Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

Forgingprocess

Forgingistheworkingofmetalintousefulshapesbyhammeringor
pressing The equipments are classified in to pressing.Theequipmentsareclassifiedinto
Forginghammer:Drophammer,pneumatichammer
Forging press: Hydraulic press screw press or crank press Forgingpress:Hydraulicpress,screwpressorcrankpress
Forging hammers delivers rapid impact blows to the surface of the Forginghammersdeliversrapidimpactblowstothesurfaceofthe
metalwhiletheforgingpresssubjectsthemetaltoa slowspeed
compressive force compressiveforce.
Forgingoperations
Edging: Edgingdiesareusedtoshapetheendsofthebarsandtogather Edging: Edgingdiesareusedtoshapetheendsofthebarsandtogather
metal.Themetalisconfinedbythedietoflowhorizontallybutisfreeto
flowlaterallytofillthedie.
Fullering : Used to reduce the Cross sectional area of the stock Fullering : UsedtoreducetheCrosssectionalareaofthestock
Themetalflowisoutwardandawayfromthecentreofthefullering die.
Eg.ConnectingrodofanICengine
Drawing down: is used to reduce the cross Sectional area of work with Drawingdown:isusedtoreducethecrossSectionalareaofworkwith
concurrentincreaseinlength
Swaging:fnthedrawingdownoperationiscarriedoutwithconcavedies,
then it is called Swaging thenitiscalledSwaging.
Incloseddieforging,thebilletsarefirstfullered andedgedtoplacethe
metal in the correct places for subsequent operations The pre shaped metalinthecorrectplacesforsubsequentoperations.Thepreshaped
billetisthenplacedinthecavityoftheblockingdieandroughforgedto
closetothefinalshape.Blockingisthepenultimateoperationofthe
fi i h f i ti Th it i t f d t th fi i hi di d finishforgingoperation.Thenitistransferredtothefinishingdiesand
forgedtothefinalshapeanddimensions.
Forginganalysis
As the ram advances downward, the metal flow laterally, i.e. perpendicular to
the ram travel. This result in shear stresses at the die contact surfaces which is
directed toward the centre line, opposite to the metal flow.
The presence of friction causes an imbalance of force on the element in the x
direction. This imbalance of force is accommodated by a change in lateral direction. This imbalance of force is accommodated by a change in lateral
pressure
x
from one side of the element to the other.
It is assumed that the plate has a unit width and remain uniform.
Takingequilibriumofforcesinthex direction,
i e
(1)
i.e.
VonMisescriterionforPlanestrainconditionis
( )
(2)
DefiningP and
x
aspositivecompressiveprincipalstresses,p=
z
and
(2)
(3)
Since
0
doesnotchangewithx,
andfromeqn (1),
(4) (4)
Iftheshearingstressisrelatedtonormalpressurebycoulombslaw
of sliding friction p ofslidingfriction,
xy
=p.
Theaboveequation(4)becomes
(5)
Integrating both sides
(5)
Integratingbothsides,
(6)
BCs: atfreesurface,x=a,thelateralstress
x
=0,andp=
0

hence,
(6)
,
(7) (7)
Since isasmallnumber,wecanusetheexpansionseriesforsimplification
(8)
Therefore,
The mean forging pressure is
(9)
Themeanforgingpressureis
pinequation(8)intermsoftheratiooflengthtothickness(L/h)can
also be written as:
(10)
alsobewrittenas:
whereL=2a.AsL/hincreases,theresistancetodeformation
increasesrapidly.
AnotherwayotherthanCoulomb'slawtodescribetheinterfaceshearstressis
with Friction factor m, where
xy
=
i
= mk. Substituting
xy
= mk in to (4) gives withFrictionfactorm,where
xy

i
mk.Substituting
xy
mk into (4)gives
Integrating,
Since
(11)
Thispressuredistributionislinerwithdistancefromthecenterlineoftheslab.
Thereisalimitbelowwhichslidingfrictioncanexistatthedieworkspiece
i f Wh h li i i h d i f i l h f h k i interface.Whenthatlimitisreachedinterfacialshearoftheworkpieceoccursat
avalueoftheflowstress
i
=kwherekistheshearyieldstress=
o
/(3
1/2
).
Ingeneral
i
=mk ,sothatm=1.0istheconditionforstickingfriction.Forthe
specialcaseofstickingfriction,m=1andequation(11)becomes p g , q ( )
(12)
Themeanforgingpressureis
(13)
Normally the frictional conditions are intermediate between full sticking and Normally the frictional conditions are intermediate between full sticking and
slipping so that there may be sliding friction at the edges of the plate where
pressure is lower but at some distance closer to the neutral surface, the pressure
increases to the shear yield strength of the material If this point measured from increases to the shear yield strength of the material. If this point, measured from
the centre line where this transition occurs is x1,
this can be obtained by substituting for P of equation (12) in eqn (7). i.e.
(14)
Forcirculardisc,thenormalpressure(normaltotheinterface),canbe
obtained as obtainedas
Where, a = outside radius of
the disc at any instant,
r = the radial distance of an
elemental section from the
centre of the disc.,
The average deformation
pressure (mean height of
the friction hill can be t e ct o ca be
obtained as
Theeffectoffrictionanda/hratioontheaveragedeformation / g
pressureincompressionofadisc
Formationofflashinimpressiondieforging
1. Blank (bar)
2. Edging 3.Blocking 4. Finishing 5. Trimming
1. Blank (bar)
2. Edging 3.Blocking 4. Finishing 5. Trimming
1. Blank (bar)
2. Edging 3.Blocking 4. Finishing 5. Trimming
FigureIllustratingthevariousstagesofmanufacture
of a connecting rod by impression die forging ofaconnectingrodbyimpressiondieforging
Figureshowsthegrainflowduringforgingoperation