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New Biology – a modern approach 3

Chapter 18: Growth responses of green plants


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Structured Questions
Extension Section

|!|EQA01800001|!|
Complete the following paragraph with suitable words selected from the list below:
decreases inhibits tips increases lower
higher inhibitory tropism photosynthesis faster

Auxins are produced at the (i)_______________ of shoots and roots and are responsible for
(ii)_______________. Generally, an increase in the concentration of auxins (iii)_______________ the growth
rate of shoots and roots until a maximum is reached. A (iv)_______________ concentration of auxins is
required to induce maximum shoot growth than maximum root growth. The auxin concentration which causes
maximum shoot growth has an (v)_______________ effect on root growth. Very high concentrations of
auxins (vi)_______________ both root and shoot growth.
(3 marks)
##
(i) tips (1/2 mark)
(ii) tropism (1/2 mark)
(iii) increases (1/2 mark)
(iv) higher (1/2 mark)
(v) inhibitory (1/2 mark)
(vi) inhibits (1/2 mark)
_______
(3 marks)##

|!|EQA01800002|!|
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:
COORDINATION IN PLANTS
To grow in an orderly condition, plants, like humans, need some form of internal
coordination with suitable responses to their environment. Unlike humans, plants do not have a
nervous system and depend only on chemical coordination. Their responses often involve
growth which can result in movement of an organ.
A tropism is a movement of a plant part in response to and directed by an external
stimulus. The movement is almost always a growth movement.

(i) (1) Name the chemical involved in tropism. (1 mark)


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(2) State TWO sites of synthesis. (2 marks)
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(3) Name the precise part on which it exerts its effect. (1 mark)
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(4) State its effect on cells. (1 mark)
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(5) Describe how it moves from the site of synthesis to the part named in (3). (1 mark)
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(ii) State the difference in the rate of producing responses between plant chemical coordination and
human nervous coordination. (1 mark)
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(iii) Name TWO external stimuli which can induce the roots to move towards. (2 marks)
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##
(i) (1) auxins (1 mark)
(2) shoot tip and root tip (2 marks)
(3) region of elongation (1 mark)
(4) It promotes cell elongation. (1 mark)
(5) It diffuses from cells to cells. (1 mark)
(ii) Plants respond at a slower rate than human. (1 mark)
(iii) water and force of gravity (2 marks)
_________
(9 marks)##

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|!|EQA01800003|!|
Rachael put three mung bean seeds in 3 petri dishes, which were placed in boxes as shown in the following
diagrams. Then Rachael put the three boxes by a sunlit window:

A B C
(Transparent) (Black) (Black with a slit on the right side)

After seven days, Rachael observed that there were differences in their appearance:

A B C
(Transparent) (Black) (Black with a slit on the right side)
(i) Describe the differences between the two seedlings from A and B.
(1) Leaves; (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) Stem. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________

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(ii) Of seedling C,
(1) describe and explain the appearance. (4 marks)
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(2) state the purpose of the appearance. (1 mark)
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(3) state a term to describe the appearance. (1 mark)
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##
(i) (1) The leaves in Box A were larger than those in B. (1 mark)
The seedling in Box A developed green leaves while the leaves in Box B were yellow.(1 mark)
(2) The seedling in Box B had thinner stems than that in Box A. (1 mark)
(ii) (1) It curved towards the slit. (1 mark)
Auxins accumulated in the shaded side. (1 mark)
High concentration of auxins promoted the growth rate of shoots. (1 mark)
The cells in the shaded side grew faster than those in the illuminated side, leading to a curvature
towards light. (1 mark)
(2) To obtain more light for photosynthesis. (1 mark)
(3) phototropism (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

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|!|EQA01800004|!|
Helen conducted an experiment with ten seedlings, treated as shown below. The set up was placed in the dark
for one day.

Apparatus A (start) Apparatus B (start)

clinostat

cork
transparent cover
Apparatus A (after one day) Apparatus B (after one day)

(i) (1) Name the response shown by the seedlings in A. (1 mark)


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(2) Describe the mechanism in terms of a growth substance which brought about the result in A.
(4 marks)
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(3) State the significance of this response. (2 marks)
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(ii) Explain why the seedlings in B remained straight. (2 marks)
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##
(i) (1) Geotropism. (1 mark)
(2) Auxins accumulated on the lower sides of the seedlings due to the force of gravity. (1 mark)
A higher concentration of auxins inhibited the growth of root cells. (1 mark)

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This resulted in a faster growth on the upper side than the lower side, (1 mark)
causing the radicle to bend downwards. (1 mark)
(3) It enabled the root to grow downwards to absorb water and minerals from the soil. (1 mark)
It also provided a firm anchorage in the soil. (1 mark)
(ii) As the clinostat rotated, the effect of the gravitational force was cancelled on all sides of the seedlings.
(1 mark)
The cells on all sides grew at equal rates. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQA01800005|!|
Alex designed two boxes in which a potted plant and several mung bean seedlings were put respectively. After
three days, he took photographs to show the growth of the plants.

