Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

COMPLETE PROJECT REPORT ON

COMPUTERS
NO NEED DO TO A SINGLE EDITING
JUST DOWNLOAD IT AND YOUR WORK
IS DONE
I. WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
An electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data)
in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in
accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural
instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information
or signals. A computer is a general purpose device that can be
programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations
automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed,
the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing
element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of
memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic
operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of
operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow
information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of
operations saved and retrieved.


In World War II, mechanicalanalog computers were used for
specialized military applications. During this time the first electronic
digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a
large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern
personal computers (PCs).
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions
of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction
of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile
devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries.
Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information
Age and are what most people think of as computers. However, the
embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to
fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most
numerous.

II. ETYMOLOGY
The first use of the word computer was recorded in 1613 in a book
called The yongmans gleanings by English writer Richard
BraithwaitI haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best
Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a
short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or
computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until


the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the
word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that
carries out computations.

III. HISTORY
Rudimentary calculating devices first appeared in antiquity and
mechanical calculating aids were invented in the 17th century. The
first recorded use of the word "computer" is also from the 17th
century, applied to human computers, people who performed
calculations, often as employment. The first computer devices were
conceived of in the 19th century, and only emerged in their modern
form in the 1940s.
Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath,
originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the
"father of the computer", he conceptualized and invented the first
mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his
revolutionary difference engine, designed to aid in navigational
calculations, in 1833 he realized that a much more general design, an
Analytical Engine, was possible. The input of programs and data was
to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used
at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For
output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell.
The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be


read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control
flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated
memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer
that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.
The machine was about a century ahead of its time. All the parts for
his machine had to be made by hand - this was a major problem for a
device with thousands of parts. Eventually, the project was dissolved
with the decision of the British Government to cease funding.
Babbage's failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly
attributed to difficulties not only of politics and financing, but also to
his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to
move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless his
son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical
engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. He gave a successful
demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906.











IV. THE MODERN COMPUTER
The principle of the modern computer was first described by computer
scientistAlan Turing, who set out the idea in his seminal 1936 paper,
On Computable Numbers. Turing reformulated Kurt Gdel's 1931
results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Gdel's
universal arithmetic-based formal language with the formal and
simple hypothetical devices that became known as Turing machines.
He proved that some such machine would be capable of performing
any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as
an algorithm. He went on to prove that there was no solution to the
Entscheidungsproblem by first showing that the halting problem for
Turing machines is undecidable: in general, it is not possible to decide
algorithmically whether a given Turing machine will ever halt.
He also introduced the notion of a 'Universal Machine' (now known as
a Universal Turing machine), with the idea that such a machine could
perform the tasks of any other machine, or in other words, it is
provably capable of computing anything that is computable by
executing a program stored on tape, allowing the machine to be
programmable. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept
ENIAC
Babbages Analytical Engine ENIAC





of the modern computer was due to this paper. Turing machines are to
this day a central object of study in theory of computation. Except for
the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern
computers are said to be Turing-complete, which is to say, they have
algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing
machine.
V. PROGRAMS
The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them
from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say
that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the
computer and it will process them. Modern computers based on the
von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an
imperative programming language.
BUGS
Errors in computer programs are called bugs. They may be benign
and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle
effects. But in some cases, they may cause the program or the entire
system to hang, becoming unresponsive to input such as mouse
clicks or keystrokes, to completely fail, or to crash. Otherwise benign
bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an
unscrupulous user writing an exploit, code designed to take advantage
of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. Bugs are usually


not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the
instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of
programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.
VI. COMPONENTS
A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic
logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and
output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are
interconnected by buses, often made of groups of wires.
Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical
circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic
switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so
that when the circuit is on it represents a 1, and when off it
represents a 0 (in positive logic representation). The circuits are
arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control
the state of one or more of the other circuits.
Control Unit
The control unit (often called a control system or central controller)
manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets
(decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of
control signals which activate other parts of the computer.
[49]
Control
systems in advanced computers may change the order of some
instructions so as to improve performance.


Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations:
arithmetic and logic.
Memory
A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which
numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered address
and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to put
the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357 or to add the number
that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the
answer into cell 1595. The information stored in memory may
represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer
instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the
CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it
is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the
memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.
VII. HARDWARE & SOFTWARE
The term hardware refers to the physical components of your
computer such as the system unit, mouse, keyboard, monitor etc.
The software is the instructions that make the computer work.
Software is held either on your computers hard disk, CD-ROM, DVD
or on a diskette (floppy disk) and is loaded (i.e. copied) from the disk


into the computers RAM (Random Access Memory), as and when
required
Hardware Components
Input Devices
Output Devices

VIII. INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES

I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the
outside world. Devices that provide input or output to the computer
are called peripherals. On a typical personal computer, peripherals
include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices
such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives
and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices.
Computer networking is another form of I/O.

Input Devices
Mouse, keyboard, joystick, image scanner, webcam, graphics tablet,
microphone


Mouse (computing)
In computing, a mouse is an input device that detects two-
dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically
translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for
fine control of a graphical user interface.
Physically, a mouse consists of an object held in one's hand, with one
or more buttons. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch
surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and
dimensional input.
Computer keyboard
In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an
arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or
electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper
tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input
device for computers.
Joystick
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base
and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A
joystick, also known as the control column, is the principal control
device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a


center stick or side-stick. It often has supplementary switches to
control various aspects of the aircraft's flight.

Output Devices
Monitor, printer, loudspeaker
Computer monitor
A monitor or a display is an electronic visual display for computers.
The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and an enclosure.
The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film
transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older
monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT) about as deep as the screen
size.
Printer (computing)
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which makes a representation
of an electronic document on physical media. Individual printers are
designed to support local and network users at the same time. Some
printers can print documents stored on memory cards or from digital
cameras and scanners.


Computer speaker
Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers external
to a computer that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker. They
often have a low-power internal amplifier. The standard audio
connection is a 3.5 mm (approximately 1/8 inch) stereo phone
connector often color-coded lime green (following the PC 99
standard) for computer sound cards. A few use a RCA connector for
input. There are also USB speakers which are powered from the 5
volts at 500 milliamps provided by the USB port, allowing about 2.5
watts of output power. Computer speakers were introduced by Altec
Lansing in 1990.

Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware






Primary
Memory

CPU
(Central Processing
Unit)
Input
Units
Output
Units


This model of the typical digital computer is often called the
von Neumann computer.
Programs and data are stored in the same memory: primary
memory.
The computer can only perform one instruction at a time.

IX. SOURCES OF DATA FOR THE COMPUTER
Two types of data stored within a computer:
Original data or information: Data being introduced to a
computing system for the first time.
Computers can deal directly with printed text, pictures, sound, and
other common types of information.
Previously stored data or information: Data that has already
been processed by a computer and is being stored for later use.
These are forms of binary data useful only to the computer.
Examples: Floppy disks, DVD disks, and music CDs.
X. SOFTWARE COMPONENTS
There are some software components that also help in the smooth
functioning of the computer system.
Following are the main Software Component that are used in the
computer:


Operating Software: These are the software with the help of
which the computer works. It loads automatically when one
start the computer. It makes the link between the Hardware and
other software of the computer.
Application Software: These are the software that are used to
process languages and access other applications being installed
in the computer. This includes Word Processors, Image
Processors and other.
Thus a computer only runs with the help of Software as well as
Hardware components being installed in the computer.







XI. MICROSOFT WORD



Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was
first released in 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for
Xenixsystems. Subsequent versions were later written for several
other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple
Macintosh running Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST
(1988), SCO Unix (1994), OS/2 (1989), and Microsoft Windows
(1989). Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone
product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the
discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Freeware editions of Word are
Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online, both of which have
limited features.

