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After completing the unit you should be able to
Know about the hotel industry
Explain the different types of F&B operations
Describe the organization structure of food and beverage service
ist the !ualities of food and beverage service personnel
Discuss the relationship between the departments
According to the British laws a hotel is a place where a "bonafide#
traveler can receive food and shelter provided he is in a position to for it and is
in a fit condition to receive$
%otels have a very long history& but not as we 'now today& way bac' in
the (
century B) when the first Inn in and around the city of ondon began to
develop$ *hey first catered to travelers and provided them with a mere roof to
stay under$ *his condition of the inns prevailed for a long time& until the
industrial revolution in England& which brought about new ideas and progress
in the business at inn 'eeping$
*he invention of the steam engine made traveling even more prominent$
+hich had more and more people traveling not only for business but also for
leisure reasons$ *his lead to the actual development of the hotel industry as
we 'now it today$
%otel today not only cater to the basic needs of the guest li'e food and
shelter provide much more than that& li'e personalized services etc$
%otels today are a "%ome away from home#$
Different Types f C!terin" Est!#$is%&ents
*he industry caters to millions of people a day through a wide variety of types
of food service operations in two sectors,
C&&er'i!$ (rfit Oriente)
Nn-'&&er'i!$ - *e$f!re
CO++ERCIAL (rfit Oriente)
C&&er'i!$ Hte$
-t is a place for a traveler to get accommodation and food . if he/she is in a fit
condition to receive the service and pay for it$
-t is a term derived from "0otor %otel# . it has a service station/ 1urpose is to
provide food and drin' together with petroleum products$ *his is situated on
the %ighways$
*his are the restaurants run 23/4& i$e$& 5(6 days a year& covering all the three
meal of the day$ 0ostly A la carte 7to the order8 service is done$ -n some
restaurants they serve *able D hote 7Fixed 0enu8$ -n some hotels they offer
buffet service$
C&&er'i!$ C!terin"
(ri-!te Hspit!$s
*o ta'e care of the patients by providing food and beverages& it should be
piping hot and coo'ed according to the nutritive value as per the doctor advice
-t is a word derived from 19B-) 9:-;: BA<$ -t is opened in the evening and
night for drin's$ %ere Dinner and Dance is also provided$ *here will be a
dance floor in the middle for the guest to dance$ D=cor is lavish$ *he >ervice
will be formal and to excellent !uality$
%ill <esorts
*he %otels are situated in hills & mountain regions$ 1eople mostly come here
to relax and breathe fresh air$ *hey come here to en?oy tre''ing& scenic
beauty and cool climate
>ea <esorts
*he %otels are situated near the sea shore$ *he guest comes here to relax
and en?oy$ *hey en?oy the carious sports in sea and sunbath$ *anned s'in
treatment is very famous in sea resorts$
-sland <esorts
-t is situated in islands& surrounded by sea or la'es$ 1eople come here to
en?oy the scenic beauty& boat rowing& horse riding and tre''ing
>nac' Bars
@enerally situated at the heart of the cities or towns$ *hey provide short eats
in !uic' manner in informal way
Fast Food restaurant
*oday everybody wants to have the food !uic'ly$ -mmediate sales to the guest
for the consumption either on or off the premises$ 0ethod of food service is
simplified$ Examples 0cDonalds& 1izza %ut etc$& found in high streets of most
of the cities
Air $ine C!terin"
-t has to carry preAprepared food on boardB inside the airline no facility for
coo'ing will be available$ 0ost airlines design and plan flight 'itchens near to
the airport to meet their re!uirements$ Food items in individual casseroles are
stored in freezer units until re!uired$ *hey are then heated as re!uired with
the aid of microwave ovens and served to the passengers$
R!i$.!y C!terin"
-n the mid CDth century this networ' began in -ndia& since the travel made
easier& people traveling from one part of the country to another& re!uired food
and drin' on route$ arger stations they opened <efreshment <ooms and
Food plazas$ An pantry car is provided in all the super fast express trains and
also in the trains which travels more than 6 hours& which serves food items to
Se! C!terin"
*his is an organization which provided food and beverage for the people who
travel in ships$ -n cargo ships they serve for sailors& and in the luxury ships li'e
cruise they serve for passengers$ >hips provide food e!uivalent to any good
five star hotel and other facilities too$
+#i$e C!terin"
A 0odern dayEs fast food outlet& serves food on wheels$ Fan type vehicles are
used to do these types of services$
*he primary concern of the establishment is a nonAprofitability business$ -t is
completely or partially subsidized by a parent body$ 1rimary concern is to ta'e
care of the employees$ *o cater the wor'ers with good nutrient food and to
'eep them healthier$ *hese types of catering establishments are run in the
following areasB
Instit,tin!$ C!terin"
9niversities and colleges ,
-n some establishments the rates are subsided& and sold for no loss no gain
concepts$ >ome institutes provide food free to staff and students as an welfare
%ere the food is prepared according to the nutritional value and sold to the
patients in a subsided rate$ +ere in government hospitals the food is given
totally free of cost$ -n hospitals they re!uire special form of catering for
patients . hygiene& nutritional& cost effective$
Armed Forces
For armed force they have a separate catering team . in the police
department they will have their catering canteens$ For senior members even
they run a special restaurant in forces$ >ome times special ban!uets are also
:oon 0eal >cheme 7:0>8
:0> . a government aided for poor children school . encourages them to go
to school . a well planned nutritive diet$
Cffee S%p
-t is open round the cloc'& a concept borrowed from 9>A$ An 23/4 service to
guests for brea'fast& lunch& dinner& snac's and beverage$ >ervice will be
Any main restaurant is open from early morning to midAnight$ )overing three
ma?or meals of the day$ *he cuisine offered here is multiAcuisine$ A formal
restaurant with& wall to wall carpeting& centralize airAconditioning& channel
music$ A la carte service is offered$ >ome restaurant they offer *able d hote
and buffet is also offered at Brea'fast services$
Spe'i!$ty Rest!,r!nt
-t is open for lunch & Dinner only$ *he atmosphere is normal with dim light&
wall to wall carpet& music according to theme$ ;nly A la carte >ervice$ -t is a
specialty cuisine& no multi cuisine$ *he theme can be of any country .
0exican& -talian& )hinese& or region . 1un?abi& 0alabar$
*hese outlets serve alcoholic and nonAalcoholic beverages with limited food$
*hey have comfortable seating and lighting$ *hey may also serve draught
beer$ Apart from the ones located in hotels& there are at:DAlone pubs& barA
cum restaurants& nightclubs$
R& Ser-i'e
23/4 Department . giving personalized service to guest at rooms$ 0ost luxury
hotels offer butler service$ RSOT R& Ser-i'e Or)er T!0er ta'es the
order from the guest in the phone$ *wo types of <oom >ervice )entralized
and Floor >ervice
*he outlet is principally meant for dancing to recorded music$ A live band may
also perform$ ;nly alcoholic beverages served with some snac's$ *he outlet
is operated to attract the younger generation of the society$
A small service outlet in the hotel usually managed by the coffee shop
manager$ -t is an open air restaurant$ >ometimes live music is provided
0ostly grilled food done before guest with charcoal fire in a barAbeAcue
*he covers will be around (G& -t is open only for dinner A type of service is
Ni"%t C$,#s
*hese may or may not be part of the hotel$ %ere the main emphasis is on
music whether taped& live or remixed with DHs$ Beverages and limited food is
also served here$
-t is the largest revenue earning Department among the food and beverage
service outlets$ *hey have& conference halls& ballrooms& meeting venues
-t caters to large weddings& birthday parties& get together & special ;ccasions
*he service will be buffet& informal or formal depending on the type of function
O,t)r C!terin"
;ut Door catering is called as off premise catering$ *he food and beverage is
served where the guest wants them to be served$ >ometimes even the hotel
arranges the venue and serves in the same way they do in the hotels$
St!ff Hier!r'%y f F) !n) Be-er!"e O,t$et
R& Ser-i'e2

Rest!,r!nt +!n!"er
Assist!nt Rest!,r!nt
Senir C!pt!i
Senir *!iter
Assist!nt *!iter
Tr!inee *!iter
R& Ser-i'e
RSOT - R& Ser-i'e
Or)er T!0er
Senir C!pt!in
Senir *!iter
B!n1,et +!n!"er
B!n1,et S!$es
Senir C!pt!in
St!ff- D,ties / Respnsi#i$ities
Dire'tr D, Rest!,r!nt r Rest!,r!nt +!n!"er ,A
C$ %e is responsible for the complete service inside the restaurant and
also responsible for administration
2$ %e is responsible for the sales & 0ar'eting of the restaurant
5$ <esponsible for the happenings in restaurant li'e pilferages & )ontrols
3$ %e should run the restaurant with the help of s'illed staff
6$ >tandard recipes are prepared by him & proper portion is served to the
+!itre D3 Hte$ r Senir C!pt!in,A
C$ A good personality & it is his duty to receive the guest in decent manner
2$ A diplomatic person & organizer
5$ %e is responsible for the restaurant in the case of absence of
<estaurant 0anager
3$ %is duty is also to see that the brigade are well groomed & 1resentable
6$ %e should have complete 'nowledge of wine& tobacco& li!ueur& food and
also 'now about the service
($ Briefing for the team should be ta'en by him
1rimary Duty to receive the guest & seating them comfortably
@ives the menu card& ta'es the reservation in the phone and maintains the
guest boo'
C%ef De R!n" 4St!tin *!iter52
-n charge for the side station covering 5 to 3 tables 7C( covers8
<esponsible for order ta'ing & service of dishes
%e is responsible for the guest from the beginning to the end till he leaves
G!r'n r *!iter,
%is ?ob is to do mise . en . place& chec'ing the side station for cutlery and
croc'ery& glassware re!uired for service
1lacing the K;* 7Kitchen ;rder *ic'et8 and getting the food
<esponsible for collecting the bill / chec'
)leaning the table once the guest leaves the restaurant
C&&is De R!n" 6 J,nir *!iter2
%e is a assistant waiter& general cleanliness of the restaurant
)lears the soil plates and unwanted dishes from restaurant to pantry
%e is responsible for stoc'ing the cutlery and croc'ery in the side station
%e sometimes helps the waiter to serve food and beverages
C&&is De B!r!sse,r 4Tr!inee52
Hunior most position in the restaurant& does assistance wor' li'e cleaning&
%e has to 'eep the service area clean
%e should be trained well before he attends the guest
C&&is De *!"n 4Tr$$ey *!iter52
%e is the next level of assistant waiter . he has to ta'e the trolley around the
%e moves the %orsdEoeuvres trolley and pastry trolley
S&&e$ier r *ine *!iter,
-t is not a common position in -ndia
%is ?ob is to ta'e care of wine service and he should 'now everything about
%e also has to 'now the right food accompaniment for the wine
Knowledge about cigar& cigarettes and coc'tails
%e should also be aware of the licensing laws prevalent in the city and should
be an efficient salesperson
Assist!nt *ine *!iter,
%e assists the sommelier by 'eeping the wine glasses clean and tidy
Attri#,tes f F) / Be-er!"e Ser-i'e (ersnne$
(%ysi'!$ Attri#,tes
C$ Daily >have
2$ %air >hould be neatly trimmed
5$ 0en should avoid long hair and women should avoid movable hair
3$ %ands must be free from nicotine stains& clean and well trimmed nails
6$ Always smell good& use deodorants but do not use nail polish
($ 9niform should be clean and neatly pressed
4$ 1erfume if used should not be strong
I$ Females should wear light ma'e up only
D$ >hoes should be comfortable and wellApolished
CG$ Design shoes are not encouraged
CC$ %igh heel are not relevant as it creates accident
C2$ *eeth should be brushed before service starts
*r0 Re$!te) Attri#,tes
*he staffs conduct should be good at all times especially in front of the guest$
*he rules and regulations of the establishment must be followed and respect
to be shown to all senior member of the staff$
L!n",!"e prfi'ien'y
*he way in which the waiter spea's inside the restaurant is very important$ A
good 'nowledge in English with the regional language is more important of a
waiter$ French and @erman is very important for menu 'nowledge$
*he waiter should always be courteous to the guest and to his supervisors$
*he waiter should be polite while tal'ing to the guest$ 1leasing words should
be used in the communication$ %e/she should remember that the guest is
always right$
%onesty is the best policy$ *o be honest in the wor'ing places is very
important$ +e should not mislead the guest in wrong statements$
-t is one of the important !ualities of a good waiter$ *he waiter should have a
principle to never come late for duty$
*he waiter should not tal' more as li'e mar'et$ *he staff obligation and loyalty
is very important ot he establishment$