Box A Box B
(i) A growth response is demonstrated in Alex’s experiment.
(1) Name the response. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________

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(2) State the direction of growth as a result of this response in:
(a) stems; (1 mark)
_____________________________________________________________________________
(b) roots. (1 mark)
_____________________________________________________________________________
(3) State the significance of this response shown by stems. (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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(ii) (1) Explain the yellow colour of the leaves in Box B. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) State and explain the fate of the seedlings if kept in the same box for a longer period of time. (Assume
that there is an adequate supply of water.) (3 marks)
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##
(i) (1) Phototropism. (1 mark)
(2) (a) Stems grew towards light. (1 mark)
(b) Roots grew away from light. (1 mark)
(3) It enabled the leaves to be in a position to absorb sunlight (1 mark)
for photosynthesis to make food. (1 mark)
(ii) (1) Lack of chlorophyll. (1 mark)
(2) The seedlings would use up all the stored food in the cotyledons. (1 mark)
They cannot undergo photosynthesis to supply new nutrients to cells. (1 mark)
Eventually they die. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

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|!|EQB01800006|!|
* The following diagram shows the set-up used to investigate the growth response of a young seedling, A:

light-proof box

hole X

plumule
light

radicle

(i) The box was covered by a black cloth, so that no light passed through hole X.
(1) State the observation of the plumule after three days. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) Suppose another similar seedling, B, was put in a place where light came from above and no light-
proof box was present. Explain the difference in the growth of the plumules of seedlings A and B.
(3 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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(ii) The experiment was then repeated with the black cloth removed.
(1) State the observation of the plumule after three days. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) Draw the appearance of the seedling after three days. (3 marks)

(3) Name the growth response exhibited by the plumule. (1 mark)


_______________________________________________________________________________

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##
(i) (1) The plumule grew vertically without bending. (1 mark)
(2) The plumule of seedling A grew taller than that of seedling B. (1 mark)
Auxins were destroyed by light / moved away from light, (1 mark)
so there was less stimulatory effect on the plumule growth of seedling B. (1 mark)
(ii) (1) The plumule bent to the right / towards the light. (1 mark)
(2)

Appearance of the seedling after three days


Title (1 mark)
Correct appearance of the plumule (1 mark)
Correct appearance of the radicle (1 mark)
(3) Positive phototropism. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQB01800007|!|
* The following diagram shows a coleoptile exposed to a unilateral light:

light light

(i) Explain the growth response of the coleoptile to the unilateral light on a hormonal basis. (5 marks)
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(ii) If the coleoptile had been decapitated (with its tip removed) before being exposed to the unilateral
light, explain what the growth response of the coleoptile would have become. (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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(iii) Describe the experimental procedures to show that different parts of the coleoptile grew at different
rates. State the expected results. (4 marks)
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##
(i) The coleoptile exhibited positive phototropism / grew towards the light. (1 mark)
Light caused the lateral transport of auxins
away from the lighted side / light caused uneven distribution of auxins. (1 mark)
As a result, more auxins were present on the shaded side than the lighted side. (1 mark)
Since higher auxin concentration stimulated growth of stem, (1 mark)
the shaded side grew faster than the lighted side. (1 mark)
The coleoptile therefore bent towards the light.
(ii) The coleoptile would have shown no growth (1 mark)
because the tip region was the source of auxins which stimulated growth. (1 mark)
(iii) Mark the whole coleoptile with lines at regular intervals (1 mark)
and compare the distance between the marks after several days. (1 mark)
The markings of the region of elongation / the markings below the tip region should be further apart
(1 mark)
while those in other regions remained more or less the same. (1 mark)
_________
(11 marks)##

|!|EQA01800008|!|
The following set-up was used to study the growth response of a germinating seed. The seed was pinned on a
petri dish placed vertically on a stand as shown. The radicle was marked at intervals of 2 mm with Indian ink.
The whole set-up was put in darkness throughout the experimental period.