A full-featured word processing program for Windows and Mac OS X
from Microsoft. Available stand-alone or as part of the Microsoft
Office suite, Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing
capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on
the market. Word files are commonly used as the format for sending
text documents via e-mail because almost every user with a computer
can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word
viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format (see
Microsoft Word Viewer). Word 95 for Windows was the first 32-bit
version of the product, released with Office 95 around the same time
as Windows 95. It was a straightforward port of Word 6.0 and it
introduced few new features, one of them being red-squiggle


underlined spell-checking. Starting with Word 95, releases of Word
were named after the year of its release, instead of its version number.
XII. FILE EXTENSIONS
Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or
.docx file extension.
Although the .doc extension has been used in many different versions
of Word, it actually encompasses four distinct file formats:
The newer .docx extension signifies the Office Open
XMLinternational standard for Office documents and is used by Word
2007, 2010 and 2013 for Windows, Word 2008 and 2011 for Mac OS
X, as well as by a growing number of applications from other vendors,
including OpenOffice.org Writer, an open source word processing
program.


Microsoft Word is a word processing program that makes your job
easier. It will check your document for spelling and/or grammar errors
for you so that you can correct them, and makes it easier to replace
words or phrases through out your document at one time. It's much
faster and easier than the old method of using white out, or having to
retype the entire document on a typewriter!
XIII. BENEFITS
Microsoft Word contains many tools that the computer user can
utilize to make the creation of electronic documents easier. A
few of the most popular tools included are spell checker,
automatic grammar checking, extensive formatting tools and a
thesaurus.
Format
The latest version of Microsoft Word saves documents with the
.docx extension by default, but Word does have the option to
save documents in a variety of formats including .doc, .txt and
.rtf.
Security
Later versions of Microsoft Word contain integrated security
features such as password protection. It is also possible to


restrict what portion of a document -- if any -- can be edited by
anyone other than the author.
Composition and Editing
Microsoft Word allows users to type words, sentences and
paragraphs much like a typewriter. However, Microsoft Word
allows you to edit your words after typing them. For example,
you can correct spelling, grammar, change words, delete or add
words or even move entire blocks of text to other parts of the
document.
Formatting and Saving
Microsoft Word contains many features that will allow you to
format your text using boldface type, italics, underlining,
headers and footers, bullets and numbering. The program will
also allow you to save your document electronically to the
computer's hard drive so that the document can be re-opened at
a later date.
Printing
Microsoft Word can also help print your document. With Word,
you can select printing options, such as choosing the printer you
wish to print on or selecting how many copies of the document


you want to print.

XIV. HOW TO USE MSWORD
Switch on your computer and wait until a whole lot of picture symbols
appear with a Start button on the bottom left of the screen. Use the left
button on the mouse to click on the Start button. Then click on
programmes and then double-click on the MSWORD programme.
Some computers have a MSWORD symbol that will come up when
your computer is on and you do not have to go to start simply
double click the left button of the mouse on the symbol.
The Microsoft word programme will appear on the screen.
There will be a blank screen called Document 1. Every thing you type
is called a document.
To start a new document (click on new) You can use the block
with a folder on it on the toolbar to do this more quickly. Use
your mouse to click on it.)
To open an old document (click on open) and then click on the
name of the document you want to open
To close a document. The computer will ask you if you want to
save it before you close it and then you click on Yes or No.