*he waiter should always consider himself as a member of the team and coA
operate with all the staff$
*he waiter should act diplomatic when there is a tough situation created by a
guest after a drun' or irritated guest$ *he waiter should handle the situation in
a very cool manner$
*he waiter should have a high degree of tolerance for the presence of wor'
and be calm at all times$
A#i$ity t re&e&#er f!'es !n) n!&es
*he !uality which differs from a good waiter to average waiter$ *he guest will
be happy if he/she is remembered by name and he will feel important in front
of others to be recognized$
(%ysi'!$ fitness
*he waiter has to wor' for long hours in the department$ >o the waiter should
be physically and mentally alert in his duty inside the restaurant$
Te'%ni'!$ s0i$$ / 0n.$e)"e
-t is one of the best !uality of a good waiter$ +aiters 'nowledge about the
menu& food& beverages and tobacco should be above an average$ *he waiter
is also re!uired to have deep 'nowledge about all types of services carried out
in star category hotels$
S!$es !#i$ity
*he waiter reflects the image of the establishment$ *hey are the sales people
who effectively set all the items of Food and Beverage in a correct manner$
Attit,)e t.!r)s t%e ",est
A waiter should anticipate the guests wishes and needs$ A careful watch
should be 'ept on the guests at all times during the services without staring$
S!fety7 Hy"iene7 !n) !ttit,)es 4(siti-e !n) Ne"!ti-e5
(siti-e !ttit,)es f ! .!iter2
Attend the guests as soon as they enter the restaurant$
+ish the guest at any time of the day and welcome them to the
1referably address them by their name which re!uires remembering
Be polite to the guest
%elp to seat the ladies
1rovide extra cushions or special chairs for children
+hen spea'ing to a guest do not interrupt him& if he is spea'ing to
another guest$
Do not ever here conversation
Avoid mannerism such as touching hair and nose pic'ing etc$
>tand direct at all times$ A gentle bow at the time of service is
<emember a guest special dish and remained him that you 'now it$
Be attentive to the guest calls
*al' softly
>tri'e a match to enable a guest to liter his cigarette$
DonEt carry pencils and pen behind your ears
1resent the bills directly to the host in order to avoid embarrassing him$
Avoid waiting for *ips$
Enter and leave the restaurant through the service zone only$
Ne"!ti-e Attit,)es f ! *!iter2
C$ Forgetting to say "*han' Jou#
2$ As'ing for *-1> . counting before guest
5$ >hort temper
3$ *al'ing too much
6$ -gnoring the guest
($ %urrying the guest
4$ 9sing bad form of speech
I$ Adding up the bills wrongly
D$ 9nauthorized eating during the service
CG$ 1utting service cloth in poc'et
CC$ >oiling the menu card by 'eeping them in shirt front
C2$ )arrying pen or pencils behind ears
C5$ %aving bad breath or body odor
C3$ )hewing @um
C6$ +earing Dirty cloth or shirt
C($ >neezing or coughing carelessly inside the restaurant
C4$ +earing high heeled shoes
CI$ Kuarreling or being noisy
CD$ -ndulging in perfential treatment of guests
Inter Dep!rt&ent!$ Re$!tins%ip
F) (r),'tin ,
Food is the main source of income in service department$ *he menu is also
provided by the food production department to the F&B >ervice
Frnt Offi'e ,
*hey are the persons who handle the guest directly & create the first
impression$ *hey guide the guest to various departments& they also guide
them to various ban!uets halls & functional areas
H,se 8eepin"2
1lays a vital role for the functioning of the F&B service department$ *he
cleanliness is totally ta'e care by them$ -n flower arrangement and bud vase in
outlets$ *hey also do pest controls at outlets
(,r'%!se Dep!rt&ent ,
*a'es care of the purchase of service things li'e tooth pic'& sugar cubes&
nap'ins& match boxes & etc$
(ersnne$ Dep!rt&ent2
-t gives the salary for the staff$ *hey record the employees performance$ *hey
maintain the attendance and time of the employees in & out of the hotel$
+elfare measure and <ecruitment of the employees
+!inten!n'e Dep!rt&ent2
*hey ta'e care of the electrical and plumbing wor'$ *hey chec' the halls
before the function starts$ *hey ta'e care of fixing the )D & 1)& Audio
Se',rity Dep!rt&ent ,
*hey chec' all the staff before leaving the hotel$ *hey deal the highly
confused and threatening situation in the hotel li'e a murder or death of the
guest etc$&
A'',nts Dep!rt&ent ,
*hey deal with all the accounts of F&B$ *he total cash collected from the
outlets will be given to the night auditor by the cashier of the outlet
C-per!tin !n) C-r)in!tin
-t is the system which is followed within a department for the smooth
functioning of the department
-t is the system which is followed with the other departments
-n the end of this unit the students have studied the following& dtailed
classification of the Food and beverage outlets$ A detailed 'nowledge about
welfare catering and commercial catering establishments$ *he different outlets
and their functions in detail$ *he doEs and donEts of a Food and beverage
personnel$ *he staff hierarchy of the various food and beverage outlets and
their duties and responsibilities$
S%rt Ans.er type 1,estins2
C$ +rite short notes on the Airlines and <ailway )ateringL
2$ ist down the donEts of service personnelL
5$ +rite a short note on welfare catering and its operation$
Ess!y Type 9,estins2
C$ +rite short notes on different type of commercial outlets
2$ %ow food and beverage department coAordinates with Kitchen& Front
office & %ouse 'eeping and 0aintenance departments$
-n this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurant operating e!uipments$
After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand,
M Food and beverage service e!uipments needed for table setting such as
glassware& chinaware and table ware
M Furniture& fixtures and linen
M >afe handling of e!uipments$
M 1reparing the restaurant before& during and after service
M 0iseAenAscene
M 0iseAenAplace
M <ules and points to remember while table laying
M >tyles of service
M >ervice techni!ues$
SERVICE E9UI(+ENTS - C,t$ery7 Cr'0ery !n) G$!ss.!re
-t is also called as silverware$ >ilver plating is made from blan's or bodies of
nic'el silver or nic'el brass alloy$ *hey are immersed in a complex of silver
salts or nic'el by means of electrolysis$ >ilver is transferred to the blan's and
an electroplated product emerges$ *his process is called E1:> .
Electroplated :ic'el >ilver
*echnically& these include only cutting utensils namely 'nives, large or
?oint or dinner 'nives& fish 'nives& side 'nives& butter 'nives and small
'nives$ But nowadays all eating implements are 'nown as cutlery$
Flatware includes spoon and for's$
N!&e Si:e6,n'es Uses
0arrow >poon
>ervice >poon
>oup >poon
Dessert >poon
*ea >poon
)offee >poon
0ustard >poon
-ce )ream >poon
1arfait spoon
>ervice ladle
Fish for'
>mall for'
Dinner for'
7?oint or large8
Fruit for'
1astry for' cum 'nife
;yster for'
>nail for'
Fish 'nife
Dinner Knife
>mall Knife
>tea' 'nife
4 inches
D inches
4 inches
4 inches
6 inches
3 inches
5 inches
6 inches
4 to I inc
D inches
4 inches
I inches
3 inches
6 inches
6 inches
4 inches
D inches
4 inches
I inches
9sed for ta'ing marrow
9sed for serving food
9sed for having >oup
9sed for having deserts
*o stir tea
*o stir )offee
*a'ing mustard from mustard pot
9sed for having ice cream
*o have multilayered ice creams
9sed for serving foods with high
li!uid consistency
9sed for serving food
9sed for having fish
9sed for having main course
9sed for having fruits
9sed for having pastry
9sed for having oyster
9sed for having snail
9sed for having fish
9sed for having meat
9sed for having desert
9sed for having stea'
Butter dish lid
E1:> single portion round
E1:> double portion round
>oup with turn lid
-ce buc'et
+ine cooler
)oc'tail sha'er
>trainer and drip bowls
>auce boat
+ater ?ugs
9sed for serving butter
9sed for serving curry for a single person
9sed for serving curry for two persons
9sed for serving soup
9sed for serving ice cubes
9sed for serving cool wine
9sed for ma'ing coc'tail
9sed to drain tea leaves
9sed for serving sauce
9sed for serving water
Spe'i!$ T!#$e.!re
Asparagus %older
1astry slice
)orn on the cob
>nail tong
>nail dish
obster pic'
)aviar 'nife
:ut crac'er
@rape scissors
9sed to hold asparagus spears when eating
9sed to slice the pastry and serve the portion
;ne to pierce each end of the cob
9sed to hold the snail shell
Dish is round with two ears& having six indentations to
hold a portion 7(8 of snails
*o extract the flesh from the claw
9sed to apply caviar on toast
*o crac' nuts
*o cut and hold a portion of grapes
*he silver room holds the complete stoc' of silverware re!uired for the service
of all meals together with a small surplus stoc' incase of emergency$ *he
storage of silverware is most important$ All the shelves should be labeled so
as to indicate where each item are placed$ -tEs ma'e easier for effective
control and stoc'ing$ %eavy items should be shelved lower and heavy items
on higher up$ For prevention of accidents we do so$
All cutlery and flatware can be arranged together$ >mall item li'e ashtrays&
cruet set& butter dishes& special e!uipments& and menu holders can be stored
in drawers with baize$ Baize will provide the sound while the cutleries slide in
the draw$ *he silverware should be cleaned regularly
>ilver plating is made from blan's or bodies of nic'el silver or nic'el brass
alloy$ *hey are immersed in a complex of silver salts or nic'el by means of
electrolysis$ >ilver is transferred to the blan's and an electroplated product
emerges$ *his process is called E1:> . Electroplated :ic'el >ilver
Si$-er '$e!nin" &et%)s
*he silver used in the service area are E1:> which re!uires polishing
to 'eep up the shining of the cutleries& flatware and hollowware all the time$
*here are different methods of silver cleaning and the method used generally
depends on the size and class of establishment$ *he larger establishments
use a burnishing machine which would be in constant use all through the day&
whereas smaller establishments which possibly couldnEt afford a burnishing
machine& would use a manual method$
B,rnis%in" &!'%ine2
*his is a revolving drum with a safety shield$ -t may be plumbed into the
mains 7or8 remain portable with the water being poured in by means of a hose
from a tap$ Depending on the size of burnishing machine in use& it may be
divided in to compartments to hold specific sizes of silver$ A rod is inserted at
the centre and is removable which helps on polishing the handles of teapots&
coffee pots& mil' ?ugs& etc$
-n order to run the burnishing machine effectively and efficiently& the
following things has to be done$ A certain amount of soap powder is added
according to the ma'erEs instructions$ *he silver is placed inside and then the
lid is clamped down tightly$ *he water supply is then turned on to ensure a
constant flow of water$ -f the machine is not plumbed in & then water has to be
poured in covering the ball bearings on the side and then the lid is clamped
down$ As the drum revolves the mixture of water and soap powder acts as a
lubricant between the silver and the ball bearings$ *hus any tarnish is
removed but the silver is not scratched$ ;n being removed from the
burnishing machine the silver should be rinsed in hot water and dried with a
clean tea cloth$
A polivit is an aluminum metal sheet containing holes which is best used
in an enamel 7or8 galvanized iron bowl$ *he polivit is placed in the bowl
together with some soda$ *he silver to be cleaned is then put into the bowl&
ensuring that at least one piece of silver has contact with the polivit$ >ufficient
boiling water is poured into the bowl to cover the silver being cleaned$ A
chemical reaction ta'es place between the polivit& soda& boiling water and
silver& which causes the tarnish to be lifted$ After three 7or8 four minutes the
silver is ta'en out to another bowl of hot water to rinse and later it will be
drained and cleaned with tea cloth$
($!te p.)er2
*his is a pin' powder which needs mixing with a little methylated spirit
to obtain a smooth paste$ *he paste is applied on the tarnished silver and left
until the paste is dried of$ *hen the paste is rubbed off with a clean cloth and
is advisable to rinse the article well in hot water and to give a final polish with
a clean dry tea cloth$ -f the silver got a design 7or8 engraves& it is good to use a
small brush to apply the paste and another brush to clean the dried paste$
Si$-er )ip2
A pin' colored li!uid is used which is 'ept in a plastic bowl$ >ilver which
has to be polished are 'ept in wire bas'et and dipped into the plastic bowl
containing li!uid$ All the silver articles to be polished has to be covered by the
li!uid$ *he silver should be left in the silver dip for a short period and then
lifted to drain$ After draining it is placed in warm water& rinsed and then
polished with a clean dry tea cloth$ *his method is !uic'er than the other
methods and is used mostly in the medium sized establishments$
-t is made of sodaAash& >ilicon and chinaclay& glaze it give a fine finish$
)hinaware will always be glassing having and being different colours and
designs$ -t has more resistant to heat than glassware$
%ow to %andle )hinawareL
