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Chemical Bond IV

4. Salts and metal oxides are typical ionic

5. Some of these compounds, like magnesia
(MgO) and alumina (Al2O3), are so stable
that they are used as refractory material,
to line the inside of furnaces. Such
substances must be stable up to at least
1500 °C.
6. Another property of crystal lattices is that
they are non-conductors of electricity.
This is because the ions are in fixed
positions and are unable to move.

The properties of Ionic Compounds

1. This strong bonding force makes the
structure hard (if brittle) and has high
melting and boiling points, so they are not
The Structure of Ionic Compounds: very volatile!
Crystal Lattices 2. The bigger the charges on the ions the
1. The alternate positive and negative ions stronger the bonding attraction eg
in an ionic solid are arranged in an orderly magnesium oxide Mg2+O2- has a higher
way in a giant ionic lattice structure melting point than sodium chloride Na+Cl-.
shown on the left. 3. Unlike covalent molecules, ALL ionic
compounds are crystalline solids at room
4. They are hard but brittle, when stressed
the bonds are broken along planes of ions
which shear away. They are NOT malleable
like metal.
5. Many ionic compounds are soluble in
water but not all, so don't make
6. The solid crystals DO NOT conduct
electricity because the ions are not free
to move to carry an electric current.
7. However, if the ionic compound is
2. The ionic bond is the strong electrical melted or dissolved in water, the liquid
attraction between the positive and will now conduct electricity, as the ion
negative ions next to each other in the particles are now free.
3. The bonding extends throughout the
crystal in all directions.

The Structure of Covalent Compounds:
Molecules and Macromolecules moderate heating.(* sometimes referred to
1. Covalent compounds can be divided into as the intramolecular bond)
those which form small (simple) 2. However, the electrical forces** between
independent molecules and those which molecules are weak and easily weakened
form giant molecular lattices. further on heating.
3. These weak attractions are known as
Molecular Compounds **intermolecular forces and consequently
1. These are made up of independent the bulk material is not usually very
molecular units, as shown in Figure 6.7. strong.
2. As there are no ions formed, the attractive 4. Consequently small covalent molecules
forces between molecules in solid, covalent tend to be volatile liquids, easily
compounds like iodine and sulphur are vapourised, or low melting point solids.
much weaker. 5. On heating the inter-molecular forces are
3. They are called van der Waals' forces easily overcome with the increased kinetic
and produce a weak, molecular lattice energy gain of the particles and so have low
with low melting points. melting and boiling points.
6. They are also poor conductors of
electricity because there are no free
electrons or ions in any state to carry
electric charge.
7. Most small molecules will dissolve in a
solvent to form a solution.

Macromolecular compounds
1. These have giant, covalent molecules
with extremely large molecular lattices.
2. They are very stable, as all the atoms
4. In covalent liquids like water, the are joined together by strong covalent
molecules are even further apart, so the bonds to give a giant three-dimensional
van der Waals' forces are weaker still, lattice.
and in covalent gases like ammonia and 3. Often the lattice is tetrahedral in shape,
methane, these forces are almost non- as every atom is covalently linked to
existent. four others.
5. However, in water, there are other 4. Examples of such macromolecules are
attractive forces between molecules. diamond and sand (see Figure 6.8).
These forces are called hydrogen bonds
and they give water much higher melting
and boiling points than expected with
such weak van der Waals' forces.

The Properties Of Simple Covalent

Molecular Substances - Small Molecules!
1. The electrical forces of attraction, that is
the chemical bond*, between atoms in
any molecule are strong and most
molecules do not change chemically on

Diamond and Silica(Sand) 4. There are three strong covalent bonds
1. A diamond crystal or a grain of sand is per carbon (3 C-C bonds in a planar
just one giant molecule. Such molecules, arrangement from 3 of its 4 outer
because they are so rigid and strong, electrons), BUT, the fourth outer electron
have very high melting points. is 'delocalised' or shared between the
carbon atoms to form the equivalent of a
Large Covalent Molecules And Their 4th bond per carbon atom.
Properties 5. The layers are only held together by
1. This type of structure is thermally very weak intermolecular forces shown by the
stable and they have high melting and dotted lines NOT by strong covalent bonds.
boiling points. 6. Like diamond and silica (above) the large
2. They are usually poor conductors of molecules of the layer ensure graphite has
electricity because the electrons are not typically very high melting point
usually free to move as they can in metallic because of the strong 2D bonding
structures. network (note: NOT 3D network)..
3. Also because of the strength of the 7. Graphite will not dissolve in solvents
bonding in all directions in the structure, because of the strong bonding
they are often very hard, strong and will 8. BUT there are two crucial differences
not dissolve in solvents like water. compared to diamond ...
4. Silicon dioxide (silica, SiO2) has a similar 9. Electrons, from the 'shared bond', can
3D structure and properties, shown below move freely through each layer, so
diamond. graphite is a conductor like a metal
5. The hardness of diamond enables it to (diamond is an electrical insulator and a
be used as the 'leading edge' on cutting poor heat conductor). Graphite is used in
tools. electrical contacts eg electrodes in
Graphite 10. The weak forces enable the layers to slip
1. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon. over each other so where as diamond is
Allotropes are different forms of the hard material graphite is a 'soft' crystal, it
same element in the same physical state feels slippery. Graphite is used as a
2. Oxygen O2 (dioxygen) and ozone O3 lubricant.
(trioxygen) are two gaseous allotropes of 11. These two different characteristics
the element oxygen. described above are put to a common
3. Carbon also occurs in the form of use with the electrical contacts in electric
graphite. The carbon atoms form joined motors and dynamos. These contacts
hexagonal rings forming layers 1 atom (called brushes) are made of graphite
thick. sprung onto the spinning brass contacts
of the armature. The graphite brushes
provide good electrical contact and are
self-lubricating as the carbon layers slide
over each other.