If you press save, the document will be saved under its heading in the
general folder called My Documents. You can do this with the block
on the toolbar showing stiffy disk.
Save As allows you to save a document under a new name in the
folder of your choice. When you click on Save as, a new box will
open on screen. First go to the Save In square. It should say My
Page set up allows you to change the margins of the page so that you
can get more (or less) typing on a page.
Print preview allows you to see what the document will look like on
a printed page.
Print allows you to print the document if your computer is connected
to a printer.
The last section says Exit. If you click on this the MSWORD
programme will shut down and you can return to Windows.
The Edit title
This section allows you to change or edit your work.
The most useful tools in the list are Cut, Copy and Paste.
Cut: this allows you to delete a section but not to throw it away
completely in case you need it later. Use your mouse and drag it over


the section you want to delete. Then go to Edit. Click Cut. If you want
to use it again you can add it in later or move it to another section.
You use the Paste command to move the section to a new place. Take
your cursor to where you want to place the section. Click on
Edit.Click Paste and the cut section will be pasted or put in this new
place. We call this Cutting and Pasting.
You can also Copy a section of your work and use it again. Highlight
the section with your mouse. Click on edit.Click on Copy. Then take
your cursor to the new place you want to put it. Click on Edit. Click
Paste and the section will be repeated.
The View title
When you type a document the view on screen is in Normal mode
or as it appears on the screen. You can look at it in Layout (as it
would appear) printed or in other ways. A quick way of looking at
your page layout is to use the toolbar and click on the blank page with
a magnifying glass on it.
The I nsert title
This is useful for inserting Page Breaks (that is, beginning a new
page), page numbers, footnotes, pictures and so on.
You can also use this box to insert page numbers. Click on Page
Numbers and then click on OK. If you want to copy documents on


both sides of a page, it is best to put your page number in the middle
of the page at the bottom. To do this click on the box called
Alignment and then click on Centered.
The Format title
This is useful for layout or making your document look attractive.
There are various headings.
Font: This is the type of print or shape of print you are using. Your
MSWORD programme comes with a few options like Arial, New
Times Roman, Century Gothic and so on. You can set the font type
and the size of letters for a document before you start working.
Paragraph: The paragraph section allows you to change the margins
of a paragraph. It also allows you to change your line spacing to
single, or bigger.
Bullets and Numbers: Bullets allow you to mark points in different
ways, using dots, or arrows or blocks and so on. Highlight the section
you want to bullet and then click on Format, then on Bullets and
Numbering and then on the type of bullets you like.
Borders and shading: allows you to put a border around your whole
document or to put a box or border around a paragraph.
Columns: allow you to arrange your whole document into columns.


Change case: Sometimes one types in capitals by mistake.
The Tools title
This has a helpful button to check the spelling in your whole
document.
Miss-spelt words are underlined in red as you make the error. It is
quicker to correct all the errors at the end, rather than do them one by
one. You do this by going to Tools.Click on Spelling. The spell-check
will give you options click on the correct spelling and the click on
Change.
The Table title
Insert Table allows you to make a new table. Click on the number of
lines and columns you need. You can change the numbers by clicking
on the little black arrows next to the number. Then click on OK..
The toolbar
Look at your toolbar. On the top left it will show the font and size in
white boxes. You can change your font and its size by clicking on the
arrows next to each and selecting what you want.
These are a quick way for you to make some words or headings Bold
(B), to type some words in italics (I) or to underline them (U).















XV. MICROSOFT POWERPOINT
Microsoft PowerPoint is a slide-basedpresentation program
developed by Microsoft. It was officially launched on May 22, 1990,
as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.
The benefits of PowerPoint are continuously debated. The term
"PowerPoint hell" has been coined for long, tedious PowerPoint
presentations that bore the audience.