C$ Brea'age rate is highB hence forth it needs careful handling
2$ -t should be stored on shelves
5$ *o avoid accidents it should be stored in a convenient height
3$ Always it should be 'ept covered to avoid dust and germs
N!&e Si:e Uses
Dinner 1late 7meat& ?oint8
Dessert plate 7fish plate& half plate8
B&B plate 7side plate& cheese plate8
>oup plate
*ea )up
Demi tasse cup
:appy Bowl
Egg )up %older
)onsomm= )up
>oup Bowl
Fruit 1late
>alad plate
)offee )up
*ea 1ot
( N "
I O "
( oz
5 oz
CG oz
D "
(GG ml
-t is used for serving meats
-t is used for the service of fish
and also for hors dE oeuvres
9sed as an underliner$ -t is also
used for serving cheese
9sed for serving thic' soup
9sed for service of tea
9sed for service of coffee
9sed to serve cereals
9sed to serve boiled egg
9sed to serve consomm= soup
9sed for service of soups
9sed for serving fruits
9sed for serving cold salad
9sed to serve coffee
9sed for serving tea
)offee pot
>ugar bowl
Ash *ray
CA2 pnts
6 "
>erving coffee
9sed as a container for sugar
9sed by the guest to dispose
cigarette ash and buds
0ostly used only to carry tea cup
*he raw materials used as a silica and sodaAash$ et is added to ma'e the
glass crystal clearB glasses are measured in terms of capacity$
*he restaurant glassware is usually plain$ Except in speciality restaurant
where it may be coloured
%ow to handle glasswareL
-t should be 'ept inverted in single rooms in a bac'ward of the shave to
-n a restaurant glassware must be transported on a place& with a tray cloth to
avoid spilage
@lasses with a stem must be inverted and held by the stem
>ervice glasses must be cleaned and held against to a light before use for
traces of smudges etc$
;ne of the technical terms very often used in the restaurant is "coverP$
C8 +hen discussing how many guests a restaurant or dining room will seat we
refer to the total number of guests concerned as so many PcoversP$
28 +hen laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place
settings& which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being
offered$ *his place setting is a type of cover being laid$
;ne cover denotes all the necessary cutlery& flatware& croc'ery& glassware
and linen necessary to lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal&
for a single person$
*his cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for each
course/dish will be laid ?ust before each course/dish is served$ *he traditional
cover given below represents the cover for hors dQ oeuvres 7starters8 which is
the first course/dish in a French classic menu se!uence$
Fish plate
Fish 'nife
Fish for'
>ide plate
>ide 'nife
+ine glass
+hen an a la carte cover is being laid& the cutlery and flatware re!uired by the
guest for the dishes ordered will be placed course by course$ -n other words
there should not be at any time during the meal& more cutlery and flatware on
the table than is re!uired by the guest at that specific time$
*his cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for the entire meal
will be laid before the first course/dish will served$ *he traditional cover is
given below,
>oup spoon
Fish 'nife
Fish for'
0eat 'nife
0eat for'
Dessert spoon
Dessert for'
>ide plate
>ide 'nife
+ine glass
+hen a *able dEhote cover has been laid& the steward should remove& after
the order has been ta'en& any unnecessary cutlery and flatware and really any
extra items that may be re!uired$
On'e t%e t!#$e is '$t%e)-,p it s%,$) #e $!i) in re!)iness fr ser-i'e<
-f an a la carte cover is being laid& then the first item set on the table
should be the fishplate in the center of each cover$
-f a *able dEhote cover is being laid then the first item to be set on the
table should be serviette or side plate in the center of each cover$
-f the side plate were laid in the center of each cover it would be moved
to the leftAhand side of the cover once all the cutlery and flatware had
been laid$ *he purpose of initially placing something in the center of the
cover is to ensure that the covers are exactly opposite one another and
that the cutlery and flatware of each cover are the same distance apart$
)utlery and flatware of each should be laid from a service salver or
service plate$ An alternative to this is to use a service cloth and hold the
items being laid in the service cloth& giving a final polish before setting
the items on the table$
+hen laying a *able dEhote cover& the cutlery and flatware should be
laid from inside to outside of the cover$ *his ensure even spacing of the
cover and normally lessens the chances of having to handle the items
laid more than is necessary$
*he waiter must ensure that all cutlery and flatware is laid C$26cm 7C/2
in8 from the edge of the table and that badged croc'ery has the badge
or crest at the head or top of the cover$
*he glass after polishing should be placed upside down at the top rightA
hand corner of the cover$
;nce& the covers have been laid the table accompaniments should be
placed on the table according to the custom of the house$
+here an a la carte cover has been laid& the cutlery and flatware
re!uired by the guest for the dishes s/he has chosen will be laid course
by course$ -n other words there should not& at any time during the meal&
be more cutlery and the guest re!uires flatware on the table than at the
specific time$
-f decorative cover plates are used for an a la carte cover it is common
for the first course plates to be placed on this plate$ *he first course and
the cover plate are then removed when the first course is cleared$
+here a table dEhote cover has been laid the waiter should remove&
after the order has been ta'en& any unnecessary cutlery and flatware
and relay any extra items that may be re!uired$ *his means that before
the customer commences the meal he/she should have all the cutlery
and flatware re!uired for the dishes chosen& set out as his/her place
setting or cover$
After the above covers have been laid& the tableAlayout should be
completed by the addition of the following items,
R )ruet set
R Ashtray
R Bud vase
All applicable cutlery and flatware should be laid C$26 cm from the edge of the
table$ +ater goblets after polishing should be placed at the top rightAhand of
the cover$
Rest!,r!nt t!#$e $inens are linens used in restaurants and are often made of
cotton$ *his cotton made table linens are perfect for restaurants and ban!uet halls$
*hey are ideal for fine dining facility$ *hey give the restaurant that special
atmosphere that ma'es new guests repeat guests$ @ood table linens increase the
reputation of the restaurant$
63 inches S 63 inches to fit a table of 2 feet ( inches s!uare table or round table of 5
feet diameter$
42 inches S 42 inches to fit a table of 5 feet s!uare
42 inches S D( inches to fit rectangular shaped tables
42 inches S 63 inches to fit rectangular shaped tables
S$ip '$t%s
5 feet S 5 feet& used to cover a grubby tablecloth$
Ser-iettes 4N!p0ins5
CIA2G inches s!uare if linen
C3AC4 inches s!uare if paper
B,ffet '$t%s
( feet S C2 feet
T%,&# r,$es fr T!#$e Settin"2
*able should not sha'e$
0ulton 7thic' silence cloth8 should not be seen below the table cloth$
*able cloth should be clean& crisp and right side up$ -t should fall
e!ually on opposite sides$
Flower arrangement& if any& should not be tall and highly scented$
Five items& !uarter plate& glass& nap'in& ashtray & cruet set are always
All cutlery re!uired for the first course will be outside i$e$& farthest from
the center of the count$
All 'nives are on right hand side& except one on the !uarter plate$
)utting edge will be on the left$
All for's are on left except one on top with the dessert spoon$
All spoons are on right except one on the top with dessert for'$
+ater glass at the tip of the 'nife$ ;ther glasses & coffee cup on the
right side$
:ap'in can be on !uarter plate& or in the center of cover or in the water
*he cutlery should form a s!uare& with the edge of table as one side
and it must be opposite the chair$
>wift& silent& slee'& smooth& sincere& smiling service is to be given$
*he plates are so placed on the table that the main dish is nearest the
guest and accompaniments on the sides$ -t is sometime referred to as
CG& 2 and ( ToE cloc' arrangement$
+is en ($!'e !n) +is-en-s'ene
0is en scene refers to preparing the environment of the area in order to ma'e it
pleasant & comfortable & safe and hygienic$ For each service the restaurant should be
made presentable enough for the guests to accept it$ *he supervisors and his
brigade should ensure the following 0isAenAscene$
*he carpets are brushed
*he tables and chairs are serviceable and no wobbling
*able lights and chandeliers have functioning bulbs
0enu cards are presentable and attractive
*ext cards and others sales materials are presentable
Doors and windows are closed
*able clothes and nap'ins are laid on the table
Bud vase is set with a fresh flower
<oom freshener to 'eep away the odor
ights should be used in the restaurant according to the theme of the
+is en ($!'e
*his French term this means "to put in place#$ *he term is attributed to the
presentation of wor' place for an ultimate smooth service and to ensure that the
restaurant is ready for the service$ *he side stations are efficiently prepared for the
service by the waiter$
A station comprise of a given number of tables served by a given number of waiters$
A station is a group of tables around 5 to ( having 2G to 23 covers$ Each station is
headed by a station waiter or chefAdeArang$ *he side station is also called as a
dummy waiter having different specified shelves and cupboards to hold all the
croc'ery& cutlery& glassware& linen re!uired for service$
*he following service e!uipment can be stored in a side station,
>alvers )reamers +ine chiller and stand
)offee pots *eapots -ce buc'ets and tongs
Finger bowls )ruet sets >ugar bowlB and tongs
>oup ladles Butter dishes Bottle and wine openers
)igar cutters Bread bas'ets Bud vases
)andle holders +ine cradle *oothpic' stand
>traw stand 1ot holders Drip bowls
*he style and design of the side board varies from establishment to establishment$ -t
depends upon,
R *he style of service and menu offered$
R *he number of waiters wor'ing from one sideboard
R *he number of tables to be served from one sideboard
R *he amount of e!uipment it is expected to hold
Types f ser-i'e
Five styles of services are internationally recognized,
C$ French service or guerdion service
2$ American service or plate service
5$ English service
15 16 17 18
7 6 5
4 1 2 3
8 9
3$ <ussian service
6$ Buffet service
Fren'% Ser-i'e
French service differs from others in that all food is served from the gueridon$ *his is
a rolling cart the same height as the guestQs table$ *he gueridon is covered with a
cloth and is placed sideAbyAside with the table$ -t is e!uipped with a small alcohol
stove& or rechaud& that is used to 'eep the food warm for the preparation of sauces&
crepes suzette& ?ubilee and other special dishes$ *his service is very elaborate and
elegant$ *he food is partially prepared
in the 'itchen and completed by the )hef or %eadwaiter in full view of the customer$
>ervice of this type re!uires not only technical expertise on food preparation but also
a good showmanship$ *he )hef carries out certain activities li'e carving meats&
flamb=& etc$ with flair and showmanship$
C$ *he guest s given personalized attention ma'ing him feel important$
2$ -t ma'es the guest feel that he is receiving a royal treatment$
5$ *h service is elegant and entertaining$
3$ -t commands higher price than other forms of service 7pay for the service8$
C$ -t is a slow service$
2$ -t is expensive because it re!uires large professional staff$
5$ -t re!uires a bigger dining room space to ma'e service and food preparation
A&eri'!n Ser-i'e
*his is usually called Pplate service# because the food is already placed in the plate
in the 'itchen ready to be served to the guests$ *his type of service is used in coffee
shops where there is a demand for !uic' and simple service$ -t re!uires minimal
training for novice waiters and waitresses$
C$ -t is a fast and simple service$
2$ -t is inexpensive$ ;ne waiter or waitress can serve many guests and no special
service e!uipment is necessary$
5$ -t does not re!uire highly trained technical staff that demands for higher pay$
C$ ess showmanship
2$ <educed personalized attention
En"$is% Ser-i'e
*his type of service is also 'nown as Pfamily styleP service$ -n this service& the soup
tureen is placed before the host alongside with preheated soup plates and hands
them to the waiter& indicating the person to be served$ *he same procedure is
followed with the main entree$ -f so desired& the partly filled dinner plate is presented
to the hostess who serves the vegetables from large serving dishes placed before
her$ *hen the waiter places the plate before the guests$ *his type of service is
usually found in coffee shops& family restaurants& counter service& etc$
C$ -t is fast$ 1lates of food are served immediately at the proper temperature$
2$ -t is inexpensive$
5$ -t re!uires no special e!uipment$
C$ ess showmanship$
2$ <educed personalized attention to the customer$
R,ssi!n Ser-i'e
*his type of service is the same as that of French service$ %owever& in <ussian
