems. Nevertheless, these 1989).

results support our hypothesis that the low-frequency be- [2] J. C. van der Werff, C. G. de Kruif, C. Blom, and J.

havior of the viscoelastic moduli reflect the approach to Mellema, Phys. Rev. A 39, 795 (1989).

glass transition and are correctly modeled by the predic- [3] T. Shikata and D. S. Pearson, J. Rheol. 38, 601 (1994).

tions of mode-coupling theory. [4] P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, Nature (London) 320, 340

Finally, we also show in Fig. 3(c) the f dependence (1986).

[5] P. N. Pusey and W. van Megen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2083

of the plateau modulus, GP G0 ftt c . It displays the

(1987).

expected behavior; it goes to zero as f decreases, and [6] E. Bartsch, M. Antonietti, W. Schupp, and H. Sillescu, J.

diverges with increasing f. We expect GP to depend Phys. Chem. 97, 3950 (1992).

on the amount of free volume in the system. Thus it [7] W. van Megen and S. M. Underwood, Phys. Rev. E 49,

should diverge at fc rather than fg , but unfortunately 4206 (1994).

the experimental uncertainty in fg precludes an accurate [8] T. G. Mason and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250

assessment of this. We note, however, that the decrease (1995).

in the maximum g for linear moduli exhibited in Fig. 1 [9] W. Götze and L. Sjogren, Rep. Prog. Phys. 55, 241 (1992).

suggests a vanishing free volume. There is one theoretical [10] H. Z. Cummins, G. Li, W. M. Du, and J. Hernandez,

suggestion that the zero frequency modulus above the Physica (Amsterdam) 204A, 169 (1994).

glass transition should depend on the derivative of the [11] R. A. Lionberger and W. B. Russel, J. Rheol. 38, 1885

(1994).

radial distribution function, dgsr, fdydr, evaluated at

[12] I. M. de Schepper, H. E. Smorenburg, and E. G. D. Cohen,

contact, r 2a [16]. This prediction might also be Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2178 (1993).

expected to account for G0 near fg ; however, the f [13] L. V. Woodcock, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 371, 274 (1981).

dependence of this derivative is not known. [14] E. G. D. Cohen and I. M. de Schepper (private communi-

Our data strongly suggest that the phase behavior of cation).

hard spheres has a pronounced effect on their viscoelastic- [15] A. J. C. Ladd, J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3484 (1990).

ity, which is dramatically modified as the glass transition [16] J. F. Brady, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 567 (1993).

2773

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