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Sample Test 3Chapters 6, 7, & 10 (Learning, Memory, and Motivation)


1. With classical conditioning we learn voluntary behaviors, with operant conditioning, we
learn involuntary behaviors.
a. TRUE b. FALSE
2. Taste aversions and phobias can develop through classical conditioning.
a. TRUE b. FALSE
3. What did Albert Bandura find in his "Bobo Doll" experiments?
a. Children will model the aggression they see performed by others.
b. Adults are more aggressive than most children
c. Children only model aggression when they see adults being reinforced for aggressive
acts
d. Children are not very adept at observational learning
4. Many battered women seem to make no effort to leave their abusers. Friends and relatives
may wonder "Why doesn't she just leave?" Research by Seligman and others suggests that these
women are sometimes resigned to their fate because of
a. fixed-interval reinforcers
b. unconditioned fears
c. learned helplessness
d. a history of negative reinforcement
5. Attract seven new clients to the firm and receive a bonus paycheck. This is an example of
a. fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
b. variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
c. fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
d. variable interval schedule of reinforcement
6. When you reward gradual and successive approximations of a complex behavior, you are
using:
a. shaping
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative reinforcement
d. higher-order conditioning
7. In classical conditioning, the CS provides information that allows the organism to predict the
occurrence of the US reliably. This is the main idea proposed by:
a. Ivan Pavlov
b. John Watson
c. Robert Rescorla
d. Mary Cover Jones
8. Dennis had a terrible time at the dentist's office. He received two fillings & the drilling really
hurt. Later, even the sight of the dentist and smell of the office made Dennis anxious. On his next
visit, his heart began to race, his palms began to sweat, and Dennis had to leave. Analyzing this
situation using classical conditioning, we can say that the US was:
a. dentist
b. the drilling
c. his fear
d. the smell of the office
9. In Watson and Rayner's study with little Albert, what was the conditioned response?
a. fear of the white rat
b. fear of the loud noise
c. the white rat
d. the loud noise
10. Following conditioning, repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus in the absence of
the unconditioned stimulus will lead to a reduction and eventually a disappearance of the
conditioned response. This phenomenon is referred to as:
a. acquisition
b. spontaneous recovery
c. extinction
d. generalization
11. Your roommate always seems to get good grades. Noticing this, you watch your
roommate's study habits and copy them to use for yourself. Sure enough, your grades improve.
You just used:
a. insight learning
b. latent learning
c. operant learning
d. observational learning
12. What do positive and negative reinforcers have in common?
a. they both work with humans but not animals
b. they are both terms used in classical conditioning
c. they both increase the probability that a response will be repeated
d. they are both terms used in cognitive learning
13. If an association is made between two stimuli, we are probably looking at
a. imitation learning
b. observational learning
c. operant conditioning
d. classical conditioning
14. Giving in to a child's tantrum only reinforces the tantrum. Psychologists who use operant
conditioning would suggest that parents completely ignore the tantrum. This advice is based on
the idea that the tantrum will go away
a. only if it is punished
b. if it is negatively reinforced
c. through the process of extinction
d. only when the child grows and matures
15. Marie receives chemotherapy for her cancer, and the chemotherapy makes her very
nauseous. During her 3rd visit, just the sight of the treatment room made her nauseous. She tried
to relax, but she could not help feeling ill even though her treatment hadn't started that day.
Marie's experience provides an example of:
a. counter-conditioning
b. desentization training
c. spontaneous illness
d. classical conditioning
16. If you want to train children to tie their shoes, you will have more success if you use
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. spontaneous conditioning
d. aversion training
17. Some memories are for how something might be accomplished. What kind of memories are
these?
a. episodic
b. semantic
c. procedural
d. short-term
18. After looking up a telephone number, dialing, and getting a busy signal, we often have to
look the number up again. In this case, we say the number was lost from_______ storage.
a. sensory
b. short-term
c. long-term
d. echoic
19. Transforming a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed in
memory is called:
a. encoding
b. storage
c. retrieval
d. transfer
20. In _________ one merely repeats to-be-remembered items over and over to oneself without
paying much attention to what the items might mean.
a. elaborative rehearsal
b. maintenance interference
c. proactive elaboration
d. maintenance rehearsal
21. If you parked your car in a certain space today, but you looked for it where you parked it
yesterday, you would be experiencing _________ interference.
a. episodic
b. retrograde
c. retroactive
d. proactive
22. "Forgetting is due to the dissipation of memory with the passage of time: is a statement of
________ theory
a. retention
b. decay
c. interference
d. encoding specificity

23. A psychologist wants to know why people engage in certain behaviors. In other words, the
psychologist is looking for the _______ underlying behavior.
a. motivation
b. temptation
c. denial
d. defense mechanisms
24. The Yerkes-Dodson Law of arousal suggests that
a. moderate levels of arousal are best for performance
b. low levels of arousal are best for performance
c. high levels of arousal are best for performance
d. arousal is negatively related to performance
25. The most important thing for Jill is to receive a bid to rush a certain sorority. This desire is
motivated by the need for
a. self-esteem
b. self-actualization
c. love and belongingness
d. security and safety
26. Jerome hates his job but he stays because the money is good. Jerome's motivation for
working at this job is:
a. extrinsic
b. internal
c. intrinsic
d. both intrinsic and extrinsic
27. What is self-efficacy?
a. degree of self-confidence
b. belief in your ability to attain a goal
c. determination to attain a goal
d. efficiency in attaining a goal
28. The lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus serve as _______ for eating
a. on and off switches
b. glucose detectors
c. fat detectors
d. receptors
Sample Essay Question:
Professor Weirdly had a girlfriend who loved to eat onions. Every time they kissed the
professor would smell onions. Now, whenever Prof. Weirdly smells onions, he gets
excited & thinks about kissing his girlfriend. Explain the poor professor's experience
using what you know about classical conditioning. In your answer, identify the US, UR,
CS, and CR

Answers:
1. b
2. a
3. a
4. c
5. a
6. a
7. a
8. b
9. a
10. c
11. d
12. c
13. d
14. c
15. d
16. b
17. c
18. b
19. a
20. d
21. d--you're forgetting the new (looking where you parked yesterday)
22. b
23. a
24. a
25. c
26. a
27. b
28. a
Essay: USkissing
UR--feeling excited
CSonions
CR--feeling excited