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Petri dish

pin

agar

stand

(i) State the purpose of marking the radicle at regular intervals. (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Draw the appearance of the germinating seed after several days (3 marks)

(iii) (1) Give a reason why it was necessary to keep the entire set-up in darkness. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) Explain the problem if the set-up had been exposed to sunlight throughout the experiment.
(2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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(iv) Explain what would happen to the growth response of the radicle if the experiment were repeated in
space. (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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##
(i) To compare the growth rate (1 mark)
of different parts of the radicle (1 mark)

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(ii)

The appearance of the germinating seed after several days


Title (1/2 mark)
Correct appearance of the plumule (1 mark)
Correct appearance of the radicle (1 mark)
Correct markings of the radicle (1/2 mark)
(iii) (1) To prevent the phototropic response of the plumule and radicle /
to make sure that the growth response of the seedling was caused by gravity only / not caused by
light (1 mark)
(2) The effect of gravity on the growth of the seed could not be studied (1 mark)
because there were more than one variable / both gravity and light
acted on the growth of the seed. (1 mark)
(iv) The radicle grew straight without bending (1 mark)
because there was no gravity acting on the seed in space. (1 mark)
_________
(10 marks)##

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|!|EQB01800009|!|
* The following diagram shows an experimental set-up to investigate the relative effects of two stimuli acting
on the growth response of the radicle of a seedling. The set-up included a trough with a water-containing pot
and the seedling as shown. Several days later, the radicle was found to have bent to the left.

seedling

trough
water

soil

porous pot

(i) Apart from water, which stimulus was investigated in the experiment? (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) (1) State the conclusion drawn from the experimental result. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(2) Explain the significance of your conclusion in (1). (2 marks)
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(iii) The elongation of the radicle is achieved by both cell division and cell expansion.
(1) State the cell type responsible for the cell division of the radicle. (1 mark)
__________________________________________________________________
(2) Name the type of cell division involved. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(3) Cell expansion occurs as a result of water absorption through root hair cells. Relate TWO
structural features of the root to their functions in facilitating water absorption. (4 marks)
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##
(i) gravity (1 mark)
(Light is INCORRECT because there was no light in the soil.)
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(ii) (1) Positive hydrotropic response is stronger than positive geotropic response. (1 mark)
(2) To make sure the seedling could get enough water (1 mark)
for growth (1 mark)
(iii) (1) meristematic cells (1 mark)
(2) mitosis (1 mark)
(3) Any 2 of the following: (4 marks)
Structure Function
Long hair Increase the surface area for contact with water and ions / for water
and salt absorption.
No cuticle Facilitate the water flow from the soil into the cells.
Thin cell wall Shorten the distance for absorption of water and salts.
Thin hair Penetrate soil particles for better contact with water and salts.
Large vacuole For osmotic control.
Many mitochondria Provide a large amount of energy for the absorption of salts by
active transport, thereby facilitating the intake of water by osmosis.

_________

_________
(10 marks)##

|!|EQA01800010|!|
The following graph shows the growth responses of stems and roots to various concentrations of externally
applied auxin:

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(i) Which part of the plant is more sensitive to auxin? (1 mark)


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(ii) Describe how the auxin can stimulate the growth of roots and stems. (2 marks)
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(iii) What result would you expect to occur if an agar block containing an auxin concentration of 1 p.p.m.
was applied to one side of a decapitated
(1) stem and
(2) root
as shown in the following diagram? (2 marks)

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##
(i) Roots are more sensitive to auxin. (1 mark)
(ii) Auxin stimulates cell elongation by increasing the permeability of cell walls so that the cells can take
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in more water. (2 marks)
(iii) (1) The stem will bend away from the side where the agar block is present. (1 mark)
(2) The root will bend towards the side where the agar block is present. (1 mark)
_________
(5 marks)##

|!|EQA01800011|!|
A coleoptile tip is placed on two split agar blocks. Then these agar blocks are put asymmetrically on the top of
a decapitated coleoptile and a decapitated radicle respectively.

(i) What change, if any, would be observed after a few days? (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Account for the observations in (i). (4 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
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_______________________________________________________________________________
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(iii) State the main practical precaution in carrying out this experiment. (1 mark)
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##
(i) After a few days, the decapitated coleoptile will bend away from the side where the agar block is
present, while the decapitated radicle will bend towards the side where the agar block is present.
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(2 marks)
(ii) The auxin concentration applied to the decapitated coleoptile stimulates growth, (1 mark)
and therefore, the side with agar block grows faster than the other side so that the coleoptile bends
away from this side. (1 mark)
The same concentration of auxin applied to the decapitated radicle retards growth, (1 mark)
therefore, the side with the block grows slower and bends the root towards this side. (1 mark)
(iii) This experiment should be carried out in darkness in order to avoid the stimulus of light. (1 mark)
_________
(7 marks)##
|!|EQA01800012|!|
A coleoptile was cut horizontally by a mica plate half deep inside the tip as shown in the diagram:

(i) What change would be observed after a few days? (1 mark)


