A Carden ClLy of 1oday v2.

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1he Carden ClLy of 1oday v2.0 documenL ouLllnes a clLy deslgn based upon Lhe exLrapolaLlon of Lbenezer Poward's
orlglnal Croup of Carden ClLles descrlbed ln hls book CotJeo cltles of 1omottow.
1he documenL alms Lo provlde an overall scheme or paLLern for a garden clLy. 1he deLall (such as bulldlng deslgn,
landscape deslgn eLc) maybe added Lhrough subsequenL communlLy-led deslgn proposals, appralsals and publlc
consulLaLlon processes.
1he naLure of Lhe paLLern, whlch ls fracLal, allows Lhe deslgn and lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe garden clLy Lo be
underLaken aL varled scales. 1hls allows for varled degrees of managemenL. Þro[ecLs can be managed on an
lndlvldual scale such as Lhe deslgn and bulld of a slngle house, and on larger scales such as Lhe deslgn and bulld of a
nelghbourhood, clLy cenLre, dlsLrlcL, or vale, each pro[ecL can be managed spaLlally and Lemporally.
1he naLure of Lhe deslgn paLLern allows for mulLlple pro[ecLs Lo run slmulLaneously - Lo follow a non llnear, buL
organlsed growLh paLLern, such as can be found ln a blologlcal organlsm.
1he key concepL of Lhe orlglnal Carden ClLy concepL was to ossooqe tbe, 1owo. coootty, CotJeo. clty, nomoo.
Notote Þaradox. 1hls Carden ClLy ls abouL Lhe space LhaL ls noL bullL, as much as Lhe bullL space. 1he clLy ln Lhls
proposal ls comprlsed of 32° green space 48° bullL space. Land use ls lnLenslfled, buL also dlverslfled and
lnLegraLed, meanlng more happens wlLhln Lhe same space.
lLs complexlLy ls based upon Lhe complexlLy of naLure, where Lhe whole ls more Lhan Lhe sum of lLs componenL
parLs. 1hls Carden ClLy ls gesLalL ln prlnclple and fracLal ln sLrucLure as we see ln naLure, space and llvlng organlsms.
1he proposal ºA Carden ClLy of 1oday" ls a masLerplan deslgn LhaL ls ln accordance wlLh Lhe real posslblllLles open aL
Lhe aLLalned level of lnLellecLual and maLerlal culLure, resources and capablllLles. lL offers Lhe prospecL of preservlng
and lmprovlng Lhe producLlve achlevemenLs of clvlllsaLlon. lLs reallsaLlon offers a greaLer chance for Lhe paclflcaLlon
of exlsLence wlLhln Lhe framework of lnsLlLuLlons, whlch offer a greaLer chance for Lhe free developmenL of human
needs and faculLles'.
1he naLure of Lhe deslgn conveys a hollsLlc sense of perspecLlve regardlngcurrenL soclal, economlc and
envlronmenLal challenges. lL enLalls an ecologlcal eLhlc coupled wlLh a self-reallsaLlon eLhlc, ln LhaL lnhablLanLs have
dlrecL access Lo resources and servlces necessary for LhesaLlsfacLlon of maLerlal and psychologlcal needs wlLhln an
ecologlcally balanced envlronmenL.
1he clLy secLor deslgn, publlc green space and LransporL neLwork are mulLlleveled, mulLlfaceLed and lnLegraLlve,
accommodaLlng and comblnlng varlous culLural, soclal and economlc acLlvlLles. 1ravel focuses upon pedesLrlan, cycle
and hlghly accesslble zero-carbon publlc LransporLaLlon Lhrough a varleLy of means.1he clLy ls ºabled" because lL
caLers for Lhe access and moblllLy of everybody wlLhouL excepLlon. 1he phllosophy behlnd Lhls ls Lhe asserLlon LhaL,
ºosloq Jls/oblllty os o cteotlve stottloq polot coo octoolly qeoetote oo oltetootlve kloJ of otcbltectotol ovoot-qotJ.²"
1he deslgn fosLers a balanclng and a coordlnaLlon of saLlsfacLlons along many dlmenslons raLher Lhan maxlmlslng
concerns along one narrowly deflned dlmenslon (e.g. economlc), and Lhe spaLlal deslgn allows for experlmenLaLlon,
lL ls open ended and evoluLlonary whllsL belng modular, allowlng sLage by sLage compleLlon, local sLewardshlp and
allows fuLure expanslon whlch ls noL Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe esLabllshed whole³.
1he clLy llmlLs ln Lhe proposal encompass an lnhablLed area of 38.77km² (22.69 Mlles²) wlLh a pro[ecLed populaLlon
of 117,649. 1hls equaLes Lo a populaLlon denslLy of 2001.8 persons per km² (3183 persons/Mlle²).1hls denslLy flgure
slLs beLween LhaL of Lhe orlglnal Carden ClLy of LeLchworLh (1633 p/km²), and our mosL recenL new 1own, MllLon
keynes (2383.6 p/km²), based on 2011 Census flgures.
1he clLy ls comprlsed of 16,807 mulLlpurpose bulldlng unlLs whlch house an average of 7 persons per bulldlng. 1he
enLlre land allocaLlon for Lhe Carden ClLy plus surroundlng CreenbelL (agrlculLural land) ls 172.17km², or
42,344acres. 1hls glves an overall populaLlon denslLy of 683.3 persons per km² (1770 persons/Mlle²). 1he unlLed
klngdom as a whole has a populaLlon denslLy of 233.6 persons per km²*, Lhus land for Lhe Carden ClLy ls around
x2½more densely populaLed Lhan land ln Lhe uk as a whole. *2011 Census
Land use ln and around Lhe Carden ClLy ls deflned by paLch zonlng. 1here are slx Lypes of zones wlLh accordanL land
uses. 1hese have been brlefly deflned as follows:
2one 0 - 8ulldlngs, houses or oLher
llvlng/worklng areas, lncludlng any prlvaLe
gardens.