service& the food is fully prepared and preAcut in the 'itchen and then neatly arranged
on silver platters by the )hef$ *he waiter then shows the platter to the guest as a
polite gesture and serves the food to the individual plates of the guests using serving
C$ ;nly one waiter is needed to each station$
2$ Elegant and entertaining$
5$ :o extra space is needed for the e!uipment$
3$ -t guarantees e!ual portions because the food is preAcut and already served$
6$ @ives the guests personal attention$
C$ -t re!uires a big initial investment in silver e!uipment$
2$ -f many guests are served from one platter& the last one to be served may see a
rather less attractive display$
5$ -f every guest in a party orders a different dish li'e stea' or fish& the waiter must
carry very heavily loaded tray / trays to the dining room$
B,ffet Ser-i'e
*his is also called self service and is normally used in ban!uet functions and i n
some restaurants$ Food is attractively arranged on a long table& classified and
arranged according to
proper se!uence& from appetizers to desserts$ >oup is placed on a soup tureen and
the hot entrees in chaffing dishes to 'eep them warm$ >ome e!uipment li'e dinner
plates and saucers are laid down right on the buffet table$ -nstead of the waiter
serving the guests& the guests go to the buffet table pic' up plates& china& cutlery and
nap'in and all other items and serve themselves of their own choice$
C$ -t is a fast service$
2$ -t re!uires less staff to render the service needed$
5$ *he presentation of the different dishes can be appetizing$
C$ -t may result in shortage of food especially when the early ones may serve
themselves moreB thus very little food is left for the latecomers
R,$es fr .!itin" !t ! t!#$e - Re'ei-in"7 r)er t!0in"7 ser-i'e !n) sett$e&ent
*he waiter is responsible for greeting guests must ensure that the reception is
welcoming$ ead guests to a table and help them to sit down by slightly pulling out
chairs and moving them forward as guests sit$
+en, (resent!tin
*he waiter must present the menu opened to the guests and give them time to read
and choose their dishes$
T!0in" t%e r)er
*he order is ta'en while standing on the left of the guest$ *he waiter can give advice
or explanation on the choice of dishes only when as'ed$
F) ser-i'e te'%ni1,es
+here possible serve food from the customers left serve hot foods on hot plates and
cold foods on cold plates serve ladies first where possible serve cold food& before hot
(resent!tin f t%e #i$$
At the re!uest of the guest the bill must be collected from the cashier and presented
to the host folded to conceal the figures and on a side plate$ +hen payment is made
the money is ta'en to the cashier and any che!ue returned with the receipt on a side
plate unless the guest indicates that the change is a tip it should be left on the plate
until the guest leaves$
*he techni!ue for recording the order will depend on the system being used in
the particular establishment$
C$ Kitchen ;rder *ic'et . -t is a triplicate system$
2$ +hen guests are ready to order& the person ta'ing the order records
each item in a chronological se!uence up to the main course after
having entered the table number and the number of covers$
5$ *he name of each item is clearly spelled and when several guest at the
same table order the same thing a dot is placed on the right of each
item ordered$ +hen each customer has ordered& the dots are
transferred to its numerical form
3$ it consists of three copies& the top copy is ta'en to the 'itchen for
re!uisitioning the food& the bottom copy goes to the cashier& for
preparing the bill and the third copy retained in the sideboard as aideA
6$ the same process is used to order the entremets and beverages
*his department primarily controls the storage and issue of cutlery& croc'ery&
hollowware& chinaware and glassware to the restaurant and 'itchens$ *he waiter
would have to get his supplies of the above items from this department$ *he
department is also responsible for washing soiled service ware and subse!uently
furnishing clean items$ *he sanitation and hygiene of the 'itchen usually comes
under the purview of the 'itchen stewarding department$
A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers$
>ervice is generally for eating on premises& though the term has been used to
describe ta'eAout establishments and food delivery services$ *he term covers
many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service$
<estaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain
unifying& and often entertaining& theme$ For example& there are seafood
restaurants& vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants$ @enerally spea'ing&
restaurants selling PlocalP food are simply called restaurants& while restaurants
selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly& for example& a )hinese
restaurant and a French restaurant$ <estaurants can be classified by whether
they provide places to sit& whether they are served by waitAstaff and the !uality
of the service& the formality of the atmosphere& and the price range$ >taff
organization is basically concerned with matters such as the decision of tas's
within the hotel& position of responsibility and authority and the relation
between them$ -t helps in introducing the conceps of span of control& level of
management and delegation$ *eamwor' is the watchword in any food and
beverage service department$ A dedicated and committed team& with able
leadership& under ideal wor'ing conditions& helps in fulfilling the
establishmentQs ultimate goal of guest satisfaction
K9E>*-;:> F;< D->)9>>-;:
C$ +hat are glasswareL @ive a brief description about the types of glasswares
used in restaurants$
2$ +rite in your own words how you will handle glasswares and )hinawares$
5$ Enumerate about the tables and chairs used in the restaurants$
3$ @ive a brief description about the side station$
6$ +hat are the main items of linen found in a restaurantL
($ Draw a s'etch descripting the table setting$
4$ Explain in your own words about preparing for service$
I$ Explain table laying$
A-0> A:D ;BHE)*-FE>
-n this lesson we shall discuss about the food and beverage service areas$
After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand,
M >tillroom& its staffs& provisions receivable and e!uipments available
M >ilver room stoc'Aups
M +ashAup of soiled items
M %otplate point& use of upboards and coordination between various units and
M >pare linen store
*he main function of the still room is to prepare and provide food items and
e!uipments which are not catered for in any other department 7such as
'itchen& larder or pastry8$ *he actual daily wor' carried out in the stillroom
varies from one establishment to another according to the type of meals
offered and the size of the establishment$
Sti$$r& St!ffs
*he still room is loo'ed after by a still room supervisor& who is responsible for
the staffing& ordering of supplies from the main store and effective control of
these items when issued to various departments$ -n most of the restaurants&
the stillroom remains open for long hours$ For the efficient running& the staffs
normally wor' on a straight rotating shift basis& doing an early shift one wee'
and a late shift the next$ *he stillroom
staffs are also responsible for the washing up of all their e!uipments$
(r-isins O#t!in!#$e fr& t%e Sti$$r&
*he list below gives the provisions that can be obtained from the stillroom,
Beverages, coffee& tea& chocolate& horlic's& ovaltine and other food drin's$
Fruit ?uices, apple& orange& pineapple& grapefruit and other assorted fruit
1astries& gateaux and sandwiches
<olls& brioche and crossant
*oast, brea'fast toast& melba toast
0il'& cream and butter
*oasted scones and teaca'es
>ugar, coffee powder& tea dust& demerara etc$
Brea'fast cereals, cornfla'es& weetabixm shredded wheat& rice crispies&
muesli etc$
1reserves, ?ams& ?elly& marmalade& cherry& plum& raspberry& strawberry&
apricot and honey$
)leaning detergents and scrubbers$
Sti$$r& E1,ip&ents
A wide range of food items are offered from a stillroom and therefore& to
ensure the correct storage& preparation and presentation a considerable
amount of e!uipment is used$ *he e!uipment that may be found includes,
)offee brewing machine
)offee bean grinding machine
*ea dispenser
Bread slicing machine
%ot cupboard
>teamer and hot water boiler
+or' table and cutting board
@eneral storage space& shelves and cupboards
>in's& washing machines and dish washers
*he silver room holds the stoc' of silver re!uired for the service of meals$ *he
various types of silver are 'ept here on labeled shelves& with all the service
plates of one size stac'ed together$
)utlery& flatware& hollowware and other smaller items are usually stored in
drawers lined with baize& as this helps to reduce noise& slipping and
scratching$ -n very large establishments& the silver and the plate room may be
two separate units& but in the ma?ority of places they are combined and in
some cases& are a part of washAup$
*he hotplate is the contact point between the 'itchen and the service staff$ -t is
the point at which both areas must cooperate and communicate effectively so
that the customer gets the !uic' and efficient service that he expects$ %ot
cupboards can be used for either food or plates$ 9nits as a whole are usually
made up of a hot cupboard with sliding doors& topped by a heated serving
surface$ *he top may also house containers acting as dry or heated brainA
maries$ Dry heat 'eeps the food hot by electric elements or gas flame$ *he
wet heat method provides heat via an open tan' of water& which itself is
heated by gasAfired burners or by an electric immersion heater$ *he hot plate
or hot cupboard needs to be stoc'ed with all the china and croc'ery needed
for service& e$g soup plates& fish plates& consomm= cups& platters& soup cups&
tea cups and demitasse$
*he Aboyeur is in charge& and controls the hotplate over the service period$
As an aid to the food service staff the Aboyeur would control the Toff boardE
which tells the waiter immediately any dish is ToffE$ *he Aboyeur who controls
the hotplate over the service period will initially receive the food chec' from
the waiter$ %e chec's that it is legible and that none of the dishes ordered are
ToffE the menu$
*he pantry in most hotels and restaurants& provides items of food and
beverage not prepared in other sections of the 'itchen$ -ts main function is to
serve tea& coffee& ?uices& a variety of breads& rolls& croissants& sha'es& ice
creams and various nonAalcoholic beverages li'e fresh lime& iced teas& etc$ -n
medium sized hotels& the pantry also provides all brea'fast items including
eggs to order brea'fast cereals li'e cornfla'es and short order items li'e hot
dogs& toasted and other sandwiches$
-n a large firstAclass establishment a still room supervisor is in charge and
depending upon the size of the still room and duties to be performed& he may
have a number of staff under his control$ A further responsibility of the still
room supervisor is the ordering of supplies from the main dry goods store and
the effective control of these items when issued to various departments$
Against proper re!uisition only the goods are issued from the dry goods store&
where the top copy goes to the store& duplicate remains in the re!uisition boo'
as a means of chec'ing the receipt of goods from the store$ @oods are issued
only if the re!uisition is signed by the still room supervisor$ Because of the
number of hours that the still room has to remain open and running efficiently&
the staffs often wor' on a shift basis$
E!uipments used in the still room vary with the type of restaurant$ A
wide range of food items is offered and therefore& to ensure their correct
storage& preparation and presentation& a considerable amount of e!uipment is
<efrigerator, for storage of mil'& cream& butter& fruit ?uices$
Beverage ma'ing facilities$
arge double sin' and draining board$
>alamander or toaster$
Bread slicing machine$
+or' top and cutting board$
>torage rac' for e!uipments$
)offee grinding machine$
+hile organizing the area for washAup it is important to 'eep in mind
that it has to be sited in the place where the staff can wor' speedily and
efficiently when passing from the food service areas to the 'itchens$ >ervers
should stac' trays of dirties correctly at the bac' area& with all the correct
sized plates together and tableAware stac'ed on one of the plates with the
blades of the 'nives running under the arches of the for's$ All glassAware
should be stac'ed on a separate tray and ta'en to a separate washAup point$
*he washAup service area should be the first section the waiter enters from
the food service area$ %ere he/she deposits all the dirty plates& stac'ing them
correctly and placing all the tableAware in a special wire bas'et or container in
readiness for washing$ *he server must place any debris into the bin or bowl
provided$ All used paper serviettes& doilies or 'itchen paper should be placed
in a separate bin$
Depending upon the size of the establishment and the wor' load in the washA
up area& the method of dishwashing varies$ *he different dishwashing
methods are&