Use the following case to answer Questions 16.
I. As part of a contract with the public schools, Nick Accorti, a communication specialist,
agrees to set up a workshop for middle-school teachers. His goal and the goal of those
who attend is to promote learning-focused classroom environments and increase student
motivation. As the teachers file into the workshop, he greets each with a ready smile and
an energetic handshake, saying that he appreciates them being there, because he believes
the topic of learning-focused classrooms is a very important one.
II. Once seated, Nick begins his talk by saying, "Do you want the good news or the bad
news first?" The group is hesitant, not sure what to say, until finally Liz speaks up and
says, "The bad news, first I guess."
III. "Okay, the bad news is that motivation is the number one cause of classroom
management problems, as well as the obvious low achievement of some students and lack
of success that they feel in your classrooms," Nick states emphatically.
IV. "Tell us something we don't know," Clyde snickers from the back of the room.
V. "Well, that's the good news, in fact it's the greatest news I can deliver," Nick smiles
expansively as he says this. "You, you, you," he continues as he points at individuals
around the room. "You each have the power and the knowledge, the control, if you will,
to promote student motivation, to make positive changes. The good news is that this isn't
pie in the sky. It's concrete, it's real, and we're going to massage them, and adapt them to
our own personal styles. By the time you leave this workshop, you will have twelve tools
at your disposal. All you have to do is decide whether you want to use them. It's your
choice. . . . Do you want to do it?"
VI. "OK, let's get started, because these twelve tools of motivation, of change, aren't anything
magic. I know we can intuitively draw on our expertise and make a list. We'll fill in the
blanks later. Afterward, we'll implement them in some role playing exercises," Nick
continued.
VII. "Right now, I'd like you to break into groups of three or four. Here are three headings I'd
like you to work with: teacher characteristics, climate variables, and instructional
variables. For instance, under teacher characteristics, I think caring is important, so I'll
write caring here," Nick says, as he writes the word under teacher characteristics on the
board. "Is everyone clear on what we're trying to do? . . . Good, let's go ahead."
VIII. The teachers break into their small groups and begin the exercise. They discuss,
sometimes disagree about emphasis, and gradually move toward some consensus about
variables that they believe influence learners motivation. As they work, Nick moves
among the groups periodically asking questions and offering suggestions.
IX. After the groups have finished, they report. As they report, members of other groups
make comments and suggestions about the information that is being presented.
Gradually, the groups compile a list of variables that they believe can influence learner
motivation.


GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT





During physical development in early childhood, on average, children add ___________ inches
in height and about _____pounds in weight each year.

A. 7 to 8; 4
B. 3 to 4; 6
C. 2 to 3; 5
D. 1 to 2; 4
Q.2) When children start to physically grow in early childhood, their:

A. Body growth speeds up and body becomes more streamline.
B. Body growth slows down and body becomes more streamline.
C. Body becomes streamlined, flat-tummied, and longer-legged.
D. Both A and B
E. Both B and C
Q.3) Between ages 2 and 6, the increases from 70 percent of its adult weight to ____ percent.

A. 80%
B. 90%
C. 100%
Q.4) What changes occur during brain development in early childhood?

A. Frontal lobe growth
B. Substitute inhibited impulses for thoughtful responses
C. Hormone growth
D. Become picky eaters
E. Language skills increase
Q.5) Handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain - also called:

A. Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere
B. Recessive Cerebral Hemisphere
C. Recessive Cerebellum Hemisphere
D. Dominant Corpus Callosum
Q.6) Genes influence growth by controlling the body's production of what hormones?

A. Pituitary gland
B. Thyroid gland
C. Thyroid-stimulating hormones
D. Growth hormones
E. Hereditary hormones
Q.7) Children tend to imitate food choices of people they:

A. Dispise
B. Admire
C. Observe
D. Look like


Which of these is not an automatic reflex which occurs in infants?

Your Answer: Cephalocaudal
Cephalocaudal actually refers to a theory of growth which proposes the head (brain)
develops initially, followed by the trunk and arms, and finally the legs. Tonic neck, Moro
and Babinski are all voluntary reflexes. Tonic neck occurs when a baby moves his or her
arm across the eyes to protect them when threatened; it disappears at about four months.
The Moro reflex, apparent for six months, allows the infant to reach his or her arms out if
there is a loss of support. The Babinski reflex, which is outgrown between eight and twelve
months, is noticeable when a child curls its toes towards the sole of the foot when it is
touched.
41% of players have answered correctly.



2. Attachment, the close and secure relationships a child has with important
people in their lives, is a significant indicator of later social development. A
child who becomes upset when a parent or other close person leaves them is
likely to be in which stage of attachment?

Your Answer: Clear-cut attachment
Clear-cut attachment, which most children go through between six to eight
months and eighteen months to two years, is the first stage of definite
attachment. After pre-attachment (birth to six weeks) and attachment-in-the-
making (six weeks to six to eight months), and before formation of a reciprocal
relationship (eighteen months onward), a child realises that their close person
does still exist when he or she leaves, and that the child is being abandoned. This
often results in protests or attempts to delay the adult's departure.
48% of players have answered correctly.



3. Which is the first type of grasp (for holding pencils and other implements)
that children generally develop?

Your Answer: Palmar Grasp
The palmar grasp is a reflex evident in infants, used by children up to the age of
three or four to hold objects. The child places the object in his or her palm, and
wraps the fingers and thumb around it. Children who persist with this grasp,
instead of adapting to more complex grasps such as the pincer, superior
forefinger, and dynamic tripod, can have trouble with handwriting and other fine
motor tasks.
60% of players have answered correctly.



4. There are four recognisable categories of parenting styles, which reflect on
the demandingness and responsiveness of parents towards their children, and
they are a significant factor in the later social development of children. A
parent who is undemanding but responsive can be classed as what kind of
parent?

Your Answer: Permissive
Permissive parents are loving and caring towards their children, but are
somewhat lax about discipline and allow their children to make their own
decisions. Children with permissive parents often grow up to be immmature and
irresponsible. Authoritarian parents are demanding and unresponsive, which
generally results in little warmth but high discipline for children. Uninvolved
parents are undemanding and unresponsive, and can be considered negligent.
Authoritative parenting is accepted as the ideal category, as parents have
reasonable expectations for their children's behaviour, and are warm and
affectionate.
71% of players have answered correctly.



5. Which child development researcher developed the principle of the socio-
cultural theory?

Your Answer: Vygotsky
Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory suggests that children acquire the thought and
behavioural patterns acceptable in the particular society by engaging with and
modelling the actions of older members of the community.
23% of players have answered correctly.



6. Which of these gross motor skills is an example of manipulation?

Your Answer: Jumping
The correct answer was Kicking
Manipulation - of which kicking and throwing are two examples - refers to the
impartation of force onto objects, as opposed to locomotion (including skipping,
jumping, and walking) which is concerned with movement. Along with stability,
manipulation and locomotion form the three categories of gross motor abilities.
49% of players have answered correctly.



7. When determining the emotions experienced by an infant (under two years
of age), the main factor researchers depend on is what?

Your Answer: Facial expressions
A baby exhibits recognisable facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning,
looks of surprise, disgust, and so on, almost as soon as they are born. Since a
child under two years would not have particularly reliable verbal skills, nor
could a mother's subjective viewpoint be considered factual, facial expressions
are used as the main determinant of emotions like anger, joy, fear, excitement,
and distress.
50% of players have answered correctly.