2one 3 - larm-scale producLlon, large-scale
orchards, herdlng anlmals, aplculLure, maln crops.
2one 1 - CommunlLy Cardens/AlloLmenLs,
ºlocallsed" sLyle food producLlon.

2one 4 - Large-scale AgrlculLure: loresLry,
ÞasLure, Arable, fodder crops eLc. (CreenbelL)

2one 2 - MarkeL garden sLyle, commerclal food
producLlon, communlLy orchards eLc.

2one S - Wllderness, naLural envlronmenL.

LmploymenL and enLrepreneurlal opporLunlLles abound, generallzed lnLo slx caLegorles (1¨-3¨ & x¨) and range from
very locallsed markeLs Lo global markeLs, provlslons are made for all levels of markeL operaLlon. 1he clLy ls also
unlque ln LhaL lL has embedded wlLhln lL, a commerclal supply sysLem, whlch faclllLaLes dlsLrlbuLlon of goods and
maLerlals LhroughouL Lhe clLy, and lndeed lnLo exLernal markeLs. 1he neLwork of supply llnes mlrrors Lhe velns ln Lhe
peLals of a flower or leaf, drawlng creaLed resources from Lhe envlronmenL ln and around Lhe clLy. 1he maln
advanLage belng, clLy-wlde avallablllLy of an lmporL/exporL faclllLy for maLerlals, goods and producLs greaLly
faclllLaLlng consLrucLlon and subsequenL economlc operaLlons -lncludlng modern coLLage lndusLrles.
Pomes, gardens and nelghbourhoods are Lo be deslgned locally by resldenLs supporLed by an experL munlclpal Leam
of deslgners, Leachers and pracLlLloners, deslgns of houses, gardens and nelghbourhoods are lnLended Lo be
accordlng Lo local needs, cusLoms, exLanL deslgns and bulld Lechnlques, and locally sourced maLerlals. lL ls envlsloned
LhaL deslgn and bulld aL larger sub-reglonal levels, l.e. dlsLrlcL, vale and clLy level, ls dlrecLed by Lhe ClLy Councll
worklng wlLh Leams of archlLecLs, bullders, planners, englneers, landscape archlLecLs and oLher cross-dlsclpllnary
experLlse, from arLlsLs and muslclans Lo farmers, carpenLers and bullders.
1he alm of Lhls clLy ls as much remedlaLlon of naLural sysLems as lL ls remedlaLlon of people and communlLy - ºLo
faclllLaLe Lhe harmonlous relnLegraLlon of humans lnLo Lhe naLural sysLems of Lhe planeLª," Lo creaLe a sLaLe of
dynamlc equlllbrlum, homeosLasls and muLual beneflL ln Lerms of soclal, envlronmenLal and economlc sysLems and
communlLles.
lL ls consldered LhaL, as Lhe healLh of Lhe ecologlcal sysLem ln and around Lhe clLy lmproves, Lhe knock-on effecLs are
lmproved human healLh and lmproved prosperlLy.ln one respecL Lhe ClLy ls a place Lo llve, ln anoLher lL ls a place Lo
work, overall however, lL ls a place Lo grow. 1hls clLy ls deslgned as a Carden ClLy, a clLy LhaL ls also a garden -LhaL
can grow, flower and frulL.
'Þaraphrased from PerberL Marcuse (1964) Ooe ulmeosloool Moo. varlous publlshers.
² 8oys, !. (2014) uoloq ulsoblllty ulffeteotly. Ao oltetootlve booJbook oo otcbltectote, Jls/oblllty ooJ Jeslqoloq fot evetyJoy llfe. 8ouLledge: 1aylor and lrancls
Croup, London.
³Þaraphrased from Parmon, W. W., Markley, C.W., (1982) 1be cbooqloq lmoqes of Moo. Þergamon Þress: Cxford. [ÞrlnLed ln uk by A. WheaLon & Co. LLd,
LxeLer]
ªCuoLed from a deslgn course wlLh 1omas 8emlarz, Chalrman of ÞermaculLure AssoclaLlon 8rlLaln.