0anual method >oiled ware washed by hand or brush machine
>oiled ware loaded manually into dishwashing
machine by operators
Automatic conveyor >oiled ware loaded in bas'ets& mounted on a
conveyor by operators for automatic transportation
through a dishwashing machine
Flight conveyor >oiled ware loaded within pegs mounted on a
conveyor by operators for automatic transportation
through a dishwashing machine
Deferred wash >oiled ware collected together& stripped& sorted and
stac'ed by operators for transportation through a
dishwashing machine at a later stage
+hatever the method is used for washing the soiled ware& the following things
have to be done$ >oiled ware should be cleaned with hot water containing
soap detergent$ After washing with soap it is must to dip the rac' with plates in
sterilizing tan' containing clean hot water at a temperature of 46U)$ *he rac's
are left for two minutes and then lifted out and the china left for drain$ After
drying& the china is stac'ed into piles of the correct size and placed on shelves
until re!uired for further use$
*he ancillary departments of the restaurants act as the lin' between 'itchen
and food service areas$ *he service areas are stoc'ed with appropriate
e!uipment$ -n large hotels& five main service areas can be distinguished& viz$
stillroom& silver or plate room& washAup& hotplate and spare linen store$ *he
main function of the still room is to prepare and provide food items and
e!uipments which are not catered for in any other department$ *he still room
is loo'ed after by a still room supervisor& who is responsible for the staffing&
ordering of supplies from the main store and effective control of these items
when issued to various departments$ *he provisions that can be obtained from
the stillroom include beverages& fruit ?uices& pastries& gateaux and
sandwiches& rolls& brioche and croissant& toast& m il'& cream and butter&
toasted scones and teaca'es& sugar& brea'fast cereals& preserves& cleaning
detergents& scrubbers& etc$
*he e!uipment that may be found in still room includes coffee brewing
machine& coffee bean grinding machine& tea dispenser& bread slicing machine&
salamander& hot cupboard& steamer and hot water boiler& refrigerators& wor'
table and cutting board& general storage space& shelves and cupboards& s
in's& washing machine& dish washers& etc$ *he silver room holds the stoc' of
silver re!uired for the service of meals$ )utlery& flatware& hollowware and
other smaller items are usually stored in drawers lined with baize& as this
helps to reduce noise& slipping and scratching$
*he washAup area is one of the busiest sections$ *here are two methods of
washing& viz$ the tan' method and the machine method$ *he hotplate is the
contact point between the 'itchen and the service staff$ %ot cupboards can be
used for 'eeping hot either food or plates$ *he Aboyeur is in charge& and
controls the hotplate over the service period$ *he spare linen store is the
service area where linen materials are stored in cupboards$
K9E>*-;:> F;< D->)9>>-;:
C$ Explain about the ancillary departments of a restaurant$
2$ @ive a brief note about the stillroom$
5$ Explain in your own words about the hotplate$
E>>;: A:D A)*-F-*J
C$ Fisit a nearby restaurant / hotel and study their methodology of operating
food and beverage service and all the departments connected to it$
Unit IV
-n this lesson we shall discuss about the menu$ After completion of this lesson
you will be able to understand,
0enu and the types of menu
0enu format and basic principles for organizing a menu
French classical menu
Food and their usual accompaniments
0enu is the statement of food and beverage items available or provided by
food establishments primarily based on consumer demand and designed to
achieve organizational ob?ectives$ -t represents the focal point around which
components of food service sytems are based$ *he menu is designed
carefully what the outlet wants to cater for& 'eeping in mind the type of clientle$
*he main advantage of a wellAplanned menu is that it leads to consumer
satisfaction$ -t also helps to motivate the employees for a responsible and
successful service$ A successful menu depends upon compositionAthe right
combination of foods& prepared perfectly& to the entire satisfaction of the
customer$ >o claimed Antonin )areme 7C4I3ACI558& the French chef who is
considered the founder of classical cuisine$ 0enu is a document that controls
and directs an outletQs operations and is considered the prime selling
instrument of the restaurant$
-n a restaurant& a menu is the list of dishes to be served or available for a
diner to select from$ *he items that are available for the diner to choose from
are bro'en down into various categories& depending on the time of day or the
event$ *he compilation of a menu is the most important part of a catererQs
wor'$ -t is regarded as an art& ac!uired only through experience and study$
*he menu is a lin' between the guest and the establishment& hence it should
be carefully planned by the establishmentQs professionals& namely the
executive chef& the food and beverage manager and the food and beverage
*he word menu dates bac' to C4CI& but the custom of ma'ing such a list is
much older$ -n earlier times& the escriteau 7bill of fare8 or menu of ceremonial
meals was displayed on the wall loadable with the 'itchen staff to follow the
order in which the dishes were to be served$ -t is said that in olden times&
menus were li'e a large dictionary with sections covering a variety of dishes$
As time progressed the lengthy single copy menu became s m aller but
increased in number allowing a number of copies placed in table increased$
Depending on the establishment and the occasion& the menu may be plain or
artistic in its presentation$
-n a restaurant& there are two different types of menus which are differentiated
by the manner in which they are served and priced$ A menu may be a la carte
or table dQhVte$
A L! C!rte +en,
An "A La Carte Menu#& is a multiple choice menu& with each dish priced
separately$ -f a guest wishes to place an order& an a la carte is offered& from
which one can choose the items one wants to eat$
*raditionally& the original menus that offered consumers choices were
prepared on a small chal'board& a la carte in FrenchB so foods chosen from a
bill of fare are described as W la carte& Paccording to the board$P
-n an a la carte menu all items are coo'ed to order including the sauces that
are made with wine& cream or mustard$ Depending on the dish chosen by the
guest& the coo'ing time will vary$ -t is necessary to inform the guests about the
time the preparation might ta'e$ An extensive a la carte menu is impressive
but involves a huge amount of miseAenAplace$
T!#$e D;%=te
*able dQhVte is a French phrase which literally means PhostQs tableP$ -t is used
to indicate a fixed menu where multiAcourse meals with limited choices are
charged at a fixed price$ >uch a menu may also be called prix fixe 7Pfixed
priceP8$ -t usually includes three or five courses meal available at a fixed price$
-t is also referred to as a fixed menu$ Because the menu is set& the cutlery on
the table may also already be set for all of the courses& with the first course
cutlery on the outside& wor'ing in towards the plate as the courses progress$
-n olden days& when the inns or dining establishments offering a limited choice
in the menu was not preferred by the guests& they started offering an a la
carte menu for guests to select the type of food they wanted to eat$ Fixed
menus or table dQhote menus are still used in various forms such as buffet
menus& conference pac'ages and on special occasions$ A table dQhote menu
comprises a complete meal at a predetermined price$ -t is sometimes printed
on a menu card or as in the case of ban!uets& it is agreed upon by the host of
the party$ A ban!uet style of fixed menu has more elaborate choices ranging
from the soup to the dessert$ For the ban!uets& the host invariably fixes or
selects the menu in consultation with the hotel staff in advance$
0ost of the ban!uet food served in -ndia is normally of -ndian food$ For this& a
printed format offering a choice of vegetarian and nonAvegetarian dishes is
prepared& from which the guests ma'e their choice$ +estern style fixed menus
normally provide the choice of a starter or soup& a main course& and finally a
dessert$ -n each course there could be a choice of dishes to suit the tastes of
individual guests$
*able dQhote menus should be well planned and balanced$ As the guest is not
given a chance to plan his own meal& the meal should be interesting& without
any similarity in the colour and taste of the courses as well as being palatable&
delicious and well presented$
-f the main course is heavy& then the first course should be lighter& and act as
an appetite stimulant for the courses to follow$
Dishes that are heavy and hard to digest should be avoided$ *he colour&
varieties of ingredients used& and the garnishes should& if possible& be
different for each course$
Fixed menus are prevalent in transport catering which include air& rail& and sea
passengers$ *he guests have a variety of fixed or table dQhote menus& with
virtually no choice offered to the passengers 7except the first class air
passengers8$ )ruise liners may have elaborate fixed menus with multiple
choices built into each course$
Differen'e #et.een A L! C!rte !n) T!#$e D3%te
B!n1,et +en,
A meal& usually dinner or lunch& prepared and served by the hotel exclusively
for a group$ 0ost ban!uets have a predetermined menu& or food stations set
up for self service$
Brea'fast is the first meal of the day$ *he word is a compound of Pbrea'P and
Pfast&P referring to the conclusion of fasting since the previous dayQs last meal$
Brea'fast meals vary widely in different cultures around the world but often
include a carbohydrate such as cereal or rice& fruit and/or vegetable& protein&
sometimes dairy& and beverage$
:utritional experts have referred to brea'fast as the most important meal of
the day$ *his is based on studies of the large numbers of people in the +est
A3 L! C!rte T!#$e D3Hte
Food is 'ept in a semiAprepared form
and ta'es time to serve$
Food items are individually served
and guests pay for what they order$
*here is a vast choice$ *he menu is
*he menu is comparatively small$
>ilver is laid according to the dishes
Food is 'ept in fully prepared form
and can be served immediately
0enu is collectively priced and the
customer has to pay for the full menu
whether he consumes a certain dish
or not$
*here is limited or no choice
>ilver for the whole menu is laid in
advance as the menu is 'nown in
who s'ip brea'fast& to adverse effect on their concentration& metabolism and
)onsists of bread rolls or toast with ?am& honey& or marmalade and rounded off
with tea or coffee$ Better hotels may serve brioches and croissants$ *he cover
layout consists of
7a8 A side plate and a side 'nife
7b8 A butter dish and a butter 'nife on a !uarter plate
7c8 A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
7d8 A sugar pot with tongs$
7e8 A bread boat or toast rac'
7f8 >erviette$
7g8 Ham& marmalade and honey pots
:ote, *here are variations to the )ontinental Brea'fast$ )af= complete refers
to )ontinental Brea'fast with coffee 7or tea8 while )af= simple refers to ?ust
coffee or tea with nothing to eat$
Is &re e$!#r!te !n) ffers ! '%i'e f >,i'es 4r fres% r ste.e)
fr,its57 'ere!$s7 fis%
course& choice of eggs& meat course& toast with ?am& marmalade or honey&
and finally&tea or coffee$
7a8 A side plate and a side 'nife
7b8 A butter dish and a butter 'nife on a !uarter plate
7c8 A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
7d8 A sugar pot 7a tongs& if there are sugar cubes8
7e8 A cruet set
7f8 A fish 'nife and a fish for'
7g8 Dinner Knife and for'
7h8 Ham& marmalade and honey
7i8 Dessert spoon and for'
7?8 >erviette
)hilled fruit ?uices , ;range& 1ineapple& *omato and @rapefruit$
>tewed fruit ?uices , 1runes& 1ears& Apples and Figs$
)ereals , 1orridge& )ornfla'es$
Fish , @rilled herring& fried sole$
Eggs , 1oached& Boiled& scrambled& fried& omelets
0eat , >ausages& bacon& salami& 'idney& brea'fast stea'$
Breads , *oast& rolls& brioche& croissant& bread stic's$
1reserves , Ham& marmalade& honey$
Beverage , *ea& coffee& hot chocolate$
Eggs can be served with , grilled tomatoes& saut=ed mushrooms& ba'ed
beans& fried
full American brea'fast consists of eggs& a Pbrea'fast meatP such as bacon&
ham& or sausage& or even stea'& sometimes country fried stea' fried potatoes
such as hash browns or home fries&
toast or some other bread& such as English muffins or bagels& fruit or ?uice&
and coffee$ -t is often referred to as a Pcountry brea'fastP in many areas of the
0idwestern 9nited >tates$
*he terms PfryP and Pfull brea'fastP are not generally used in :orth America&
though hotels generally distinguish between a light Pcontinental brea'fastP and
a hot& coo'ed brea'fast$
From brea' X fastB to end the nightly fast$
*he first meal of the day& usually eaten in the morning$
7by extension8 A meal consisting of food normally eaten in the morning& which
may typically include idly& dosa& vada& pao& poori& stuffed parathas etc$&
We serve breakfast all day.