8. For many children, being subjected to abuse at the hands of parents or other
adults in their early years can result in developmental problems, both in terms
of motor and social skills. Which form of abuse or neglect occurs when the
adult fails to respond adequately to children's need for affection and love?

Your Answer: Physical Neglect
The correct answer was Emotional Neglect
All types of child maltreatment are tragic, and for large numbers of children
experiencing abuse or neglect, later problems in their physical growth and social
and emotional development will occur. Often children who already suffer from
problems such as hyperactivity or inattention are at increased risk of
maltreatment, because caregivers are likely to be more stressed as a result.
79% of players have answered correctly.



9. Which of these is not a component of motor fitness in early childhood and
later life?

Your Answer: Agility
The correct answer was Flexibility
Speed, balance, and agility combine to assist humans to move or manipulate
objects with ease, which are the main factors of motor fitness. Flexibility, on the
other hand, is not essential for activities such as running, jumping, or kicking a
ball.
24% of players have answered correctly.



10. An understanding of motor and social development is important for people
who work with children in the early years, such as teachers, doctors, nurses,
counselors, and psychologists. Which of these is a tool used by such people
that records, in the present tense, every action of a particular child over a
continuous period of time, in order to gain a better comprehension of an aspect
of that child's motor or social development?

Your Answer: Anecdotal Record
The correct answer was Running Record
A checklist allows the early childhood professional to observe specific
behaviours on individual occasions, not as part of a continuous episode. An
anecdotal record is written after the event, using the past tense, and may not
cover every movement as a running record does. An event sampling record is
applied when the observer records every instance of a particular behaviour
(empathy, for example) over a given time.
43% of players have answered correctly.
Which of these is not an automatic reflex which
occurs in infants?
Babinski
Moro
Cephalocaudal
Tonic Neck

2. Attachment, the close and secure relationships a child has with important people in
their lives, is a significant indicator of later social development. A child who becomes
upset when a parent or other close person leaves them is likely to be in which stage of
attachment?
Clear-cut attachment
Attachment-in-the-making
Pre-attachment
Formation of a Reciprocal Relationship

3. Which is the first type of grasp (for holding pencils and other implements) that children
generally develop?
Dynamic Tripod Grasp
Palmar Grasp
Pincer Grasp
Superior Forefinger Grasp

4. There are four recognisable categories of parenting styles, which reflect on the
demandingness and responsiveness of parents towards their children, and they are a
significant factor in the later social development of children. A parent who is
undemanding but responsive can be classed as what kind of parent?
Permissive
Authoritative
Authoritarian
Uninvolved

5. Which child development researcher developed the principle of the socio-cultural
theory?
Bronfenbrenner
Bowlby
Vygotsky
Piaget

6. Which of these gross motor skills is an example of manipulation?
Walking
Skipping
Kicking
Jumping

7. When determining the emotions experienced by an infant (under two years of age), the
main factor researchers depend on is what?
Facial expressions
Mother's Interpretations
Verbalisations
Body Language

8. For many children, being subjected to abuse at the hands of parents or other adults in
their early years can result in developmental problems, both in terms of motor and social
skills. Which form of abuse or neglect occurs when the adult fails to respond adequately
to children's need for affection and love?
Emotional Neglect
Physical Neglect
Physical Abuse
Psychological Abuse

9. Which of these is not a component of motor fitness in early childhood and later life?
Speed
Balance
Agility
Flexibility

10. An understanding of motor and social development is important for people who work
with children in the early years, such as teachers, doctors, nurses, counselors, and
psychologists. Which of these is a tool used by such people that records, in the present
tense, every action of a particular child over a continuous period of time, in order to gain
a better comprehension of an aspect of that child's motor or social development?
Event Sampling Record
Checklist
Running Record
Anecdotal Record



Which of the following statements best
characterizes body growth in middle
childhood?
Your Answer: Children lack the flexibility
of movement they had
during the preschool years.

Correct Answer: Childrens legs grow faster
than their arms and torsos.

2. Retarded physical growth, low
intelligence scores, poor motor
coordination, inattention, and
distractibility are associated
with:
Your Answer: otis media.

Correct Answer: malnutrition.

3. Chronically ill children:
Your Answer: get a great
deal of
sympathy
from parents
and peers.

Correct Answer: are at-risk
for
academic,
emotional,
and social
difficulties.



4. During middle childhood, body
growth and more efficient
information processing
contribute to:
Your Answer: improved
motor
performance.

5. With the exception of
skipping, jumping, and
hopping, school-age boys:
Your Answer: outperform
girls in gross
motor skills
and in throwing
and kicking.

6. Gains in perspective-taking
permit the transition to:
Your Answer: rule-oriented
games.

7. Nine-year-old Albert easily
solves Piagets transitive
inference problem with sticks.
However, Albert has difficulty
solving the following problem:
Jim is taller than Frank, and
Frank is taller than Joe. Who is
the tallest? Piaget would
attribute Alberts failure on the
latter task to:
Your Answer: centration.

Correct Answer: horizontal
dcalage.

8. According to some neo-
Piagetian theorists, the
development of operational
thinking:
Your Answer: reflects gains in
information-
processing
capacity.

9. Gains in cognitive inhibition
help school-age children:
Your Answer: retrieve
information
from short-
term
memory.

Correct Answer: prevent their
minds from
straying to
irrelevant
thoughts.



10. Quentin needs to remember the
words tree and toaster. If he
uses the memory strategy of
elaboration, he will:
Your Answer: think of
words that
rhyme with
both.

Correct Answer: imagine a
tree with
toasters
growing out
of it.



11. The basic skills approach to
reading stresses:
Your Answer: the basic rules
for translating
written symbols
into sounds.

12. In Sternbergs triarchic theory
of intelligence, which
subtheory states that intelligent
individuals skillfully adapt
their thinking to fit with their
personal desires and the
demands of their everyday
worlds?
Your Answer: experiential

Correct Answer: contextual


13. When black and white children
are matched on family income,
the black-white IQ gap:
Your Answer: is reduced by a
third.

14. ________ is / are a strong
predictor of IQ.
Your Answer: Amount of time
spent in school

15. When asked which shirt he
wanted to wear, 9-year-old
Vaughn said, the blue shirt
with the baseball on the
sleeve. Vaughns description
illustrates which of the
following language
developments in middle
childhood?
Your Answer: a reflective

approach to
language
Correct Answer: pragmatics


16. Which of the following
statements is true of bilingual
development?
Your Answer: Bilingual
children are
advanced in
cognitive
development.

17. Katrina has just been placed in
a low-ability reading group.
Which is a probable outcome
of this placement?
Your Answer: Katrina will
exhibit a drop
in self-esteem.