substance NaCl iodine diamond graphite
bonding ionic covalent covalent covalent
structure giant ionic lattice simple molecular giant molecular giant molecular
1. High melting and 1. Low melting point. 1. Very high melting 1. Very high melting
boiling point. 2. Soft, shiny black and boiling point. and boiling point.
2. Hard and brittle. solid which forms a 2. Hard and brittle. 2. Soft and brittle.
physical 3. Soluble in water. purple vapour. 3. Insoluble in water. 3. Insoluble in water.
properties 4. Conducts electricity 3. Low solubility in 4. Does not conduct 4. Conducts
when molten or in water. electricity. electricity.
solution. 4. Does not conduct
Each sodium ion is Each molecule Each carbon atom is Each carbon atom is
surrounded by six comprises two iodine covalently bonded to covalently bonded to
chloride ion, and each atoms joined by a four other carbon atoms three other carbon
chloride ion is covalent bond. The in an extended atoms to form layers of
surrounded by six molecules in solid tetrahedral atoms in a hexagonal
notes sodium ions (it has 6:6 iodine form a regular arrangement. arrangement.
coordination). array with weak van der Delocalised electrons
Waal's forces between above and below each
molecules. layer. Weak van der
Waal's forces between

Example 1 Example 3
Which of the following are properties of The diagram below represents the
carbon in the form of diamond? arrangement of the atoms in the crystal of
conductivity melting point a solid element.
A nil -101°
B nil 119°C
C nil 3500°C
D good 30°C
E good 2600°C
Example 2
In which group of the Periodic Table is
this element?

Example 4
Which of the following is most likely to
be the melting point of an ionic solid?
A -182°C D 114°C
B -78°C E 943°C
C 0°C

Example 5

Example 6

¾ Oxide of metal is basic
¾ Oxide of non-metal is acidic
¾ Reducing agent is a substance that can
donate electron.
Example 8
Which substances conducts electricity in
Example 7 both the solid and the molten states?
A paraffin wax
B poly(ethene)
C sodium
D sodium bromide
E sulphur

1 What are different forms of the same 3 Which of the following statements most
element in the same physical state called? clearly indicates that diamond and
A allotropes D monomers graphite are allotropic forms of carbon?
B isomers E polymers A Both are crystalline solids.
C isotopes B Graphite conducts electricity
whereas diamond does not.
2 Why do graphite and diamond have C Both have giant molecular
different physical properties? structures.
A Graphite is ionic but diamond is D Complete combustion of equal
covalent. masses of both solids produces
B They contain different elements. equal masses of carbon dioxide as
C They contain carbon atoms joined to the only product.
one another in different ways. E Under suitable conditions, graphite
D Diamond has a macromolecular can be partially converted into
structure but graphite has not. diamond
E Diamond occurs naturally but
graphite is made artificially.

4 The table gives information about the ability What could these four substances be?
of four substances to conduct electricity. W X Y Z
substance property A HCl S NaCl Pb
W does not conduct under any B Pb HC1 NaCl S
conditions C S HC1 NaCl Pb
X conducts only in aqueous D S HC1 Pb NaCl
solution E S NaCl HC1 Pb
Y conducts in both the molten
and solid states
Z conducts in both the molten
and aqueous states

Structure Question
Particle X+ Y2− Z
Number of electron P 10 14
Number of proton q r 14
Table 1
Table 1 shows the number of electrons and neutrons for particles X+, Y2−, and Z.
a. Given that particle X has equal number of electrons as the atoms of argon, what are the most probable
values of p and q? [proton number of argon = 18]

b. What is the most probable value of r? Give the symbol for element Y.

c. Element Y has a few other isotopes. Explain the meaning of isotope and state two other isotopes for
element Y.

d. State the electronic structure for element Z. If element Z forms a compound with element Y, what is the
chemical formula for this compound?

e. Give two properties of the compound formed in (d).

2. Complete each of the following diagrams as instructed.
(a) Complete the sodium chloride lattice (b) Complete the graphite structure by
by inserting • for sodium ions, and adding more • for carbon atoms and
for chloride ions. drawing the bonds between the carbon

(c) Complete the diagram showing the formation of potassium fluoride using • for potassium
electrons and x for fluorine electrons.

(d) Complete the molecule of tetracloromethane using . for chlorine electrons and X for carbon
electrons. Show the outer electrons only.
x carbon electron
• chlorine electron

Example 1 C
Example 2 C
Example 3 B
Example 4 E
Example 5 C
Example 6 C
Example 7 B
Example 8 C

1 A 3 D
2 C 4 D