A meal eaten later in the day than brea'fast and earlier than lunch& replacing both
meals& and often consisting of some foods that would normally be eaten at
brea'fast and some foods that would normally be eaten at lunch$
A light meal usually eaten around midday& notably when not as main meal of the
A late afternoon or early evening meal& also 'nown as Pmeat teaP$
>uppertime and 79>8 Formal afternoon tea$
*he main meal of the day& often eaten in the evening$
An evening meal$
A midday meal 7in a context in which the lighter evening meal is called supper
or tea8$
A formal meal for many people eaten for a special occasion$
S,pper is the name for the evening meal in some dialects of English A
ordinarily the $!st &e!$ f t%e )!y$ ;riginally& in the middle ages& it referred to
the lighter meal following dinner& which until the eighteenth century was
invariably eaten as the midday meal$
*he term is derived from the French souper& which is still used for this meal in
)anadian French& >wiss French and sometimes in Belgian French$
*he classical French menu contains thirteen courses$ *oday& a menu of this
size is hardly ever offered$ But even todayQs shorter menus follow the structure
of the classical French menus as far as succession of courses is concerned$
*hey always start with
>omething light to stimulate the appetite& build up to the main course& and
then become lighter toward the end of the meal$ *he thirteen courses of the
)lassic 0enu for French )uisine are given below,
%ors dQoeuvre 7appetizer8
1otage 7soup8
;eufs 7eggs8
Farineaux 7rice & pasta8
1oisson 7fish8
Entr=e 7entry of Cst meat course8
<el=ve 7meat course8
>orbet 7flavoured water8
<Vti 7roast8
=gumes 7vegetables8
Entremet de sYcre 7sweets8
>avoureaux 7savoury8
Desserts 7fresh fruits & nuts8
Being of a highly seasoned and pi!uant in nature& this course is used to manipulate the
appetite for the dishes that are to follow$ -n recent years& hors dEoeuvres have gained in
popularity& and now appear even on simple menus in modest eating places$ Although
the actual term "hors dEoeuvres# applies to the service of various cold salads and
morsels of anchovy& sardines& olives& prawns& etc$& it also covers whatever items are
served before the soup$
Examples of such hors dEoeuvres,
0elon 0elon Frappe
;ysters %uitres :ature
>mo'ed >almon >aumon Fumee
)aviar )aviar
@rapefruit 1amplemousse
1otted >hrimps 1etites 1ots de )revettes
>hrimp& 1rawn or obster )oc'tail
Fruit )oc'tail )oupe Florida
>ouses %errings %areng Dieppoise
1ate of @oose iver 1ate de Foie @ras
*here are also !uite a number of items that may be served hot& such as Bouchees&
)ro!uettes& Fritters& etc$& and these are 'nown as ors dEoeuvres chaud$
*he French have three separate words for soup$ )onsomm= is a clear& thin
broth$ >oupe refers to a thic'& hearty m=lange with chun's of food$ 1otage
falls somewhere between the two in texture& content and thic'ness$ A potage
is usually pur=ed and is often thic'&
wellAseasoned meat or vegetable soup& usually containing barley or other
cereal or a pulse 7e$g$ lentils8$ *oday& the words soupe and potage are often
used interchangeably$ ;n goodAclass W la carte menus& a fish soup is also
usually offered for selection& the two most common being "Bis!ue dE%omard#
or "Bouillabaisse$#
;eufs are the dishes made from egg$ *he omelette is the most popular item&
but there are other styles of coo'ing and preparation of eggs such as boiled&
en cocotte& poached or scrambled$ *his course is not included in the dinner
menu$ >ome examples are omelette& Espagnole& ;euf en )ocotte a la crime&
;euf poche florentine$
*his is -talyQs contribution to the courses of the menu$ -t includes different
'inds of rice and pasta$ 1asta dishs are spaghetti& lasagne and gnocchi$ 1asta
is made from durum wheat semolina or milled durum wheat to which water is
added to form a dough$ -t can
be coloured and flavoured in various ways$ *here are more than 2GG varieties
of pasta$ *he ingredients& size& shape and colour determine the type of pasta$
>ome examples include >paghetti Bolognaise& asagne :apolitaine and
0acaroni au gratin$
1oisson are the dishes made from fish$ Fish& being softAfibred& prepares the
palate for the heavier meats that follow$ DeepAfried or grilled fish dishes do not
generally occupy a place on the "classical dinner menu&# but are freely offered
on the shorterAcoursed luncheon menu$ *his also applies to the coarser
members of the fish family& and the dinner menu is usually comprised of the
finer fish prepared and coo'ed in the more classical manners$ -deal fish for
dinner menu compilation are, >ole& >almon& %alibut& Escallops& etc$ <arely
seen on a menu for the evening meal are, )od& Bass& %addoc'& Brill& %a'e&
and 1laice$ ;ne deepAfried fish dish& which normally finds itself on the dinner
menu& however& is "Blanchaille#& and this only because +hitebait are so light
and in no way too filling for the comfort of the guest$
*his is the first of the meat courses on a menu$ -t is always a complete dish in
itself$ -t is despatched from the 'itchen garnished and sauced in the manner in
which it is intended to be served$ *he "entr=e# is always coo'ed and
garnished in an artistic manner and usually served with a rich sauce$ *he
"entr=e# can be devised of almost anything light$ *his course consists of all the
small cuts of butcherEs meats& usually saut=ed& but never grilled$ @rilled
stea's& cutlets and chops invariably replace the ?oints as the roast 7roti8
course$ *he following items& with their appropriate garnishes and sauces& can
be successfully served as entr=es$
Brains 7)ervelles8
iver 7Foie8
;xtail 7Kueue de Boeuf8
Kidneys 7<ognons8
)alves %ead 7*ete de Feau8
*rips 7*ripes8
<ump& Entrecote and *ournedo Beefstea's
amb )hops and cutlets A :oisettes and Filet 0ignons
1or' )hops and cutlets
Escallops& @ranadins& 0edallions& and )otes of Feal
>weetbreads A 7<is de Feau / Agneau8
%ot >ouffles or 0ousses
1ilaws and <izottos
>mall cuts or portions of poultry& individually coo'ed& are also served as
-n firstAclass hotels and restaurants& all entr=es are coo'ed& garnished and
presented for service by the sauce coo' 7saucier8$
*his is the main meat course on the menu& and is commonly 'nown as the
"piece de resistance$# -t may consist of ?oint of any of the following,
amb 7Agneau8 )hic'en 71oulet8
Beef 7Boeuf8 Duc'ling 7)aneton8
Feal 7Feau8 Fowl 71oulard8
%am 7Hambon8 *ongue 7angue8
1or' 71ore8
*hese ?oints would be coo'ed by the sauce coo' in a firstclass hotel or
restaurant& by any method except roasting$ *hey are usually coo'ed on
casserole& braise or poZle$ @enerally coo'ed in a sauce and served with it$
*his course is a rest between courses$ -t counteracts the previous dishes& and
re?uvenates the appetite for those that are to follow$ :ormally served between
the releve/remove and the roti& it is a water and crushed ice slush flavored as
a rule with champagne and served in a glass$ A frozen dessert made primarily
of fruit ?uice&sugar& and water& and also containing mil'& egg white& or gelatin$
>ome examples are >orbet -talian and >orbet creme de menthe$ <ussian or
Egyptian cigarettes are often passed around during this course$
*his course normally consists of game or poultry and is often included in the
entree$ Each dish is accompanied with its own particular sauce and salad$
>ome examples are <oast chic'en& Braised duc' and <oast !uail$
*hese are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as an individual
course or may be included along A with the entr=e& relev= or roast courses$
>ome examples are )auliflower mornay& Ba'ed potato and @rilled tomatoes$
Entremets on a menu refers to desserts$ *his could include hot or cold
sweets& gateaux& souffl=s or iceAcream$ >ome examples are Apple pie&
)hocolate souffle and )assata iceAcream$
A dish of pungent taste& such as anchovies on toast or pic'led fruit$ *hey are
seved hot on toast or as savoury souffl=$ +elsh rarebit& >cotch woodcoc'&
)anape diane are some of the examples$ Fromage 7)heese8 is an alternative
to the outdated savoury course& and may be served before or after the sweet
course$ -t is usually served with butter& crac'ers and occasionally celery$
@ouda& )amembert and )heddar are some examples of cheese$
Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal$ *he French
word desservir mean Pto clear the table$P *his is the fruit course usually
presented in a bas'et and placed on the table& as part of the table decor& and
served at the end of the meal$ All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served
in this course$ )ommon desserts include ca'es& coo'ies& fruits& pastries and
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+en, ($!nnin"
Everything starts with the menu$ *he menu dictates much about how your
operation will be organized and managed& the extent to which it meet its goals&
and even how the building itself A certainly the interior . should be designed
and constructed$
*he menu should reflect your guestsE tastes& reflect your guestsE food
preferences& and ascertain your guestsE needs
+,st !tt!in +!r0etin" O#>e'ti-es
>pecific food items
9,!$ity st!n)!r)s2
Flavor& texture& color& shape& flair& consistency& palatability& visual appeal&
aromatic apparel& temperature
N,tritin!$ 'n'erns2
owAfat& highAfiber diets& vegetarian
*he menu must be cost effective& in commercial A financial restraints profit
ob?ectives ahs to be followed$ -n the -nstitutions minimizing costs& operational
budget has to be followed$
+,st #e A'',r!te
*ruthAinAmenu laws exist in some localities& cannot mislabel a product
"butter# must use butter not margarine
"fresh# must be fresh& not fresh frozen
"homemade# not purchased "readyAtoAheat#
Menu planning constraints
Facility Layout/Design and Equipment
EC-'+,*1% &6&'(&;(*
="2$ 3("@
Available Labor
N-,;*2 "3 E,+("0**.
R*C-'2*) S$'((.
T2&'1'14 P2"42&,.
>tandard recipe
Availability of the ingredients re!uired during the life span of the menu$ Any
seasonal ingredients re!uired for a particular dish should be chec'ed$ *he
cost of the same should be verified$ 0iscellaneous cost 7flight charges&
storage8 should also be calculated$
*ype and size of dinnerware
*ypes of flatware
@arnishes 7place be service or production staff8
*iming re!uirement for ordering
Additional dining service supplies to serve the item
>pecial serving produces
>pecial information 7doneness of the stea's& over easy or sunny side
eggs& etc$8
0enu Design
First impression is always important& the entire menu should complement the
A *heme
A -nterior Decor
A Design 70erchandising8
A )reativity
A 0aterial
A )olor
A >pace
A *ype style and/or lettering
A :ames of food items
A Description
A 1opular items are at the top of a list
A )lipAons& inserts 7daily specials8
A ;perations address
A Beverage service notice
A >eparate menus for each meal period
A >eparate menu for host/hostess and guests
+en, En"ineerin"
B!si' +en, En"ineerin" (r'ess2
St!rs A items that are popular profitable and -tems high in contribution
margin and high in popularity
o 0aintain rigid specifications
o 1lace in a highly visible location on the menu
o *est for selling price inelasticity
o 9se suggestive selling techni!ues
($. %rses A items that are not profitable but popular& -tems low in
contribution margin& but high in popularity
o -ncrease prices carefully
o *est for demand
o <elocate the item to a lower profile on the menu
o >hift demand to more desirable items
o )ombine with lower cost products
o Assess the direct labor factor
o )onsider portion reduction
(,::$es A items that are profitable but not popular and -tems high in
contribution margin but low in popular
>hift demand to these items
)onsider a price decrease
Add value to the item
D"s A items that are neither profitable nor popular& -tems that are low
in contribution margin and low in popularity,
)andidates for removal from the menu
0enu is the statement of food and beverage items available or provided by
food establishments& primarily based on consumer demand and designed to
achieve organizational ob?ectives$ A successful menu depends upon
compositionB the right combination of foods& prepared perfectly& to the entire
satisfaction of the customer$ -n a restaurant& there are two different types of
menus which are differentiated by the manner in which they are priced$ A
menu may be a la carte or table dQhVte$ An "A a )arte 0enu#& is a multiple
choice menu& with each dish priced separately$ A table dQhVte is a fixed menu
where multiAcourse meals with limited choices are charged at a fixed price$
-n many cases& especially in restaurants& serving haute cuisine& the part or
table dQhote menu is beautifully handwritten to emphasize the traditional
character of the restaurant$ -n less fancy restaurants& a modern variant that is
similar but simpler is often used, the blac'board& on which are written
recommendations concerning the dayQs specialties$ -n general& however& the
table dQhote or a part menu& which changes daily or cyclically& is prepared inA
house 7on a typewriter or computer8 and duplicated as necessary$ *he
classical French menu contains thirteen courses which includes hors
dQoeuvre& potage& oeufs& farineux& poisson& entr=e& relev=& sorbet& roti . roast&
legumes& entremets& savoureux and desservir$ Dinner menus can be of threeA
course dinner menu& fourcourse dinner menu& fiveAcourse dinner menu& sixA
course dinner menu& sevenAcourse dinner menu and eightAcourse dinner
menu$ Accompaniments are highly flavoured seasonings of various 'inds
offered with certain dishes$ Eg$ apple sauce with roast por'$ 0any dishes
have separate accompaniments and as they are not always mentioned on the
menu& the waiter must 'now them
K9E>*-;:> F;< D->)9>>-;:
C$ +hat do you need to 'now about the menu& and why is this importantL
2$ Enumerate the different types of menus in detail$
5$ Differentiate a la carte menu with table dQhVte menu$
3$ +hat are the basic principles for organizing a menuL
6$ ist the thirteen courses of French )lassic 0enu with suitable example$
-n this lesson we shall discuss about the beverages$ After completion of this
lesson you will be able to understand,
Explain the various non alcoholic beverages li'e tea& coffee& mil'&
aerated waters
*ypes of tobacco& their processing and difference between the tobacco
Beverages are potable drin's which have thirstA!uenching& refreshing& stimulating and
nourishing !ualities$ By refreshing& one means the replenishment of fluid loss from the
body due to perspiration$ >imulation results in increase of the heart beat and blood
pressure$ *his is due to the inta'e of spirits 7alcohol8 or tea 7thein8 and coffee 7coffein8$
:ourishment is provided by the nutrients in the beverages& especially fruit ?uices$
0ost of the beverages supply energy in the form of sugar or alcohol$ *hey also provide
other nutrients li'e mineral salts and vitamins$ For example& mil' gives calcium and
citrus fruits give vitamin )$
@enerally& people drin' for one or more of six reasonsB to !uench thirst& to get drun'& to
en?oy a social setting 7social drin'ing8& to en?oy the taste of the beverage& to feed an
addiction 7alcoholism8& or as part of a religious or traditional ceremony or custom
7proposing toast8$
A nonAalcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol$ >uch drin's are
generally drun' for refreshment& or to !uench peopleQs thirst$ :onAalcoholic beverages
can be mainly classified as >timulating& <efreshing and :ourishing$
-t is believed that the origins of tea are from )hina where the tea plants were
introduced from an un'nown source$ *he East -ndia )ompany introduced it
into -ndia around the seventeenth century and tea became a popular drin' in
-ndia and Europe through ondon$ *ea is drun' hot by boiling water& adding
tea leaves to it and stirring till the water imbibes the co lour and
flavour$ 0il' is added with sugar to taste$ -ced tea has a similar process
except that one can add or not add mil' and refrigerate the mixture$
*he origins of coffee are mysterious but many tropical countries have thriving
coffee trade$ @round coffee captures the best essence of coffee beans and is
made by boiling it with water in a closed apparatus$ )ona coffee is the best