18. Which of the following
statements about multigrade
classrooms is true?
Your Answer: Self-esteem and
attitudes toward
school are more
positive.

19. Louisa has an above average
IQ but is failing math. Louisa
may have:
Your Answer: mild mental
retardation.
Correct Answer: a learning
disability.

20. Which of the following
statements about gifted and
creative children is accurate?
Your Answer: Gifted and
creative
children are
better at
convergent
thinking
than
divergent
thinking.

Correct Answer: Gifted and
creative
children
often show
uneven
ability
across
academic
subjects.


Which of
the
following
statements
best
characterize
s body
growth in
middle
childhood?




Childrens legs grow faster than their arms
and torsos.

Children lack the flexibility of movement
they had during the preschool years.

Childrens growth during the school years
tends to be fast and irregular.


After age 8, boys begin accumulating fat
at a faster rate than girls.









Retarded physical growth, low intelligence scores, poor motor coordination,
inattention, and distractibility are associated with:



rapid development of the immune system.

malnutrition.

otis media.

obesity.











Chronically ill children:




often show improved health in middle childhood.

often perform as well in school as their healthy agemates.

get a great deal of sympathy from parents and peers.

are at-risk for academic, emotional, and social difficulties.











During middle childhood, body growth and more efficient information processing
contribute to:



childrens desire to play sports.

gradual improvements in writing and drawing.

improved motor performance.

sex differences in motor skills.













With the exception of skipping, jumping, and hopping, school-age boys:


continue to lag behind girls in other gross motor skills, such as throwing and
kicking.

ave a genetic advantage in muscle mass that fully accounts for their gross-
motor superiority.

outperform girls in gross motor skills and in throwing and kicking.

have less confidence in their athletic abilities than school-age girls.










Gains in perspective-taking permit the transition to:




gender-stereotyped games.

participation and self-confidence in sports.

rule-oriented games.

training in competitive sports.











Nine-year-old Albert easily solves Piagets transitive inference problem with
sticks. However, Albert has difficulty solving the following problem: Jim is taller
than Frank, and Frank is taller than Joe. Who is the tallest? Piaget would attribute
Alberts failure on the latter task to:




egocentrism.

centration.

horizontal dcalage.

analogical problem solving.











According to some neo-Piagetian theorists, the development of operational



thinking:


results from a sudden shift to a new stage.

reflects gains in information-processing capacity.

cannot explain how children come to master Piagetian tasks.

emerges spontaneously.










Gains in cognitive inhibition help school-age children:




understand their own mental processes.

retrieve information from short-term memory.

retrieve information from long-term memory.

prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts.











Quentin needs to remember the words tree and toaster. If he uses the memory
strategy of elaboration, he will:



say the words over and over to himself.

imagine a tree with toasters growing out of it.

think of words that rhyme with both.

write the words several times on a piece of paper.











The basic skills approach to reading stresses:




an appreciation of written language as communication.

childrens exposure to a text in its complete form.


the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.

an appreciation for word concepts in a story context.










In Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence, which subtheory states that
intelligent individuals skillfully adapt their thinking to fit with their personal
desires and the demands of their everyday worlds?



contextual

pragmatic

componential

experiential











When black and white children are matched on family income, the black-white IQ
gap:



disappears.

is exaggerated.

is unaffected.

is reduced by a third.











________ is / are a strong predictor of IQ.




Race

Amount of time spent in school

Sociability

Interest in novelty











When asked which shirt he wanted to wear, 9-year-old Vaughn said, the blue shirt
with the baseball on the sleeve. Vaughns description illustrates which of the
following language developments in middle childhood?



vocabulary

pragmatics

a reflective approach to language

grammar











Which of the following statements is true of bilingual development?




Bilingual children are advanced in cognitive development.

Recent research refutes the notion of a sensitive period for second language
learning.

When bilingual parents try to teach their children both languages during
early childhood, the children often experience severe problems in language
development.

Parents and teachers should not be concerned if children learning two
languages display semi-lingualism, or inadequate proficiency in both
languages.










Katrina has just been placed in a low-ability reading group. Which is a probable
outcome of this placement?



Katrina will exhibit a drop in self-esteem.

Her reading skills will improve.

She will exhibit the same level of achievement as her peers in higher-ability
reading groups.

She will view herself as intelligent.













Which of the following statements about multigrade classrooms is true?


Multigrade grouping seems to increase student competition.

Pupils get more drill on basic facts and skills, a slower learning pace, and
less time on academic work.

Self-esteem and attitudes toward school are more positive.

There are no differences in academic performance between same-age and
multigrade classrooms.









Louisa has an above average IQ but is failing math. Louisa may have:




difficulty with divergent thinking.

a lack of talent.

mild mental retardation.

a learning disability.











Which of the following statements about gifted and creative children is accurate?




Although gifted and creative children have high IQs, they usually struggle
with academic tasks.

Gifted and creative children are better at convergent thinking than divergent
thinking.

Gifted and creative children often show high ability across all academic
subjects.

Gifted and creative children often show uneven ability across academic
subjects.