_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Account for your observation in (i). (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iii) What change would you expect to be observed if a radicle were cut with the same way? (1 mark)
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##
(i) The coleoptile would bend towards the side where the mica plate was cut. (1 mark)
(ii) Auxin produced by the tip could be transported down the coleoptile where the mica plate was absent
but not to the side with the mica plate. (1 mark)
The side with auxin grew faster. As a result it bent towards the side where the mica plate was present.
(1 mark)
(iii) It would bend away from the side where the mica plate was placed. (1 mark)
_________
(4 marks)##

|!|EQA01800013|!|
An experiment was performed in the following steps:
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Step A and B: The tip of a coleoptile was cut and was placed under unilateral light for one hour.
Step C: A mica plate was placed in the centre of the cut tip.
Step D: Then the cut tip with a mica plate was replaced on the decapitated coleoptile.
(i) What change of the coleoptile would be observed after a few days? (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Account for the change of the coleoptile. (3 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iii) State the function of the mica plate in step C. (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iv) What precaution should be taken in carrying out step D? (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(v) What would be the result if the coleoptile in step D in this experiment were replaced by a radicle?
Why? (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(vi) From the above experiment, what is the relationship between light and the distribution of auxin?
(1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(vii) If the coleoptile tip were exposed to light from all directions in step B, would the result be different?
Explain your answer. (2 marks)
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##
(i) The coleoptile would bend to the right hand side. (1 mark)
(ii) The right hand side of the tip was illuminated by the unilateral light. Auxin accumulated on the shaded
side (1 mark)
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and was transported down the coleoptile. (1 mark)
Therefore the growth rate of this side was faster and it bent to the right hand side (away from the side
with accumulated auxin). (1 mark)
(iii) The mica plate was impermeable. It ensured that the distribution of auxin was uneven. (1 mark)
(iv) Step D should be carried out in darkness in order to avoid the stimulus of light. (1 mark)
(v) The radicle would bend to the left hand side (to the side where auxin accumulates), (1 mark)
because high concentration of auxin would retard the growth rate of radicle. (1 mark)
(vi) Unilateral light caused uneven distribution of auxin. The concentration of auxin in the shaded side was
higher than that in the illuminated side. (1 mark)
(vii) The coleoptile would grow upwards because the auxin was evenly distributed. (2 marks)
_________
(11 marks)##

|!|EQA01800014|!|
A coleoptile tip was removed and placed horizontally. Then it was connected to two agar blocks. Later the
agar blocks were put on top of a decapitated coleoptile.

(i) What would happen to the decapitated coleoptile? (1 mark)


_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Account for the result in (i). (4 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iii) What is the conclusion of this experiment? (1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________________
##
(i) It would bend towards the right hand side. (1 mark)
(ii) More auxin accumulated at the lower agar block (1 mark)
due to gravitational pull. (1 mark)
As they were put on top of a decapitated coleoptile, more auxin flowed down to the left hand side.
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(1 mark)
High concentration of auxin could stimulate the growth of coleoptile. (1 mark)
(iii) The distribution of auxin is affected by gravitational pull. (1 mark)
_________
(6 marks)##
|!|EQB01800015|!|
* In an experiment, the responses of the oat coleoptile to unilateral light was investigated. The treatments are
shown below:

For each treatment, draw a diagram to show the result and explain the result. (17 marks)
Coleoptile Result Explanation

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##
Coleoptile Result Explanation
More auxin accumulated at the shaded side and this stimulated
A the growth rate of the shaded side.
(1+2 marks)

Same as the above.


B (1+2 marks)

More auxin accumulated at the shaded side, but it could not


C pass through the mica plate. Therefore, a little auxin in left
hand side led to the slight bending to the right.
(1+2 marks)
No auxin was producted because the tip had been removed.
D (1+1 marks)

Same as A.
E (1+2 marks)

Auxin could pass through the agar block. More auxin


F accumulated at the shaded side.
(1+2 marks)

_________
(17 marks)##

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|!|EQA01800016|!|
The diagram below shows an experiment to investigate the responses of germinating seeds to a certain
stimulus.

(i) What would be the growth and curvature of the seedlings after two days? Explain your answer.
(6 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) If the motor were replaced by a clinostat, state the change, if any, of the results. (2 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
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##
(i) The radicles would grow away from the axle while the plumules would grow towards the axle.
(2 marks)
In the radicles and plumules the auxin would accumulate on their outside due to centrifugal force.
(2 marks)
In radicles high concentration of auxin produced an inhibitory effect. (1 mark)
In the plumules high concentration of auxin produced a stimulating effect. (1 mark)
(ii) Both the radicles and plumules would grow horizontally / do not bend. (2 marks)
_________
(8 marks)##

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