Originally designed for the Macintosh computer, the initial release
was called "Presenter", developed by Dennis Austinand Thomas
Rudkinof Forethought, Inc.In 1987, it was renamed to "PowerPoint"
due to problems with trademarks, the idea for the name coming from
Robert Gaskins. In August of the same year, Forethought was bought
by Microsoft for $14 million USD ($29.1 million in present-day
terms), and became Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, which
continued to develop the software further. PowerPoint was officially
launched on May 22, 1990, the same day that Microsoft released
Windows 3.0.
PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or
"slides". The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector. A
better analogy would be the "foils" (or transparencies/plastic sheets)
that are shown with an overhead projector, although they are in
decline now. Slides may contain text, graphics, sound, movies, and
other objects, which may be arranged freely. The presentation can be
printed, displayed live on a computer, or navigated through at the
command of the presenter. For larger audiences the computer display
is often projected using a video projector. Slides can also form the
basis of webcasts.
PowerPoint provides three types of movements:
1. Entrance, emphasis, and exit of elements on a slide itself are
controlled by what PowerPoint calls Custom Animations.


2. Transitions, on the other hand, are movements between slides.
These can be animated in a variety of ways.
3. Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by
animating pictures to enter, exit or move.
PowerPoint provides numerous features that offer flexibility and the
ability to create a professional presentation. One of the features
provides the ability to create a presentation that includes music which
plays throughout the entire presentation or sound effects for particular
slides. In addition to the ability to add sound files, the presentation can
be designed to run, like a movie, on its own. PowerPoint allows the
user to record the slide show with narration and a laser pointer. The
user may customize slide shows to show the slides in a different order
than originally designed and to have slides appear multiple times.
Microsoft also offers the ability to broadcast the presentation to
specific users via a link and Windows Live.
XVI. USES AND FEATURES OF MICROSOFT
POWERPOINT
Powerpoint is a very powerful program used to create and manipulate
slideshows. It is commonly used in advertising because of its wide
range of visual effects.
It's very easy to get started with Powerpoint by using the help file with
the program.


It is not hard to create a very simple powerpoint presentation with text
and some graphics. When you start to get better, the more powerful
features are very useful. These include the slide master, which allows
you to modify aspects of every slide including global copy/paste,
custom animation schemes, slide transitions, background effects and
interactive powerpoints with a system of links and buttons, where the
user chooses options.
Interactive powerpoints have anything from a button to move to the
next slide to a full compliment of hyperlinks that function like a
nested website.

The main features of Microsoft PowerPoint include having advanced
cropping tool and artistic filters such as blur, paintbrush as well as
watercolour. These features help in adding visual impact to the
presentations. The 2010 edition also has video styles and effects such
as 3-D rotation, reflections and bevels.
XVII. OPENING POWERPOINT
To open PowerPoint in Windows, click on the
Start button --> Programs --> Microsoft PowerPoint
OR


Double-click on the PowerPoint icon on the desktop
* If the tip of the day appears, click 'OK'
** If the Office Assistant appears, click on 'Start Using Microsoft
PowerPoint'

In PowerPoint 2000 you will see the following dialog, which gives
you the option to choose where to start from:

"AutoContent Wizard" walks you through a series of
questions about your presentation, letting you choose from a
variety of predetermined content themes, visual styles, and
formatting options. You can answer all of the questions or skip
some and click "Finish" at any time.

"Design Template"allows you to choose from various
background designs and slide styles to use throughout your
presentation. Clicking the various presentation options shows
thumbnail views of their designs. Click "OK" to choose one.
"Blank Presentation" starts you out with blank slides. This is
the default in the latest PowerPoint version (XP).



XVIII. PURPOSE OF USING POWER POINT
Function
A Microsoft PowerPoint presentation consists of a series of
user-created slides. PowerPoint has several templates to assist
with slide creation, or users may opt for a design of their own.
PowerPoint presentations can be displayed via most video
projectors and can be printed out as a takeaway for the
audience.
Features
Pictures, graphs, video and sound can all be integrated into a
Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. The most recent version,
PowerPoint 2010, also allows users to share PowerPoint
presentations over the Internet with its Broadcast Slide Show
feature.

Considerations
Microsoft PowerPoint is included in most recent versions of
Microsoft Office Suite. It also can be purchased as a standalone
product.


