Review Guide: Molecular Biology (Chapter 12

DNA Structure and Replication: Sections 12-1, 12-2
1. What are the two major functions of DNA
2. !nderstand the DNA structure at the o"erall loo#: What ma#es the $ac# $one of the chain, where are
the $ases.
%. What are the su$units of DNA &and RNA' ( what do the) consist of *now to identif) the su$units and
their parts in a drawin+ of DNA.
,. !nderstand wh) the structure of DNA ena$les it to $e replicated.
-. .ow does DNA pol)merase #now how to accuratel) replicate the DNA &focus on the template and the
proofreadin+ functions'
/. When +i"en a drawin+ of a DNA molecule ( Where is the $ac#$one ( what is it made of Where are
h)dro+en $onds What do the) connect Where is a nucleotide in the o"erall structure
0. Where is the +enetic information in the DNA molecule &1s it in the $ases 1n the $ac#$one 1n the
h)dro+en $onds'
2. What is the relationship $etween DNA, chromosome and +enes
3ene 45pression: 6rom DNA to 7rotein to 7henot)pe Section 12-%
8. When +i"en an mRNA se9uence, #now to write the DNA template form which the mRNA was
1:. *now the order of e"ents &transcription, steps of translation' leadin+ from the +ene;s DNA se9uence to
the amino acid order in the protein. *now each step ( where it happens and what for.
11. *now how to write the amino acid se9uence accordin+ to the DNA template strand or the mRNA.
12. *now to write the correct tRNA anticodons that correspond to a +i"en mRNA se9uence.
1%. What are the three structural differences $etween RNA and DNA
1,. What are the ad"anta+es &at least three' of usin+ mRNA transcripts, rather than the DNA itself, as a
code for protein s)nthesis in the ri$osome &Wh) not translatin+ the protein directl) onto the DNA'
1-. What is the role of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA in protein s)nthesis
1/. *now how to use the +enetic code to list the amino acid se9uence accordin+ to a +i"en se+ment of
template DNA, or of mRNA.
<utations: Section 12-,
10. Wh) do mutations occur When do the) occur
12. Wh) is it that onl) mutations that occur in +erm cells &+ametes' and not in $od) cells can pass to the
followin+ +enerations
18. *now to predict what will $e the affect of +i"en mutations in the DNA on the resultin+ se9uence of
amino acids: includin+ point mutations &replacements', insertions and deletion of one or more nucleotides.
2:. .ow is it, that some point mutations &su$stitutions' result in no effect at all, and some point mutations
can cause the loss of the entire protein
21. What is the relationship $etween the +ene, the codons, the anticodons, and the correspondin+ amino
Re+ulation of 3ene 45pression: Section 12--
22. .ow does RNA pol)merase #now where to start transcri$in+ and where to stop What are promoters
and terminators of transcription
2%. What determines if a +ene will $e acti"ated to $e e5pressed or not
2,. What are e5ons and introns of mRNA
2-. .ow does the ri$osome #now where on the mRNA to start translatin+ .ow does it #now where to
2/. Wh) is it important to re+ulate which +enes are acti"el) e5pressed and which are not $ein+ used
=he =4S= itself &>>>' can $e downloaded form m) teacherweb site ( +o to
http:??www.teacherwe$.com?@A?*enned)?*reiselman +o to ABiolo+) =estsC and open the word file A=4S= DN4:
<olecular Biolo+) - practiceC. (A scrambled version of the same test will be used in class)
Mrs. Kreiselma! "prig 2##$ %&"% '(&: Molecular Biology
)igure 12*1
++++ 1. )igure 12*1 shows the structure o, a(a)
a. DNA molecule. c. RNA molecule.
$. amino acid. d. protein.
++++ 2. - )igure 12*1! the structure la.eled /0:/ is
a. a $ase c. a nucleotide
$. a $ac#-$one d. a ri$ose
++++ 1. 2hich o, the ,ollowig is a ucleotide ,oud i 3(45
a. ri$ose E phosphate +roup E th)mine c. deo5)ri$ose E phosphate +roup E uracil
$. ri$ose E phosphate +roup E uracil d. deo5)ri$ose E phosphate +roup E c)tosine
++++ 6. 3(4 is copied durig a process called
a. replication. c. transcription.
$. translation. d. transformation.
++++ $. 3(4 replicatio results i two 3(4 molecules!
a. each with two new strands. c. each with one new strand and one ori+inal strand.
$. one with two new strands and the other with
two ori+inal strands.
d. each with two ori+inal strands.
++++ 7. 3urig 3(4 replicatio! a 3(4 strad that has the .ases C%4GG% produces a strad with the .ases
a. =@3AA@. c. A3@==3.
$. 3A=@@A. d. 3A!@@A.
++++ 8. 2hich o, the ,ollowig are ,oud i .oth 3(4 ad R(45
a. ri$ose, phosphate +roups, and adenine
$. deo5)ri$ose, phosphate +roups, and +uanine
c. phosphate +roups, +uanine, and c)tosine
d. phosphate +roups, +uanine, and th)mine
++++ 9. 2hich o, the ,ollowig are directly copied ,rom 3(45
a. mRNA onl) c. mRNA and tRNA onl)
$. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA d. proteins
++++ :. 2hat is produced durig trascriptio5
a. RNA molecules c. RNA pol)merase
$. DNA molecules d. proteins
++++ 1#. ;ow may codos are eeded to speci,y three amio acids5
a. % c. 8
$. / d. 12
++++ 11. 2hat happes durig the process o, traslatio5
a. <essen+er RNA is made from DNA.