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Child and Adolescent Development
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1. 1
During the preschool years:
o boys outgrow girls significantly
o girls outgrow boys significantly
o boys and girls show about the same growth patterns
o girls get heavier while boys get taller
2. 2
When is brain plasticity at its peak?
o not until adolescence
o between the ages of 1 and 2
o it varies greatly from individual to individual
o it varies greatly between females and males
3. 3
Younger preschoolers
o are less likely to engage in any form of play than older preschoolers
o are more likely to engage in cooperative play than older preschoolers
o are more likely to engage in physical play than older preschoolers
o are more sociable than older preschoolers
4. 4
Nhu and Joseph are chasing each other around the park and wrestling in the grass. This
form of play is called:
o aggressive play
o cooperative play
o large muscle skill play
o rough-and-tumble play
5. 5
Rough-and-tumble play:
o is simply an expression of aggression
o is important to the physical and social development of children
o increases as children get older
o is specific to American culture
6. 6
By the age of two, which of the following fine motor skills can a child accomplish?
o lacing one's shoes
o printing one's first name
o using a pencil with the correct hand grip
o none of the above
7. 7
Two-year-old Samantha is drawing a picture. It consists of scribbles that she has carefully
drawn along the border of the paper. Which stage of drawing is Samantha in?
o scribbles
o placement
o shape
o design
8. 8
With handedness:
o you are either right-handed or left-handed
o anyone could be either right-handed or left-handed - it's all due to experience
o regardless of what is done, about 90% of people will become right-handed
o significantly more people are becoming left-handed as we move into the
computer era
9. 9
Jeremy stutters. What might we guess about his handedness?
o he is right-handed, as this is associated with stuttering
o there is no relationship between handedness and challenges such as stuttering
o he is likely to be left-handed
o he has inherited damage to his medulla, which is associated with handedness
10. 10
As children move from infancy into the preschool years:
o their nutritional needs stay virtually the same
o they need significantly less vitamin intake than infants
o they need significantly more fat than infants
o they need to consume fewer calories per pound than infants
11. 11
The average 4- to 6-year-old requires __ calories per day.
o 1,000
o 1,400
o 1,800
o 2,400
12. 12
Parent's dislikes of certain types of foods (such as vegetables):
o lead to their child having healthy eating habits in later childhood
o have no impact whatsoever on their child's food preferences
o may lead to the child also disliking those foods
o impact boys more so than girls
13. 13
Minor illnesses refer to those that:
o occur in 1 to 3-year-olds more often than in older children
o last only 24 hours
o last only a few days and are not life threatening
o do not require over-the-counter medications
14. 14
Which group is most likely to obtain vaccinations for their children?
o Native-Americans
o African-Americans
o Latino/Latina-Americans
o Asian-Americans
15. 15
Around the world, nearly two-thirds of the children who die each year die of:
o heart disease
o unintentional injury
o influenza
o one of six diseases
16. 16
Why are poor children significantly more likely to die from accidents?
o due to dangerous housing conditions
o they are more likely to have parents who don't care
o because they are more likely to live in single-parent homes
o none of these
17. 17
What percentage of dreams occurs during REM sleep?
o 50%
o 60%
o 70%
o 80%
18. 18
Failure to control the bladder once the "normal" age for bladder control has been
achieved is called:
o encopresis
o urinesis
o enuresis
o ontothesis
19. 19
Bedwetting tends to occur:
o during stage 1 sleep
o during REM sleep
o during stage 3 sleep
o during the deepest stage of sleep
20. 20
Being able to pretend involves:
o manipulation of symbols
o cognitive sophistication
o preoperational thought
o all of these
21. 21
Engaging in elaborate pretend play is associated with:
o behavioral problems
o loneliness
o increased creativity and ability to relate to peers
o being an only or firstborn child
22. 22
Which of the following is true about imaginary friends?
o they are a sign of serious pathology
o they are extremely rare
o as many as 65% of preschoolers have them
o they are more common in later-born children
23. 23
If you ask a child the question "Why does it get dark outside?" and he responds, "So I can
go to sleep." This child:
o is most likely in preoperational thinking
o is demonstrating precausal thinking
o is engaging in egocentric thinking
o all of these
24. 24
"The sun is sad" is an example of:
o egocentrism
o artificialism
o animism
o conservation
25. 25
Understanding class inclusion requires an understanding of:
o reversibility
o conservation
o decentration
o all of these
26. 26
Which of the following is true?
o lack of centration enables one to have the ability of conservation
o centration causes one to have the ability of conservation
o centration and conservation are unrelated
o conservation causes centration
27. 27
Which of the following is a scaffolding strategy for helping a child understand a story?
o focusing on the child's attention on important details
o using a number of questions about what the child is doing
o correcting the child's misunderstandings
o all of these
28. 28
Which of the following is associated with higher IQ scores by age 3?
o emotionally responsive parenting
o verbally responsive parenting
o a variety of daily experiences when young
o all of these
29. 29
Preschool programs for disadvantaged children were created because poor children:
o do less well on standardized tests and are at risk for school failure
o need the nutrition and medical care that these programs provide
o perform less well on the HOME scale
o do not have access to high quality elementary schools
30. 30
Piaget believed that the appearance-reality distinction appeared at what age?
o age 3
o age 4
o age 5
o not until age 7 or 8
31. 31
Preoperational children show some difficulties in recognizing the difference between
reality and appearance. This is due to:
o a lack of understanding object permanence
o an inability to understand egocentrism
o a limited understanding of mental representations
o none of these
32. 32
Autobiographical memory appears to be linked to:
o language development
o maturation of predetermined cognitive functions
o the child's tendency to ignore what happens to others
o childhood egocentrism
33. 33
Which of the following would increase a young child's memory for an event?
o if the activities have happened for the first time
o if the activities occurred in a particular order
o if the activities were engaged in by their mother
o if the activities were random in nature
34. 34
Childhood memories seldom persist into adulthood until after age __ .
o 6 months
o 12 months
o 18 months
o 24 months
35. 35
Repetition is the same as:
o rehearsal
o memorization
o categorization
o recall
36. 36
In the study by DeLoache and colleagues (1985), what behaviors did children exhibit
which indicated they were trying to remember where Big Bird was hidden?
o they searched for the toy
o they asked to see the toy
o they pointed or looked at the hiding place
o they did not show any behaviors which indicated that they were trying to
remember
37. 37
Given the whole-object assumption, a child would assume that "train" refers to the:
o train whistle
o caboose
o train wheels
o entire train
38. 38
Piaget believed that children __ then __.
o learn words; develop classes and categories of objects
o develop concepts; learn words to describe the concepts
o separate vocalizations from thought; combine them
o develop inner speech; learn to label new objects and concepts
39. 39
Fantasy play often involves:
o older preschoolers
o adopting adult roles
o cooperation
o all of these
40. 40
Should parents restrict their children's behavior?
o yes, as much as possible
o no, it thwarts their development
o it depends upon the child's temperament
o it depends upon how "restrictiveness" is defined
41. 41
2-year-old Matt reaches over and pulls his mother's hair. She responds by saying "Don't
do that. It hurts!" This type of response qualifies as:
o an inductive technique
o a power-assertive method
o withdrawal of love
o restrictive parenting
42. 42
The parental technique of power assertion is associated with:
o lower acceptance by peers
o higher rates of antisocial behavior
o interpersonal problems
o all of these
43. 43
In many cultures, __.
o older brothers typically take care of younger siblings
o younger siblings typically turn to older sisters when their mothers are
unavailable
o the influence of older sisters on siblings disappears after adolescence
o as siblings reach adolescence, their conflict increases
44. 44
Does the birth of a sibling have an impact on existing children in the family?
o no, it usually does not
o yes, but the effects are almost always positive
o no, unless there is more than one sibling already in the family
o yes, in both positive and negative ways
45. 45
Why might parents "relax" in their expectations of later-born children?
o they have come to trust their parenting skills
o they have fewer resources to "share" amongst multiple children
o they see that the first-born child is developing in a healthy way
o all of these are possible reasons
46. 46
Does play serve a purpose?
o no, it is a simple pleasure of childhood
o yes, it serves many purposes
o not until the age of 3 or older, when the child can learn from it cognitively
o no, because not all children in all cultures demonstrate play
47. 47
Bridgette and Ben have created a game in which they race their bicycles through an
obstacle course. According to Piaget, this type of play is defined as:
o functional
o symbolic
o constructive
o formal games
48. 48
The tendency to prefer to play with peers of the same gender:
o does not usually appear until approximately age 5 or 6
o weakens as children enter middle childhood
o is seen across a wide variety of cultures
o is mostly a myth
49. 49
Why might children prefer to associate with peers of their own gender?
o because they probably share similar interests
o they do not, this is a fallacy
o they are taught to show such a preference
o the preference is biological
50. 50
If Leticia agrees to help Tricia with her project in return for a candy bar, is Leticia
exhibiting prosocial behavior?
o yes, because it is helping behavior
o no, because a reward is involved
o it depends upon whether Leticia likes Tricia
o it depends upon whether Leticia has been rewarded for doing this type of
behavior
51. 51
Which of the following children would be most likely to demonstrate prosocial behavior?
o one whose parents were permissive-indulgent
o one who is securely attached to his/her parents
o one who is raised by authoritarian parents
o one who has multiple siblings
52. 52
Researchers who propose that individuals are aggressive because there is a competition
for resources, such as food, adhere to the __ theory of aggression.
o biological factors
o evolutionary
o cognitive factor
o social learning
53. 53
William watches a lot of televised violence. How might this affect his likelihood of
helping a victim when violence occurs?
o he might be less likely to take action
o it would cause him to be more likely to intervene
o it would decrease the arousal he feels, causing him to be more likely to be
calm and know what to do in a violent situation
o it would increase his awareness of the violence
54. 54
Which of the following is true regarding media violence and aggression?
o the relationship has been found for boys, but not girls
o media violence may disinhibit aggressive behavior
o media violence decreases levels of arousal
o children who see more media violence are less likely to use violence
themselves
55. 55
Considering all women to be "emotional" is:
o accurate
o consistent across cultures
o a gender-stereotype
o not based on fact
56. 56
Kohlberg suggested a cognitive-developmental view of gender typing that suggests that:
o gender is "stamped" into the wiring of the brain and how it processes
information