under closed systems$ *ur'ish coffee is made by the common method of
boiling water& adding ! teaspoon of powered coffee and drin'ing it with or
without mil'& with sugar to taste$ Espresso coffee is made by the infusion of
steam through a special espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the
coffee when served$ )appuccino is the same espresso machine that gives a
frothy texture to the coffee when served$
)appuccino is the same espresso coffee with a sprin'ling of cinnamon powder
on top$ )old coffee is very popular and is made as *ur'ish coffee is made with
mil' and sugar and then chilled$
+et%)s f (rep!r!tin f Cffee
@eneral methods of preparation of coffee is given below$ *his is followed by
specific methods of brewing coffee which is given under appropriate headings$
Bre.in" )offee can be brewed in several different ways& but these methods
fall into two main groups depending upon how the water is introduced to the
coffee grounds$
-f the method allows the water to pass only once through the grounds& the
resulting brew will contain mainly the more soluble components 7including
-f the water is repeatedly cycled through the beans 7as with the common
percolator8& the brew will also contain more of the relatively less soluble& and
bitterAtasting& compounds found in the bean& but for this coarse ground coffee
will be re!uired$
Bi$in" Despite the name& care should be ta'en not to actually boil coffee for
more than an instant because the decoction becomes bitter$
*he simplest method is to put the ground coffee in a cup& pour in hot water
and let it cool while the grounds sin' to the bottom$ *his is a traditional method
for ma'ing a cup of coffee 7'nown as Pmud coffeeP8
P)owboy coffeeP is made by simply heating coarse grounds with water in a
pot& letting the grounds settle and pouring off the li!uid to drin'& sometimes
filtering it to remove fine grounds$ *he above methods are sometimes used
with hot mil' instead of water$
+ater temperature is crucial to the proper extraction of flavor from the ground
coffee$ *he recommended brewing temperature of coffee is D5[) 7CDD$3[F8$ -f
cooler& some of the solubles that ma'e up the flavor will not be extracted$ -f
the water is too hot& some undesirable& bitter& components will be extracted&
adversely affecting the taste$ -f coffee is heated to boiling point only very
briefly& the taste will be little affectedB the longer it is 'ept at a high
temperature the worse the taste becomes$
Steepin" A cafeti\re 7or French press8 is a tall& narrow cylinder with a plunger
that includes a metal or nylon mesh filter$ )offee is placed in the cylinder and
boiling water
is poured on$ *he coffee and hot water are left in the cylinder for a few
minutes 7typically 3QA4Q8 and the plunger is pushed down leaving the filter
immediately above the grounds& allowing the coffee to be poured out while the
filter retains the grounds$ Depending on
the type of filter& it is important to pay attention to the grind of the coffee
beans& though a rather coarse grind is almost always called for$ A plain glass
cylinder may be used& or a vacuum flas' arrangement to 'eep the coffee hot$
Drip Bre. Drip brew 7also 'nown as filter or American coffee8 is made by
letting hot water drip onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter 7paper or
perforated metal8$
>trength varies according to the ratio of water to coffee and the fineness of the
grind& but is typically wea'er than espresso& though the final product contains
more caffeine$ By convention& regular coffee brewed by this method is served
in a brown or blac' pot 7or a pot with a brown or blac' handle8& while
decaffeinated coffee is served in an orange pot 7or a pot with an orange
+0! (t +et%)
*here is an art to ma'ing coffee in a mo'a pot that includes the amount of
water& the amount and grind of the coffee& the compactness of the coffee
grounds in the filter and the heat of the water used to brew it$ -t is possible to
ma'e excellent coffee without
any acidity or bitterness in a mo'a pot if you follow simple procedures listed
C$ 1lace your 'ettle of cold water on your stove burner and heat water until
hot$ Depending on the !uality of your water& you may find that using filtered
water significantly improves the taste of your coffee$
2$ @rind your coffee$ @rind ?ust a little coarser than for an espresso machine
7fine& espresso grind of dar' roasted coffee8$ Hust coarse enough so it doesnQt
go through the upper filter holes or bloc' them$
5$ 1lace hot water in the bottom section of the pot up to the level of the safety
3$ -nsert the filter bas'et$ Fill the filter bas'et with ground coffee until it is level
and then level off with a 'nife$ Do not compact the coffee& because as the
water reaches the grounds they will expand effectively tamping your coffee for
6$ 0a'e sure the filter dis' and gas'et are in place in the top portion of the
pot$ >crew the top section onto the bottom section of the pot and tighten to
obtain a perfect seal$ -f using a stovetop mo'a pot& place it on the stove on
medium to mediumAhigh heat$ +hen hot& the air and water trapped inside the
bottom tan' expand due to the heat being applied the device$ As this
happens& it pushes the hot water up a tube& through the coffee grinds& and out
of the spout into the top chamber of the pot$
($ +hen the water in the tan' has been exhausted& thatQs when you hear the
Tgurgle&E that signifies the drin' is ready to pour 7approximately 3A6 minutes8$
Brewing is completed when all the water has been percolated into the top
chamber$ <emove the mo'a pot from the stove$
Do not put the pot in the dishwasher$ +ash the pot in mild detergent and
water and dry thoroughly after each use$ Always 'eep your mo'a pot
scrupulously clean$ Disassemble the mo'a pot after every use and clean the
filter and top pot& being sure that you clean
the underside of the top pot$ Every few wee's& run some vinegar through the
mo'a pot as if you were brewing coffee to get rid of any mineral deposits left
behind by hard water$
(t +et%)
i8 +arm an earthenware pot or ?ug$ 1ut in 5 level teaspoons of fresh coffee
powder 7coarse grind8 for each 26G ml cup$
ii8 1our water which has started to boil over the powder and stir$ )over the pot
and let it stand near the fire for 6 to 4 minutes$
iii8 1our the coffee through a fine meshed sieve or cloth$ Add mil' and sugar to
Fi$ter +et%)
>everal types of filters are available$ >tainless steel or brass filters are the
best& but the latter should be properly tinned& or else the coffee will be spoilt$
@lass or china containers are good but are fragile$ )opper should not be used
because of possible copper poisoning$
i8 1ut in 5 level teaspoons of coffee powder 7fine or medium grind8 to each 26G
ml$ or I oz$ cup$ 1ress the plunger down lightly over the powder$
ii8 1our water which has ?ust come to boil over 7he plunger in a circular motion$
et it stand for 6 to 4 minutes$
iii8 )offee can be poured out straight from the lower vessel and mil' and sugar
added as re!uired$
(er'$!tr +et%)
i8 1lace the ground coffee powder in the centre section of a clean warm
percolator on a fine strainer fitted inside and resting on a paper filter 7a pinch
off salt is mixed with the coffee8$
ii8 1our fresh boiling water slowly through the top section$
iii8 *he water passes through the coffee& is strained and collects in ihe bottom
section of the apparatus$
Espress r C!ffK Espress
Espresso is a concentrated coffee beverage brewed by forcing very hot& but
not boiling water under high pressure through coffee that has been ground to
a consistency between extremely fine and powder$
*he defining characteristics of espresso include a thic'er consistency than
drip coffee& a higher amount of dissolved solids than drip coffee per relative
volume& and a serving size that is usually measured in shots& which are
between 26 and 5G ml 75Gml]C fluid ounce8 in size$ Espresso is chemically
complex and volatile& with many of its chemical components !uic'ly degrading
due to oxidation or loss of temperature$ 1roperly brewed espresso has three
ma?or parts, the heart& body& and the most distinguishing factor&
the presence of crema& reddishAbrown foam that floats on the surface of the
espresso$ -t is composed of vegetable oils& proteins and sugars$ )rema has
elements of both emulsion and foam colloid$
Inst!nt Cffee
A thic' coffee decoction is prepared first and then it is either spray dried to a
fine powder or freeze dried to granules$ +hen added to hot water it dissolves
completely leaving no residue$
T,r0is% Cffee
-t is heavily laced with cardomom and is !uite thic' in consistency$ -t is a
traditional after meal drin' in many Arab countries$
Gener!$ R,$es fr Strin" !n) fr +!0in" Cffee
i8 )offee loses aroma and flavour with storage& as the volatile components
evaporate$ -t should be roasted and ground immediately before brewing for
the best possible drin'$
ii8 <oasted coffee bean can be stored for some time& and can be reAroasted
briefly immediately before use$ @round coffee should be used within two or
three days of grinding$
iii8 FacuumApac'ing extends storage life much$ <oasted coffee& whether
ground or not& can be 'ept in an airtight container in a freezer to lengthen shelf
iv8 Fresh coffee is the bestB so buy !uantities to last not more than a wee'$
v8 9se the exact !uantity of powder re!uired$
vi8 9se freshly drawn and freshly boiled water$
vii8 *he coffeeAma'er must be rinsed with hot water before each use and
thoroughly washed and dried before being put away$ :ever brew less than
three fourths of the coffee ma'erQs capacityB use a smaller one instead$
*hese are mostly aerated water which comprises combination of water& gas&
sugar and artificial essence$ )ommon essence used belongs to the citrus
family$ *hus we have lemonade and orangeade$ Basically bottles with water
and essence are infused with carbon dioxide and the bottle sealed
immediately$ >oda is ?ust purified carbonated water$ 0ineral water is original
medicinal water from mineral springs$ -mitations of mineral water are called
*onic water or bitter lemon in which a dosage of !uinine is in?ected$
9nder the category of refreshing drin's& it would not be complete not to
mention the commercial colas that have flooded every mar'et )oca cola is the
most popular with a consumption of approximately C6G million bottles a day$
;ther aspirants to the top place are 1epsi cola& 4E up& etc$ 0ost manufacturers
have their own formula for the basic flavor or essence$ )olas have a generous
infusion of carbon dioxide to give the drin's the fizz$
>yrups and s!uashes are concentrates of fruit essences sweetened with
concentrated sugar syrup$ *hese are not carbonated$ )ommon syrups and
s!uashes available are strawberry& raspberry& orange and lemon$
+e usually associate nourishing drin's with fresh ?uices or mil'$ Amongst
drin's with the fruit ?uices are fresh and tinned orange& mango& grape fruit&
pineAapple and limeB while tomato ?uice is loner from the vegetable family$ As
regards mil' based nourishing drin's we have popular coca based drin's li'e
drin'ing )hocolate& ;valtine and Bournvita$ *hese are sweetened powder
mixes that dissolve readily in mil' to give a rich coca flavor$
*obacco is a fastidious plant that re!uires a proper soil and a moderate
climate$ -n countries where tobacco plants flourish& the temperature does not
fall below 36o F$ -t is grown in countries with a tropical or semiAtropical climate
such as )uba& >umatra& Hawa& Hamaica and 1hilipines$ -n their original home
the 9>A& tobacco leaves ac!uire characteristics that are internationally
favoured and are as popular as the tobaccos of -ndia& >yria& @reece& *ur'ey
and <hodesia$
*he time span from the moment the plants are prepared to raise a new crop to
the time when the tobacco is ready for the shipment is about two years$ *here
are three phases that are important to from the time the seed is planting to the
time it is ready for consumption,
7C8 1lanting
728 %arvesting
758 )uring
1lanting *he seeds are plants in nurseries and are carefully tended till the
young plants are strong enough to be transplanted$ As they grow& a constant
eye has to be 'ept on them& specially against pests$ -n about two months
when the plants have grown upto seven feet high 7according to their type8
expert hands nip off the flower buds$ *his results in bigger and ?uicier leaves$
*he plant is further pruned off dead stems and leaves$ *he general health of
the plant determines the number of leaves that are ultimately permitted to
reach maturity and these may number anything between D and 2G$ -f all goes
well& the plant ripens in about six months& the leaves turning yellowish green$
*he leaves are stic'y and sear anything that comes into contact with them$
*his characteristic of tobacco leaves is the main reason why tobacco planting
is regarded as one of the dirtiest ?obs a farmer can tac'le$
%arvesting A cloudy day is preferred for harvesting as a precaution against a
disease 'nown as sunAburn& to which tobacco leaves are !uite sensitive$ *he
selected plants are the ripest and are cut to the root and then gently laid in
rows in the field where they are left to wilt before being ta'en away to be dried
and cured$ -n general& intended for cigars are more carefully selected and
gathered one by one$
*hen they are straddled 7put in bundles8 carefully across stic's& the plant with
their previous leaves are conveyed to the barn where they undergo two
important processes of drying and curing$ Drying comes first followed by
curing& which is done by one of two wellA'nown methods$
C$ Fermentative method$
2$ :onAfermentative method$
*he former is used if the leaves are dar' and heavy and the sunAcured or
yellow tobacco is desired$
Fer&ent!ti-e +et%)
*he barn used for fermentative processes is a building with tiers of poles& form
one end to another$ *he stic's to which the cut plant have been tied are laid
across the poles& with the tobacco leaves hanging downwards$ +hen the barn
is full& there is an impression of a forest of tobacco plants$ >everal flues
uniformly distribute heat from a fire for 3A6 days$ *he temperature is
maintained at about C4Go F$ this heat ma'es the leaves dry and brittle$ *hey
are then ta'en down to be stripped$
TFirstE is the name given to the finest and the brightest leaves$
T>econdE to those of slightly lower !uality$
TugsE is used for the remainder unsuitable for any smo'ing purpose$
-ncidently& it is the second& which forms the bul' of the tobacco production$
*he selected leaves are gathered into bundles& which are piled& on the floor$
%eat is generated naturally in these mounds of raw tobacco& and to ensure
fermentation& the piles are constantly turned over$ *his process ta'es between
5A3 wee's& during which the leaves turn brown& glossy and pliable and
develop a distinct flavour$
Nn-Fer&ent!ti-e +et%)
)hewing tobacco is made from this sunAcured process$ -n this method the sun
plays the largest part$ *he leaves are placed on a platform within wellA
ventilated shelves or upon unsheltered scaffoldings$ A certain degree of
moisture in the air is essential plus a fairly low even temperature& which
should not fall below (6o F or rise above 46o F$ under good conditions 3A6
days are enough following which the leaves are cured or dried$ *hey then go
to the manufacturer of chewing tobacco for which& nowadays there is little
+hen a permanent yellow leaf is desired the tobacco is sub?ected firstly to a
temperature of DDo F and subse!uently the temperature is constantly
increased until it reaches CIGo F and this is maintained for 3AI hours$ *hen
decreased to C26o F& which is retained again for 3AI hours and is then slowly
increased until it reaches C4Go F the tobacco can then be said to be cured
and the yellow colour permanently fixed$
L!t!0i! !n) (eri1,e
L!t$0i! is a dar' strong variety made from plants grown in >yria and other
eastern countries$ *his is smo'e cured by the fire of the Asiatic oa'& which
turns it into a dar' shade$ >ometimes camel or cow dung is used as fuel for
the fire$
(eri1,e is another of the same variety grown in ousiana$ *hese varieties are
used to increase the strength of pipe mixture$
(ipe T#!''