XIX. CREATE A POWERPOINT SLIDE SHOW
When beginning a new slide show, PowerPoint provides an array of
templates to choose from. Experienced users with a specific look in
mind can start with a blank presentation for setting attributes, such as
colors and fonts, to their own specifications. After creating the initial
file, the next step is to create a slide, which can be done by using an
auto layout, or a blank screen in order to add components manually.
You can then choose to add a combination of text and graphics to suit
the needs of the presentation, and apply animation to either of these
elements to create a dynamic effect. You can add as many slides and
make them as content-rich as your system can handle; there are no
limits imposed in the software itself.

















XX. EMAIL
Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since
ca. 1993, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author
to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet
or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that
the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in
common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on
a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver,
and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required
to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically
to a mail server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.
Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any
electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the
early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. As a
result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with
the more specific meaning it has today.


An Internet email message consists of three components, the message
envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message
header contains control information, including, minimally, an
originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses.
Usually descriptive information is also added, such as a subject header
field and a message submission date/time stamp.
Originally a text-only (ASCII) communications medium, Internet
email was extended to carry, e.g. text in other character sets, multi-
media content attachments, a process standardized in RFC 2045
through 2049. Collectively, these RFCs have come to be called
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME). Subsequent RFC's
have proposed standards for internationalized email addresses using
UTF-8.
Electronic mail predates the inception of the Internet and was in fact a
crucial tool in creating it, but the history of modern, global Internet
email services reaches back to the early ARPANET. Standards for
encoding email messages were proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561).
Conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s
produced the core of the current services. An email sent in the early
1970s looks quite similar to a basic text message sent on the Internet
today.
Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in
extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is now carried by


the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet
standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting email
messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters
using a message envelope separate from the message (header and
body) itself
XXI. ORIGIN
The AUTODIN network provided a message service between 1,350
terminals, handling 30 million messages per month, with an average
message length of approximately 3,000 characters. Autodin was
supported by 18 large computerized switches, and was connected to
the United States General Services Administration Advanced Record
System, which provided similar services to roughly 2,500 terminals.
XXII. WRITE AND SEND AN E-MAIL
After you have set up your e-mail account, youll want to write and
send an e-mail (or e-mails). Follow these steps to write and send e-
mails to your friends and family:
Open Windows Mail and click the Create Mail icon from the
programs menu.
If you dont see a Create Mail icon along the top, click the File menu,
select New, and choose Mail Message. A New Message window
appears.


To send a quick e-mail to somebody in your Contacts folder, right-
click his or her name, choose Action, and select Send E-Mail.
Windows Mail opens an e-mail already addressed to that person,
saving you a step.
Type your friends e-mail address into the To box.
Or, click the To button next to where you type an address: A window
appears, listing the names of people listed in your Contacts folder.
Click your friends name, click the To button, and click OK.
Fill in the Subject box.
Although optional, the Subject line lets your friends know why youre
bugging them. That makes it easier for your friends to sort their mail.
Type your message into the large box at the bottom of the
window.
Type whatever you want and for as long as you want. Theres very
little limit on the size of a text file.
To attach a file to your message, drag and drop the file onto the
message or click the paper clip icon, navigate to the file, and
double-click the files name to attach it.
Most ISPs balk at sending files larger than about 5MB, however,
which rules out most MP3 files and some digital photos.


Click the Send button in the boxs top-left corner.
No Send button? Then click File in the New Message window and
choose Send Message.
















XXIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY


http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Word
http://www.slideshare.net/akeebsiddiqui/20-unique-
features-of-msword
https://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~damithch/pages/msw
ordtips.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint
http://www.ask.com/question/what-are-the-main-
features-of-microsoft-powerpoint
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/computer.htm
http://answers.ask.com/computers/other/what_is_the
_purpose_of_microsoft_word
http://www.simpopdf.com/resource/what-is-
microsoft-powerpoint-used-for.html
http://gethelp.library.upenn.edu/workshops/biomed/
ppt/open.html
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-
start-powerpoint-2007.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email