o children play an active role in their own gender typing by forming concepts of
gender and then fitting their behavior to those concepts
o parents (caregivers) are the sole determining force in the gender typing of
children
o none of these
57. 57
In the United States, when has an adolescent made the transition into adulthood?
o age 16
o age 18
o age 21
o it is difficult to tell and varies by person
58. 58
According to Anna Freud, why is adolescence a turbulent time?
o because of identity issues
o because of repressed fears from childhood coming to the surface
o because of the increase in secks drive
o because most children, unconsciously, do not want to become adults
59. 59
On average, how many inches do girls add to their height per year during the adolescent
growth spurt?
o about 1 inch
o about 3 inches
o about 5 inches
o about 7 inches
60. 60
Which of the following characteristics of asynchronous growth violates the concept of
cephalocaudal development?
o arms and legs mature before hands and feet
o hands and feet mature before arms and legs
o legs reach peak growth before shoulders and chest
o shoulders and chest reach peak growth before legs
61. 61
First menstruation is called __.
o nocturnal emission
o initial period
o menarche
o menstrual activation
62. 62
What appears to trigger the production of higher levels of estrogen associated with the
initiation of puberty in girls?
o a certain body weight
o a particular amount of body fat
o the secretion of leptin
o all of these work to trigger estrogen production
63. 63
Which of the following are true about early-maturing boys?
o they are only positive implications of early maturation
o they may not be psychologically prepared for their new bodies
o they tend not to be as bright as later-maturing boys
o none of these
64. 64
Compared to boys at ages 13, 15, and 18:
o girls report higher levels of body satisfaction by age 18
o girls report lower levels of depression than boys at all three ages
o girls report more negative body images than boys at all three ages
o girls are less likely to diet than boys at all three ages
65. 65
Which of the following is true about HIV/AIDS?
o it is predominantly a gay illness
o the risk of infection with heterosexual intercourse is low
o knowledge about HIV/AIDS causes the majority of people to modify their
seckshual activities
o none of these is true
66. 66
Approximately __ of the nation's adolescent has at least one serious health problem.
o 1%
o 5%
o 10%
o 18%
67. 67
You have just read an article in the paper in which a local adolescent has died in a car
accident. Given what we know about causes of death in adolescence, it is most likely true
that the adolescent
o is 12 to 14 years old
o is female
o is Caucasian
o is older and male
68. 68
A progressive loss of bone is known as __.
o calcium deficiency syndrome
o progressive bone disease
o menopause
o osteoporosis
69. 69
Treating eating disorders:
o is easy with the new generation of anti-anxiety medications
o may need to include treatment against the individual's will
o generally are successful within a few months
o are more successful with anorexia than bulimia
70. 70
A common feature of anorexia is:
o depression
o denial
o prior seckshual abuse
o all of these
71. 71
Randy has been drinking more and more alcohol because if he suddenly stops drinking he
experiences very unpleasant side effects. Randy is exhibiting:
o abstinence syndrome
o substance dependence
o withdrawal symptoms
o all of these
72. 72
Nicotine is a:
o stimulant
o depressant
o sedative
o narcotic
73. 73
Which of the following may assist in weight control?
o alcohol
o nicotine
o cocaine
o marijuana
74. 74
Why do adolescents experiment with drugs?
o it is a natural thing to do
o most adolescents do not experiment with drugs
o there are a variety of reasons that differ from adolescent to adolescent
o experimentation is caused by a biological trigger towards addiction
75. 75
What is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent drug use and abuse?
o genetic predisposition towards addiction
o depression
o anxiety
o peer use and acceptance
76. 76
When an adolescent comes for addiction treatment, what is the first step?
o helping them through the withdrawal symptoms
o changing their social environment
o making them dislike being addicted
o focusing on what the drug is doing to their health
77. 77
Which of the following is not a major achievement of formal operational thinking?
o conservation
o classification
o logical thought
o hypothetical thought
78. 78
In terms of career decisions, why might hypothetical thinking lead to anxiety for some
adolescents?
o they can imagine failure
o they fear success
o they can envision only choosing one of many options
o hypothetical thinking is almost always negative
79. 79
X + Y = 7. If you are a concrete operational child, what do you assume X is?
o 7
o 4
o 5
o none of these
80. 80
The phrase "jumping to conclusions" is a:
o simile
o metaphor
o oxymoron
o none of these
81. 81
Which researcher/s used a pendulum to examine children's problem-solving skills?
o Kohlberg
o Bandura
o Inhelder and Piaget
o Freud
82. 82
Inhelder and Piaget used a pendulum to explore the ways in which children of different
ages went about solving problems. What did they find?
o 8 to 13-year-olds used formal operational thought
o 14 to 15-year-olds used concrete operational thought
o 8 to 13-year-olds used concrete operational thought, whereas 14 to 15-year-
olds used formal operational thought
o both groups functioned at a preoperational level
83. 83
Which of the following career fields relies on mental rotation ability?
o architecture
o engineering
o art
o all of these
84. 84
Female adolescents may show reduced performance in math when they are:
o subjected to the stereotype that males are better at math than females
o overly perfectionist
o anxious about taking tests
o all of these
85. 85
Kohlberg may have underestimated the influence of social, cultural and educational
institutions on moral development. I.E., parent's use of _ has been found to advance
moral reasoning in children
o authoritarian parenting techniques
o power assertion
o love withdrawal
o inductive discipline, such as discussions of feelings of others
86. 86
What stage of moral reasoning is necessary for abstract ideas such as religious tolerance
and freedom for all?
o stage 3
o stage 4
o stage 5
o stage 6
87. 87
According to Carol Gilligan (1982), women score lower on Kohlberg's stages of moral
development because:
o women have been socialized to make judgments based upon logic
o women have been socialized to make judgments based upon the needs of
others
o women are inherently less moral than men
o none of the above
88. 88
What do we know about dropping out of school?
o it leads to delinquent behavior
o more females are likely to drop out than males
o European-Americans are most likely to drop out
o none of these
89. 89
Which of the following appears to impact school dropout rates the most?
o socioeconomic status
o motivation level
o substance abuse
o low self-esteem
90. 90
Which of the following is true about most dropout intervention programs?
o they are proactive in reaching at-risk students before there is a problem
o they easily identity students who are at risk for dropping out
o their focus is mainly on girls, not on boys
o they are usually not employed until dropping out is immanent
91. 91
From a social cognitive perspective, competencies, encoding strategies, and __ affect
career choices.
o expectancies
o academic achievement
o parents' careers
o level of abstract thinking
92. 92
Which person developed the Career Typology?
o Holland
o Kohlberg
o Beck
o Bandura
93. 93
According to Holland, conventional people gravitate towards occupations in:
o plumbing and construction work
o government and social organizations
o banking, accounting, and clerical work
o none of the above
94. 94
The Department of Labor's "The Dictionary of Occupational Titles" lists more than __
occupations.
o 2,500
o 10,000
o 20,000
o 35,000
95. 95
Which best describes the relationship between teen employment and ethnic and social
class differences?
o European teens are least likely to be employed
o adolescent employment is becoming more common among middle class
youth
o lower income teens work fewer hours than middle class teens
o lower income girls are more likely to hold jobs than lower income boys
96. 96
When considering who adolescents view themselves to be, it is important to also
consider:
o who they would like to be
o how they view their present selves
o how they reconcile seemingly contradictory traits
o all of these
97. 97
According to Erikson, the primary task of adolescence is to:
o begin developing intimate relationships
o develop ego identity
o feel industrious and want to accomplish things
98. 98
Which of the following is true about ego identity?
o it is directed towards the future
o it is strongly influenced by our past
o it includes our ideological view of the world
o all of these
99. 99
According to Marcia, identity status involves the dimensions of:
o wishes and beliefs
o uncertainty and values
o formation and diffusion
o exploration and commitment
100. 100
Phinney's ethnic identity search is comparable to Marcia's __.
o identity achievement
o identity foreclosure
o identity moratorium
o identity diffusion
101. 101
Brandon is a 17-year-old Hispanic male who has not given much thought to identity
issues. Rather, he identifies with the values and practices of his family. According to 3
stages of ethnic identity,
o this is called moratorium
o this is called unexamined ethnic identity
o this is called ethnic identity search
o this is called achieved ethnic identity
102. 102
Contradictions and conflicts in self-descriptions reach their peak at age __.
o 21
o 18
o 16
o 14
103. 103
In early adolescence:
o emotional support from parents and peers is important in the development of
self-esteem
o emotional support from parents and peers are equally important to self-esteem
o emotional support is linked to higher rates of positive feelings about the self
o all of these
104. 104
When are conflicts between parents and their children the highest?
o during late adolescence
o during puberty
o during middle adolescence
o during young adulthood
105. 105
Adolescents from authoritative homes:
o are more self-reliant
o are more critical of their parents
o are more likely to rebel
o have higher rates of psychological problems
106. 106
Hector is 16-years-old and is opposed to drinking and smoking. In all likelihood:
o Hector's friends will be similar to him in age and beliefs
o Hector is unlikely to form significant adolescent friendships
o Hector's friends are likely to disagree with his belief system
o Hector is likely to be an ethnic minority adolescent
107. 107
Which of the following are peers most likely to influence?
o taste in clothing and music
o moral principles
o future educational goals
o future career goals
108. 108
In comparison to adolescents who do not communicate well with their parents, those who
do:
o are likely to have fewer seckshual partners
o are more likely to use contraceptives
o are more likely to delay the onset of seckshual activity
o all of these
109. 109
Secks education programs:
o have been shown to increase teen pregnancy rates
o cause a decline in the use of contraceptives
o work better in the United States than in other countries
o have shown some success in reducing seckshual activity and increasing
contraceptive use
110. 110
When children or adolescents engage in illegal activities and come into contact with the
criminal justice system, this is called:
o status offenses
o juvenile delinquency
o differential offending
o truancy
111. 111
Which of the following is defined as a status offense?
o drunk driving
o robbery
o underage smoking
o murder
112. 112
How many adolescents have attempted suicide at least once?
o 1 in 5
o 1 in 10
o 1 in 100
o 1 in 1,000
113. 113
Adolescent suicide:
o is never associated with a stressful life event
o is unrelated to social support
o is sometimes related to an adolescent's being "found out" rather than a life
event
o is unrelated to problem solving skills
114.
Which of the following is most true for you?
o I have a child/children.
o I would like to earn cash for sharing my opinion.
o None of the above.
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Links: Instructor's Notes
Self Test (Print Ready)