*he tobacco factory is usually a large and airy building$ *he cured leaves are
spread out on the floor in a lightly compressed massB they are too dry for
immediate use$
Bundles of tobacco are separated and put in steam heated chambers in which
the temperature is raised to anything between C2Go F and C(Go F$ then the
stal's and the midAribs are removed by hand or machine$ *he stripped leaves
are left in ordinary heaps for about 23 hours during which they become
thoroughly impregnated with additional moisture& which renders them supple
and usable$
*he blending of the various mixtures is in the hands of experts who 'now the
exact proportion in which stronger tobacco li'e ata'ia a d 1eri!ue should be
blended with lighter tobacco$
+hen the different brands have been made up& the leaves are placed in a
machine&which compresses them in the form of a hard ca'e$ *hey are then
shredded finely or coarsely with 'nives or cutting machines$ Any excess
moisture is removed by panning or stovingA a different process which brings
out the aroma$ After panning& the tobacco is spread out evenly on trays to
enable it to cool down to the temperature of the air following which tests are
carried out to ensure that the moisture content does not exceed the legal limit
of 52^$
0ost of todayEs popular pipe mixtures are composed almost entirely of Empire
tobacco& the <hodesian leaves being mainly favoured$
Ci"!rette T#!''
-n the manufacture of cigarettes& Firingian <hodesian leaves are used
separately or in carefully blended mixtures$ As pipe tobacco& bundles from the
warehouse are received and stripped of the midribs by machine or hands$ *he
leaves then go to a machine& which cuts them into fine shreds$ Excessive
moisture is removed from the tobacco and also the impurities$ *he tobacco is
left for a day or two to mature following which it goes to a cigaretteA
manufacturing machine$ *he papers for the cigarettes are unloaded from a
disc and enter the machine and receive the tobacco flowing in a constant
stream$ 1aper and tobacco move together on their ?ourney$ *he paper is rolled
the tobacco and gummed at the end$ *he continuous tube of cigarette the
runs beneath 'nives& which cuts it into cigarettes of& re!uired lengths and
stoc's them neatly$ *he cigarettes are not pac'ed immediately but are left to
dry for 23 hours$ *he machines used for pac'ing are e!ually ingenious as
those& which ma'e cigarettes$ >o human is this e!uipment that a carton or
pac'et incompletely filled is automatically re?ected$ *he tins if re!uired for
export are vacuumAsealed$ )omparatively small !uantities of cigarettes are
still made by hand$ )onsiderable practice is necessary for ma'ing cigarettes
by hand as it re!uires a high degree of s'ill$ >ervice of cigarettes
)igarettes should never be carried by hand to the customer but placed on a
salver or plate$ *he pac'et should be opened 7pulling out a few cigarettes
partially8$ *he waiter should stand by with a match to light the cigarette$ -t
should be made sure that the ashtray is on the table$ Ashtrays should never
be allowed to collect too much of ash& it is the waiterEs duty to exchange them
fre!uently for fresh ones$
*he best leaf for the production of cigars is grown in )uba& Hawa& Hamica&
Borneo and the East -ndies$ ess good tobacco but still acceptable to all but
the true connoisseur& is produced in -ndia& Hapan& >outh Africa& @ermany&
%olland& <ussia and %ungary$
*he plants are grown in the same way as other tobacco plants$ As they ripen&
they are hung in a shed for drying and curing by the fermentative method$
*hereafter they are bac'ed in bundles and dispatched to the cigar
;riginally all cigars were made by hand and were straight in shape$ *hen a
wooden mould came into use in which the leaves could be pressed into any
desired fromAinto generally what is 'nown as the bellied or torpedo shape$ ;n
arrival at the mar'et& the bales are emptied and the customary process of
removing the leaves from the midAribs is carried out by hand$ *he leaves are
stored according to the purpose for which they are to be used,
7C8 As filler 7shredded tobacco8
728 +rapper or binder or second
758 ;utside wrapper or third
*he only accessories used for handAmade cigars are a hard& wooden board& a
sharp 'nife to cut the wrapper and scissors to trim the leaves$ *he process&
which followed& is simple to describe but amazingly difficult for anyone except
the expert$ After selection of large leaves used for binding& a number of pieces
of filler tobacco are so arranged as to produce roughly the desired length&
thic'ness and shape$ *he filler tobacco is s'illfully rolled in the binder leaves&
a wrapper leaf of a re!uired characteristic is selected and cut into proper
shape and the whole is rolled in such a way as to ensure up or straight down
the cigar$
0oulded cigars are made in much the same way except that the filler tobacco
is pressed into the mould instead of being shaped by the expert hands$
Afterwards it is covered with wrapper in the usual way$
A good cigar should form grayish ash& which will last for along time before
falling off$ A whitish ash denotes a mild cigar while a dar'ish ash indicates a
strong cigar$ )igars are also ?udged by their appearance& by touch& by shape
and by aroma$ *he crude way of testing a cigar is by pressing it in between
the fingers but it will only spoil it and even brea' the leaves$
*here is an art involved in smo'ing a cigar$ -t should never be rushed through
but smo'ed slowly$ *he end& which ?oins the mouth& is TFE shaped or straight
cut or pierced with care and never bitten off$ *he paper band must be
removed before smo'ing a cigar$ *he cigar is then lit evenly from all sides with
a match and never with a cigarette lighter& which may taint it with aroma of the
spirit$ *he buttAend is bitter due to the accumulation of oil and tannin and&
therefore a cigar is never smo'ed to the end$
)igars should be offered in their own boxes to allow the customer to choose
his own$ *he type of cigar will be printed on the box$ *he customer having
chosen the cigar he wishes& the waiter should offer to remove the band$ A
cigar cutter of piercer should be given$ *he waiter should then offer a
matchbox to the customer$
All tobacco should be 'ept in a dry place and at even temperature$ *hat is why
it is best to 'eep cigars and cigarettes in the dining room or bar in glasscase$
*he cigars will 'eep well in their own boxes& which are made of cedarAwood$
)igars should never be overhandled for fear of brea'ing the outer leaf$ *he
best temperature for storage is (6o F to 4Go F$ temperatures above 46o F
may cause mould to set in$ never store in a refrigerator as it dries and ruins
the tobacco$
C$ )olorado ) 7>trong8
2$ )olorado )laro )$) 70edium8
5$ )laro )$)$) 7ight8
C$ )orona D N#
2$ )orona )orona 3 N#
5$ %alf )orona 3 N#
3$ @rown )orona 3 N#
6$ 1etit )orona 3 N#
S&e F!&,s Br!n)s f +i$) H!-!n! Ci"!rs
C$ Bolivar
2$ arranga
5$ <omeo
3$ <omeoAJAHulieta
6$ 9pman
($ a )orona 7outstanding8
4$ Boc'
I$ %avana
D$ %enry )lay
CG$ Byrons
CC$ H$> 0urais
C2$ )ahana
E* 9> >90 91
Beverages are potable drin's which have thirstA!uenching& refreshing&
stimulating and nourishing !ualities$ 0ost of the beverages supply energy in
the form of sugar or alcohol$ Beverages can be broadly classified into two& viz$
alcoholic beverages and nonalcoholic beverages$
An alcoholic beverage is a drin' containing ethanol& commonly 'nown as
alcohol$ owAalcoholAcontent drin's 7beer and wine8 are produced by
fermentation of sugar or starchAcontaining products& and highAalcohol ones
7brandy& rum& vod'a& whis'y& etc$8 are produced by distillation of these low
alcohol products$ Distilled beverages with added flavorings and relatively high
sugar content are generally referred to as compound beverages$ Eg$ i!ueur&
gin& etc$ A nonAalcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol$
>uch drin's are generally drun' for refreshment& or to !uench peopleQs thirst$
:onAalcoholic beverages can be mainly classified as hot and cold beverages$
Eg$ for nonAalcoholic beverages 7cold8 include beverages aerated with
carbonic gas& spring water& mineral water& s!uash& ?uice& syrup& etc$ Eg$ for
nonAalcoholic beverages 7hot8 include tea& coffee& cocoa& etc$
*he most popular nonAalcoholic beverage& tea& is a stimulating and refreshing
drin'$ *he principle flavour components of tea are caffeine& tannin yielding
compounds and small amounts of essential oils$ )affeine provides the
stimulating effect& tannin the colour& body and taste$ *he four types of tea are,
blac'& green& oolong and white$
:ext to tea& coffee is most popular nonAalcoholic beverage in many parts of
the world$ )offee is always brewed by the user immediately before drin'ing$
)ocoa& besides being a stimulant& is also a food$ )ocoa contains theobromine
and caffeine as well as starch fat& nitrogenous compounds and salts$ *he
beverages provide refreshment and nourishment and act as stimulants&
soothing agents and appetizers$
*he cigar has their own specialty and aroma$ -t has its own uni!ueness for the
people who love to smo'e and en?oy$ >till smo'ing is in?urious to health$
K9E>*-;:> F;< D->)9>>-;:
C$ )offee is served in different coloured pots$ +hyL
2$ Brewing coffee in mo'a pot . elaborate$
5$ Define beverages& spirits$ :ame a few examples of spirits$
3$ :ame the different types of tea$