/#. 0#,&%-#12

• <800meLre walk Lo nearesL Lravel node. (see llgure 22 below)

• ClLy-wlde school model and bulldlng provlslon.

• 30° publlc green space aL clLy scale. (see llgure 3 below)

• 117,300 lnhablLanLs, 16,800 mulLl purpose unlLs. (see 1able x below)

• mlxLure of denslLles , >4288persons/km² ln zone 0, averaglng aL 2002persons/km² aL clLy scale. (see 1able x below)

• lnLegraLed, mulLlfaceLed secLor modellng. (see llgure 6 and 1able 4 below)

• CesLalL prlnclple, fracLal sLrucLure.

• Carbon free, lnLegraLed and accesslble LransporL neLwork, pedesLrlan, cycle, array of carbon-free publlc LransporL
opLlons. (See lmage x and llgure 21 below)

• Carbon-poslLlve energy generaLlon.

• Mlxed- land uses - 3 Lypes of green space. (see llgure 3 below)

• Plgh land value upllfL.

• lull and dlverse employmenL opporLunlLy, supporLed by local economy.

• lull array of bulld/houslng opLlons.

• Modular, omnl-successlve, easlly-managed lmplemenLaLlon.

• Lasy commuLlng - a key deslgn feaLure.

• 8emedlaLlon of ecology, psychology, economy- key deslgn feaLures.

• Modular, expandable, adapLable spaLlal deslgn.


Image k: Communa| e|ectr|c cars and b|cyc|es |n Þar|s


I|g 2.Sca|e map of the Garden C|ty of 1oday.


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I|gure 22. 1rave| networks |n the Garden C|ty of 1oday


I|gure 6. Sector mode| of the Garden C|ty of 1oday

1ab|e 4.Sectors |n the Garden C|ty of 1oday.
SLC1Ck DIS1kIC1 NC. CI NC.CI ¼ CI
NAML NC.s DIS1kIC1S 8UILDING UNI1S 1C1AL UNI1S
CLn18L 1 1 343 2
Cu1L8 CLn18AL 2-7 6 2038 12.23
SA1LLLl1L CLn18LS 8-13 6 2038 12.23
ln1L8Cl1? CCMML8ClAL 14-19 6 2038 12.23
ln1L8Cl1? 8Cu1L 20-23 6 2038 12.23
ln1L8-vALL 26-37 12 4116 24.3
8u8AL 38-49 12 4116 24.3
CCMÞLL1L CI1¥ 1-49 49 16807 100


I|gure 3. Landscape 2ones |n a Garden C|ty of 1oday.

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