$. =he cell uses information from messen+er RNA to produce proteins.
c. =ransfer RNA is made from messen+er RNA.
d. @opies of DNA molecules are made.
++++ 12. 2hich type o, R(4 ,uctios as a .lueprit o, the geetic code5
a. rRNA c. mRNA
$. tRNA d. RNA pol)merase
++++ 11. 4 promoter is a
a. $indin+ site for DNA pol)merase. c. start si+nal for transcription.
$. $indin+ site for RNA pol)merase. d. stop si+nal for transcription.
++++ 16. %he su.uits o, R(4 are
a. amino acids c. uracils
$. $ases d. nucleotides
++++ 1$. %he complemetary 3(4 strad o, %%GC4%G is
a. ==3@A=3 c. AA@3=A@
$. !!3@A!3 d. AA@3!A@
++++ 17. %he complemetary R(4 strad o, %%GC4%G is
a. AA@3!A@ c. AA@3=A@
$. !!3@A!3 d. !!@3A!3
++++ 18. "peciali<ed cells regulate the e=pressio o, gees .ecause they
a. do not want the +enes to $ecome worn out. c. do not carr) the complete +enetic code in their nuclei.
$. cannot control translation. d. do not need the proteins that are specified $) certain +enes.
++++ 19. Cosider the mR(4 se>uece C?C44G?GC??C.
Which of the followin+ is the template strand of DNA from which the mRNA strand was made
a. @!@AA3!3@!!@ c. 3A3!!@A@3AA3
$. @=@AA3=3@==@ d. 3A3==@A@3AA3
6i+ure 12-1:
++++ 1:. - )igure 12*1# the molecule la.eled @B@ is a(a)
a. tRNA anticodon c. mRNA codon
$. amino acid d. DNA
++++ 2#. 2hich o, the ,ollowig mutatios i the 3(4 should have the strogest e,,ect o the resultig se>uece o,
amio acids5
a. e5chan+e of $ases c. missin+ three $ases
$. missin+ one $ase d. all chan+es will ha"e a similar effect
gene gene gene
6i+ure 12-21
++++ 21. 2hich o, the ,ollowig statemets B&"% e=plais the relatioship .etwee the parts o, geetic materials5
a. 4ach DNA molecule contains man) +enes
$. 4ach +ene contains man) DNA molecules
c. 4ach DNA molecule contains man) chromosomes
d. 4ach chromosome contains man) DNA molecules
++++ 22. 2hich o, the ,ollowig .est the order o, evets that leads to geetic e=pressio5
a. DNA  RNA  amino acid  protein  +enetic e5pression
$. RNA  amino acid  DNA  protein  +enetic e5pression
c. DNA  amino acid  protein  RNA  +enetic e5pression
d. RNA  protein  DNA  amino acid  +enetic e5pression
++++ 21. Based o the 3(4 structure! what rule applies to the percetages o, the ,our ucleotides i 3(45
a. A F = and @ F 3
$. A F 3 and @ F =
c. 4ach of the four ma#es up a$out 2- G of all DNAHs.
d. =here is no +eneral rule re+ardin+ the appearance of the four nucleotides.
++++ 26. Gees are e=pressed through traslatio .etwee two @laguages@. 2hat are these two laguages5
a. 4n+lish and Spanish
$. 4n+lish and Science
c. nucleotides &nucleic acids' and amino acids &proteins'
d. de5onucleotides &DNA' and ri$onucleotides &RNA'
6i+ure 12-2
++++ 2$. 2hat would .e the amio acid se>uece made .y the ,ollowig mR(45 ???4?GC4CGG?C44?4444G
a. 7he-< c. <
$. < d. <
++++ 27. 5' AGAUCGAGU 3' 5' ACAUCGAGU 3'
=he chain a$o"e represents three codons. Which of the followin+ chan+es would $e e5pected in the amino acid
chain if the mutation shown a$o"e occurred
a. =he amino acid se9uence would $e shorter than e5pected.
$. =he identit) of one amino acid would chan+e.
c. =he amino acid se9uence would remain unchan+ed.
d. =he identities of more than one amino acid would chan+e.
++++ 28. 2hy is it possi.le ,or a amio acid to .e speci,ied .y more tha oe Aid o, codo5 ()igure 12*9)
a. Some codons ha"e the same se9uence of nucleotides.
$. =here are /, different #inds of codons $ut onl) 2: amino acids.
c. Some codons do not specif) an amino acid.
d. =he codon A!3 codes for the amino acid methionine and ser"es as the AstartC codon for protein
++++ 29. - euAaryotes! 3(4
a. is located in the nucleus. c. is located in the ri$osomes.
$. floats freel) in the c)toplasm. d. is circular.
++++ 2:. 2he are gees e=pressed5
a. All +enes are e5pressed all the time. c. Whene"er the correspondin+ proteins are needed.
$. 3enes are rarel) e5pressed. d. Durin+ cell di"ision.
++++ 1#. 2hat are the ,uctios o, 3(45
a. pass information to newl) made cells. c. carr) instructions for protein s)nthesis.
$. pass inherited traits to future +enerations. d. All of the a$o"e.
1. A
2. @
%. D
,. A
-. @
/. B
0. @
2. B
8. A
1:. @
11. B
12. @
1%. B
1,. D
1-. @
1/. A
10. D
12. D
18. B
2:. B
21. A
22. A
2%. A
2,. @
2-. @
2/. A
20. B
22. A
28. @
%:. D

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