Self Test for Adolescence:
Biosocial Development


Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 14 & are selected to
represent the type of question you should expect on unit five. You can, in fact, expect to see many of
these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in
the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your
text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.
Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you
are right.
1. Adolescence
lasts ten years on average.
ends around age 21.
starts at about age 11.
all of these
2. Puberty begins with a hormonal signal from the
hypothalamus.
hippocampus.
cerebellum.
ovaries or testes.
3. Hormone release sequence in puberty is
pituitary, gonads, hypothalamus.
gonads, pituitary, hypothalamus.
hypothalamus, gonads, pituitary.
hypothalamus, pituitary, gonads.
4. In puberty, testosterone increases
in neither males nor females.
in both males and females.
only in females.
only in males.
5. Factors besides gender that affect the onset of puberty are
genes, drug use, & stress.
genes, body type, & stress.
parental involvement, genes, & nutrition.
nutrition, drug usage, & parental involvement.
6. "Menarche" refers to
the 1st ovulation of a mature egg.
a girl's 1st menstrual period.
the beginning of the growth of the uterus.
the 1st year of menstruation.
7. Family conflict & stress
typically increase after puberty.
typically decrease after puberty.
may cause late onset of puberty.
may cause early onset of puberty.
8. The adolescent growth spurt begins with
an increase in torso length.
an increase in bone length & density.
rapid growth of muscle tissue.
increase in skull size.
9. In normal children, the age of the growth spurt
varies widely.
occurs in boys first.
occurs at the same yearly age for girls
is evenly distributed over the teen years.
10. Who will likely find puberty the most difficult?
Bill, who is "on-time".
Kyle, who is "early".
Kim, who is "late".
Linda, who is "early".

