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Baylis and Smith: The Globalization of World Politics: 3e

Case Study: The Iraq War, 2003


OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Oxford University Press, 2005. All rights reserved.
IR Theory in Practice Case Study:
The Iraq War, 2003
Section 4
Social Constructivist Theory and the Iraq War
From reading Chapter 11 of The Globalization of World Politics (3e.), you
should now be familiar with constructivist theory in International Relations
(IR). You are advised to consult this crucial chapter if you have not done so
already as its contents will not be repeated here. Where you see bracketed
chapter references, for example (see ch.11), this refers to the relevant chapter
in The Globalization of World Politics (3e.).
Introduction
In addition to this section you should consult the Realism, Liberalism,
Marxism, and Alternative theory sections of the case study for important
alternatives to constructivism. The purpose of this section is to suggest ways
in which the insights you will have learnt from Chapter 11 of The Globalization
of World Politics (3e.) illustrate important aspects of the Iraq War from some
of the constructivist theoretical perspectives. As with the previous section,
however, by no means can the following be an exhaustive survey of the
possible ways social constructivism might help you think about the Iraq War
and its aftermath. However, we will briefly focus on 1) the importance of law
and international institutions; 2) the social construction of threat; and 3) the
identity politics of the war.

1) The importance of law and international institutions
According to constructivists, legal norms structure social interaction at the
international level in a way traditional realist and liberal theories are not able
to predict. More particularly, as Martha Finnemore has written, interstate uses
of force are increasingly shaped by Weberian rational-legal authority
structures, specifically legal understandings and the rules or norms of
international organizations (2003: 21). Finnemore suggests that the two most
significant features of the current international order are multilateralism and a
general reluctance by states to resort to force. At the same time, liberal-
democratic regimes have emerged as underwriters of international stability.
With UN backing, it is this liberal democratic blueprint that states and other
multilateral agencies now use in a humanitarian fashion, Finnemore suggests,
to reconfigure and reconstruct problem states when they intervene (2003: 87;
c.f. Owens, 2004).
One of the major criticisms of the US invasion of Iraq was that the United
States did not seem very reluctant to intervene and that it was principally a
Baylis and Smith: The Globalization of World Politics: 3e
Case Study: The Iraq War, 2003
OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Oxford University Press, 2005. All rights reserved.
unilateral invasion that went against the wishes of the UN Security Council
and much of the wider international community. However, in the run up to the
invasion the Bush administration stated that it did not want to invade Iraq. In
fact, the major build up of forces prior to the invasion was paradoxically
presented as designed to ensure that war did not break out; they were
calculated to compel Saddam Hussein to give up his weapons of mass
destruction and to give credibility to the demands of the UN. In the words of
Secretary of State, Colin Powel We wrote [Security Council Resolution] 1441
not in order to go to war, we wrote 1441 to try to preserve the peace. We
wrote 1441 to give Iraq one last chance. Iraq is not so far taking that one last
chance. We must not shrink from whatever is ahead of us (Powell, 2003,
478).
The Bush administration, after pleas from Britain where the prospect of war
was far less popular, also proposed asking the Security Council for a second
resolution on Iraq. An earlier resolution on Iraqi weapons programmes had
indicated that the international community had the right to take all necessary
means to disarm Iraq if it failed to comply. President Bush argued that this
gave the United States authority to act to forcibly disarm Iraq. Moreover, in the
words of Richard Butler, former leader of UNSCOM, It is crucial to
understand that no resolution involving conclusion of the [first Gulf] conflict
were adopted, only a cease-fire. Thus, technically, UN-sanctioned
enforcement action has never been formally concluded enabling US and
Britain to argue that they can restart military action at any time so long as Iraq
remains in non-compliance with Security Council resolutions (2003:619).

Others strongly argued, however, that a second resolution explicitly
authorising the use of force was necessary to secure real international
legitimacy if Iraq refused to dismantle its alleged weapons of mass
destruction. France, one of the permanent members of the Security Council,
indicated that it would veto any resolution explicitly authorising the invasion of
Iraq because it did not believe war was necessary. This decision by France
was widely popular around much of the world, which opposed the US plan to
invade Iraq. However, it meant that the United States would not then seek
authorisation from the UN for the war.
Realists, who are sceptical of the UN and international organizations in
general, would say this episode in advance of the war reveals the weakness
of the UN system; it supports the realist claim that powerful states are the
most important actors in the international system. Constructivists would
respond, however, by pointing out that the power of norms of international
cooperation and negotiation even in matters of national security are revealed
in the very fact that the United States spent so much time trying to convince
the UN that it should support a second resolution. They can also point to the
United States need to present evidence of weapons of mass destruction
presented to the UN Security Council. If institutions dont matter, why did they
even bother?
Baylis and Smith: The Globalization of World Politics: 3e
Case Study: The Iraq War, 2003
OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Oxford University Press, 2005. All rights reserved.
2) The social construction of threat
Constructivists maintain that social norms such as legitimacy matter; they
shape and constrain state behaviour in certain ways. Constructivists
investigate the socially constructed context of threats, challenging the
dominant realist approach, which holds that ideas, norms and culture have
little or no independent effect on military threats (which for realists is
determined by a straightforward assessment of the power capabilities and
intentions of opponents). In contrast to the realist claim that relative military
capability is the most important variable in determining military questions,
constructivists suggest that identities and norms influence how interests (and
relative military threats) come to be defined. It is not just purposive state
action and power capabilities that shape states security interests and embed
them in the international system. We also have to look at how threats are
socially constructed.
Constructivists would, therefore, point to the way in which Saddam Hussein
and his alleged weapons of mass destruction were constructed as threatening
to the United States. What, after-all, changed between the end of the first Gulf
War and the 2003 invasion? Why did the first President Bush and President
Clinton believe that Saddam could be prevented from acquiring dangerous
weapons though the sanctions regime or deterred from using weapons given
the threat of massive retaliation? And why did President George W. Bush not
believe this and manage to convince many others of the same? One answer
can be found in the way the Bush administration reiterated over and over
again the mantra that Saddam was a madman that could not be stopped; that
Saddam hated the United States (for no good reason); that he had used
weapons of mass destruction against his own people (while he was actually
an ally of the United States); and that he was involved in state sponsored
terrorism (and by implication was an enemy in the war in terror). In the words
of the President, States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis
of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world. By seeking weapons of
mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger. They
could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their
hatred. They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States.
In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophe (2003:
251).
3) Identity politics and the Iraq war
In response to realist international theory, which maintains that material forces
(brute economic and military power) are the most important determinate of
foreign policy, constructivists argue that ideas, norms, and culture play an
independent role in shaping perceptions of the material world. Ideas can
transform world politics in far-reaching ways, including by shaping the identity
and interests of states. War, moreover, is also derived from profoundly social
Baylis and Smith: The Globalization of World Politics: 3e
Case Study: The Iraq War, 2003
OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Oxford University Press, 2005. All rights reserved.
processes, including the constitutive and regulative effects of norms and
collective expectations, identity and culture.
The war in Iraq, then, cannot be fully understood from a constructivist
perspective without reference to how the identities of both Iraq and the United
States were defined after the 1990-1 Gulf War and especially after the 9.11
attacks on the United States. The concept of state identity, as Latha
Varadarajan argues, needs to be understood as dynamic, historically
constructed structures of meanings that constitute both national security and
threats (2004: 320). The United States government was able to mobilise
domestic and some international support to invade Iraq by representing
Saddam Hussein as a tyrant, while presenting itself as relatively benign.