11. Which of the following changes occur during adolescence?
the heart doubles in size.
the tonsils double in size.
the lungs increase by 5 times in weight.
Acne occurs for 98% of teens.
12. Adolescent acne is usually brought on by
changes in diet.
sexual frustration.
changes in the lymphoid system.
increased activity of oil & sweat glands.
13. Who probably needs the most calories?
a 16 year old girl.
a 22 year old girl.
a 17 year old boy.
a 12 year old boy.
14. Because Kim is 15, she likely needs more
calcium.
iron.
potassium.
vitamin C
15. Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include
pubic hair & underarm hair growth.
uterus & testes growth.
rapid height increase.
all of these
16. If a boy's breasts increase during puberty, he probably
has an extra chromosome.
eats to much pork.
needs exercise.
is normal.
17. Most sexual abuse is done
by men.
to boys.
by strangers to a child.
all of these
18. Trends in drug use in the U.S. show
steady decreases from the mid 1970s on.
steady increases from the mid 1970s on.
after decreases in the 80s, a recent increase.
less use of alcohol and more use of marijuana.
19. Adolescents who NEVER! try any drugs tend to be
tense & insecure as children.
calm & confident as children.
the most popular children in school.
born to parents who are warm & responsive.
20. Which of the following is a "gateway" drug?
cocaine
heroin
alcohol
LSD

21. Another name for the route of the biological sequence of puberty is
the HPA axis.
the GuRH hormone route.
the chain of hormonal changes.
the estradiol / testosterone progression.
22. A problem with being a sexually active male adolescent is that the risk for getting the HIV virus
increases if he:
is already infected with other STI's.
has more than one partner within a year.
does not use condoms during intercourse.
all of the above.
23. Hormonal changes have the greatest emotional impact:
directly, by causing emotions.
directly, by causing mood changes.
directly, by making adolescents seek sexual activity.
indirectly, by causing visible signs of puberty such as beard & breast growth.
24. The order of change for the teenage body would be:
weight increase, height spurt, a period of muscle increase
height spurt, a period of muscle increase, weight increase
weight increase, a period of muscle increase, height spurt
height spurt, weight increase, a period of muscle increase
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Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates


Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom
involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of
responsibility.
- Sigmund Freud




Of the following, the variable from the
model for promoting student motivation that
is best illustrated in paragraph I of the case
study is
Your Answer: expectations.

Correct Answer: enthusiasm.

A smile and an energetic
handshake are indicators of
enthusiasm. Also, as Good and
Brophy (1997) pointed out,
communicating your own interest
in a topic is an indicator of
enthusiasm, and Nick did that as
well.

2. Of the following, the variable
from the model for promoting
student motivation that is best
illustrated in paragraph II of the
case study is
Your Answer: challenge.

Correct Answer: introductory
focus.
Introductory focus is a way of
initially attracting learners'
attention and providing a
framework for the lesson.

3. Of the following, the variable
from the model for promoting
student motivation that is best
illustrated in paragraph V of the
case study is
Your Answer: caring.

Correct Answer: challenge.

Nick is challenging the teachers.
He isn't displaying behaviors he
wants them to imitate (choice a),
and there is little evidence of
either caring or success in this
paragraph (choices c and d).

4. Of the following, the variable
from the model for promoting
student motivation that is best
illustrated in paragraph VII of the
case study is
Your Answer: feedback.

Correct Answer: task
comprehension.
Nick helped the participants be
clear about what they were
supposed to be learning. They
were not yet involved (choice c)
and they hadn't yet gotten any
feedback (choice d).

5. Of the following, the variable
from the model for promoting
student motivation that is best
illustrated in paragraph VIII of
the case study is
Your Answer: challenge.

Correct Answer: involvement.

The teachers were involved in the
activity. While it was
undoubtedly challenging, there is
more direct evidence in the
paragraph for involvement than
there is for challenge.

6. Of the following, the variable
from the model for promoting
student motivation that is best
illustrated in paragraph IX of the
case study is
Your Answer: challenge.

Correct Answer: feedback.

The participants were receiving
information about their thinking
that could be used to revise their
ideas. This is the essence of
feedback.

7. Which of the following is NOT
characteristic of a learning-
focused classroom?
Your Answer: effort focused
on
understanding

Correct Answer: emphasis on
competition
In learning-focused classrooms,
competition is deemphasized in
favor of individual mastery.

8. Which of the following is NOT
characteristic of a performance-
oriented classroom?
Your Answer: ability viewed as
incremental and
alterable

9. Which of the following is NOT a
characteristic of a high efficacy
teacher?
Your Answer: They

emphasize
increased
student
competence.
Correct Answer: They lower
criteria when
students don't
initially
succeed.


High efficacy teachers maintain
high expectations in the face of
student struggles.

10. "Do as I say, not as I do" runs
counter to which motivational
teacher characteristic?
Your Answer: high
expectations
Correct Answer: Modeling

Through modeling, teachers
attempt to motivate by example.

11. Success is most important for
developing learner
Your Answer: self-analysis.

Correct Answer: self-efficacy.

Learner self-efficacy is
determined by a student's history
of success.

12. Which of the following is NOT
true of challenge?
Your Answer: Challenge
increases when
students succeed
on tasks.

13. The importance of task
comprehension for motivation can
best be explained by which of the
following theories?
Your Answer: Psychoanalytic

Correct Answer: Cognitive

The cognitive theory of
motivation emphasizes the
importance of students
understanding why they're doing
a learning activity.

14. Introductory focus is most closely
related to which aspect of
information processing theory?
Your Answer: Attention

15. Which of the following is NOT an
example of personalization?
Your Answer: A science
teacher uses
students' eyes
to talk about
dominant and
recessive
genes.

Correct Answer: A middle
school science
teacher brings
in actual
samples of the
rocks and

minerals they
are studying.
All of the other examples reflect
attempts by the teacher to link
content to students' lives.

16. Which of the following is NOT
true of open-ended questions?
Your Answer: They are valuable
in teaching basic
skills.

17. Climate variables are important
for motivation because
Your Answer: they create a
motivating
learning
environment.

18. Which of the following
statements best reflects personal
teaching efficacy?
Your Answer: There are limits
to what any
teacher can
accomplish.

Correct Answer: I know if I
work hard I can
get students to
learn.


High efficacy teachers believe
that their instructional efforts will
result in student learning.